He made his home with his elder brother Piero at Florence throughout the agitation of Savonarola and the invasion of Charles VIII.
While he was engaged upon some pieces for the convent of the Dominican friars, he made the acquaintance of Savonarola, who quickly acquired great influence over him, and Bartolommeo was so affected by his cruel death, that he soon after entered the convent, and for some years gave up his art.
At this crisis she was ruled by the monk Girolamo Savonarola, who inspired the people with a thirst for freedom, preached the necessity of reformation, and placed himself in direct antagonism to Rome.
After leaving Rome he again lived a wandering life, often visiting Florence, to which he was drawn by his friends Politian and Marsilius Ficinus, and where also he came under the influence of Savonarola.
The story of Alexander's relations with Savonarola is narrated under the latter heading; it is sufficient to say here that the pope's hostility was due to the friar's outspoken invectives against papal corruption and to his appeals for a General Council.
Alexander, although he could not get Savonarola into his own hands, browbeat the Florentine government into condemning the reformer to death (May 23, 1498).
Bandini, Pisa, 1771); Roscoe's Life of Lorenzo de' Medici; