Nice and Savoy also seemed at the mercy of the invaders.
He had named them Roman patricians; the latter he had placed in charge of Florence; the former, for whom he planned to carve out a kingdom in central Italy of Parma, Piacenza, Ferrara and Urbino, he had taken with himself to Rome and married to Filiberta of Savoy.
He remained, however, loyal in sentiment to the house of Savoy, and, after the restoration of the king of Sardinia in 1814, he continued in the public service.
In 1394 the countship came to the house of Orleans, a member of which, Francis I., became king of France in 1515 and raised it to the rank of duchy in favour of his mother Louise of Savoy.
After joining the "Giovine Italia" he entered the Sardinian navy, and, with a number of companions on board the frigate "Euridice," plotted to seize the vessel and occupy the arsenal of Genoa at the moment when Mazzini's Savoy expedition should enter Piedmont.
Douglas was buried in the church of the Savoy, where a monumental brass (removed from its proper site after the fire in 1864) still records his death and interment.
When the island passed to Savoy, in 1720, the mines passed to the state.
In 1717, however, Cardinal Alberoni retook Cagliari for Spain; but this state of things was short-lived, for in 1720, by the treaty of London, Sardinia passed in exchange for Sicily to the dukes of Savoy, to whom it brought the royal title.
of Savoy took refuge in Cagliari after his expulsion by the French, but soon returned to Italy.
in height, cover Savoy and most of Dauphin and Provence, that is to say, nearly the whole of France to the south and east of the Rhne.
There may also be mentioned the lakes of Bourget and Annecy (both in Savoy), St Point (Jura), Paladru (Isre) and Nantua (Am).
Included therein are the dairying and horse-raising district of northern Brittany and the dairying regions of Jura and Savoy.
3' p Margaret of Philibert, duke of Savoy, act as governor-general, of Austria. ?'?
Vevey was a Roman settlement [Viviscus] and later formed part of the barony of Vaud, that was held by the counts and dukes of Savoy till 1536, when it was conquered by Bern.
FRANCIS (FRANCois) OF Sales, St (1567-1622), bishop of Geneva and doctor of the Church (1877), was born at the castle of Sales, near Annecy, Savoy.
At the end of 1588 he went to Padua, to take his degree in canon and civil law, a necessary prelude in Savoy at that time to distinction in a civil career.
After a year of zealous work as preacher and director he was sent by the bishop, Claude de Granier, to try and win back the province of Chablais, which had embraced Calvinism when usurped by Bern in 1535, and had retained it even after its restitution to Savoy in 1564.
According to this, Duke Charles Emmanuel of Savoy, who succeeded his more tolerant father in 1580, was determined to reduce the Chablais to the Catholic religion, by peaceful means if possible, by force if necessary.
In October of this last year, however, the duke of Savoy, who came then to assist in person at the great religious feasts which celebrated the return of the country to unity of faith, expatriated such of the leading men as obstinately refused even to listen to the Catholic arguments.
He returned to Savoy, and after three years more of unwearying labour died at Lyons on the 28th of December 1622.
Savoy, Genoa, Tuscany and Naples, wishing to avoid a rupture, yielded; but Venice resisted.
This great valley—one of the most considerable on the southern side of the Alps—has attracted special attention, in ancient as well as modern times, from its leading to two of the most frequented passes across the great mountain chain—the Great and the Little St Bernard—the former diverging at Aosta, and crossing the main ridges to the north into the valley of the Rhone, the other following a more westerly direction into Savoy.
The five great powers, with their satellitesdukes of Savoy and Co~n~ede~ Urbino, marquesses of Ferrara and Mantua, republics Italy.
Emmanuel Philibert, duke of Savoy, represented the oldest and not the least illustrious reigning house in Europe, and his descendants were destined to achieve for Italy the independence which no other power or prince had given her since the fall of ancient Rome.
But the princes of the house of Savoy were a race of warriors; and what Emmanuel Philibert lost as sovereign he regained as captain of adventure in the service of his cousin Philip II.
By removing the capital from Chambry to Turin, he completed the transformation of the dukes of Savoy from Burgundian into Italian sovereigns.
They still owned Savoy beyond the Alps, the plains of Bresse, and the maritime province of Nice.
He seized the first opportunity of annexing Saluzzo, which had been lost to Savoy in the last two reigns, and renewed the disastrous policy of his grandfather Charles III.
The French armies were more than once defeated by Prince Eugene of Savoy, who drove them out of Italy in 1707.
Therefore, in the peace of Utrecht (1713), the services of the house of Savoy had to be duly recognized.
It was thus that in 1720 the house~ of Savoy assumed, the regal title which it bore until the declaration of the Italian kingdom in the last century.
The duchy of Savoy in his days became a kingdom, and Sardinia, though it seemed a poor exchange for Sicily, was a far less perilous possession than the larger and wealthier island would have been.
Of the nominally independent states the chief were the kingdom of Sardinia, ruled over by the house of Savoy, and comprising Piedmont, the isle of Sardinia and nominally Savoy and Nice, though the two provinces last named had virtually been lost to the monarchy since the campaign of 1793.
To the kingdom of Sardinia, now reconstituted under Victor Emmanuel I., France ceded its old provinces, Savoy and Nice; and the allies, especially Great Britain and Austria, insisted on the addition to that monarchy of the territories of the former republic of Genoa, in respect of which the king took the title of duke of Genoa, in order to strengthen it for the duty of acting as a buffer state between France and the smaller states of central Italy.
The brutalities of Austrias white coats in the north, the unintelligent repression then characteristic of the house of Savoy, the petty spite of the duke of Modena, the medieval obscurantism of pope and cardinals in the middle of the peninsula and the clownish excesses of Ferdinand in the south, could not blot out from the minds of the Italians the recollection of the benefits derived from the just laws, vigorous administration and enlightened aims of the great emperor.
Victor Emmanuel I., the king of Sardinia, was the only native ruler in the peninsula, and the Savoy dynasty was popular with all classes.
Both King Victor Emmanuel and his brother Charles Felix had no sons, and the heir presumptive to the throne was Prince Charles Albert, of the Carignano branch of the house of Savoy.
Confalonieri, who was in favor of an Italian federation composed lEngelsm of northern Italy under the house of Savoy, central bardy.
The author was Giuseppe Mazzini, then a young man of twenty-six years, who, though in theory a republican, was ready to accept the leadership of a prince of the house of Savoy if he would guide the nation to freedom.
Though eventually this activity of the Giovane Italia supplanted that of the older societies, in practice it met with no better success; the two attempts to invade Savoy in the hope of seducing the army from its allegiance failed miserably, and only resulted in a series of barbarous sentences of death and imprisonment which made most Liberals despair of Charles Albert, while they called down much criticism on Mazzini as the organizer of raids in which he himself took no part.
Liberalism In Piedmont, in spite of the governments reactionary and methods, a large part of the population were genuinely ~ attached to the Savoy dynasty, and the idea of a regenera- meat tion of Italy under its auspices began to gain ground.
The offer of French assistance, made after the proclamation of the republic in the spring of 1848, had been rejected mainly because France, fearing that the creation of a strong Italian state would be a danger to her, would have demanded the cession of Nice and Savoy, which the king refused to consider.
In exchange for French assistance Piedmont would cede Savoy and perhaps Nice to France; and a marriage between Victor Emmanuels daughter Clothilde and Jerome Bonaparte, to which Napoleon attached great importance, although not made a definite condition, was also discussed.
The question of the cession of Nice and Savoy had not been raised; for the emperor had not fulfilled his part of the bargain, that he would drive the Austrians out of Italy, since Venice was yet to be freed.
The proposed congress fell through, and Napoleon thereupon raised the question of the cession of Nice and Savoy as the price of his consent to the union of the central provinces with the Italian kingdom.
Three weeks later the treaty of Turin ceding Savoy and Nice to France was ratified, though not without much opposition, and Cavour was fiercely reviled for his share in the transaction, especially by Garibaldi, who even contemplated an expedition to Nice, but was induced to desist by the king.
Victor Emmanuel was sincerely anxious to assist Napoleon, for in spite of Nice and Savoy and Mentana he felt a chivalrous desire to help the man who had fought for Italy.
In 1661 he acted as chairman of the Savoy conference.
He protested against the extreme democratic proposals called "The Agreement of the People" (1647), and was one of the commissioners at the Savoy Synod of 1658.
Boniface of Savoy >>
In 1559 he accompanied the princess Margaret, now duchess of Savoy, to Nice, where, in the following year, tidings reached him that he had been chosen to succeed Francois Olivier (1487-1560) in the chancellorship of France.
of Hungary in 1480, and before Prince Eugene of Savoy in 1697.
It was originally founded by the Doria family of Genoa about 1102, but was occupied by the house of Aragon in 1 354, who held it successfully against various attacks until it fell to the house of Savoy with the rest of Sardinia in 1720.
LUIGI PELLOUX (1839-), Italian general and politician, was born on the 1st of March 1839, at La Roche, in Savoy, of parents who retained their Italian nationality when Savoy was annexed to France.
