Saxons Sentence Examples
A fortnight later Charles quitted Warsaw, to seek the elector; on the 2nd of July routed the combined Poles and Saxons at Klissow; and three weeks later, captured the fortress of Cracow by an act of almost fabulous audacity.
On the 2nd of July 1704, with the assistance of a bribing fund, Charles's ambassador at Warsaw, Count Arvid Bernard Horn, succeeded in forcing through the election of Charles's candidate to the Polish throne, Stanislaus Leszczynski, who could not be crowned however till the 24th of September 1705, by which time the Saxons had again been defeated at Punitz.
In 385 he was appointed master of the soldiery (magister militum) in Thrace, and shortly afterwards directed energetic campaigns in Britain against Picts, Scots and Saxons, and along the Rhine against other barbarians.
Koslin was built about 1188 by the Saxons, and raised to the rank of a town in 1266.
Pippin made several expeditions against the Saxons, but failed to subdue them.Advertisement
Parts of it are based on the Capitulare legi Ribuariae additum of 803, and it seems to have been drawn up in the same conditions and circumstances as the law of the Saxons.
It is from an incidental remark of his own, namely, that the year of the siege of Mount Badon - one of the battles fought between the Saxons and the Britons - was also the year of his own nativity, that the date of his birth has been derived; the place, however, is not mentioned.
Among other matters reference is made to the introduction of Christianity in the reign of Tiberius; the persecution under Diocletian; the spread of the Arian heresy; the election of Maximus as emperor by the legions in Britain, and his subsequent death at Aquileia; the incursions of the Picts and Scots into the southern part of the island; the temporary assistance rendered to the harassed Britons by the Romans; the final abandonment of the island by the latter; the coming of the Saxons and their reception by Guortigern (Vortigern); and, finally, the conflicts between the Britons, led by a noble Roman, Ambrosius Aurelianus, and the new invaders.
Soon Hessegau is mentioned, and this district was the headquarters of Charlemagne during his campaigns against the Saxons.
Recaptured by the Swedes in 1631, and again in 1635 and 1636, it was in 1637 retaken by the Saxons.Advertisement
Louis, however, gained sound experience in warfare in the defence of Aquitaine, shared in campaigns against the Saxons and the Avars, and led an army to Italy in 792.
Detmold (Thiatmelli) was in 783 the scene of a conflict between the Saxons and the troops of Charlemagne.
The bridge over the Elbe was destroyed by the French in 1813, and again by the Saxons in June 1866 in order to impede the march of the Prussians on Dresden.
In Transylvania, however, the common peril evoked by the Turkish incursion and a simultaneous rising of the Vlach peasantry had knit together the jarring interests of Magyars, Saxons and Szeklers, a union which, under the national hero, the voivode Janos Hunyadi, was destined for a while to turn the tide of war.
To meet the impending blow the Prussians had been extended in a cordon along the great road leading from Mainz to Dresden, Blucher was at Erfurt, Riichel at Gotha, Hohenlohe at Weimar, Saxons in Dresden, with outposts along the frontier.Advertisement
In the meanwhile, however, the Saxons had been moving from Naumburg through Gera on' Jena, Hohenlohe was near Weimar, and all the other divisions of the army had closed in a march eastwards, the idea of an offensive to the southward which Napoleon had himself attributed to them having already disappeared.
Murat reported the movement of the Saxons on the previous day, but omitted to send a strong detachment in pursuit.
The traces of the Saxons were lost, and Napoleon, little satisfied with his cavalry, authorized Lasalle to offer up to 6000 frs.
The main body were between Weimar and Apolda during the 12th, and the Saxons duly effected their junction with Hohenlohe in the vicinity of Vierzehnheiligen, whilst the latter had withdrawn his troops all but some outposts from Jena to the plateau about Capellendorf, some 4 m.
Waitz holds with some show of probability that the Franks represent the ancient Istaevones of Tacitus, the Alamanni and the Saxons representing the Herminones and the Ingaevones.Advertisement
Towards 457 Meroveus was succeeded by his son Childeric. At first Childeric was a faithful foederatus of the Romans, fighting for them against the Visigoths and the Saxons south of the Loire; but he soon sought to make himself independent and to extend his conquests.
Oswio was chiefly responsible for the reconversion of the East Saxons.
Chesterfield (Cestrefeld) owes its present name to the Saxons.
In the slow process of time they drove them into the most southerly corner of Australia, just as the Saxons drove the Celts into Cornwall and the Welsh hills.
The strip of coast from the mouth of the Scheldt to that of the Ems remained, however, in the hands of the free Frisians (q.v.), in alliance with whom against the Franks were the Saxons, who, pressing forward from the east, had occupied a portion of the districts known later as Gelderland, Overyssel and Drente.Advertisement
Saxon was at this period the common title of all the north German tribes; there was but little difference between Frisians and Saxons either in race or language, and they were closely united for some four centuries in common resistance to the encroachments of the Frankish power.
Towards the end of the century, Charlemagne, himself a Netherlander by descent and ancestral possessions, after a severe struggle, thoroughly subdued the Frisians and Saxons, and compelled them to embrace Christianity.
During the short reign of Valentinian there were wars in Africa, in Germany and in Britain, and Rome came into collision with barbarian peoples of whom we now hear for the first time - Burgundians, Saxons, Alamanni.
