How to use Saxon in a sentence
Many of the ancient oaks that remain in England may date from Saxon times, and some perhaps from an earlier period; the growth of trees after the trunk has become hollow is extremely slow, and the age of such venerable giants only matter of vague surmise.
In the extremity of his fortunes he had recourse himself to Otto, making a formal cession of the Italian kingdom, in his own name and that of his son Adalbert, to the Saxon as his overlord.
Otto entered Lombardy Saxon in 961, deposed Berengar, assumed the crown in San and FranAmbrogio at Milan, and in 962 was proclaimed conlan emperor by John XII.
Under the imperial rule of Lothar the Saxon (1125-1137) and Conrad the Swabian (1138I I 52), these civil wars increased in violence owing to the absence of authority.
Certain enactments of later Saxon times in England have been sometimes spoken of as though they united together the temporal and spiritual jurisdictions into one mixed tribunal deriving its authority from the State.Advertisement
The church of the Holy Trinity occupies the site of a Saxon monastery, which existed before 691, when the bishop of Worcester received it in exchange from Ethelred, king of Mercia.
Sharing in the attack on the Saxon electorate, Albert was taken prisoner at Rochlitz in March 1547 by John Frederick, elector of Saxony, but was released as a result of the emperor's victory at Miihlberg in the succeeding April.
See Saxon Chronicle (Earle and Plummer), years 852-853, 868, 874.
Abundant charters from early Saxon monarchs are extant confirming various laws and privileges to the abbey, and the earliest of these, from King Ceadwalla, was granted before A.D.
There is no evidence of the existence of Minehead (Mannheve, Manehafd, Mynneheved) in Roman or Saxon times.Advertisement
In imitation of the grandfather the grandson gave a commission to a Saxon, in whom he had confidence, to collect artists and artisans in Germany and bring them to Moscow, but he was prevented from carrying out his scheme by the Livonian Order (1547).
On their extinction it passed to the Saxon house, and in 1007 the emperor Henry II.
Berkhampstead (Beorhhamstede, Berchehamstede) was undoubtedly of some importance in Saxon times since there were fifty-two burgesses there at the time of the Conquest.
Having entered the Roman army, he rapidly obtained promotion, and was stationed by the emperor Maximian at Gessoriacum (Bononia, Boulogne) to protect the coasts and channel from Frankish and Saxon pirates.
As there is no evidence of Roman or British settlement, it is probable that Sherborne (Scireburn, Shireburne) grew up after the Saxon conquest of the country from the Corn-Welsh in the middle of the 7th century.Advertisement
The Ottoman civil code is maintained for the present, but it is proposed to establish a code recently drawn up by Greek jurists which is mainly based on Italian and Saxon law.
Honiton (Honetona, Huneton) is situated on the British Icknield Street, and was probably the site of an early settlement, but it does not appear in history before the Domesday Survey, when it was a considerable manor, held by Drew (Drogo) under the count of Mortain, who had succeeded Elmer the Saxon, with a subject population of 33, a flock of 80 sheep, a mill and 2 salt-workers.
Saxony was in that year attacked by the Prussians, and with so much success that not only was the Saxon army forced to capitulate at Pirna in October, but the elector, who fled to Warsaw, made no attempt to recover Saxony, which remained under the dominion of Frederick.
In 1 534 the Saxon lords of Biinau obtained it and introduced the Protestant religion, which was exterminated when, after the battle of the White Hill (1620) the Bunau family was driven out.
The Saxon fort of Alaric was replaced by a Norman castle built by William de Mohun, first lord of Dunster, who founded the priory of St George.Advertisement
Barrows of the Saxon period are numerous in Wirksworth hundred and the Bakewell district, among the most remarkable being White-low near Winster and Bower's-low near Tissington.
There are Saxon cemeteries at Stapenhill and Foremark Hall.
The Prussians and a Saxon contingent, commanded by Frederick the Great and his brother Prince Henry, were opposed to two Austrian armies under Loudon and Lacy.
According to Aimoin of SaintGermain-des-Pres, and the chronicler, Richer, he was a Saxon, but historians question this statement.
He soon distinguished himself both as scholar and preacher, and had every inducement to remain in his monastery, but in 716 he followed the example of other Saxon monks and set out as missionary to Frisia.Advertisement
He made himself useful in muzzling the Saxon states and was successively chief receiver of taxes and minister for the interior in 1731.
In 1761 it was the headquarters of Frederick the Great, and in 1815 it was the last Saxon town that made its submission to Prussia.
The town-hall was built at the close of the, 8th century on the site of one erected in 1656, which succeeded the old moot-hall dating from Saxon times.
The change was probably owing to the fact that Ilbert de Lacy, to whom the Conqueror had granted the whole of the honour of Pontefract, founded a castle at Kirkby, on a site said to have been occupied by a fortification raised by Ailric, a Saxon thane.
At the time of the Norman invasion the Saxon cathedral, with the library of Archbishop Egbert, perished in the fire by which the greater part of the city was destroyed, the only relic remaining being the central wall of the crypt.
Here are tombs of several rulers and princes of Saxony, including those of Albert and Ernest, the founders of the two existing branches of the Saxon house.
On the morning of the 12th the Saxon commanding officers approached Hohenlohe with a statement of the famishing condition of their men, and threatened to withdraw them again to Saxony.
Framlingham (Frendlingham, Framalingaham) in early Saxon times was probably the site of a fortified earthwork to which St Edmund the Martyr is said to have fled from the Danes in 870.
In this period of anarchy the native princes of Glamorgan had their principal demesne, not at the camp but a mile to the north at Llystalybont, now merely a thatched farmhouse, while some Saxon invaders threw up within the camp a large moated mound on which the Normans about the beginning of the 12th century built the great shellkeep which is practically all that remains of their original castle.
In 811 Charlemagne founded a church here, perhaps on the site of a Saxon place of sacrifice, and this became a great centre for the evangelization of the north of Europe, missionaries from Hamburg introducing Christianity into Jutland and the Danish islands and even into Sweden and Norway.
His father, Wilgils, an Angle or, as Alcuin styles him, a Saxon, of Northumbria, withdrew from the world and constructed for himself a little oratory dedicated to St Andrew.
Sittingbourne (Sc dungburna, Sidyngbourn) is mentioned in Saxon documents in 989 and frequently in contemporary records of the 13th and 14th centuries.
Totnes (Toteneis, Totten) was a place of considerable importance in Saxon times; it possessed a mint in the reign of 'Ethelred, and was governed by a portreeve.
In early Saxon times the river was called Thamis, as may be seen in a grant before A.D.
Although its convenient harbour was probably used before Saxon times, and bronze weapons and Roman interments have been found, there is no evidence that Weymouth (Waimue, Waymuth) was a place of early settlement.
But most notable is the Saxon church of St Lawrence, the foundation of which is generally attributed, according to William of Malmesbury (1125), to St Aldhelm, early in the 8th century.
Segesvar was founded by Saxon colonists at the end of the r 2th century; its Latin name was Castrum Sex.
After the death of Gero, margrave of the Saxon east mark, in 965, his territory was divided into five marks, one of which was called Meissen.
Henry, who already ruled lower Lusatia and the new and smaller Saxon east mark, was succeeded in 1103 by his cousin Thimo, and in 1104 by his son Henry II., whose claim on the mark was contested by Thimo's son Conrad.