Among the more delicate negotiations of his later years were those of 1580, which had for their object the ultimate union of the crowns of Spain and Portugal, and those of 1584, which resulted in a check to France by the marriage of the Spanish infanta Catherine to Charles Emmanuel, duke of Savoy.
Deyverdun: from the garden a rich scenery of meadows and vineyards descends to the Leman Lake, and the prospect far beyond the lake is crowned by the stupendous mountains of Savoy."
In 1720 it was ceded by the latter, in exchange for Sicily, to the duke of Savoy, who assumed the title of king of Sardinia (Cagliari continuing to be the seat of government), and this remained the title of the house of Savoy until 1861.
of Scotland, and in the same year he pleased Henry by the extraordinary expedition with which he crossed and recrossed the Channel on an errand connected with the king's proposal of marriage to Margaret of Savoy.
usually 'AXX6 puyes), a Celtic tribe in the north of Gallia Narbonensis, inhabiting the low ground called the "island" between the Rhodanus, the Isara and the Graian Alps, corresponding to the modern Dauphine and Savoy.
[[[Ranieri Carlo Emanuele Giovanni Humbert|CARLO EMANUELE]]] (1562-1630), duke of Savoy, succeeded his father, Emmanuel Philibert, in 1580.
Charles Emmanuel achieved a great reputation as a statesman and warrior, and increased the prestige of Savoy, but he was too shifty and ingenious, and his schemes ended in disaster.
But his very domestic regularity caused him to be entirely under the influence of his two wives, Maria Louisa of Savoy, whom he married in 1702, and who died in February 1714, and Elizabeth Farnese of Parma, whom he married in December of the same year, and who survived him.
He returned, via Gibraltar, with Prim, Serrano and others, to take part in the rising at Cadiz, which culminated in the revolution of September 1868, and Sagasta was in succession a minister several times under Serrano and then under King Amadeo of Savoy, 1868-187 2.
They are first heard of in Savoy in the year 1258, and more than two centuries later they went to Geneva (151o), united with Calvin in his opposition to Rome, and associated their fortunes with those of the little Swiss city.
She was not very fortunate in this first marriage, but her brother's accession to the throne made her, next to their mother Louise of Savoy, the most powerful woman of the kingdom.
The second Marguerite (1523-1574), daughter of Francis I., was born on the 5th of June, 1523, at St Germain-en-Laye, and, at an age the lateness of which caused lampoons, married Emmanuel Philibert, duke of Savoy, in 1559 Like her aunt and her niece she was a good scholar and strongly interested in men of letters.
He was a man of exemplary life and a friend of Erasmus and the humanists, besides being a persona grata at the court of Louise of Savoy and Francis I.
The chief object of the latter was to fix the meeting-place at a place remote from the influence of the pope, and they persisted in suggesting Basel or Avignon or Savoy, which neither Eugenius nor the Greeks would on any account accept.
He pointed out that if France drove Austria out of Italy she might annex Savoy, but could not prevent the restoration of Italian unity under Victor Emmanuel.
Serajevo was burned in 1697 by Eugene of Savoy, who similarly deported 40,000 Christians.
In 1382 it swore fealty to Amedeus VI., duke of Savoy.
Annecy itself was in the 10th century the capital of the counts of the Genevois, from whom it passed in 1401 to the counts of Savoy, and became French in 1860 on the annexation of Savoy.
Felix Antoine Philibert DUPANLOUP (1802-1878), French ecclesiastic, was born at St Felix in Savoy on the 3rd of January 1802.
In 1717 Prince Eugene of Savoy conquered it for Austria, which kept it until 1739, improving the fortifications and giving great impulse to the commercial development of the town.
After falling into various hands, it was ceded to Savoy by the peace of Utrecht in 1713, and its citadel was begun in 1728.
At the Savoy conference of 1661 he was chief representative of the bishops.
the counts of Cleves, Schwarzburg, Cilli and Savoy; they were entitled to the ducal coronet.
When the spring had come, being still very poor and in feeble health, he started homewards on foot by Florence, across the Apennines, through Bologna, Parma, Piacenza, Turin, over the Alps, through Savoy and Dauphine to Lyons, andfinally to Paris, where he arrived in excellent health.
For the next six years the war languished owing to the timidity of the emperor, the incompetence of his generals and the exhaustion of the Porte; but on the 11th of September 1697 Prince Eugene of Savoy routed the Turks at Zenta and on the 13th of November 1698 a peace-congress was opened at Karlowitz which resulted in the peace of that name (Jan.
of Spain, and had taken Turin and forced Savoy to allow French troops on the borders of the Milanese.
The drawbridge of London Bridge having been lowered by treachery, Tyler and his followers crossed the Thames; and being joined by thousands of London apprentices, artisans and criminals, they sacked and burnt John of Gaunt's splendid palace of the Savoy, the official residence of the treasurer, Sir Robert Hales, and the prisons of Newgate and the Fleet.
It was the capital of the province of Bugey, which was a dependency of Savoy till 1601, when it was ceded to France.
In 1385 the town was almost entirely destroyed by an act of incendiarism, but was subsequently rebuilt by the dukes of Savoy, who surrounded it with ramparts of which little is left.
The remains of Victor Emmanuel were interred in the Pantheon instead of being transported to the Savoy Mausoleum at Superga.
The Banat was conquered by the Turks in 1552, and remained a Turkish sanjak (province) till 1716, when Prince Eugene of Savoy liberated it from the Turkish yoke.
His chief interest was the study of ancient documents, and he was sent to search the archives of Switzerland, France and Germany for charters relating to the history of Savoy.
In 1818-1819 he revisited Switzerland, Savoy and Italy, the death of his beloved affording him new subjects for verse.
and Charlotte of Savoy.
Bright colour, in truth, is wanting, though attempts are made in a few important modern erections to supply it, a notable instance being the Savoy Hotel buildings (1904) in the Strand.
The Chapel Royal, Savoy, near the Strand, was rebuilt by Henry VII.
on the site of Savoy Palace, which was erected by Peter, earl of Savoy and Richmond, in 1245, and destroyed in the insurrection of Wat Tyler in 1381.
It remained in their hands until 1716, when it was liberated by Prince Eugene of Savoy.
Later it submitted to the marquises of Monferrato, and in the middle of the 14th century passed to the house of Savoy.
According to legitimist principles, the descendants of Henrietta, through her daughter Marie of Savoy, are entitled to wear the British crown.
Among its most striking features are the fine and lofty tower (450(450 ft.), rebuilt in 1860-64; the extensive catacombs, in which the emperors were formerly interred; the sarcophagus (1513) of Frederick III.; the tombs of Prince Eugene of Savoy; thirtyeight marble altars; and the fine groined ceiling.
In the following spring he was one of the commissioners at the Savoy Conference, but took little part in the business.
Forbes was also interested in geology, and published memoirs on the thermal springs of the Pyrenees, on the extinct volcanoes of the Vivarais (Ardeche), on the geology of the Cuchullin and Eildon hills, &c. In addition to about 150 scientific papers, he wrote Travels through the Alps of Savoy and Other Parts of the Pennine Chain, with Observations on the Phenomena of Glaciers (1843); Norway and its Glaciers (1853); Occasional Papers on the Theory of Glaciers (1859); A Tour of Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa (1855).
In the peace of Utrecht he was ignored; Sardinia and Sicily, Parma and Piacenza, were disposed of without regard to papal claims. When he quarrelled with the duke of Savoy, and revoked his investiture rights in Sicily (1715), his interdict was treated with contempt.
LOUISE OF SAVOY (1476-1531), duchess of Angouleme, mother of Francis I.
of France, was daughter of a cadet of the house of Savoy, Philip, count of Bresse, afterwards duke of Savoy.
There is extant a Journal of Louise of Savoy, the authenticity of which seems certain.
Some weeks afterwards high feast was held on the occasion of the double marriage of the king's daughter Elizabeth with the king of Spain, and of his sister Margaret with the duke of Savoy.
of Savoy, who planted a colony of Genoese, whose dialect and costume still prevail.
(1494-1547), king of France, son of Charles of Valois, count of Angouleme, and Louise of Savoy, was born at Cognac on the 12th of September 1494.
In the early years of his reign the conduct of affairs was chiefly in the hands of Louise of Savoy, Chancellor Antoine Duprat, Secretary Florimond Robertet, and the two Gouffiers, Boisy and Bonnivet.
At his death, however, France was in possession of Savoy and Piedmont.
1545); and Margaret, duchess of Savoy.
by ChampollionFigeac, Paris, 1847, of doubtful authenticity); Relations des ambassadeurs venitiens, &c. Of the memoirs and chronicles, see the journal of Louise of Savoy in S.
HOUSE OF SAVOY, a dynasty which ruled over the territory of Savoy and Piedmont for nine centuries, and now reigns over the kingdom of Italy.
The name of Savoy was known to the Romans during the decline of the empire.