In any case, the antiquity of the town is undisputed, and it served as the seat of government for Ystrad Tywi until the year 877, when Prince Cadell of South Wales abandoned Carmarthen for Dinefawr, near Llandilo, probably on account of the maritime raids of the Danes and Saxons.
The southern Picts ultimately subdued the Britons, and the castle became their chief stronghold until they were overthrown in 617 (or 629) by the Saxons under Edwin, king of Northumbria, from whom the name of Edinburgh is derived.
A close observer of the multifarious low life of Hungary, Mikszath has, in his short stories, given a delightful yet instructive picture of all the minor varied phases of the peasant life of the Sla y s, the Palocok, the Saxons, the town artisan.
According to this, the Austrian troops already in Bohemia, 1st corps, Count Clam-Gallas, 30,000 strong, were to receive the Saxons if the latter were forced to evacuate their own country, and to act as an advanced guard or containing wing to the main body under Feldzeugmeister von Benedek (2nd, 3rd, 4th, 8th, 10th corps) which was to concentrate at Olmiitz, whence the Prussian staff on insufficient evidence concluded the Austrians intended to attack Silesia, with Breslau as their objective.
As the army of the Elbe was numerically inferior to Clam-Gallas and the Saxons, the reserve corps was at once despatched to reinforce it, and the Guard was sent to the crown prince.
Had the Austrians attacked on both flanks forthwith, the Prussian central (I.) army could have reached neither wing in time to avert defeat, and the political consequences of the Austrian victory might have been held to justify the risks involved, for even if unsuccessful the Austrians and Saxons could always retreat into Bavaria and there form a backbone of solid troops for the 95,000 South Germans.
To overcome it he at length obtained authority (June 15th) to order the army of the Elbe into Saxony, and on the 18th the Prussians entered Dresden, the Saxons retiring along the Elbe into Bohemia; and on the same day the news that the Austrian main body was marching from Olmiitz towards Prague arrived at headquarters.
Occurring about 2.30, and almost simultaneously with the withdrawal of the Austrian guns on their left already alluded to, this may be said to have decided the battle, for although the Saxons still stood firm against the attacks of the Elbe army, and the reserves, both cavalry and infantry, attempted a series of counterstrokes, the advantage of position and moral was all on the side of the Prussians.
No doubt the coming of the Saxons, which entirely changed the condition of the country, must have greatly injured trade, but although there was not the same freedom of access to the roads, the Londoners had the highway of the river at their doors.
Although the Saxons hated towns and refused to settle in London, they may have allowed the original inhabitants to continue their trade on condition that they received some share of the profits or a tribute.
Along the banks of the Thames are several small havens whose names have remained to us, such as Rotherhithe, Lambhith (Lambeth), Chelchith (Chelsea), &c., and it is not unlikely that the Saxons, who would not settle in the city itself, associated themselves with these small open spots.
York was conquered and occupied by the Saxons, and there not only are the results of English settlement clear but all records of Roman government were destroyed.
What became of the cathedral which we may suppose to have existed in London during the later Roman period we cannot tell, but we may guess that it was destroyed by the heathen Saxons.
Cedda was consecrated bishop of the East Saxons by Finan and held the see till his death on the 26th of October 664.
The Saxons had become law-abiding, and the fierce Danes treated them in the same way as in former days they had treated the Britons.
In 871 the chronicler affirms that Alfred fought nine great battles against the Danes in the kingdom south of the Thames, and that the West Saxons made peace with them.
Essex seems seldom to have held an inde pendent position, for when London first appears as connected with the East Saxons the real power was in the hands of the king of Kent.
The name Middle Saxons plainly shows that Middlesex must have been settled after the East and West Saxons had given their names to their respective districts.
The oldest Anglo-Saxon codes, especially the Kentish and the West Saxon ones, disclose a close relationship to the barbaric laws of Lower Germany - those of Saxons, Frisians, Thuringians.
There may be the folk-right of West and East Saxons, of East Angles, of Kentish men, Mercians, Northumbrians, Danes, Welshmen, and these main folk-right divisions remain even when tribal kingdoms disappear and the people is concentrated in one or two realms. The chief centres for the formulation and application of folkright were in the 10th and iith centuries the shire-moots, while the witan of the realm generally placed themselves on the higher ground of State expediency, although occasionally using folkright ideas.
The original Wends were gradually fused with the later Saxons, although the Platea Slavonica, mentioned in 1475, was still distinguished as the Wenden Strasse in 1567.
Hadleigh, called by the Saxons Heapde-leag, appears in Domesday Book as Hetlega.
Disregarding popular tradition, which connects the origin of the town with a legend that Charlemagne, when retreating before the Saxons, was safely conducted across the river by a doe, it may be asserted that the first genuine historical notice of the town occurs in 793, when Einhard, Charlemagne's biographer, tells us that he spent the winter in the villa Frankonovurd.
In 1542 it was taken by the Saxons and Hessians, who, however, evacuated it five years later after the battle of Miihlberg.
The cavalry of the Saxons had established the fact that the French had not retreated northward, but though scouts from the Guard had already seen the enemy on the heights of St Privat, this information had not yet reached headquarters, nor had it been transmitted to the IX.
The Saxons were on the left rear of the 1st brigade, but took longer to recover themselves than the Guards.
Von Pape, commanding the latter division, pointed out that no artillery force adequate to prepare the way for him was as yet on the ground, and that the Saxons were still a long way to the rear.
Neither Prince Frederick Charles nor the troops in the fightingline could see what had taken place; but the former seeing other Saxons moving towards Montois and the masses of the III.