Having gained Thuringia and the Saxon palatinate on his uncle's death in 1247, he granted sections of his lands to his three sons in 1265, but retained Meissen.
Two of the generals of the Roman province of Britain were styled the comes Britanniae and the comes littoris Saxonici (count of the Saxon shore).
A relic of the old official meaning of "count" still survives in Transylvania, where the head of the political administration of the Saxon districts is styled count (comes, Graf) of the Saxon Nation.
This name is probably a translation of the Saxon name.
He was the son of an officer in the Saxon army who rose to be governor of KOnigstein and military governor of Dresden.
He at once became very popular with the students, but his political opinions made it impossible for the Saxon government to appoint him to a professorship. He was at that time a strong Liberal; he hoped to see Germany united into a single state with a parliamentary government, and that all the smaller states would be swept away.
A violent article, in which he demanded the annexation of Hanover and Saxony, and attacked with great bitterness the Saxon royal house, led to an estrangement from his father, who enjoyed the warm friendship of the king.
Less fortunate than his great exemplar, Charlemagne, Stephen had to depend entirely upon foreigners - men like the Saxon Asztrik 1 (c. 976-1010), the first Hungarian primate; the Lombard St Gellert (c. 977-1046); the Bosomanns, a German family, better known under the Magyarized form of their name Pazmany, and many others who came to Hungary in the suite of his enlightened consort Gisela of Bavaria.
The remains of Basingwerk Abbey (Maes glas, green field), partly Saxon and partly Early English, are near the station.
In 991 the Danes burned Ipswich, and defeated and slew the East Saxon ealdorman Brihtnoth at Maldon.
At Pirna the Elbe leaves behind it the stress and turmoil of the Saxon Switzerland, rolls through Dresden, with its noble river terraces, and finally, beyond Meissen, enters on its long journey across the North German plain, touching Torgau, Wittenberg, Magdeburg, Wittenberge, Hamburg, Harburg and Altona on the way, and gathering into itself the waters of the Mulde and Saale from the left, and those of the Schwarze Elster, Havel and Elde from the right.
Still further relief was afforded in 1844 and in 1850, on the latter occasion by the abolition of all tolls between Melnik and the Saxon frontier.
At Pirna (and Lilien stein) in 1756 he caught the entire Saxon army in his fowler's net, after driving back at Lobositz the Austrian forces which were hastening to their asistance; but only nine months later he lost his reputation for " invincibility " by his crushing defeat at Kolin, where the great highway from Vienna to Dresden crosses the Elbe.
Its name is said to be derived from Saxon tene, a beacon or fire (probably from the number of watch-fires existing on this easily ravaged coast), and numerous remains of Saxon occupation have been found, as at Osengal near Ramsgate.
It is situated on the left bank of the Elbe opposite Tetschen, and is an important railway junction, containing also an Austrian and a Saxon custom-house.
At the beginning of the 5th century the Roman legions left Britain, and the Saxon Chronicle gives the exact date, stating that never since A.D.
In connexion with these two features of a Roman city supposed to be found in Ancient London the author argues for the continuity of the city through the changes of Roman and Saxon dominion.
In London the Saxon stood outside the government for centuries, and the acceptance of the Roman survival explains much that is otherwise unintelligible.
When the city is next referred to in the Saxon Chronicle it appears to have been inhabited by a population of heathens.
In this, the earliest period of Saxon history recorded, there appears to be no relic of the Christianity of the Britons, which at one time was well in evidence.
There is little more to be said of the history of Saxon London than that Edward the Confessor held his Witanagemot there.
The defeated chiefs retired on the city, led by Ansgar the Staller, under whom as sheriff the citizens of London had marched to fight for Harold at Senlac. They elected Edgar Atheling, the grandson of Edmund Ironside, as king, which the Saxon Chronicle says " was indeed his natural right."
Thus ends the Saxon period, and the Norman period in London begins with the submission of the citizens as distinct from the action of the rest of the kingdom, which submission resulted soon afterwards in the Conqueror's remarkable charter to William the bishop and Gosfrith the portcity, reeve, supposed to be the elder Geoffrey de Mandeville.
We have no materials to judge of the number of inhabitants before the Norman Conquest, but we can guess that there were many open spaces within the walls that were afterwards filled up. It is scarcely worth while to guess as to the numbers in Saxon London, but it is possible that in the early period there were about 10,000 inhabitants, growing later to about 20,000.
During the latter part of the Saxon period the numbers of the population of the country began to decay; this decay, however, was arrested by the Norman Conquest.
Government We know little of The government of London during the Saxon period, and it is only incidentally that we learn how the Londoner had become possessed of special privileges which he continued to claim with success through many centuries.
The Saxon title of reeve was continued during the Norman period and the shire-reeve or sheriff has continued to our own time.
From this we learn that the government of the city was in the hands of a mayor and twelve dchevins (skivini); both these names being French, seem for a time to have excluded the Saxon aldermen.
Altenburg is the seat of the higher courts of the Saxon duchies, and possesses a cathedral and several churches, schools, a library, a gallery of pictures and a school of art, an infirmary and various learned societies.
In 1898 she edited for a short time the Saxon Arbeiterzeitung, but soon afterwards became a member of the staff of the Leipziger Volkszeitung.
The Saxon army also defeated the imperial troops near Liegnitz in 1634.
Ethelstan was the first Saxon king who could claim in any real sense to be lord paramount of Britain.
The English dialect in which the Anglo-Saxon laws have been handed down to us is in most cases a common speech derived from West Saxon - naturally enough as Wessex became the predominant English state, and the court of its kings the principal literary centre from which most of the compilers and scribes derived their dialect and spelling.
The oldest Anglo-Saxon codes, especially the Kentish and the West Saxon ones, disclose a close relationship to the barbaric laws of Lower Germany - those of Saxons, Frisians, Thuringians.
Saxon bands which settled in England.
In 455 the Saxon Chronicle records a battle between Hengest and Horsa and Vortigern at a place called Aegaels threp, in which Horsa was slain.
Both the Saxon Chronicle and the Historia Brittonum record three subsequent battles, though the two authorities disagree as to their issue.
They were forms which may rightly be called feudal, but only in the wider meaning in which we speak of the feudalism of Japan, or of Central Africa, not in the sense of 12th-century European feudalism; Saxon commendation may rightly be called vassalage, but only as looking back to the early Frankish use of the term for many varying forms of practice, not as looking forward to the later and more definite usage of completed feudalism; and such use of the terms feudal and vassalage is sure to be misleading.
There is no trace of the distinctive marks of Frankish feudalism in Saxon England, not where military service may be thought to rest upon the land, nor even in the rare cases where the tenant seems to some to be made responsible for it, for between these cases as they are described in the original accounts, legally interpreted, and the feudal conception of the vassal's military service, there is a great gulf.
Saxon Witenagemot and Norman Curia regis seem very much alike.
Of this the part corresponding to lines 790820 exists also in the original Old Saxon.
The Praefatio begins by stating that the emperor Ludwig the Pious, desirous that his subjects should possess the word of God in their own tongue, commanded a certain Saxon, who was esteemed among his countrymen as an eminent poet, to translate poetically into the German language the Old and New Testaments.
The suspicion of some earlier scholars that the Praefatio and the Versus might be a modern forgery is refuted by the occurrence of the word vitteas, which is the Old Saxon fittea, corresponding to the Old English fitt, which means a "canto" of a poem.