It was included in Charlemagne's empire and was divided by him into counties, which evolved there as elsewhere into hereditary fiefs; but after the break-up of Charlemagne's empire, the Burgundian kingdom revived and Savoy was again absorbed in it.
After the collapse of that monarchy its territories passed to the German kings, and Savoy was divided between the counts of Provence, of Albon, of Gex, of Bresse, of the Genevois, of Maurienne, the lords of Habsburg, of Zahringen, &c., and several prelates.
The founder of the house of Savoy is Umberto Biancamano (Humbert the White-handed), a feudal lord of uncertain but probably Teutonic descent, who in 1003 was count of Salmourenc in the Viennois, in 1017 of Nyon on the Lake of Geneva, and in 1024 of the Val d'Aosta on the 4 eastern slope of the Western Alps.
He also obtained the counties of Savoy, Belley, part of the Tarantaise, and the Chablais.
Thomas, who reigned until 1222, was a Ghibelline in politics and greatly increased the importance of Savoy, for he was created Imperial Vicar and acquired important extensions of territory in the Bugey, Vaud and Romont to the west of the Alps, and Carignano, Pinerolo, Moncalieri and Vigone to the east; he also exercised sway over Geneva, Albenga, Savona and Saluzzo.
Henry conferred great honours on Peter, creating him earl of Richmond, and gave him a palace on the Thames, known as Savoy House.
When Amadeus succeeded to the throne these were divided into the county of Savoy (his own territory), the princi pality of Piedmont ruled by his nephew Philip, prince of Achaea (a title acquired through his wife, Isabella of Villehardouin, heiress of Achaea and the Morea), and Vaud ruled by his brother Louis.
(1391-1440), Savoy prospered in every way.
The count extended his territories both in Savoy itself and in Italy, and in 1416 was created duke by the emperor Sigismund.
Under Louis Savoy began to decline, for he was indolent, incapable, and entirely ruled by his wife, Anne of Lusignan, daughter of the king of Cyprus, an ambitious and intriguing woman; she induced him to fit out an expensive expedition to Cyprus, which brought him no advantage save the barren title of king of Cyprus, Jerusalem and Armenia.
This led to feuds and intrigues on the part of the French king and of Philip of Bresse, and Savoy would probably have been dismembered but for the patriotic action of the States General.
Wars and civil commotions occupied the period of his minority and Savoy lost Freiburg and many other territories.
During his reign Savoy abandoned its attitude of subserviency to France, adopting a policy of greater independence, and became more friendly to Austria.
Under Emmanuel Philibert Savoy lost all traces of constitutional government and became an absolute despotism of the type then predominating throughout the greater part of Europe.
Charles His son and successor, Charles Emmanuel I., surnamed the Great, strengthened the tendency of Savoy to become less of a French and more of an Italian Power.
The French invaded Piedmont, but were totally defeated at the siege of Turin by Victor Amadeus and Prince Eugene of Savoy (1706), and eventually driven from the country.
By the treaty of Utrecht (1713) Victor received the long-coveted Montferrat and was made king of Sicily; but in 1718 the powers obliged him to exchange that kingdom for Sardinia, which conferred on the rulers of Savoy and Piedmont the title subsequently borne by them until they assumed that of kings of Italy.
By the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, following on the defeat of the French, Savoy gained some further accessions of territory in Piedmont.
Savoy French became a French province, and, although the Pied montese troops resisted bravely for four years in the face of continual defeats, Victor at last gave up the struggle as hopeless, signed the armistice of Cherasco, and died soon afterwards (1796).
Realizing his folly he abdicated on the 6th of December 1796, and retired to Sardinia, That princess, in spite of her French origin, resisted the attempts of France, then dominated by Cardinal Richelieu, to govern Savoy, but her quarrels with her brothers-in-law led to civil war, in which the latter obtained the help of Spain, and Christina that of France.
By the treaty of the Pyrenees (1669) the war came to an end and Savoy regained most of the towns occupied by France.
Charles died in 1675 and was succeeded by Genealogical Table Of The House Of Savoy.
From this time the fortunes of the house of Savoy are bound up with those of Italy (see Italy, History).
Humbert, who in 1868 had married Princess Margherita of Savoy, daughter of Victor Emmanuel's brother, the duke of Genoa, became king of Italy on his father's death in 1878.
Wiel, The Romance of the House of Savoy (London, 1898), a popular and somewhat disjointed work.
(1666-1732), duke of Savoy and first king of Sardinia, was the son of Duke Charles Emmanuel II.
Nevertheless, he became more anxious than ever to emancipate himself from French thraldom, and his first sign of independence was his visit to Venice in 1687, where he conferred on political affairs with Prince Eugene of Savoy and other personages, without consulting Louis.
At first the French were successful and captured several Piedmontese fortresses, but after besieging Turin, which was skilfully defended by the duke, for several months, they were completely defeated by Victor and Prince Eugene of Savoy (1706), and eventually driven out of the other towns they had captured.
The Marchesa Vitelleschi's work, The Romance of Savoy (2 vols., London, 1905), is based on original authorities, and is the most complete monograph on the subject.
His brother Philip, count of Selles and of Charost, was ambassador to Scotland, Rome, Savoy and Germany, and died in 1649.
Appointed president of the parlement of Bordeaux in 1630, he soon resigned to accept an embassy to Italy, where he was one of the signatories of the treaty of Cherasco and of the treaties with the duke of Savoy (1631-1632).
On gaining possession of London they burnt his magnificent palace of the Savoy.
There he became convinced that it was only through the House of Savoy that Italy could be liberated, and he expounded his views in Cavour's paper Il Risorgimento, in La Frusta and Il Piemonte, of which latter he was at one time editor.
Louise of Savoy had employed him as her adviser in her affairs, and had made him tutor to her son.
During the regency of Louise of Savoy he, together with Florimond Robertet, was at the head of affairs.
He took an active part in the suit brought by Louise of Savoy against the Constable de Bourbon, and in.
The Savoy Declaration of 1658 defines the theory and practice of the older English Nonconformist churches in the section on the "Institution of Churches and the Order appointed in them by Jesus Christ" (xix.).
again gave the duchy as an appanage to his mother, Louise of Savoy, by letters patent of the 4th of February 1515.
In its long struggle with its bishops and with the dukes of Savoy, Geneva had turned to her neighbours for aid, especially to Bern, with which an alliance was concluded Geneva in 1526.
Meanwhile Bern had declared war on the duke of Savoy, and had not only conquered a great part of the Pays de Vaud, including the important town of Lausanne, but had enabled Geneva to win its complete independence.
The marquises being opponents of the house of Savoy, and taking part in the struggles between France and the empire, the city often suffered severely from the fortunes of war.
of Savoy at the peace of Lyons in 1601.
They treated the people with horrible barbarity, so that the conscience of Europe was aroused, and England under Cromwell called on the Protestant powers to join in remonstrance to the duke of Savoy and the French king.
They were recognized once more as citizens of Savoy, and in the war against France which broke out in 1696 the Vaudois regiment did good service for its duke.
The peace of Utrecht saw the greater part of the French territory occupied by the Vaudois annexed to Savoy, and., though there were frequent threatenings of persecution, the idea of toleration slowly prevailed in the policy of the house of Savoy.
On the restoration of the house of Savoy in 1816 English influence was used on behalf of the Vaudois, who received a limited toleration.
Both had given up the strict jure divino theory of their polity as apostolic. The Congregationalism of the Savoy Declaration (Oct.
The fusion into one office of the functions of " elders " and " deacons " (still distinguished in the Savoy Declaration of 1658) was partly at least a symptom of the decay of the church-idea in its original fulness, a decay itself connected with the general decline in spiritual intensity which maiked 18th-century religion, after the overstrain of the preceding age.
Similar researches have also established the fact that in prehistoric times nearly all the lakes of Switzerland, and many in the adjoining countries - in Savoy and the north of Italy, in Austria and Hungary and in Mecklenburg and Pomerania - were peopled, so to speak, by lake-dwelling communities, living in villages constructed on platforms supported by piles at varying distances from the shores.
The Lac de Bourget, in Savoy, has eight settlements, all of the Bronze age.
He first fell in with some proselytizers of the Roman faith at Confignon in Savoy, and by them he was sent to Madame de Warens at Annecy, a young and pretty widow who was herself a convert.
Then he became, or says he became, secretary to a Greek archimandrite who was travelling in Switzerland to collect subscriptions for the rebuilding of the Holy Sepulchre; then he went to Paris, and, with recommendations from the French ambassador at Soleure, saw something of good society; then he returned on foot through Lyons to Savoy, hearing that Madame de Warens was at Chambery.
in January 1859 with the princess Marie Clotilde of Savoy, daughter of Victor Emmanuel, a prelude to the war for the liberation of Italy.
In 1815-1816 it was created by adding to the old territory belonging to the city (just around it, with the outlying districts of Jussy, Genthod, Satigny and Cartigny)16 communes (to the south and east, including Carouge and Chene) ceded by Savoy, and 6 communes (to the north, including Versoix), cut off from the French district of Gex.