According to tradition, Kormoczbanya was founded in the 8th century by Saxons.
In 774 the little settlement was taken and burnt by the Saxons; but it evidently soon recovered from the blow.
After Conrad's death the Franks and the Saxons met at Fritzlar in May 919 and chose Henry as German king, after which the new king refused to allow his election to be sanctioned by the church.
Charlemagne was recalled from Spain by the news of the outbreak of the Saxons.
After the conquest of the Saracens and the Saxons, the defeat of the Northmen, and the suppression of the feudal revolts, the emperor abdicated in favour of his son Louis (Le Couronnement Looys, 12th century).
With this end King Wenceslaus of Bohemia had requested the co-operation of the archbishop and his clergy, and also the support of the university, in both instances unsuccessfully, although in the case of the latter the Bohemian "nation," with Huss at its head, had only been overborne by the votes of the Bavarians, Saxons and Poles.
In 1773 there appeared in the Public Advertiser one of Franklin's cleverest hoaxes, " An Edict of the King of Prussia," proclaiming that the island of Britain was a colony of Prussia, having been settled by Angles and Saxons, having been protected by Prussia, having been defended by Prussia against France in the war just past, and never having been definitely freed from Prussia's rule; and that, therefore, Great Britain should now submit to certain taxes laid by Prussia - the taxes being identical with those laid upon the American colonies by Great Britain.
The Saxony policy of Lothair during these years had been to make himself independent, and to extend his authority; to this end he allied himself with the papal party, and easily revived the traditional hostility of the Saxons to the Franconian emperors.
Contemporaries praise his justice and his virtue, and his reign was regarded, especially by Saxons and churchmen, as a golden age for Germany.
In 604 we find Essex in close dependence upon Kent, being ruled by Saberht, sister's son of iEthelberht, under whom the East Saxons received Christianity.
The three sons of Saberht, however, expelled Mellitus from his see, and even after their death in battle against the West Saxons, Eadbald of Kent was unable to restore him.
The first was the district in the north-west of Germany, inhabited originally by the Saxons, which became a duchy and attained its greatest size and prosperity under Henry the Lion in the 12th century.
During the 8th century it was inhabited by the Saxons (q.v.), and about this time was first called Saxonia, and afterwards Saxony.
For many years the Saxons had been troublesome to the Franks, their neighbours to the east and south, and the intermittent campaigns undertaken against them by Charles Martel and Pippin the Short had scarcely impaired their independence.
This struggle was renewed by Charlemagne in 772, and a warfare of thirty-two years' duration was marked by the readiness of the Saxons to take advantage of the difficulties of Charles in other parts of Europe, and by the missionary character which the Frankish king imparted to the war.
The subjugation of the Saxons, who were divided into four main branches, was rendered more difficult by the absence of any common ruler, and of a central power answerable for the allegiance of the separate tribes.
Having received hostages Charles left the country; but in 774 while he was in Italy the Saxons retook Eresburg, and crossing the frontier attacked the church of St Boniface at Fritzlar and ravaged the land of the Franks.
In 776, however, the Saxons were again in arms and retook Eresburg; but they failed to capture Sigiburg, and showed themselves penitent when the king appeared among them.
The valley of the Rhine from Coblenz to Deutz was ravaged, and the advance of winter prevented Charles from sending more than a flying column to drive back the Saxons.
This attack on the religion and property of the Saxons aroused intense indignation, and provoked the rising of 782 which marks the beginning of the second period of the war.
This act made the Saxons more furious than ever, but in 783 Charles inflicted two defeats upon them at Detmold and on the river Hase, and ravaged their territory from the Weser to the Elbe.
The conversion of the Saxons to Christianity, which during this time had been steadily progressing, was continued in the reign of the emperor Louis I., the Pious, who, however, took very little interest in this part of his empire.
The abbey of Corvey, where rested the bones of St Vitus, the patron saint of Saxony, soon became a centre of learning for the country, and the Saxons undertook with the eagerness of converts the conversion of their heathen neighbours.
Liudolf, who is sometimes called " duke of the East Saxons," carried on a vigorous warfare against the Sla y s and extended his influence over other parts of Saxony.
Henry, having obtained help from the princes of the Rhineland, attacked and defeated the Saxons at Hohenburg near Langensalza, rebuilt the forts, and pardoned Otto, whom he appointed administrator of the country.
The Saxons, however, were not quite subdued; risings took place from time to time, and the opponents of Henry IV.
During the century which followed the death of Hermann Billung, there had been constant warfare with the Slays, but although the emperors had often taken the field, the Saxons had been driven back to the Elbe, which was at this time their eastern boundary.
He visited all parts of the country himself, and personally encouraged agriculture; he introduced a more economical mode of mining and smelting silver; he favoured the importation of finer breeds of sheep and cattle; and he brought foreign weavers from abroad to teach the Saxons.
The first battle on Saxon soil was fought in 1631 at Breitenfeld, where the bravery of the Swedes made up for the flight of the Saxons.
The northern portion of the kingdom was given to the Saxons who had joined him against Hermannfried; the southern part was added to Austrasia; and the name of Thuringia was confined to the district bounded by the Harz Mountains, the Werra, the Thuringian Forest and the Saale.
During the 1 rth century the Thuringians refused to pay tithes to Siegfried, archbishop of Mainz, and this was probably one reason why they joined the rising of the Saxons against the emperor Henry IV.