It is certainly not impossible that a Christian Saxon, sufficiently educated to read Latin easily, may have chosen to follow the calling of a stop or minstrel instead of entering the priesthood or the cloister; and if such a person existed, it would be natural that he should be selected by the emperor to execute his design.
The Saxon towns, during the following century, were joining to protect their common interests, and indeed at this period town confederacies in Germany, both North and South, were so considerable as to call for the declaration against them in the Golden Bull of 1356.
In 1293 the Saxon and Wendish merchants at Rostock decided that all appeals from Novgorod be taken to Lubeck instead of to Wisby, and six years later the Wendish and Westphalian towns, meeting at Lubeck, ordered that the Gothland association should no longer use a common seal.
Thus spurred to renewed efforts against the Hussites, the elector was endeavouring to rouse the German princes to aid him in prosecuting this war when the Saxon army was almost annihilated at Aussig on the 16th of August 1426.
A censer lid with a late Saxon tower upon it, now in the British Museum, dates from the 12th century or earlier.
Thankmar, aided by an influential Saxon noble named Wichmann, and by Eberhard of Franconia, seized the fortress of Eresburg and took Otto's brother Henry prisoner; but soon afterwards he was defeated by the king and killed whilst taking sanctuary.
Otto marched against them, and in a battle fought on the Lechfeld on the 10th of August 955 the king's troops gained a brilliant victory which completely freed Germany from these invaders; while in the same year Otto also defeated the Sla y s who had been ravaging the Saxon frontier.
By the rest of the Carolingian kings it was less frequently visited, and this neglect was naturally greater during the period of the Saxon and Salic emperors from 919 to 1137.
In 1572 Gotha was given to John Casimir, a son of the Saxon duke John Frederick, but when he died childless in 1633 it passed to another branch of the family.
This event was followed in 1826 by a redistribution of the Saxon lands.
The next years were devoted to the duties and studies connected with his office, which involved the visitation of the Swedish, Saxon, Bohemian and Austrian mines.
When the king took the field again in 1756, Moritz was in command of one of the columns which hemmed in the Saxon army in the lines of Pirna, and he received the surrender of Rutowski's force after the failure of the Austrian attempts at relief.
The Saxon occupation of Frome (From) is the earliest of which there is evidence, the settlement being due to the foundation of a monastery by Aldhelm in 705.
It was a hunting-ground of the West Saxon kings, but, as already stated, was afforested by the Conqueror, whose cruelty in the matter is probably exaggerated by the traditional account.
Three hundred and twenty-nine letters to Augustus of Saxony dating from the 17th of November 1565 to the 8th of September 1581, and one hundred and eleven letters to the chancellor Mordeisen dating from November 1559 to the summer of 1565, are preserved in MS. in the Saxon archives, and were published by Ludovicus at Halle in 1699 under the title Arcana seculi decimi sexti.
About 7 p.m, the Saxon turning-movement took effect; their infantry from the Orne valley attacked Roncourt from the north, and about 7.15 the village was carried.
The French artillery had already evaded the coming blow, and had changed position, "right back," to cover the flank of the rest of the army, and the Prussian and Saxon artillery trotting forward conformed to this new front, their shells sweeping the ground for 2000 yds.
His father, Christian Gottfried Korner (1756-1831), a distinguished Saxon jurist, was Schiller's most intimate friend.
He married Hatburg, a daughter of Irwin, count of Merseburg, but as she had taken the veil on the death of a former husband this union was declared illegal by the church, and in 909 he married Matilda, daughter of a Saxon count named Thiederich, and a reputed descendant of the hero Widukind.
He afterwards won the esteem of Conrad to such an extent that in 918 the king advised the nobles to make the Saxon duke his successor.
Adrian, between whom and the Lombards other causes of quarrel existed, refused to assent to this demand, and when Desiderius invaded the papal territories he appealed to the Frankish king for help. Charles, who was at the moment engaged in his first Saxon campaign, expostulated with Desiderius; but when such mild measures proved useless he led his forces across the Alps in 773.
He accordingly ravaged their country in 791 at the head of an army containing Saxon, Frisian, Bavarian and Alamannian warriors, which penetrated as far as the Raab; and he spent the following year in Bavaria preparing for a second campaign against them, the conduct of which, however, he was compelled by further trouble in Saxony to entrust to his son king Pippin, and to Eric, margrave of Friuli.
Charlemagne's wars in Italy, Spain and Saxony formed part of the common epic material, and there are references to his wars against the Sla y s; but especially he remained in the popular mind as the great champion of Christianity against the creed of Mahomet, and even his Norman and Saxon enemies became Saracens in current legend.
He urged the separation of the High Lutheran party from Melanchthon (1557), got the Saxon dukes to oppose the Frankfort Recess (1558) and continued to fight for the purity of Lutheran doctrine.
He married Margaret, daughter of the emperor Frederick II., in 1254, and in 1265 received from his father Thuringia and the Saxon palatinate.
The inhabitants to the north of the Eder are of Saxon stock, to the south of Franconian, a difference which is distinctly marked in dialect, costumes and manners.
The castle was originally a Saxon fortress, and was rebuilt on the erection of the walls.
Street, is noteworthy, and occupies the site of a Saxon church.
It is probable that after the Danish invasions of the 1 rth century the modern Southampton (Hantune, Suhampton) gradually superseded the Saxon Hantune as the latter did the Roman settlement, the site being chosen for its stronger position and greater facilities for trade.
His first care was to establish his authority over some districts east of the Elbe; and quickly making himself independent of the king, he stood forth as the representative of the Saxon race.
The emperor seconded the efforts of his vassals, Albert the Bear, margrave of the Saxon north mark, and Conrad I., margrave of Meissen and Lusatia, to extend the authority of the Germans in the districts east of the Elbe, and assisted Norbert, archbishop of Magdeburg, and Albert I., archbishop of Bremen, to spread Christianity.
The family of Wezil died out in 1194, and the existing branches of the Hohenzollerns are descended from Burkhard and his son Frederick, whose eldest son, Frederick II., was in great favour with the German kings, Lothair the Saxon and Conrad III.
As the institute spread to other lands nunneries arose on all sides, and nowhere were the Benedictine nuns more numerous or more remarkable than in England, from Saxon times to the Reformation.
A strong type of womanhood is revealed in the correspondence of St Boniface with various Saxon Benedictine nuns, some in England and some who accompanied him to the continent and there established great convents.
At the partition of Saxony in 1485 Weimar, with Thuringia, fell to the elder, Ernestine, branch of the Saxon house of Wettin, and has been the continuous residence of the senior branch of the dukes of this line since 1572.
Although it has been restored, there remain traces of Saxon workmanship in the chancel, besides two Norman doorways, a font of the same period, a stone altar bearing five crosses and a fine 15th-century brass.
Of its origin and early history we have no record except the bare statement of Bede that its settlers were of the Old Saxon race.
In connexion with this it is interesting to notice that the East Saxon dynasty claimed descent from Seaxneat, not Woden.
The form Seaxneat is identical with Saxnot, one of three gods mentioned in a short continental document probably of Old Saxon origin.
There are grounds for believing that an East Saxon conquest of Kent took place in this reign.