In 1250 the counts of Savoy first appear in connexion with Geneva, being mortgagees of the Genevois family, and, in 1263, practically their heirs as "protectors" of the city.
It was thus natural that the citizens should invoke the aid of Savoy against their bishop, Robert of the Genevois (1276-1287).
But Count Amadeus of Savoy not merely seized (1287) the castle built by the bishops (about 1219) on the Ile, but also (1288) the office of vicedominus [vidomne], the official through whom the bishop exercised his minor judicial rights.
The new bishop, William of Conflans (1287-1295) could recover neither, and in 1290 had to formally recognize the position of Savoy (which was thus legalized) in his own cathedral city.
of Savoy bought the county of the Genevois, as the dynasty of its rulers had become extinct.
Geneva was now surrounded on all sides by the dominions of the house of Savoy.
From 1451 to 1522 the see was almost continuously held by a cadet of the house of Savoy, which thus treated it as a kind of appange.
Most probably Geneva would soon have become an integral part of the realms of the house of Savoy had it not been for the appearance of a new protector on the scene - the Swiss confederation.
This nearly ruined Geneva, which, too, in 1477 had to pay a large indemnity to the Swiss army that, after the defeat of Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, advanced to take vengeance on the dominions of his ally, Yolande, dowager duchess of Savoy and sister of Louis XI., as well as on the bishop of Geneva, her brother-in-law.
A prolonged attempt was made (1517-1530) by the reigning duke of Savoy, Charles III.
But although Bern supported the Reform, Fribourg did not, and in 1534 withdrew from its alliance with Geneva, while directly afterwards the duke of Savoy made a fresh attempt to seize the city.
That alliance was finally renewed in 1558, while in 1560 the Romanist cantons made one with the duke of Savoy, a zealous supporter of the old faith.
The struggle widened as Geneva became a pawn in the great attempt of the duke of Savoy to bring back his subjects to the old faith, his efforts being seconded by Francois de Sales, the "apostle of the Chablais."
opposed Savoy, with whom, however, he made peace in 1601..
In December 1602 Francois de Sales was consecrated bishop of Geneva (since 1535 the bishops had lived at Annecy), and a few days later the duke of Savoy made a final attempt to get hold of the city by a surprise attack in the night of 11-12th December 1602 (Old Style), known in history as the "Escalade," as ladders were used to scale the city walls.
The peace of St Julien (2 ist of July 1603) marked the final defeat of the duke of Savoy in the long struggle waged (since 1290) by his house against thecity of Geneva.
After Urban's death he entered the Cistercian monastery at Hautecombe in Savoy.
(1881) Kropotkin was expelled from Switzerland by the Swiss government, and after a short stay at Thonon (Savoy) went to London, where he remained for nearly a year, returning to Thonon towards the end of 1882.
He naturally, therefore, opposed the attempts of the duke of Savoy, aided by his relative, the bishop of the city, to maintain his rights as lord of Geneva.
In 1663 he published Le Palais de l'honneur, which besides giving the genealogy of the houses of Lorraine and Savoy, is a complete treatise on heraldry, and in 1664 Le Palais de la gloire, dealing with the genealogy of various illustrious French and European families.
BONIFACE OF SAVOY (d.
The Waldenses of Savoy and France, the Brethren (small communities of evangelical dissenters from the medieval faith) of Germany, and the Unitas Fratrum of Bohemia all used the same catechism (one that was first printed in 1498, and which continued to be published till 1530) for the instruction of their children.
His chief patron, Marguerite de Valois, to whom he was sincerely attached, had gone to Savoy.
In 1833 he took part in Mazzini's abortive attempt to invade Savoy, and in 1835 he went to Spain to serve in Queen Christina's army against the Carlists.
Savoy schist 5000, , ?)
Louise Of Savoy >>
When only five years old John was betrothed (1173) to the heiress of Maurienne and Savoy, a principality which, as dominating the chief routes from France and Burgundy to Italy, enjoyed a consequence out of all proportion to its area.
(Pierre de Champagni or de Tarentaise), pope from the 21st of January to the 22nd of June 1276, was born about 1225 in Savoy and entered the Dominican order at an early age.
He was presented to two canonries in the churches of St John Lateran and Sta Maria Maggiore, although he had only taken the minor orders, and had never been consecrated priest; he negotiated the treaty of Turin between France and Savoy in 1632, became vice-legate at Avignon in 1634, and nuncio at the court of France from 1634 to 1636.
In 1640 Richelieu sent him to Savoy, where the regency of Christine, the duchess of Savoy, and sister of Louis XIII., was disputed by her brothers-in-law, the princes Maurice and Thomas of Savoy, and he succeeded not only in firmly establishing Christine but in winning over the princes to France.
The larch abounds on the Alps of Switzerland, on which it flourishes at an elevation of 5000 ft., and also on those of Tirol and Savoy, on the Carpathians, and in most of the hill regions of central Europe; it is not wild on the Apennine Branchlet of Larch (Larix europaea).
In the trunk of the larch, especially when growing in climates where the sun is powerful in summer, a fine clear turpentine exists in great abundance; in Savoy and the south of Switzerland, it is collected for sale, though not in such quantity as formerly, when, being taken to Venice for shipment, it was known in commerce as " Venice turpentine."
At the age of sixteen he married Marie Therese of Savoy, sister-in-law of his brother, the count of Provence (Louis XVIII.).
King Charles Albert and other kings and princes of the Savoy dynasty are buried in the crypt.
Turin was always a place of importance and military strength, in spite of numerous vicissitudes, till at length it was made the chief town of Piedmont by Amadeus, first duke of Savoy.
The French were masters once more from 1640 to 1706, and again from 1798 till 181 4, when Piedmont was restored to the house of Savoy.
The result was that a conference was held in 1661, known from its place of meeting as the Savoy Conference, the church being represented by twelve bishops and the Nonconformists by twelve eminent Presbyterian divines, each side accompanied by nine coadjutors.
In 1678, in a Discourse of Idolatry, he had endeavoured to fasten the practices of heathenish idolatry on the Church of Rome, and in a sermon which he published in 1681 on Discretion in Giving Alms was attacked by Andrew Pulton, head of the Jesuits in the Savoy.
Raimond Balthazar Phelypeaux, seigneur du Verger, a member of the La Vrilliere branch, was sent as ambassador to Savoy in 1700, where he discovered the intrigues of the duke of Savoy, Victor Amadeus II., against France; and when war was declared he was kept a close prisoner by the duke (1703-1704).
But several powers were arrayed against him - the duke of Savoy, who claimed the island on the strength of the marriage of his son Louis to Charlotte, the only legitimate daughter of John II., 2 the Genoese, and the pope.
In 1589 he obtained in Geneva and Berne sums sufficient to raise an army of mercenaries for Henry III., partly by the sale of jewels, among them the "Sancy" diamond which in 1835 found its way to the Russian imperial treasure, and partly by leading the Swiss to suppose that the troops were intended for serious war against Savoy.
By Marie he left a daughter, Anne Marie, duchesse de Montpensier; and by Marguerite he left three daughters, Marguerite Louise (1645-1721), wife of Cosimo III., grand duke of Tuscany; Elizabeth (1646-1696), wife of Louis Joseph, duke of Guise; and Francoise Madeleine (1648-1664), wife of Charles Emmanuel II., duke of Savoy.
It has a picturesque appearance from the surface of the lake, above which the cathedral rises some Soo ft., while from the town there is a fine view across the lake towards the mountains of Savoy and of the Valais.
van Muyden and others, Lausanne d travers les ages (Lausanne, 1906); Meredith Read, Historic Studies in Vaud, Berne and Savoy (2 vols., 1897); M.
The anti-pope was recognized not only by Charles of France, but by the princes of the Empire dependent on him, by Scotland and Savoy, and finally by the Spanish dominions and Portugal.
The greater part of the district belonged in the middle ages to the lords of Bage, from whom it passed in 1272 to the house of Savoy.
Archbishop Edmund Rich was timid and inexperienced; his successor, Boniface of Savoy, was a kinsman of the queen; Grosseteste, the most eminent of the bishops, died in 1253, when he was on the point of becoming a popular hero.
In 1682 he went to London, where he remained six months, preaching on alternate Sundays in the Walloon church and in the Savoy chapel.
Consulted as a friend by Grosseteste, as a spiritual director by Simon de Montfort, the countess of Leicester and the queen, as an expert lawyer and theologian by the primate, Boniface of Savoy, he did much to guide the policy both of the opposition and of the court party in all matters affecting the interests of the Church.
He attempted to secure Maurienne and Savoy for John by a marriage-alliance, for which a treaty was signed in 1173.
And such bodies placed under the command of a sovereign or grand master, regulated by statutes, and enriched by ecclesiastical endowments would have been precisely what in after times such orders as the Garter in England, the Golden Fleece in Burgundy, the Annunziata in Savoy and the St Michael and Holy Ghost in France actually were.4 During the 14th and 15th centuries, as well as somewhat earlier and later, the general arrangements of a European army were always and everywhere pretty much the same.5 Under the sovereign the constable and the marshal g or marshals held the chief commands, their authority being partly joint and partly several.