For the importance of Charlemagne's work, from the point of view of the Church, consists also, not so much in the fact that, by his conversion of the Saxons, the Avars and the Wends in the eastern Alps, he substantially extended the Church's dominions, as in his having led back the Frankish Church to the fulfilment of her functions as a religious and civilizing agent.
But the Neustrians threw off the Austrasian yoke and entered into an offensive alliance with the Frisians and Saxons.
Swedes, Saxons and Russians not only lived upon the country, but plundered it systematically.
In the war against Austria, Bernadotte led the Saxon contingent at the battle of Wagram, on which occasion, on his own initiative he issued an order of the day, attributing the victory principally to the valour of his Saxons, which Napoleon at once disavowed.
As Lynn (Lun, Lenne, Bishop's Lynn) owes its origin to the trade which its early settlers carried by the Ouse and its tributaries its history dates from the period of settled occupation by the Saxons.
On the other hand, it is by no means impossible that the distinction drawn by Bede was based solely on the names Essex (East Seaxan), East Anglia, &c. We need not doubt that the Angli and the Saxons were different nations originally; but from the evidence at our disposal it seems likely that they had practically coalesced in very early times, perhaps even before the invasion.
There can be little doubt, however, that there it was used to distinguish the Teutonic inhabitants of Britain from the Old Saxons of the continent.
The ancient Saxons had borrowed the week from some Eastern nation, and substituted the names of their own divinities for those of the gods of Greece.
If we say that he carried on a successful war against the Saxons, was probably betrayed by his wife and a near kinsman, and fell in battle, we have stated all which can be claimed as an historical nucleus for his legend.
The imitation of the Charlemagne romances is here evident; the Saxons bear names of Saracen origin, and camels and elephants appear on the scene.
The Poles would not assist, and at the head of the Saxons Augustus invaded Livonia, but for various causes the campaign was not a success, and in July 1702 he was defeated by Charles at Klissow.
He was handicapped by the mutual jealousy of the Saxons and the Poles, and a struggle broke out in Poland which was only ended when the king promised to limit the number of his army in that country to 18,000 men.
The forces engaged were 96,000 French, Saxons, &c., and 200,000 Austrians, Russians and Prussians.
Besides these five groups, an obscure road, called by the Saxons Akeman Street, gave alternative access from London through Alchester (outside of Bicester) to Bath, while another obscure road winds south from near Sheffield, past Derby and Birmingham, and connects the lower Severn with the Humber.
After about 350, barbarian assaults, not only of Saxons but also of Irish (Scoti) and Picts, became commoner .and more terrible.
It is intelligible that they followed a precedent set by Rome in that age, and hired Saxons to repel Saxons.
It seems that the Saxons though apparently unable to maintain their hold so far to the west, were able to prevent the natives from recovering the lowlands.
According to Gildas it was for protection against these incursions that the Britons decided to call in the Saxons.
A somewhat different account, probably of English origin, may be traced in the Historia Brittonum, according to which the first leaders of the Saxons, Hengest and Horsa, came as exiles, seeking the protection of the British king, Vortigern.
Bede states that the invaders belonged to three different nations, Kent and southern Hampshire being occupied by Jutes, while Essex, Sussex and Wessex were founded by the Saxons, and the remaining kingdoms by the Angli.
The peculiarities of social organization in Kent certainly tend to show that this kingdom had a different origin from the rest; but the evidence for the distinction between the Saxons and the Angli is of a much less satisfactory character (see Anglo-Saxons).
In the south the West Saxons are said to have conquered first Wiltshire and then all the upper part of the Thames valley, together with the country beyond as far as the Severn.
In the south, Somerset is said to have been conquered by the West Saxons shortly after the middle of the 7th century.
The French were defeated here by the Austrians and Saxons under the archduke Charles, 15th June 1796.
The name of the Hermiones, who are defined as " central " or " interior " peoples, is probably connected with that of the Irminsul, the sacred pillar of the Old Saxons.
On the other hand the conditions of the migration period were doubtless favourable to monarchical government, and from this time onwards kingship appears to have been universal, except among the Old Saxons and in Iceland.
The latter appears most prominently in Kent and among the Old Saxons, Langobardi and Burgundians.
In the national migration period, however, it fell into disuse among most of the continental Teutonic peoples, even before their conversion, though it seems to have been still practised by the Heruli in the 5th century and by the Old Saxons probably till a much later period.
The extension of Frankish supremacy over the neighbouring Teutonic peoples brought about the adoption of Christianity by them also, partly under compulsion, the last to be converted being the Old Saxons, in the latter half of the 8th century.
Saxnot (Seaxneat), from whom the kings of Essex claimed descent, was probably a god of the Saxons.
For the idea we may compare the Irminsul, a great wooden pillar which appears to have been the chief object of worship among the Old Saxons, and which is described as " universalis columna quasi sustinens omnia."
Military operations against Sweden's Baltic provinces were to be begun simultaneously by the Saxons and Russians.