The violent death of Selred, king of Essex, is mentioned in the Saxon Chronicle under the year 746; but we have no more information of historical importance until the defeat of the Mercian king Beornwulf in 825, when Essex, together with Kent, Sussex and Surrey, passed into the hands of Ecgbert, king of Wessex.
At Bury Bank, on the hills to the north, an earthwork is traditionally considered to be the site of the capital of the Kingdom of Mercia; there are other works in the neighbourhood at Saxon Low.
Its importance continued in Saxon times, and in 1086 it was a royal borough with 107 burgesses.
The west and south-west half of Saxony is more or less occupied by the ramifications and subsidiary groups of this range, one of which is known from its position as the Central Saxon chain, and another lower group still farther north as the Oschatz group. The south-east angle of Saxony is occupied by the mountains of Upper Lusatia (highest summit 2600 ft.), which form the link between the Erzgebirge and Riesengebirge in the great Sudetic chain.
Comparatively few of the numerous smaller streams of Saxony flow directly to the Elbe, and the larger tributaries only join it beyond the Saxon borders.
It is mildest in the valleys of the Elbe, Mulde and Pleisse and severest in the Erzgebirge, where the district near Johanngeorgenstadt is known as Saxon Siberia.
Saxon agriculture, though dating its origin from the Wends, was long impeded by antiquated customs, while the land was subdivided into small parcels and subjected to vexatious rights.
But in 1834 a law was passed providing for the union of the scattered lands belonging to each proprietor, and that may be considered the dawn of modern Saxon agriculture., The richest grain districts are near Meissen, Grimma, Bautzen,.
Wine is said to have been grown here in the iith century; the Saxon vineyards, chiefly on the banks of the Elbe near Meissen and Dresden, have of late years, owing to the ravages of the phylloxera, become almost extinct.
In 1765 the regent Prince Xaver imported 300 merino sheep from Spain, and so improved the native breed by this new strain that Saxon sheep were eagerly imported by foreign nations to improve their flocks, and " Saxon electoral wool " became one of the best brands in the market.
Nearly one-half of the motive power used in Saxon factories is supplied by the streams, of which the Mulde, in this respect, is the chief.
Dobeln, Werdau and Lossnitz are the chief seats of the Saxon leather trade; cigars are very extensively made in the town and district of Leipzig, and hats and pianofortes at Leipzig, Dresden and Chemnitz.
The Saxon army is modelled on that of Prussia.
Of the four universities founded by the Saxon electors at Leipzig, Jena, Wittenberg, later transferred to Halle, and Erfurt, now extinct, only the first is included in the present kingdom of Saxony.
The Saxon financial period embraces a space of two years.
The Irminsul was a wooden pillar erected to represent the world-sustaining ash Yggdrasil, and was the centre of the worship of the whole Saxon people.
In 777 Charles held an assembly at Paderborn, henceforth his headquarters during this war, which was attended by most of the Saxon chiefs.
A certain Widukind, or Wittekind, who had doubtless taken part in the earlier struggle, returned from exile in Denmark, and under his leadership the Saxon revolt broke out afresh in 778.
The land was divided into counties, which, however, were given to Saxon chiefs to administer, and it was probably on this occasion that the capitulatio de partibus Saxoniae was issued.
Saxony at last seemed to be subdued, and Saxon warriors took service in the Frankish armies.
These events compelled Charles to leave the Avar war and return to Saxony in 794; and until 799 each year had its Saxon campaign.
Oaths and hostages were exacted; and many Saxon youths were educated in the land of the Franks as Christians, and sent back into Saxony to spread Christianity and Frankish influence.
Further transportations were carried out, and in 797 Charles issued another capitulary which mitigated the severe provisions of the capitulary of 782; and about 802 the Saxon law was committed to writing.
Between this prince and Conrad I., who wished to curb the increasing power of the Saxon duke, a quarrel took place; but Henry not only retained his hold over Saxony and Thuringia, but on Conrad's death in 919 was elected German king.
He extended the Saxon frontier almost to the Oder, improved the Saxon forces by training and equipment, established new marks, and erected forts on the frontiers for which he provided regular garrisons.
The Sla y s were driven back, the domestic policy of Henry the Fowler was continued, the Saxon court became a centre of learning visited by Italian scholars, and in 968 an archbishopric was founded at Magdeburg for the lands east of the Elbe.
The Saxon nobles refused to join the host until their grievances were redressed, and in 1073 a league was formed at Wormesleben.
Several of the important ecclesiastical principalities of North Germany were about this time held by members of the Saxon ruling house, and the external influence of the electorate corresponded to its internal prosperity.
The important partition of Leipzig accordingly took place in 1485, and resulted in the foundation of the two main lines of the Saxon house.
Ernest, the elder brother, obtained Saxe-Wittenberg with the electoral dignity, Thuringia and the Saxon Vogtland; while Albert received Meissen, Osterland being divided between them.
For the second time in the history of the Saxon electorate the younger line secured the higher dignity, for the Wittenberg line was junior to the Lauenburg line.
The country had four universities, those of Leipzig, Wittenberg, Jena and Erfurt; books began to increase rapidly, and, by virtue of Luther's translation of the Bible, the Saxon dialect became the ruling dialect of Germany.
The first battle on Saxon soil was fought in 1631 at Breitenfeld, where the bravery of the Swedes made up for the flight of the Saxons.
Augustus pawned and sold large districts of Saxon territory, while he drained the electorate of both men and money.
The foundation of the famous school of mining at Freiberg, and the improvement of the Saxon breed of sheep by the importation of merino sheep from Spain, were due to his care.
When the Bavarian succession fell open in 1777, Frederick Augustus joined Prussia in protesting against the absorption of Bavaria by Austria, and Saxon troops took part in the bloodless " potato-war."
The elector commuted his claims in right of his mother, the Bavarian princess Maria Antonia, for six million florins, which he spent chiefly in redeeming Saxon territory that had been pawned to other German states.
When war broke out in 1806 against Napoleon, 22,00022,000 Saxon troops shared the defeat of the Prussians at Jena, but the elector immediately afterwards snatched at Napoleon's offer of neutrality, and abandoned his former ally.
The king of Saxony's faith in Napoleon was shaken by the disasters of the Russian campaign, in which 21,000 Saxon troops had shared; when, however, the allies invaded Saxony in the spring of 1813, he refused to declare against Napoleon and fled to Prague, though he withdrew his contingent from the French army.
Whatever misgivings he may have had were, however, removed by Napoleon's victory at Liitzen (May 2, 1813), and the Saxon king and the Saxon army were once more at the disposal of the French.
During the battle of Leipzig in October 1813, the popular Saxon feeling was displayed by the desertion of the Saxon troops to the side of the allies.
When war was declared between Prussia and Austria in 1866, Saxony declined the former's offer of neutrality, and, when a Prussian force crossed the border, the Saxon army under the king and the crown prince joined the Austrians in Bohemia.
The postal and telegraph systems were also placed under the control of Prussia, and the representation of the Saxon crown at foreign courts was merged in that of the Confederation.
A new electoral law of the same year reformed the Saxon diet by abolishing the old distinction between the various " estates " and lowering the qualification for the franchise; the result was a Liberal majority in the Lower House and a period of civil and ecclesiastical reform.
This led to proposals for a slight modification in the franchise for the Saxon diet (1904), which were not accepted.