The Order of the Annunziata, the highest order of knighthood of the Italian kingdom, was instituted in 1362 by Amadeus VI., count of Savoy, as the Order of the Collare or Collar, from the silver collar made up of love-knots and roses, which was its badge, in honour of the fifteen joys of the Virgin; hence the number of the knights was restricted to fifteen, the fifteen chaplains recited fifteen masses each day, and the clauses of the original statute of the order were fifteen (Amadeus VIII.
The Order of St Maurice was originally founded by Amadeus VIII., duke of Savoy, in 1434, when he retired to the hermitage of Ripaille, and consisted of a group of half-a-dozen councillors who were to advise him on such affairs of state as he continued to control.
Popes, princes and nobles endowed it with estates and privileges, including that of administering and succeeding to the property of lepers, which eventually led to grave 1 It has been taken as the Latin word meaning " he bears " or as representing the initials of the legend Fortitudo Ejus Rhodum Tenuit, with an allusion to a defence of the island of Rhodes by an ancient count of Savoy.
The military Order of Savoy was founded in 1815 by Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia; badge modified 1855 and 1857.
The Civil Order of Savoy, founded in 1831 by Charles Albert of Sardinia, is of one class, and in statutes of 1868 is limited to 60 members.
The badge is the plain Savoy cross in blue, with silver medallion, the ribbon is blue with white borders.
After prolonged experiments in a factory owned by Messrs Bernard Freres at St Michel in Savoy, Minet's process was given up, and at the close of the 19th century the Heroult-Hall method was alone being employed in the manufacture of aluminium throughout the world.
The Societe Electrometallurgique Francaise, started under the direction of Heroult in 1888 for the production of aluminium in France, began operations on a small scale at Froges in Isere; but soon after large works were erected in Savoy at La Praz, near Modane, and in 1905 another large factory was started in Savoy at St Michel.
In the case of the Western Alps (minus the bit from the chain of Mont Blanc to the Simplon, which followed the fortunes of the Valais), a prolonged struggle for the Alpine region took place between the feudal lords of Savoy, the Dauphine and Provence.
In 1349 the Dauphine fell to France, while in 1388 the county of Nice passed from Provence to the house of Savoy, which too held Piedmont as well as other lands on the Italian side of the Alps.
The struggle henceforth was limited to France and the house of Savoy, but little by little France succeeded in pushing 10,483 9,984 9,961 9,879 9,626 8,714 8,534 8,376 8,006 7,983 7,937 7,595 7,507 6,824 6,513 6,217 6,181 5,968 5,476 5,407 5,051 4,462 4,219 3,875 to the 5,971 5,932 5,374 5,066 8,468 8,429 8,202 7,386 7,369 7,346 7,110 5,059 7,550 6,506 4,495 4,462 back the house of Savoy across the Alps, thus forcing it to become a purely Italian power.
One turning-point in the rivalry was the treaty of Utrecht (1713), by which France gave up to Savoy the districts (all forming part of the Dauphine, and lying on the Italian slope of the Alps) of Exilles, Bardonneche, Oulx, Fenestrelles, and Chateau Dauphin, while Savoy handed over to France the valley of Barcelonnette, situated on the western slope of the Alps and forming part of the county of Nice.
The final act in the long-continued struggle took place in 1860, when France obtained by cession the rest of the county of Nice and also Savoy, thus remaining sole mistress on the western slope of the Alps.
But, as is well known, in 1859 they lost to the house of Savoy both the Milanese and the Bergamasca, and in 1866 Venetia proper also, so that the Trentino is now their chief possession on the southern slope of the Alps.
(Savoy), and St Veran, 6726 ft.
Forbes, Travels through the Alps of Savoy (1843, new ed., 1900); Sir John Forbes, A Physician's Holiday (1849); J.
The chief good that resulted from the Savoy conference was the production of Baxter's Reformed Liturgy, a work of remarkable excellence, though it was cast aside without consideration.
It is said, however, that after his daughter's public penance in the Savoy church, Coke had heart enough to receive her back to the home which he had forced her to leave.
Henceforward the right bank is in the canton of Vaud (conquered from Savoy in 1475) and the left bank in that of the Valais (conquered similarly in 1536), for St Maurice marks the end of the historical Valais.
Sydserf, a Scottish bishop. Tillotson was present at the Savoy Conference in 1661, and remained identified with the Presbyterians till the passing of the Act of Uniformity in 1662.
He was there engaged when his palace of the Savoy in London was burnt during the peasants' revolt in June 1381.
In 1620 he represented the Genevan Church at the national synod of Alais, when the decrees of the synod of Dort were introduced into France; and in 1621 he was sent on a successful mission to the states-general of Holland, and to the authorities of the Hanseatic towns, with reference to the defence of Geneva against the threatened attacks of the duke of Savoy.
EMMANUEL PHILIBERT (1528-1580), duke of Savoy, son of Charles III.
This would have been the end of Savoy, but within a year the two powers were again at war.
Savoy, following the tendency of the other states of Europe at that time, became thenceforth an absolute monarchy, but without that transformation the achievement of complete independence from foreign powers would have been impossible.
There remained the Bernese, who had occupied some of the duke's territories in Savoy and Vaud, and in Geneva, over which he claimed certain rights.
The compiler appears to have been influenced by the French sound of names, and to have included many families of later settlement, such as that of Grandson, which did not come to England from Savoy till two centuries after the Conquest.
FERDINAND VI., king of Spain (1713-1759), second son of Philip V., founder of the Bourbon dynasty, by his first marriage with Maria Louisa of Savoy, was born at Madrid on the 23rd of September 1713.
The present line of circumvallation dates from 1626-1632, the period when the independence of Genoa was threatened by the dukes of Savoy.
in 1523, along with the other possessions of the Constable de Bourbon, was granted in 1527 to the queen-mother, Louise of Savoy, and after her death was held successively by kings Francis I., Henry II.
induced him to return to France by making him grand bailli of Gex,but no sooner had he installed himself than the town was sacked and his library burnt by the troops of the duke of Savoy.
[[Benoit De BOIGNE, Count]] (1751-1830), the first of the French military adventurers in India, was born at Chambery in Savoy on the 8th of March 1751, being the son of a fur merchant.
It is situated on the right bank of the river Theiss, and is historically known for the decisive victory won in its vicinity by Prince Eugene of Savoy over the Turks on the nth of September 1697.
He dismissed the governor; he determined advantageously to himself the boundaries between his state and the territories of the duke of Savoy and of the papacy; and he enforced his authority over perhaps the most unruly nobility in western Europe, both lay and ecclesiastical.
His ambition led him into foreign entanglements; he made a secret treaty with the duke of Savoy which was to give him right of way to Genoa, and made arrangements for a partition of the duchy of Milan.
The alliance with Savoy was sealed by the marriage of Louis with Charlotte, daughter of Duke Lodovico, in 1452, in spite of the formal prohibition of Charles VII.
of Aragon, Yolande, duchess of Savoy, and Edward IV.
After the death of Charles the Bold, Yolande, duchess of Savoy, was obliged to accept the control of Louis, who was her brother.
of Savoy, failed to drive out Charles, and died in 1384.
In Sicily the Spaniards held their own until the peace of Utrecht in 1 713, when the island was given over to Duke Sicily Victor of Savoy, who assumed the title of king.
In 1733 the treaty of the Escurial between France, Spain and Savoy against Austria was signed.
Ferdinand was impatient of Austrian influence, but on the death of his first wife, Cristina of Savoy, he married Maria Theresa of Austria, who encouraged him in his reactionary tendencies and brought him closer to Austria.
He bitterly attacked Cavour for his unitarian views, and for the cession of Nice and Savoy.
The honour was granted by him to Peter of Savoy, through whom it passed to his niece Queen Eleanor.
and Queen Margherita of Savoy, was born at Naples on the 11th of November 1869.
of Savoy to save itself from the marquis of Monferrato, and finally came under the dominion of Savoy in the 16th century.
Peter Of Savoy >>
In 1655 Prince Thomas of Savoy invested Pavia with an army of 20,000 Frenchmen, but had to withdraw after 52 days' siege.
But on the eve of the occupation of Casale by the French, Mattioli - actuated by a tardy sense of patriotism or by the hope of further gain - betrayed the transaction to the governments of Austria, Spain, Venice and Savoy.
When Saint-Mars was made governor of Exiles in 1681 we know from one of his letters that Mattioli was left at Pignerol; but in March 1694, Pignerol being about to be given up by France to Savoy, he and two other prisoners were removed with much secrecy to Ste Marguerite, where Saint-Mars had been governor since 1687.
and the third son of Louis, duke of Burgundy, and Marie Adelaide, princess of Savoy.
and Prince Eugene of Savoy preferred to turn them by difficult mountain paths instead of attacking them directly.