The energy which warriors were accustomed to put forth in their efforts to conquer was now " exhibited in the enterprise of conversion and teaching " 5 by Wilfrid on the coast of Friesland, 6 by Willibrord (658-715) in the neighbourhood of Utrecht,7 by the martyr-brothers Ewald or Hewald amongst the " old " or continental Saxons, 8 by Swidbert the apostle of the tribes between the Ems and the Yssel, by Adelbert, a prince of the royal house of Northumbria, in the regions north of Holland, by Wursing, a native of Friesland, and one of the disciples of Willibrord, in the same region, and last, not least, by the famous Winfrid or Boniface, the " apostle of Germany " (68 o-755), who went forth first to assist Willibrord at Utrecht, then to labour in Thuringia and Upper Hessia, then with the aid of his kinsmen Wunibald and Willibald, their sister Walpurga, and her thirty companions, to consolidate the work of earlier missionaries, and finally to die a martyr on the shore of the Zuider Zee.
Marching into Bohemia the Saxons occupied Prague, but John George soon began to negotiate for peace and consequently his soldiers offered little resistance to Wallenstein, who drove them back into Saxony.
Huge wooden posts (Irmin pillars) were raised to his honour, and were regarded as sacred by the Saxons.
In his reign the Chronicle mentions two great victories over the Welsh, one at a place called Bedcanford in 571, by which Aylesbury and the upper part of the Thames valley fell into the hands of the West Saxons, and another at Deorham in 577, which led to the capture of Cirencester, Bath and Gloucester.
By the end of the 7th century a considerable part at least of Devonshire as well as the whole of Somerset and Dorset seems to have come into the hands of the West Saxons.
In and after the later part of the 5th century it received many Celtic immigrants from the British Isles, fleeing (it is said) from the Saxons; and the Celtic dialect which the Bretons still speak is thought to owe its origin to these immigrants.
In consequence of this step the Saxons attacked Thuringia, but the landgrave was saved by Frederick's arrival in Germany in 1212.
Wesel, formerly known as Lippemiinde, was one of the points from which Charlemagne directed his operations against the heathen Saxons.
On his return home, Oswio's son Alchfrid gave him a monastery at Ripon, and, before long, Agilbert, bishop of the Gewissae, or West Saxons, ordained him priest.
The province of Schleswig (perhaps only the west coast) and the islands adjacent were inhabited by the Saxons, while the east coast, at least in later times, was occupied by the Angli.
In 286 we hear for the first time of maritime raids by the Saxons in the same quarter.
The former were pressed Arrival in their rear by the Saxons, who at some time before the middle of the 4th century appear to have invaded and conquered a considerable part of north-west Germany.
In the 6th century the predominant peoples are the Franks, Frisians, Saxons, Alamanni, Bavarians, Langobardi, Heruli and Warni.
By the beginning of this century the The Saxons seem to have penetrated almost, if not quite, Franks to the Rhine in the Netherlands.
In 531 the Thuringian kingdom was destroyed by the Frankish king Theodoric, son of Clovis, with whom the Saxons were in alliance.
During the 6th and 7th centuries the Saxons were intermittently under Frankish supremacy, but their conquest was not complete until the time of Charlemagne.
Shortly The after the middle of the 6th century the Franks were Saxons threatened with a new invasion by the Avars.
To the east of the Saxons were the Polabs (Polabi) in the basin of the Elbe, and beyond them the Hevelli about the Havel.
The Warni now disappear from history, and from this time the Teutonic peoples of the north as far as the Danish boundary about the Eider are called Saxons.
The great overthrow of the Saxons took place about 772773, and by the end of the century Charlemagne had extended his conquests to the border of the Danes.
In the northeast, dwelling between the Rhine and the Elbe, were the Saxons (q.v.), to the east and south of whom stretched the extensive kingdom of Thuringia (q.v.).
The Saxons for their part did not own even a nominal allegiance to the Frankish kings, whose authority on the right bank of the Rhine was confined to the district actually occupied by men of their own name, which at a later date became the duchy of Franconia.
King Dagobert sent troops to repel these marauders from time to time, but the main burden of defence fell upon the Saxons, Bavarians and Thuringians.
The Saxons, on the other hand, succeeded in retaining their independence as a race, although their country was ravaged in various campaigns and some tribes were compelled from time to time to pay tribute.
When they were present with their formidable armies, they could command obedience; when engaged, as they often were, in Saxons distant parts of the vast Frankish territory, they remain could not trust to the fulfilment of the fair promises in dependthey had exacted.
Hardly any rebellion against the dukes of the Franks, or against King Pippin, took place in Germany without the Saxons coming Torward to aid the rebels.
This was perfectly understood by the Frankish rulers, who tried again and again to put an end to the evil by subduing the Saxons.
An occasional victory was gained, and some border tribes were from time to time compelled to pay tribute; but the mass of the Saxons remained unconquered.
This was partly due to the fact that the Saxons had not, like the other German confederations, aduke who, whenbeaten, could be held responsible for the engagements forced upon him as the representative of his subjects.
When he was martyred in 755 Christianity was professed by all the German races except the Saxons, and the church, organized and wealthy, had been to a large extent brought under the control of the papacy.
The nobles of Franconia acted upon the advice of their king, and the Saxons were very willing that their duke should rise to stIll higher honors.
The Saxons had been slowly reconquering the lost ground, and now Henry, advancing with his victorious army into Jutland, forced Gorm, the Danish king, to become his vassal and regained the land between the Eider and the Schlei.
The Saxons were able to cope with the Danes and the German boundary was pushed forward in the south-east; but the Slays fought with such courage and success that during the reigns of the emperors Otto II.
Having been recognized as king by the Saxons, the Thuringians and the nobles of Lorraine, the new king was able to turn his attention to the affairs of government, but on the whole his reign was an unfortunate one for Germany.