This was, however, far from satisfying the parties of the extreme Left, and the strength of Social Democracy in Saxony was even more strikingly displayed in 1909 when, in spite of plural voting, under a complicated franchise, 25 Socialist members were returned to the Saxon diet.
The principle of primogeniture was not introduced until the end of the 17th century, so that the Protestant Saxon dynasty, instead of building up a single compact kingdom for itself, has split into four petty duchies, of no political influence whatever.
Adolph II., count of Holstein, was compelled to cede Lubeck to him in 1158; campaigns in 1163 and 1164 beat down further resistance of the Abotrites; and Saxon garrisons were established in the conquered lands.
Sheriffs of Kent are mentioned in the time of 'Ethelred II., and in Saxon times the shiremoot met three times a year on Penenden Heath near Maidstone.
Other Saxon foundations were the nunneries at Folkestone (630), Lyminge (633; nunnery and monastery), Reculver (669), Minster-in-Thanet (670), Minster-in-Sheppey (675), and the priory of St Martin at Dover (696), all belonging to the Benedictine order.
He acquired the Saxon palatinate in 1179, on the death of Adalbert, count of Sommerschenburg, went to Italy to assist Frederick I.
Henry, however, found himself obliged to defend his title against Sophia, wife of Henry II., duke of Brabant, who was a daughter of the landgrave Louis IV., and it was not till 1263 that an arrangement was made by which Thuringia and the Saxon palatinate fell to Henry.
Spener refused to resign his post, and the Saxon government hesitated to dismiss him.
But in 1691 the Saxon representative at Berlin induced the court of Brandenburg to offer him the rectorship of St Nicholas in Berlin with the title of "Konsistorialrat."
The elder brother was set aside as imbecile and epileptic. Charles had inherited a great frame and immense physical strength from the Saxon line of his mother.
The harmonious relations which subsisted between the two branches of the Wettins were disturbed by the interference of Maurice in Cleves, a proceeding distasteful to the Saxon elector, John Frederick; and a dispute over the bishopric of Meissen having widened the breach, war was only averted by the mediation of Philip of Hesse and Luther.
In return the duke probably agreed to aid Charles in his proposed attack on the league as soon as he could gain the consent of the Saxon estates, or at all events to remain neutral during the impending war.
He subdued also the Germanic tribes; annexed Frisia, where Christianity was beginning to make progress; put an end to the duchy of Alemannia; intervened in the internal affairs of the dukes of Bavaria; made expeditions into Saxony; and in 738 compelled some of the Saxon tribes to pay him tribute.
This was the ' Saxon period which, with occasional violent interruptions, was to drag on for nearly seventy years.
Their chief intermediary was their nephew Stanislaus Poniatowski, whom they sent, as Saxon minister, to the Russian court in the suite of the English minister Hanbury Williams, in 1755.
The discredit into which Stanislaus had now fallen encouraged the Saxon party, led by Gabriel Podoski (1719-1777), to form a combination for the purpose of dethroning the king.
For works relating to the Sobieskian, Saxon and Partitional periods of Polish history, the reader is referred to the bibliographical notes appended to the biographies of John III., king of Poland, Michal Czartoryski, Stanislaus II., Tadeusz Andrzej Kosciuszko, Jozef Poniatowski, and the other chief actors of these periods.
Hiw works constitute a library in themselves; they are chiefly historical and political novels, some or which treat of early times in Poland, and some of its condition under the Saxon kings.
On the summit of Osengal Hill, about a mile to the west of the town, a graveyard of early Saxon settlers was discovered during the cutting of the railway.
It is usual to speak of the English burgagetenure as a relic of Saxon freedom resisting the shock of the Norman conquest and its feudalism, but it is perhaps more correct to consider it a local feature of that general exemption from feudality enjoyed by the municipia as a relic of their ancient Roman constitution.
In the war against Austria, Bernadotte led the Saxon contingent at the battle of Wagram, on which occasion, on his own initiative he issued an order of the day, attributing the victory principally to the valour of his Saxons, which Napoleon at once disavowed.
Other early writers, however, do not observe these distinctions, and neither in language nor in custom do we find evidence of any appreciable differences between the two former groups, though in custom Kent presents most remarkable contrasts with the other kingdoms. Still more curious is the fact that West Saxon writers regularly speak of their own nation as a part of the Angelcyn and of their language as Englisc, while the West Saxon royal family claimed to be of the same stock as that of Bernicia.
Its origin is unknown, but some connect it with Roman days and others with the Saxon Hengist.
Saxon moneyers pound, or Tower pound, 5400 grains, abolished in 1527.
In England the Saxon standards were kept at Winchester before A.D.
In 1834 he was appointed professor of architecture in Dresden, and during fifteen years received many important commissions from the Saxon court.
Bury, of which the name is derived from the Anglo-Saxon burhg, birig or byrig (town, castle or fortified place), was the site of a Saxon station, and an old English castle stood in Castle Croft close to the town.
He inherited the valuable Saxon estates of his father in 1123, and on his mother's death, in 1142, succeeded to onehalf of the lands of the Billungs.
In 1128 his brother-in-law, Henry II., margrave of the Saxon north mark, died, and Albert, disappointed at not receiving this fief, attacked Udo, the succeeding margrave, and was consequently deprived of Lusatia by Lothair.
After meeting with some success in his efforts to take possession, he was driven from Saxony, and also from his mark by Henry, and compelled to take refuge in South Germany, and when peace was made in 1142 he renounced the Saxon dukedom and received the counties of Weimar and Orlamiinde.
The inhabitants are mainly of the Saxon stock and speak Low German dialects, except in the Upper Frankish district around Siegen, where the Hessian dialect is spoken.
The position of Schandau in the heart of the romantic "Saxon Switzerland" has made it a place of importance, and thousands of tourists make it their headquarters in summer.
The town probably owed its origin to the suitability of its position for defence, and it was the site of a Danish fort, later replaced by a Saxon settlement.
The Saxon Confession of Wittenberg, June 1551, while protesting against the same errors, equally abstains from trying to define narrowly how Christ is present in the sacrament.
Its origin is obscure, and has been variously connected with a Saxon royal residence (King's town), a family of the name of Chenesi, and the word Caen, meaning wood, from the forest which originally covered the district and was still traceable in Tudor times.
The most probable derivation, however, finds in the name a connection with the Saxon tribe or family of Kensings.
Rough weirs, formed of stakes and twigs, were erected across English rivers in Saxon times for holding up the water and catching fish, and fish-traps, with iron-wire meshes and eel baskets, are still used sometimes at weirs.
The English names of the days are derived from the Saxon.
A settlement probably grew up in Saxon times at Bridgwater (Briges, Briggewalteri, Brigewauter), owing its origin as a trade centre to its position at the mouth of the chief river in Somerset.
He tells us that Arthur was Dux bellorum, and led the armies of the British kings against the Saxon invaders, whom he defeated in twelve great battles.
Augustus continued the war against the Turks for a time, and being anxious to extend his influence and to find a pretext for retaining the Saxon troops in Poland, made an alliance in 1699 with Russia and Denmark against Charles XII.
His remaining years were spent in futile plans to make Poland a hereditary monarchy, to weaken the power of the Saxon nobles, and to gain territory for his sons in various parts of Europe.
There were 405,173 inhabitants, including 28,234 Wends, in Saxon Upper Lusatia.