Of true Italian unity he had no expectation and no desire, but he was devoted to the house of Savoy, which he foresaw was destined to change the fate of Italy.
Charles was in favour of religious toleration, and a declaration issued by him in October 1660 aroused great hopes; but he made little effort to conciliate the Presbyterians or to effect a settlement through the Savoy conference, and his real object was to gain power over all the factions and to free his co-religionists, the Roman Catholics, in favour of whom he issued his first declaration of indulgence (26th of December 1662), the bill to give effect to it being opposed by Clarendon and defeated in the Lords, and being replied to by the passing of further acts against religious liberty.
Hence arose Castelar's constant and vigorous criticisms of the successive plans mooted to place a Hohenzollern, a Portuguese, the duke of Montpensier, Espartero and finally Amadeus of Savoy on the throne.
of Spain; Philibert, duke of Savoy; Antonio, prior of Crato; Catherine, duchess of Braganza; and Ranuccio, duke of Parma - whose relationship to Emanuel I.
cardinal and Savoy.
archbishop of Philiberl Emmanuel, Antonio, duke of Savoy.
The royal authority in Portugal was delegated to Margaret of Savoy, duchess of Mantua, whose train of Spanish and Italian courtiers aroused the jealousy of the Portuguese nobles, while the harsh rule of her secretary of state, Miguel de Vasconcellos de Brito, provoked the resentment of all classes.
In May 1679 Mather was a petitioner to the General Court for the call of a Synod to consider the reformation in New England of "the Evils that have Provoked the Lord to bring his Judgments," 2 and when the "Reforming Synod" met in September it appointed him one of a committee to draft a creed; this committee reported in May, 680, at the Synod's second session, of which Mather was moderator, the Savoy Declaration (slightly modified, notably in ch.
CLAUDE LOUIS BERTHOLLET (1748-1822), French chemist, was born at Talloire, near Annecy in Savoy, on the 9th of December 17 4 8.
This race is often termed `` Celtic " or " Alpine " from the fact of its occurrence all along the great mountain chain from south-west France, in Savoy, in Switzerland, the Po valley and Tirol, as well as in Auvergne, Brittany, Normandy, Burgundy, the Ardennes and the Vosges.
During the trial of Louis XVI., being absent with other three colleagues on a mission for the union of Savoy to France, he along with them wrote a letter urging the condemnation of the king, but omitting the words a mort; and he endeavoured to save the life of the king by proposing in the Convention that the penalty of death should be suspended.
Prince Eugene of Savoy >>
Margaret Of Austria Of Savoy >>
In 1686 Marie Jeanne Baptiste, duchess of Nemours and of Aumale, and wife of Charles Emmanuel II., duke of Savoy, sold Aumale to Louis XIV., who gave it to his natural son, the duke of Maine.
the French invasion of Italy in so far as they went to establish Italian independence, the annexation of Savoy and Nice to France was an incident which revived his old suspicions of the good faith of the French emperor.
dismantled by Henri IV., but thanks to its walls, the town resisted in 1707 an attack made by the duke of Savoy.
In consequence of the negotiations for the cession of Nice and Savoy he again retired in January 1860.
EUGENE OF SAVOY [[[Francois Eugene Vidocq|FRANCOIS EUGENE]]], Prince (1663-1736), fifth son of Prince Eugene Maurice of Savoy-Carignano, count of Soissons, and of Olympia Mancini, niece of Cardinal Mazarin, was born at Paris on the 18th of October 1663.
He was sent by the emperor Leopold to Italy with the view of binding the duke of Savoy to the coalition against France and of cooperating with the Italian and Spanish troops.
He followed up his success by entering Dauphine, where he took possession of Embrun and Gap. After another campaign, which was uneventful, the further prosecution of the war was abandoned owing to the defection of the duke of Savoy from the coalition, and Prince Eugene returned to Vienna, where he soon afterwards received the command of the army in Hungary, on the recommendation of the veteran count Riidiger von Starhemberg, the defender of Vienna in 1683.
But since Prince Eugene had quitted Italy, Vendome, who commanded the French army in that country, had obtained various successes against the duke of Savoy, who had once more joined Austria.
On his return to Vienna his health declined more and more, and he died in that capital on the 21st of April 1736, leaving an immense inheritance to his niece, the princess Victoria of Savoy.
It was produced with great success in 1883, and was the first of a too short series of modern English operas; Mackenzie's second opera, The Troubadour, was produced by the same company in 1886; and his third dramatic work was His Majesty, an excellent comic opera (Savoy Theatre, 1897).
Ludovico was vehemently denounced and attacked during the earlier years of his usurpation, especially by the partisans of his sister-in-law Bona of Savoy, the mother of the rightful duke, young Gian Galeazzo.
In 1860, when the annexation of Savoy and Nice had led the Genevese to fear French aggression, de la Rive was sent by his fellow-citizens on a special embassy to England, and succeeded in securing a declaration from the English government, which was communicated privately to that of France, that any attack upon Geneva would be regarded as a cases belli.
He recovered his position at the Restoration, was moderator at the Savoy Conference, 1661, and was promoted to the bishopric of Lincoln.
As Philip was not yet recognized, as king, Spain did not at first send plenipotentiaries, but the duke of Savoy sent one, and Portugal was also represented.
Other treaties concluded at the same time were between France and Savoy, France and Prussia, and France and Portugal.
By the first the duke of Savoy regained Savoy and Nice, taken from him during the war, and France undertook to obtain for him the island of Sicily and the title of king.
Spain ceded to England Gibraltar and Minorca and promised to give up Sicily to Savoy.
Refounded in 1231 by Raymond Berenger IV., count of Provence (he was of the family of the counts of Barcelona, whence the name of the town he rebuilt), Barcelonnette passed to Savoy in 1388 (formal cession in 1 4 19), and in 1713 by the treaty of Utrecht was ceded to France in exchange for the valleys of Exilles, Fenestrelles, and Château Dauphin (Casteldelfino).
The duke of Savoy, who had held back from the treaty of Vervins in 1598, signed the treaty of Lyons in 1601; in exchange for the marquisate of Saluzzo, France acquired Bresse, Bugey, Valromey and the bailliage of Gex.
of Spain; Christine, duchess of Savoy; and Henrietta, wife of Charles I.
Taken to England to await ransom, John was at first installed in the Savoy Palace, then at Windsor, Hertford, Somerton, and at last in the Tower.
He landed in England in January 1364 and was received with great honour, lodged again in the Savoy, and was a frequent guest of Edward at Westminster.
The last kings crowned at Palermo were Victor Amadeus of Savoy, in 1713, and Charles III.
17, 1717) between Spain, Savoy and Austria, by which the first-named acceded to the principles of the Triple Alliance; the treaty of peace between Holland and France (May 16, 1 795); the first "Hague Convention," the outcome of the "peace conference" assembled on the initiative of the emperor Nicholas II.
The king made one of her uncles, Boniface of Savoy, archbishop of Canterburyit was three years before he deigned to come over to take up the post, and then he was discovered to be illiterate and unclerical in his habits, an unworthy successor for Langton and Edmund of Abingdon, the great primates who went before him.
Peter of Savoy, another uncle, was perhaps the most shameless of all the beggars for the kings bounty; not only was he made earl of Richmond, but his debts were repeatedly paid and great sums were given him to help his continental adventures.
For some time he was in high favor with his brother-in-law, and was looked upon by the English as no better than Aymer de Valence or Peter of Savoy.
They poured in, and, joined by the London mob, sacked John of Gaunts palace of the Savoy, the Temple, and many other buildings, while the ministers took refuge with the young king in the Tower.
Before the end of the year the invasion was repulsed, and the ragged armies of the Revolution had overrun Savoy and the Austrian Netherlands, and were threatening the aristocratic Dutch republic Very few governments in Europe were so rooted in the affections of their people as to be able to look without terror on the challenge thus thrown out to them.
Before the war he had arranged with Count Cavour that France should receive, as the price of her aid, the duchy of Savoy and the county of Nice.
The Anglo-French alliance had been already strained by the language of the French colonels in 1858 and the Franco-Austrian War of 1859; it never fully recovered from the shock which it received by the evidence, which the annexation of Savoy and Nice gave, of the ambition of the French emperor.
He took part in the principal events of the reign, negotiated the treaty of Lyons with the duke of Savoy 2 Jean de Meun's translation formed the basis of a rhymed version (1290) by Jean Priorat of Besancon, Li abreyance de l'ordre de chevalerie.
12, 1687) the Austrians under Charles of Lorraine gained a decisive victory over the Turks, whose power was afterwards still further broken by Prince Eugene of Savoy.
It finally surrendered in 1314 to Fillippo d'Acaia, whose successor handed it over to the house of Savoy.
The king of Sardinia having shown a hostile temper, Montesquiou made an easy conquest of Savoy.
Not long afterwards the Convention annexed Savoy, with the consent, it should be added, of many Savoyards.