Hitherto a sovereign crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle had been king of the West Franks, or king of the Franks and Saxons.
Moreover, he built a number of forts which the people thought were intended for prisons; he filled the land with riotous and overbearing Swabians; he kept in prison Magnus, the heir to the duchy; and is said to have spoken of the Saxons in a tone of great contempt.
The pope, to whom the Saxons had been encouraged to complain, responded by sending back certain of Henrys messengers, with the command that the king should do penance for the crimes of which his subjects accused him.
The Saxons again rose in arms and Otto of Nordheim succeeded in uniting the North and South German supporters of the pope.
The Saxons and the Thuringians were soon in arms, and they were joined by those warlike spirits of Germany to whom an age of peace brought no glory and an age of prosperity brought no gain.
Henry defended his rights with vigour and once again Germany was ravaged by war, for although he was unpopular in Bavaria he was strongly supported by the Saxons, who, since the time of Henry IV., had always been ready to join in an attack on the, monarchy, and he had little difficulty in driving Albert the Bear from the land.
Having quickly assembled this, h drove the Saxons from Bohemia, and then marched towards Franconia, with the intention of crossing swords with his only serious rival, Gustavus Adolphus, who had left Munich when he heard that this foe had taken the field.
The final stage of the war opened with considerable Swedish successes in the north of Germany, especially the signal victory gained by them over the imperialists and the Saxons at Wittstock in October 1636.
About ten years later the East Saxons reverted to heathenism and the bishop was driven from his see.
Pop. (1900) 26,077, of whom 16,141 were Saxons (Germans), 7106 Rumanians, and 5747 Magyars.
He places the Saxons on the neck, above them the Sigoulones, Sabaliggoi and Kobandoi, then the Chaloi, then above them the Phoundousioi, then the Charondes and finally the Kimbroi.
For generations the obstinately heathen Saxons had lain, a compact and impenetrable mass, between Scandinavia and the Frank empire, nor were the measures adopted by Charles the Great for the conversion of the Saxons to the true faith very much to the liking of their warlike Danish neighbours on the other side.
But by the time that Charles had succeeded in " converting " the Saxons, the Viking raids were already at their height, and though generally triumphant, necessity occasionally taught the Northmen the value of concessions.
The industry of Transylvania, although not very developed, made some progress during the last quarter of the 19th century, and is mostly in the hands of the " Saxons."
Until 1848 the chief influence and privileges, as well as the only political rights, were divided among the three " privileged nations " of the Hungarians, Szeklers and Saxons.
At first these were known as Teutones, Teutonici Hospites and Flandrenses, but since the beginning of the 13th century the general name of " Saxons," as tantamount to " Germans," has prevailed.
The Hungarians and Szeklers together number 81 4,994, and the Saxons 233,019, but by far the most numerous element, though long excluded from power and political equality, is formed by the Rumanians, 1,397,282 in number, who are spread all over the country.
Since that time the Magyarization of the principality has steadily been carried through, in spite of the bitter protests and discontent of both the Saxons and Rumanians.
Near the town the Swedes under Charles defeated the Saxons on the 13th of February 1706.
The history of Sussex now becomes a blank until 607, in which year Ceolwulf of Wessex is found fighting against the South Saxons.
In 686 the South Saxons attacked Hlothhere, king of Kent, in support of his nephew Eadric, but soon afterwards Berhthun was killed and the kingdom subjugated for a time by Ceadwalla, who had now become king of Wessex.
In 722 we find Ine of Wessex at war with the South Saxons, apparently because they were supporting a certain Aldbryht, probably an exile from Wessex.
Offa also appears as witness to two charters of an ZEthelberht, king of the South Saxons, and in 772 he grants land himself in Sussex, with Oswald, dux of the South Saxons, as a witness.
In 825 the South Saxons submitted to Ecgberht, and from this time they remained subject to the West Saxon dynasty.
Among the former it appears to have become a sort of ex officio title of the Byzantine vicegerents of Italy, the exarchs of Ravenna; among the barbarian chiefs who were thus dignified were Odoacer, Theodoric, Sigismund of Burgundy, Clovis, and even in later days princes of Bulgaria, the Saracens, and the West Saxons.
The Saxons and the Swiss, Luther and Zwingli, were in fierce controversy about the true doctrine of the sacrament of the Supper.
Bury St Edmunds (Beodricesworth, St Edmund's Bury), supposed by some to have been the Villa Faustina of the Romans, was one of the royal towns of the Saxons.
According to the legend, Stade was the oldest town of the Saxons and was built in 321 B.C. Historically it cannot be traced farther back than the 10th century, when it was the capital of a line of counts.
In the direct language of reproach and advice, with no disingenuous loading of the Crown's policy upon its agents, these resolutions attacked the errors of the king, and maintained that "the relation between Great Britain and these colonies was exactly the same as that of England and Scotland after the accession of James and until the Union; and that our emigration to this country gave England no more rights over us than the emigration of the Danes and Saxons gave to the present authorities of their mother country over England."
In 1140 Wagria, in 1142 the country of the Polabes (Ratzeburg and Lauenburg), had been annexed by the Holtsaetas (the Transalbingian Saxons).
Their territory was eventually occupied by the Saxons.
That commander had his own (III) corps, the corps of Victor and of Lauriston and the Saxons under Reynier, a total force of 60,000 men.
He also ruled over the greater part of Germany, made expeditions into Saxony, and for some time exacted from the Saxons an annual tribute of 50o cows.