Laws relating to this district, after passing through the Saxon parliament must be submitted to the Lusatian diet at Bautzen.
Beyond the fact that he was of Saxon, not of Norman race, and applies to himself the cognomen of Parvus, " short," or "small," few details are known regarding his early life; but from his own statements it is gathered that he crossed to France about 1136, and began regular studies in Paris under Abelard, who had there for a brief period re-opened his famous school on Mont St Genevieve.
Northallerton (Alvetune, Allerton) is said to have been a Roman station and afterwards a Saxon "burgh," but nothing is known with certainty about it before the account given in the Domesday Survey, which shows that before the Conquest Earl Edwin had held the manor, but that the Normans had destroyed it so utterly that it was still waste in 1086.
The mountains of Saxon Switzerland are seen from this neighbourhood.
The wearing of the ancient costumes was forbidden by the ukaz of the 4th of January 1700; thenceforth Saxon or Magyar jackets and French or German hose were prescribed.
The cathedral was founded on the ruins of St Wilfrid's abbey about 680, but of this Saxon building nothing now remains except the crypt, called St Wilfrid's Needle.
Saxon architecture owes nearly everything to his initiative, and Bede was one of his pupils.
Luther, Justus Jonas, Melanchthon and Johann Bugenhagen were appointed to draw up a statement of the Saxon position.
Towns, villages and country houses were their prominent features; troops were hardly seen in them save in some fortresses on the edge of the hills and in a chain of forts built in the 4th century to defend the south-east coast, the so-called Saxon Shore.
Before ZEthelberht a similar position had been held by the West Saxon king Ceawlin, and at a much earlier period, according to tradition, by Ella or ZElle, the first king of Sussex.
The West Saxon shilling seems originally to have been identical with the Mercian, but later it contained five pence.
Seaxneat, the ancestor of the East Saxon dynasty, was also in all probability a god (see Essex, Kingdom Of).
Early in his reign he was sponsor to the West Saxon king Cynegils, whose daughter he married.
His first plan was a combination against her of Saxony, Denmark and Brandenburg; but, Brandenburg failing him, he was obliged very unwillingly to admit Russia into the partnership. The tsar was to be content with Ingria and Esthonia, while Augustus was to take Livonia, nominally as a fief of Poland, but really as an hereditary possession of the Saxon house.
The same year, recognizing the unprofitableness of serving such a master as Augustus, he exchanged the Saxon for the Russian service.
From Berlin Patkul went on to Dresden to conclude an agreement with the imperial commissioners for the transfer of the Russian contingent from the Saxon to the Austrian service.
The Saxon ministers, after protesting against the new arrangement, arrested Patkul and shut him up in the fortress of Sonnenstein (Dec. 19, 1705), altogether disregarding the remonstrances of Peter against such a gross violation of international law.
It was the capital of the little duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg, the rulers of which afterwards became electors of Saxony; and it continued to be a Saxon residence under the Ernestine electors.
The etymology of the name may be Saxon, but there is no evidence of a Saxon settlement, and the place is not mentioned in Domesday.
Ulverston, otherwise Vlureston, Olvestonum, occurs in Domesday Book, where Vlurestun is named as a manor in possession of Turulf, who was probably the original Saxon owner.
When William of Malmesbury describes the knighting of Athelstan by his grandfather Alfred the Great, that is, his investiture " with a purple garment set with gems and a Saxon sword with a golden sheath," there is no hint of any religious observance.
Other Saxon orders are the military Order of St Henry, for distinguished service in the field, founded in 1736 in one class; since 1829 it has had four classes; the ribbon is sky blue with two yellow stripes, the gold cross bears in the centre the effigy of the emperor Henry II.; the Order of Albert, for civil and military merit, founded in 1850 by Frederick Augustus II.
The Saxon emperors also held diets in the city, which about the year 1000 was surrounded with walls.
Carrying out his share of the bargain by occupying Silesia and Lusatia, where he displayed much clemency, the Saxon elector had thus some part in driving Frederick V., elector palatine of the Rhine, from Bohemia and in crushing Protestantism in that country, the crown of which he himself had previously refused.
The Saxon troops were present at the battle of Breitenfeld, but were routed by the imperialists, the elector himself seeking safety in flight.
Granites, porphyries and porphyrites belonging to this period occur in the Saxon Erzgebirge, the Harz, Thiiringerwald, Vosges, Brittany, Cornwall and Christiania.
It was a royal borough in Saxon times, and in 1086 had 34 resident burgesses.
The story of its origin is given in the Saxon Chronicle.
Berhtric was succeeded by Ecgberht (q.v.), the chief event of whose reign was the overthrow of the Mercian king Beornwulf in 825, which led to the establishment of West Saxon supremacy and to the annexation by Wessex of Sussex, Surrey, Kent and Essex.
A Saxon barrow was opened near the town in 1824.
The Dresden Green, one of the Saxon crown jewels, 40 carats, has a fine apple-green colour.
See Saxon Chronicle (Earle and Plummer), s.a.
The territorial power of the archbishops was already great when, in 1180, on the partition of the Saxon duchy, the duchy of Westphalia was assigned to them.
There is, however, a trace of early masonry which may have belonged to the Saxon house where, in 978, King Edward the Martyr was murdered.
His principal works are his edition of the Sachsenspiegel (in 3 vols., 1827, 3rd ed., 1861, containing also some other important sources of Saxon or Low German law), which is still unsurpassed in accuracy and sagacity of research, and his book on Die Hausand Hofmarken (1870), in which he has given a history of the use of trade-marks among all the Teutonic nations of Europe, and which is full of important elucidations of the history of law and also contains valuable contributions to the history of art and civilization.
About this time he received from his brother Louis the Saxon palatinate, over which he strengthened his authority by marrying Sophia, sister of Adalbert, count of Sommerschenburg, a former count palatine.
In 1881 he was elected member of the Reichstag, and from 1883 to 1889 was a member of the Saxon diet.
These are Franconia (Franken), which embraces the districts of Bamberg, Schweinfurt and Wurzburg on the upper Main; Swabia (Schwaben), in which is included Wtirttemberg, parts of Bavaria and Baden and Hohenzollern; the Palatinate (Pfalz), embracing Bavaria west of the Rhine and the contiguous portion of Baden; Rhineland, applied to Rhenish Prussia, Nassau, Hesse-Darmstadt and parts of Bavaria and Baden; Vogtland, the mountainous country lying in the south-west corner of the kingdom of Saxony; Lusatia (Lausitz), the eastern portion of the kingdom of Saxony and the adjacent portion of Prussia watered by the upper Spree; Thuringia (Thulingen), the country lying south of the Harz Mountains and including the Saxon duchies; East Frlesland (Ost Friesland), the country lying between the lower course of the Weser and the Ems, and Westphalia (Westfalen), the fertile plain lying north and west of the Harz Mountains and extending to the North Sea and the Dutch frontier.
In the east a tableland of sandstone, called Saxon Switzerland, from the picturesque outlines into which it has been eroded, adjoins the Erzgebirge; one of its most notable features is the deep ravine by which the Elbe escapes from it.
Besides detached German colonies in Hungary proper, there is a considerable and compact German (Saxon) population in Transylvania.
Lead is produced in considerable quantities in upper Silesia, the Harz Mountains, in the Prussian province of Nassau, in the Saxon Erzgebirge and in the Sauerland.