The king of Sardinia made peace in May, ceding Nice and Savoy to the Republic and consenting to receive French garrisons in his Piedmontese fortresses.
Huguenots, justifying himself on the ground that their nonepiscopal ordination had not been of their own seeking, and at the Savoy conference in 1661 he tried hard to effect a reconciliation with the Presbyterians.
Though the people of Geneva had cast off the obedience of Rome, it was largely a political revolt against the duke of Savoy, and they were still (says Beza) "but very imperfectly enlightened in divine knowledge; they had as yet hardly emerged from the filth of the papacy."
In 1660 he became bishop of London and master of the Savoy, and the Savoy Conference was held at his lodgings.
His consent to the annexation of the Central Italian states, in exchange for Savoy and Nice (Treaty of Turin, March 24, 1860) exposed him to violent attacks on the part of the ultramontanes, whose slave he had practically been since 1848.
Before his death he had finished the hospital of the Savoy and made provision for the magnificent chapel at Westminster which bears his name.
Alberto Pio obtained from the house of Savoy in 1450 the privilege of adding "di Savoia" to his name as a reward for his military services.
Fleeing from the paternal wrath which he had drawn down upon himself by his ambition and by his unauthorized marriage with Charlotte of Savoy, the future Louis XI.
difficulty; by his mother, Louise of Savoy, and his sister Marguerite; by all the rough young soldiery; by the nobles, tired of the bourgeois ways of Louis XI.
The death of Francis I.s mother, Louise of Savoy (who had been partly instrumental in arranging the peace of Cambrai), the replacement of Montmorency by the bellicose Chabot, and the advent to power of a Burgundian, Granvella, as Charles Vs prime minister, put an end to this double-faced policy, which attacked the Calvinists of France while supporting the Lutherans of Germany; made advances to Clement VII.
but after the conquest of Savoy and Piedmont and a fruitless invasion of Provence by Charles V., it resulted in another truce, concluded at Nice, in the interview at Aigues-mortes, and in the old contradictory policy of the treaty of Cambrai.
He had been the first king du ben plaisi~ (of his own good pleasure)a Caesar, as his mother Louise of Savoy proudly hailed him lh 1515and to a man of his gallant and hot-headed temperament love and war were schools little calculated to teach moderation in government.
in Savoy and Piedmont, occupied by the French and claimed by Philibert Emmanuel, Charles V.s ally; in Navarre, unlawfully conquered by Ferdinand the Catholic and claimed by the family of Albret; in Italy, where, aided and abetted by Pope Paul III., Henry II.
The treaty of Cateau-Cambrsis (August 1559) finally put an end to the Italian follies, Naples, Milan and Piedmont; but it also lost Savoy, making a gap in the frontier for a century.
wanted to be declared the protector of the kingdom in order that he might dismember it, and when Charles Emmanuel of Savoy, a grandson of Francis I., and Charles III., duke of Lorraine, a son-in-law of Henry II., were both of them claiming the crown.
The difference concerning the marquisate of Saluzzo, which the duke of Savoy had seized upon in 1588, profiting by Henry III.s embarrassments, is only worth mentioning because the treaty of Lyons (1601) finally dissipated the Italian mirage, and because, in exchange for the last of Frances possessions beyond the Alps, it added to the royal domain the really French territory of La Bresse, Bugey, Valromey and the district of Gex.
But having defeated the duke of Savoy he had no hesitation in making sure of him by a marriage; though the Swiss might have misunderstood the treaty of Brusol (1610) by which he gave one of his daughters to the grandson of Philip IL On the other hand he astonished the Protestant world by the imprudence of his mediation between Spain and the rebellious United Provinces (1609).
While Richelieu was opposing the designs of the pope and of the Spaniards in the Valtellina, while he was arming the duke of Savoy and subsidizing Mansfeld in Germany, Henri, duc de Rohan, and his brother Benjamin de Rohan, duc de Soubise, the Protestant chiefs, took the initiative in a fresh revolt despite the majority of their party (1625).
Under pressure of this new danger and urged on by the Catholic dvts, supported by the influence of Pope Urban VIII., Richelieu concluded with Spain the treaty of Monzon (March 5, 1626), by which the interests of his allies Venice, Savoy and the Grisons were sacrificed without their being consulted.
But the taking of, La Rochelle allowed Louis to force the pass of Susa, to induce the duke of Savoy to treat with him, and to isolate the Spaniards in Italy by a great Italian league between Genoa, Venice and the dukes of Savoy and Mantua (April 1629).
The intervention of Mazarin, despatched by the pope, who saw no other means of detaching Italy from Spain than by introducing France into the affair, brought about the signature of the armistice of Rivalte on the 4th of September 1630, soon developed into the peace of Cherasco, which reestablished the~agreement with the still fugitive duke of Savoy (June 1631).
in the Netherlands by joining hands with the Dutch, and on the Rhine by uniting with the Swedes; but the bad organization of the French armies, the double invasion of the Spaniards as far as Corbie and the imperial forces as far as the gates of Saint-Jean-de-Losne (1636), and the death of his allies, the dukes of Hesse-Cassel, Savoy and Mantua at first frustrated his efforts.
for Innocent X., and the marriage of Mazarins two nieces with the duke of Modena and a prince Of the house of Savoy, made Spain anxious about her Italian possessions.
and a princess of Savoy decided Spain, now brought to bay, to accord him the hand of Maria Theresa as a chief condition of the peace pyrenees.
(March 19, 1702) his policy tliumphed, and in this war, the longest in the reign, it was the names of the enemys generals, Prince Eugene of Savoy, Mazarins grand-nephew, and the duke of Marlborough, which sounded in the ear, instead of Cond, Turenrie and Luxembourg.
~Of These gave Italy and the Netherlands to the Habsburgs, ~ Spain and her colonies to the Bourbons, the places on the coast and the colonial commerce to England (who had the lions share), and a royal crown to the duke of Savoy and the elector of Brandenburg.
of Spain and by the emperor (who had accepted the portion assigned to them by the treaty of Utrecht, while claiming the whole), by Savoy and Brandenburg (who had profited too much by European conflicts not to desire their perpetuation), by the crisis from which the maritime powers of the Baltic were suffering, and by the Turks on the Danube.
He is his turn tried to stem the tumultuous current which had borne him along, and to prevent discord; but the check to his policy of an understanding with Prussia and with Sardinia, to whom, like Richelieu and DArgenson, he offered the realization of her transalpine ambition in exchange for Nice and Savoy, was added to the failure of his temporizing methods in regard to the federalist insurgents, and of his military operations against La Vend~e.
A Central Italian military league and a customs union were formed, and Cavour having overcome Napoleon's opposition by ceding Nice and Savoy, the king accepted the annexations and appointed his kinsman, Prince Carignano, viceroy of Central Italy with Ricasoli as governor-general (March 22, 1860).
The League of Cambrai is the name given to the alliance of Pope Julius II., Louis XII., Maximilian I., and Ferdinand the Catholic against the Venetians in 1508; and the peace of Cambrai, or as it is also called, the Ladies' Peace, was concluded in the town in 1529 by Louise of Savoy, mother of Francis I., and Margaret of Austria, aunt of Charles V., in the name of these monarchs.
The chain of this order surrounds the royal arms, in which are included, besides the arms of Castile, Leon, Granada, and the lilies of the royal house of Bourbon, the arms of Austria, Sicily, Savoy, Brabant and others.
On the Flemish frontier, with the help of an English contingent and by the good generalship of Philibert of Savoy he defeated a French army at St Quentin on the foth of August 1557, and again at Gravelines on the 13th of July 1558.
On the death of Philip V.s first wife Maria Louisa Gabriella of Savoy, in 1714, the king was married at once to Elizabeth Farnese of Parma, who expelled Mrne des Ursins, obtained complete control over her husband, and used her whole influence to Elizabeth drag Spain into a series of adventures in order to Farneseand obtain Italian dominions for her sons.
At last, in August of .~5VOY 1870, Prince Amadeo of Savoy, second son of Victor accepts the Emmanuel II., consented to become candidate.
- 1746I 759 Son by Philip V.s first marriage with Maria Louisa of Savoy.
Formerly the ibex was common on the mountain-ranges of Germany, Switzerland and Tirol, but is now confined to the Alps which separate Valais from Piedmont, and to the lofty peaks of Savoy, where its existence is mainly due to game-laws.
His son Guichard, called the Great, had a very warlike life, fighting for the king of France, for the count of Savoy and for his own hand.
Louise of Savoy, mother of Francis I., got Beaujolais assigned to herself despite the claims of the constable de Bourbon.
FELIX V., the name taken by Amadeus (1383-1451), duke of Savoy, when he was elected pope in opposition to Eugenius IV.
Amadeus was born at Chambery on the 4th of December 1383, and succeeded his father, Amadeus VII., as count of Savoy in 1391.
Having added largely to his patrimonial possessions he became very powerful, and in 1416 the German king Sigismund erected Savoy into a duchy; after this elevation Amadeus added Piedmont to his dominions.