Colonized by Saxons in 1178, it then received its German name of Klausenburg, from the old word Klause, signifying a "mountain pass."
It suffered severely through various wars of the 17th and 18th centuries, and in 1734, having declared in favour of Stanislus Leszczynski, was besieged and taken by the Russians and Saxons.
The Saxons are not named, and the Franks appear only as a dreaded hostile power.
The new synthesis reveals a universal decline from the 5th to the 10th centuries, while the Germanic races were learning the rudiments of culture, a decline that was deepened by each succeeding wave of migration, each tribal war of Franks or Saxons, and reached its climax in the disorders of the 9th and 10th centuries when the half-formed civilization of Christendom was forced to face the migration of the Northmen by sea, the raids of the Saracen upon the south and the onslaught of Hungarians and Sla y s upon the east.
About 463, in conjunction with the Roman general Egidius, he fought against the Visigoths, who hoped to extend their dominion along the banks of the Loire; after the death of Egidius he assisted Count Paul in attempting to check an invasion of the Saxons.
Paul having perished in the struggle, Childeric delivered Angers from some Saxons, followed them to the islands at the mouth of the Loire, and massacred them there.
The name Caedwalla or Ceadwalla was borne by a British king mentioned by Beeda and by a king of the West Saxons.
In 1421 the Hussites were defeated here by King Sigismund and the Saxons, and in 1426 besieged the town in vain.
It was built between 1065 and 1069, but was laid in ruins by the Saxons in 1074; again it was built and again destroyed during the struggle between the emperor Henry IV.
Nantygof, the blacksmith's brook; Trefecca, the house of Rebecca; Llwyn Madoc, Madoc's grove; Pantsaeson, the Saxons' glen, &c. An historical origin is frequently commemorated, notably in the many foundations of the Celtic missionaries of the 5th, 6th and 7th centuries, wherein the word llan (church) precedes a proper name; thus every Llanddewi recalls the early labours of Dewi Sant (St David); every Llandeilo, those of St Teilo; and such names as Llandudno, Llanafan, Llanbadarn and the like commemorate SS.
During the 6th century the battle of Deorham gained by the West Saxons in 577 cut off communication with Cornwall, and in 613 the great battle of Chester, won by King Ethelfrith, prevented the descendants of Cunedda from ever again asserting their sovereignty over Strathclyde; the joint effect, therefore, of these two important Saxon victories was to isolate Wales and at the same time to put an end to all pretensions of its rulers as the inheritors of the ancient political claims of the Roman governors of the northern province of Britain.
In the 9th century, however, the Welsh, attacked by land and sea, by Saxons and by Danes, at length obtained a prince capable of bringing the turbulent chieftains of his country into obedience, and of opposing the two sets of invaders of his realm.
In 577 he led the West Saxons from Winchester towards the Severn valley; gained an important victory over some British kings at Deorham, and added the district round Gloucester, Bath and Cirencester to his kingdom.
Intestine strife among the West Saxons followed.
In 722 the South Saxons, previously subject to Ine, rose against him under the exile Aldbryht, who may have been a member of the West Saxon royal house.
In 725 Ine fought with the South Saxons and slew Aldbryht.
In the 5th century numbers of the Celtic inhabitants of Britain, flying from the Angles and Saxons, emigrated to Armorica, and populated a great part of the peninsula.
In 1631 the Saxons for a time occupied a large part of Bohemia, and even attempted to re-establish Protestantism.
When, in 1880, General Pitt-Rivers obtained possession of his great-uncle's estates-practically untouched by the excavator since they had been the battleground of the West Saxons, the Romans and the Britons-he devoted himself to exploring them.
Salzwedel, formerly Soltwedel, was founded by the Saxons, and was from 1070 to 1170 the capital of the old or north Mark, also for a time called the "mark of Soitwedel," the kernel of Brandenburg-Prussia.
In 685 Eadric, who seems to have quarrelled with Hlothhere, went into exile and led the South Saxons against him.
The irruption of the Saxons left Thorney desolate.
The Great Schoolroom king of the East Saxons, having taken part in the foundation of St Paul's Cathedral, restored or refounded the church at Thorney "to the honour of God and St Peter, on the west side of the City of London" (Stow).
During the Thirty Years' War it was sacked by the Imperialists, the Saxons and the Swedes in turn; and in the first Silesian war the same fate befell it at the hands of the French and Bavarians.
The partiality that he showed for the Ruman and Szekler parts of the population alienated, however, the Transylvanian Saxons, who preferred the direct government of the emperor.
On the 26th of November 1741 Prague was stormed by an army consisting of Bavarians, French and Saxons which upheld the cause of Charles, elector of Bavaria, who claimed the succession to the Bohemian throne and to the other domains of the house of Habsburg.
It seems must probable that the actual cause of their sudden activity was the conquest of the Saxons by Charles the Great, and his subsequent advahce into the peninsula of Denmark.
The Mercians gladly mingled with the West Saxons, and abandoned all memories of ancient independence.
The famous "Weissenburg lines," consisting of entrenched works erected by Villars in 1706 along the Lauter, and having a length of 12 m., were stormed in October 1793 by the Prussians and Saxons under the Austrian general Wurmser.
In 628 the Chronicle records a battle between him and the West Saxons at Cirencester in that year.