Of other minerals (with the exceptions of coal, iron and salt treated below) nickel and antimony are found in the upper Harz; cobalt in the hilly districts of Hesse and the Saxon Erzgebirge; arsenic in the Riesengebirge; quicksilver in the Sauerland and in the spurs of the Saarbrucken coal hills; graphite in Bavaria; porcelain clay in Saxony and Silesia; amber along the whole Baltic coast; and lime and gypsum in almost all parts.
In conseqtienc of this regulation numerous banks resigned the privilege of issuinf notes, and at present there are in Germany but the following privat note banks, issuing private notes, viz, the Bavarian, the Saxon the Wurttemberg, the Baderi and the Brunswick, in addition to th Imperial Bank.
By the end of the 6th century the whole basin of the Elbe except the Saxon territory near the mouth had probably become Slavonic, To the east of the Saale were the Sorbs (Sorabi), and beyond them the Daleminci and Siusli.
His son and successor; Theudebert I., exercised a certain supremacy over the Alamanni and the Bavarians, and even claimed authority over various Saxon tribes between whom and the Franks there had been some fighting.
A Saxon chief who made peace with the Franks could undertake nothing for the whole people.
Lotbair was humbled in 1112, but he took advantage of the emperors difficulties to rise again and again, the twin pillars of his strength being the Saxon hatred of the Franconian emperors and an informal alliance with the papal see.
Rendered arrogant by success and confident that his interests were in northern, and not in southern Frederick and Henry Europe, the Saxon duke refused to assist Frederick the Lion, in.
Ascribing his defeat to Henrys defection, Frederick returned to Germany full of anger against the Saxon duke and firmly resolved to punish him.
The name was taken by the small portion of the former duchy which was given to Bernard, son of Albert the Bear, the founder of a new Saxon line, and the extensive western part was added to the archbishopric of Cologne.
But the Hohen Oermany staufen family, like their Saxon and Franconian settled, predecessors, would be content with nothing short of universal dominion; and thus the crown which had once been significant of power and splendour gradually sank into contempt.
The Golden Bull, promulgated in January 1356 and again after some tedious negotiations in December of the same year, fixed the number of electors at seven, SaxeWittenberg and not Saxe-Lauenburg obtaining the Saxon vote, and the vote of the Wittelsbachs being given to the ruler of the Rhenjsh Palatinate and not to the duke of Bavaria.
This happened about a year after war between the two branches of the Saxon house had only been averted by the mediation of Luther and of Philip of Hesse.
At Muhlberg in April 1547 he overtook the army of the Saxon elector.
Moreover, the friendship between the Saxon and the Palatine houses was soon destroyed; for, when the elector Louis died in 1583, he was succeeded by a minor, his son Frederick IV., who was under the guardianship of his uncle John Casimit (1543-1592), a prince of very marked Calvinist sympathies and of some military experience.
After the death of Augustus of Saxony in February 1586 there was another brief alliance between the Protestant parties, The Pro- although on this occasion the lead was taken not by lestant the Saxon, but by the Palatine prince.
Having captured Frankfort-on-Oder and forced the hesitating elector of Brandenburg, George William, to grant him some assistThe earn- ance, Gustavus Adolphus added the Saxon army to his paignof, own, and in September 1631 he met Tilly, at the heed Gustavus of nearly the whole force of the League, at Breitenfeld, P near Leipzig,, where he gained a victory which placed North Germany entirely at his feet.
So utterly had he shattered the emperors power that he could doubtless have marched straight to Vienna; he preferred, however, to proceed through central into southern Germany, while his Saxon ally, the elector John George, recovered Silesia and Lusatia and invaded Bohemia.
Instead of attacking the enemy with his accustomed vigour, he withdrew into Bohemia and was engaged in lengthy negotiations with the Saxon soldier and diplomatist, Hans Georg von Arnim (1581-1641); his object being doubtless to come to terms with Saxony and Brandenburg either with or without the emperors consent.
The Saxon elector gained some additions of territory and promised to assist Ferdinand to recover any lands which had been taken from him by the Swedes, or by other foes.
Meanwhile, alarmed at this tendency, and hopeless of obtaining any general system from the federal diet, the middle states had drawn together; by a treaty signed on the 18th of January 1828 Wurttemberg and Bavaria formed a tariff union, which was joined in the following year by the Hohenzollern principalities; and on the 24th of September 1828 was formed the so-called Middle German Commercial Union (Handelsverein) between Hanover, HesseCassel, the Saxon duchies, Brunswick, Nassau, the principalities of Reuss and Schwarzburg, and the free cities of Frankfort and Bremen, the object of which was to prevent the extension of the Prussian system and, above all, any union of the northern Zollverein with that of Bavaria and WUrttemberg.
On the 24th of December Saxon and Hanoverian troops occupied Holstein in the name of the German Confederation, and supported by their presence and the favor of the population the prince of Augustenburg, as Duke Frederick VIII., assumed the government.
Russia and Great Britain had already protested against the occupation of Holstein and the support given to the Aiigustenburg claimant; and now Beust, the Saxon minister, was proposing that the federal diet, which had been no party to the protocol, should formally recognize his claim.
Th Prussian delegate at once withdrew from the diet, and on thE following day (June 15) the Prussian troops advanced ovel the Saxon frontier.
It was a sign of mostserious import for the future that in 1897 thc e,lgctoral law in the kingdom of Saxony was altered with thc express purpose of excluding the Socialists from the Saxon Landtag.
In Prussia a majority of the Tipper House and a very large minority of the Lower House (193 to 206) voted for an amendment expressly empowering the police to break up meetings in which anarchistic, socialistic or communistic doctrines were defended in such a manner as to be dangerous to society; the Saxon Conservatives demanded that women at least should be forbidden to attend socialistic meetings, and it remained illegal for any one under twenty-one years of age to be present at a political meeting.
The writer in the Saxon abbey of Corvey, or in the Franconian abbey of Fulda, knows only about events which happened near his own doors; he records, it is true, occurrences which rumour has brought to his ears, but in general he is trustworthy only for the history of his own neighborhood.
The Saxon and the Franconian annalists know nothing of the -listant Bavarians; there is even a gulf between the Bavarian and the Swabian.
The Saxon Widukind, for instance, gives more space to the tale of the martyrdom of St Vitus than he does to several of the important campaigns of Henry the Fowler.
Among the early German chroniclers the Saxon Widukind, the author of the Res gestae Saxonicae, is worthy of mention.
In the so-called New Church, comprising the west part of the whole building, which is an addition of the 16th century, are many beautiful memorials of Saxon notables.
In 1423 it was pledged by King Sigismund to the elector Frederick of Meissen, who occupied it with a Saxon garrison.
Gateshead (Gateshewed) probably grew up during late Saxon times, the mention of the church there in which Bishop Walcher was murdered in 1080 being the - first evidence of settlement.
In 1865 the Clarendon Press published Two Saxon Chronicles (A and E) Parallel, with supplementary extracts from the others, by the Rev. John Earle.
In the 5th and 6th centuries the country was overrun by Saxon tribes, and later on was governed by counts under the Frankish and German kings.
The few and peaceful traders who explored those northern waters were careful never to lose sight of the Saxon, Frisian and Frankish shores during their passage.
Here too the imperial forces suffered defeat, Otto himself being saved only by the devotion of a handful of Saxon knights.