He induced Nicholas, however, to appoint him as apostolic vicar-general in Savoy, Piedmont and other parts of his own dominions, and to make him a cardinal.
On the 14th of May 1771 took place his marriage with LouiseMarie-Josephine of Savoy, by whom he had no children.
After the time of Charlemagne a marquisate of Susa was established; and the town became in the 11th century the capital of Adelaide countess of Savoy, who was mistress of the whole of Piedmont.
into an alliance against Austria, although the king had to agree to the cession of Savoy and possibly of Nice and to the marriage of his daughter Clothilde to Prince Napoleon.
These conditions were very painful to him, for Savoy was the hereditary home of his family, and he was greatly attached to Princess Clothilde and disliked the idea of marrying her to a man who gave little promise of proving a good husband.
Besides the general works on Italy and Savoy see V.
bach on the organ, SW to VN, 25 September (1824) London, Savoy Chapel.
The savoy cabbage had been pulled earlier that day.
Yes, the ladies ' and gentlemen's cloakrooms immediately inside The Savoy's River Entrance are very well appointed.
enjoy a meal in the Savoy Bar and Grill and enjoy a nightcap in the Savoy Bar.
Radio: worker's playtime, Music Night at the Savoy.
Savoy Palace A popular hotel set in a tranquil location, yet close to the lakeside promenade into the center of Riva.
Needless to say there was no chocolate pud at the Annual Savoy Lunch this year, sorry!
savoy cabbage had been pulled earlier that day.
storm in a teacup at the famous Savoy " Tango Teas " .
They are found naturally in organically produced tripe and uncontaminated fatty fish and Savoy cabbage.
unedited version at the Savoy Books web site.
But the connexion between the king and the marchioness of Verneuil appears to have been very displeasing to Auvergne, and in 1601 he engaged in the conspiracy formed by the dukes of Savoy, Biron and Bouillon, one of the objects of which was to force Henry to repudiate his wife and marry the marchioness.
In 1821 he became king of Savoy by the abdication of his brother, and the construction of the highroad from Cagliari to Porto Torres was begun (not without opposition on the part of the inhabitants) in 1822.
After the abdication of Amadeus of Savoy, Martos played a prominent part in the proclamation of the federal republic, in the struggle between the executive of that republic and the permanent committee of the Cortes, backed by the generals and militia, who nearly put an end to the executive and republic in April 1873.
In 1870 he was elected president of the House of Deputies, and seconded Prim in offering the throne to Amadeus of Savoy.
In response to Cromwell's splendid championship of the persecuted people - which has been we]1 described as "one of the noblest memories of England" - France undertook to put pressure upon Savoy, in consequence of which the persecution ceased for a time; but Cromwell's intervention had less practical effect than has generally been supposed, though "never was the great conception of a powerful state having duties along with interests more magnanimously realized."
He returned to Savoy in 1592, and, while seeking the occasion to overcome his father's resistance to his resolution of embracing the ecclesiastical profession, took the diploma of advocate to the senate.
(See SAvoy, HOUSE or.)
All hopes of conquest on the transalpine side were now quenched; but the keys of Italy had been given to the dukes of Savoy; and their attention was still further concentrated upon Lombard conquests.
The democratic propaganda, which was permeating all the large towns of the peninsula, then led to the formation of numerous and powerful clubs and secret societies; and the throne of Victor Amadeus III., of the house of Savoy, soon began to totter under the blows delivered by the French troops at the mountain barriers of his kingdom and under the insidious assaults of the friends of liberty at Turin.
Cavour well knew the unpopularity that would fall upon him by consenting to the cession of Nice, the birthplace of Garibaldi, and Savoy, the cradle of the royal house; but he realized the necessity of the sacrifice, if central Italy was to be won.
On the 24th of January 1438 it suspended Eugenius IV., and went on in spite of the intervention of most of the powers to pronounce his deposition (25th June 1439), finally giving rise to a new schism by electing on the 4th of November Amadeus VIII., duke of Savoy, as pope, who took the name of Felix V.
Henrietta's daughter, Anne Marie (1669-1728), became the wife of Victor Amadeus II., duke of Savoy, afterwards king of Sardinia; her son was King Charles Emmanuel III., and her grandson Victor Amadeus III.
The Italian MS. was found by the Deist, John Toland, in a private collection at Amsterdam (see his Nazarenus, 1718); subsequently it came into the possession of Prince Eugene of Savoy, and finally was obtained with Eugene's library by the imperial library at Vienna.
His observations of the evil effect of vitiated air caused him to devise a "ventilator" (a modified organbellows) by which fresh air could be conveyed into gaols, hospitals, ships'-holds, &c.; this apparatus was successful in reducing the mortality in the Savoy prison, and it was introduced into France by the aid of H.
of Savoy until 1860; its situation between powerful neighbours accounting for its vacillating attitude, whence arose the charges of duplicity levelled against many of its rulers, while its dominion over the Alpine passes brought many advantages.
obtaining Piedmont, Aimone the Chablais, Peter and Philip other fiefs, and Amadeus IV., the eldest, Savoy and a general overlordship over his brothers' estates.
He induced both France and Spain to evacuate the fortresses which they still held in Piedmont, made a profitable exchange of territory with the Bernese, and acquired an extension of seaboard by the purchase of Tenda and Oneglia (see Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy).
The war between France and Spain continued to rage, and Savoy, on whose territory much of the fighting took place, suffered severely in consequence.
Amadeus VIII., first duke of Savoy, afterwards Pope Felix V.
That sovereign was determined to dominate the young duke of Savoy, who from the first resented the monarch's insolent bearing.
On re-entering Milan Charles Albert was badly received and reviled as a traitor by the Republicans, and although he declared himself ready to die defending the city the municipality treated with Radetzky for a capitulation; the mob, urged on by the demagogues, made a savage demonstration against him at the Palazzo Greppi, whence he escaped in the night with difficulty and returned to Piedmont with his defeated armp. The French Republic offered to intervene in the spring of 1848, but Charles Albert did not desire foreign aid, the more so as in this case it would have had to be paid for by the cession of Nice and Savoy.
In 1440 Aleman obtained the support of the emperor Sigismund and of the duke of Milan to his views, and proclaiming the deposition of Pope Eugenius IV., placed the tiara upon the head of Amadeus VIII., duke of Savoy (henceforward known as antipope Felix V.).
His first attempts against the French were successful; and the rupture between Victor Amadeus, duke of Savoy, and Louis XIV.
Association for mutual help and counsel, contemplated in some degree in the early days, from Browne to the Savoy Declaration of 1658, but thereafter forced into abeyance, began early in the 19th century to find expression in County Unions on a voluntary basis, especially for promoting home missionary work.
These are disallowed as a bond of union or test of communion, much as in the Savoy Declaration of 1658 it is said that constraint " causeth them to degenerate from the name and nature of Confessions," " into Exactions and Impositions of Faith."
The result was that the latter formally deposed him as a heretic on the 25th of June 1439, and in the following November elected the ambitious Amadeus VIII., duke of Savoy, antipope under the title of Felix V.
On the 25th of June 1439 the synod - which had already pronounced sentence of heresy on Eugenius IV., by reason of his obstinate disobedience to the assembly of the Church - formally deposed him; and, on the 5th of November, a rival pontiff was elected in the person of the ambitious Amadeus of Savoy, who now took the Felix V.
Rome was successful in some minor negotiations with Savoy, Genoa, Tuscany and Naples; but Venice, under the leadership of Paolo Sarpi, proved unbending under ban and interdict: the state defiantly upheld its sovereign rights, kept most of the clergy at their posts, and expelled the recalcitrant Jesuits.
In Savoy in 1572 it was merged by Gregory (at the instance of Emanuel Philibert, duke of Savoy) in the order of St Maurice (see Knighthood And Chivalry: Orders of Knighthood, Italy).
The church of San Michele Maggiore is one of the finest specimens of the Lombard style in existence, and as it was within its walls that the crown was placed on the head of those "kings of Italy" from whom the house of Savoy claims descent it was by royal decree of 1863 given the title of Basilica Reale.
Urban deposed Joanna of Naples (21st of April 1380) for adhering to France and Savoy in support of the antipope, and gave her kingdom to Charles of Durazzo.
Refounded in 1231 by Raymond Berenger IV., count of Provence (he was of the family of the counts of Barcelona, whence the name of the town he rebuilt), Barcelonnette passed to Savoy in 1388 (formal cession in 1 4 19), and in 1713 by the treaty of Utrecht was ceded to France in exchange for the valleys of Exilles, Fenestrelles, and ChÃ¢teau Dauphin (Casteldelfino).
In the nineteen thirties there was many a storm in a teacup at the famous Savoy " Tango Teas ".
The full unedited version at the Savoy Books web site.
The opening scene in Back to the Future, with the large speakers blasting, is based on real incidents with Kim Burrafato in North Beach that the Coppola Rat Pack at Savoy Tivoli and Caffe Trieste would hear.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.