In 1531 it joined the Reformation movement, and in the following century it suffered considerably in the Thirty Years' War, being taken by Tilly in 1626, after a siege of 25 days, and recaptured by the Saxons in 1632.
The latter was driven out of the country by Domnall, whereupon Congal collected an army of foreign adventurers made up of Saxons, Dalriadic Scots, Britons and Picts to regain his lands and to avenge himself on the high-king.
The Irish writers tell little about these great !events, except that the king of the Saxons took the hostages of Munster at Waterford, and of Leinster, Ulster, Thomond and Meath at Dublin.
Theuderich joined with Clotaire against Theodobert, and invaded his brothers kingdom, conquering first an army of Austrasians and then one composed of Saxons and Thuringians.
Matters being thus settled with Rome, Pippin again took up his wars against the Saxons, against the Arabs (whom he drove from Narbonne in 758), and above all against Wailer, duke of Aquitaine, and his ally, duke Tassilo of Bavaria.
Aquitaine bordered upon Mussulman Spain; the Avars of Hungary threatened Bavaria with their tireless horsemen; beyond the Elbe and the Saul the Slays were perpetually at war with the Saxons, and to the north of the Eider were the Danes.
On the other hand we hear very frequently of Saxons in the coast regions of the Netherlands.
Since the Saxons (Old Saxons) of later times were an inland people, one can hardly help suspecting either that the two nations have been confused or, what is more probable, that a considerable mixture of population, whether by conquest or otherwise, had taken place.
Probably some Frisians took part with the Angles and Saxons in their sea-roving expeditions, and assisted their neighbours in their invasions and subsequent conquest of England and the Scottish lowlands.
The inhabitants of the neighbouring islands, Sylt, Amrum and Fiihr, who speak a kindred dialect, have apparently never regarded themselves as Frisians, and it is the view of many scholars that they are the direct descendants of the ancient Saxons.
We are also quite uncertain as to the extent to which the Jutes and Saxons may in their turn have again introduced a new breed of horses into England; and even to the close of the Anglo-Saxon period of English history allusions to the horse are still very infrequent.
With regard to the origin of the Jutes, Bede only says that Angulus (Angel) lay between the territories of the Saxons and the Iutae - a statement which points to their identity with the Iuti or Jyder of later times, i.e.
The same week Wallenstein chased John George from Prague and manoeuvred the Saxons out of Bohemia.
It was obviously Gustavus's plan to drive Wallenstein away from the Leipzig road, north of which he had posted himself, and thus, in case of success, to isolate, and subsequently, with the aid of the Saxons in the Elbe fortresses, annihilate him.
According to the Saxon Chronicle, Penda began to reign in 626, and fought against the West Saxons at Cirencester in 628.
In 675 he again fought with the West Saxons under Aescwine, and shortly afterwards died.
His power seems to have been more or less dependent on the West Saxons.
Tunstall, founded by the Saxons, was built on an island reached by a causeway.
Or if you are from central England or East Anglia, you could be a distant descendant of the Saxons and Angles.
The Saxons, originally enlisted to assist in their suppression, may have done their jobs well.
As such, it didn't take too much persuasion by the Saxons to talk the indigenous population into becoming pagan once more.
The Saxons, seeking respectability, converted to Catholicism, with the help of the mission of St Augustine to England from 597 onwards.
The real question was, which of the two foes was the more dangerous, and Charles had many reasons to think the civilized and martial Saxons far more formidable than the imbecile Muscovites.
He has been represented as the last of the Saxons - as a Saxon holding out against the Norman conquerors so late as the end of the 12th century (see Augustin Thierry's Norman Conquest, and compare Sir Walter Scott's Ivanhoe).
These requests, however, remained unanswered, and the Prussians and Saxons spent the night before the battle shivering in their miserable bivouacs.
The 1st division, warned by their own scouts that French troops were in Ste Marie, deployed to attack this village, and were assisted in their endeavour by a brigade of Saxons detached by the crown prince of Saxony, who from his position could see behind the poplar screen that limited the view of the commander-in-chief.
These journeys and campaigns, however, were but interludes in the long and stubborn struggle between Charles and the Saxons, which began in 772 and ended in 804 with the incorporation of Saxony in the Carolingian empire (see Saxony).
The southern part of the country was now fairly tranquil, and the later campaigns were directed mainly against the Nordalbingians, the branch of the Saxons living north of the Elbe, who suffered a severe reverse near Bornhoved in 798.
The Szeklers are of disputed origin, but closely akin to the Magyars (see Szeklers) The Saxons are the posterity of the German immigrants brought by King Geza II.
Pushed back, as he had been in Spain, from bastion to bastion, after the action on the Beresina, Napoleon had to fall back upon the frontiers of 1809, and thenhaving refused the peace offered him by Austria at the congress of Prague, from a dread of losing Italy, where each of his victories had marked a stage in the accomplishment of his dreamon those of 1805, despite Lfltzen and Bautzen, and on those of 1802 after his defeat at Leipzig, where Bernadotte turned upon him, Moreau figured among the Allies, and the Saxons and Bavarians forsook him.
He subdued the Saxons after about 30 years of war and forced them to accept Christianity.
It has been suggested that the Saxons used an undershot mill in the first instance.
When trouble arose between Conrad and Henry, duke of Saxony, afterwards King Henry the Fowler, the attitude of Conrad was ascribed by the Saxons to the influence of Hatto, who wished to prevent Henry from securing authority in Thuringia, where the see of Mainz had extensive possessions.