The fact that the new invaders brought their wives and children with them shows that this was no mere raid, but a deliberate 1 Where alternative dates are given the later date is that of the Saxon Chronicle.
But the evidence of the Continental Chronicles makes it probable that the Saxon Chronicle is a year in advance of the true chronology in this part.
It was to remedy these evils that he established a court school, after the example of Charles the Great; for this he imported scholars like Grimbald and John the Saxon from the continent and Asser from South Wales; for this, above all, he put himself to school, and made the series of translations for the instruction of his clergy and people, most of which still survive.
Besides these works of Alfred's, the Saxon Chronicle almost certainly, and a Saxon Martyrology, of which fragments only exist, probably owe their inspiration to him.
Through the treachery of a clerk in the Saxon foreign office Frederick was made aware of the future which was being prepared for him.
Seeing the importance of taking the initiative, and if possible, of securing Saxony, he suddenly, on the 24th of August 1756, crossed the frontier of that country, and shut in the Saxon army between Pirna and Konigstein, ultimately compelling it, after a victory gained over the Austrians at Lobositz, to surrender.
It was burned by Kenneth Macalpine in 839 during the wars between Scot and Saxon, and, though rebuilt, was deserted in the middle of the 11 th century.
He there began the study of Saxon history, still devoting his attention chiefly to the history of commerce and economy, and published Die Geschichte des Kurfiirsten August von Sachsen in y olkswirthschaftlicher Beziehung (Leipzig, 1868) and Geschichte des deutschen Zollwesens (Leipzig, 1869).
Of high antiquity, and, like many other Irish towns, claiming (with considerable probability) to have been founded by St Patrick in the 5th century, it long possessed the more important distinction of being the metropolis of Ireland; and, as the seat of a flourishing college, was greatly frequented by students from other lands, among whom the English and Scots were said to have been so numerous as to give the name of Trian-Sassanagh, or Saxon Street, to one of the quarters of the city.
The crypt, discovered in 1726, is part of the Saxon church, and a noteworthy example of architecture of the period.
In 1832 a vessel containing about 8000 Saxon coins was discovered in the churchyard.
In Saxon times it was converted into a palace by King Ethelbert, and in 669 a monastery was founded here by Egbert.
See Strutt, Sports and Pastimes, who also gives an illustration, "taken from a manuscriptal painting of the 9th century in the Cotton Library," representing "a Saxon chieftain, attended by his huntsman and a couple of hounds, pursuing the wild swine in a forest."
The earthworks west and south of the town are of great extent; there was a large Saxon burial-ground here.
At Lafayette he introduced the first carefully scientific study of English in any American college, and in 1870 published A Comparative Grammar of the AngloSaxon Language, in which its Forms are Illustrated by Those of the Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Gothic, Old Saxon, Old Friesic, Old Norse and Old High German, and An Anglo-Saxon Reader; he was editor of the "Douglass Series of Christian Greek and Latin Classics," to which he contributed Latin Hymns (1874); he was chairman of the Commission of the State of Pennsylvania on Amended Orthography; and was consulting editor of the Standard Dictionary, and in 1879-1882 was director of the American readers for the Philological Society's (New Oxford) Dictionary.
Edmund, the "deed-doer" as the chronicle calls him, "Edmundus magnificus" as Florence of Worcester describes him, perhaps translating the Saxon epithet, was buried at Glastonbury, an abbey which he had entrusted in 943 to the famous Dunstan.
After Wilfrid's exertions in relieving a famine which occurred in Sussex the king granted to him eighty-seven hides in and near the peninsula of Selsey which, with a lapse until 709 after Wilfrid's retirement, remained the seat of the South Saxon bishopric until the Norman Conquest.
Shortly afterwards, however, ZEthelwald was slain and his kingdom ravaged by the exiled West Saxon prince Ceadwalla.
Of the later South Saxon kings we have little knowledge except from occasional charters.
In 825 the South Saxons submitted to Ecgberht, and from this time they remained subject to the West Saxon dynasty.
In October 1775 the invitation was repeated, and on the 7th of November of that year Goethe arrived in the little Saxon capital which was to remain his home for the rest of his life.
Within its precincts are a Roman pharos or lighthouse, still exhibiting the Roman masonry; the ancient fortress church (St Mary in Castro); some remains of the Saxon fort; and the massive keep and subsidiary defences (such as the Constable's, Avranche's, and other towers) of the Norman building.
There may further be mentioned the remnant of the Saxon collegiate church of the canons of St Martin, and the parish church of St Mary the Virgin.
This last was rebuilt and enlarged in 1843-1844, but preserves the three bays of the Saxon church, with its western narthex, on which was superimposed the Norman tower, which presents its rich front to the street.
In the 4th century it was guarded by a fort lying down near the harbour, and forming part of the defences of the Saxon shore (Litus Saxonicum).
In 1544 Maurice secured the appointment of his brother as administrator of the bishopric of Merseburg; but Augustus was very extravagant and was soon compelled to return to the Saxon court at Dresden.
Augustus supported his brother during the war of the league of Schmalkalden, and in the policy which culminated in the transfer of the Saxon electorate from John Frederick I., the head of the Ernestine branch of the Wettin family, to Maurice.
In 1568 a marriage was arranged between John Casimir, son of the elector palatine, Frederick III., and Elizabeth, a daughter of Augustus, and for a time it seemed possible that the Saxon elector would support his son-in-law in his attempts to aid the revolting inhabitants of the Netherlands.
People of Slav origin being considered unfree, all intermarriage with them tainted the blood; hence nearly all surnames point to Saxon, especially Westphalian, and even Flemish descent.
An excellent harbour, sheltered against pirates, it became almost at once a competitor for the commerce of the Baltic. Its foundation coincided with the beginning of the advance of the Low German tribes of Flanders, Friesland and Westphalia along the southern shores of the Baltic - the second great emigration of the colonizing Saxon element.
From 1166 onwards there was a Saxon count at Schwerin.
Frisian and Saxon merchants from Soest, Bardowiek and other localities in Lower Germany, who already navigated the Baltic and had their factory in Gotland, settled in the new town, where Wendish speech and customs never entered.
He issued the first charter to the citizens, and constituted them a free Saxon community having their own magistrate, an advantage over all other towns of his dominions.
Adopting the statutes of Soest in Westphalia as their code, Saxon merchants exclusively ruled the city.
Probably owing its origin to Saxon invaders, Dartmouth (Darentamuthan, Dertemue) was a seaport of importance when Earl Beorn was buried in its church in 1049.
There are remains of a Roman villa in the valley, but no reliable mention of Carisbrooke occurs in Saxon times, though it has commonly been identified with the Saxon Wihtgaraburh captured by Cerdic in J30.
On the one hand, the Saxon ceorls (twihyndemen), although considered as including the typical freemen in the earlier laws (1Ethelberht, Hlothhere and Edric, Ine), gradually became differentiated through the action of political and economic causes, and many of them had to recognize the patronage of magnates or to seek livelihood as tenants on the estates of the latter.
The Domesday Survey puts before us the state of things in England as it was at the very beginning of the Norman and at the close of the Saxon period.
There is a village of Charing in Kent, and the name is connected by some with that of a Saxon family, Cerring.
These were developed from the early Teutonic custom by which the herizog was elected by the nation as leader for a particular campaign, as in the case of the heretogas who had led the first Saxon invaders into Britain.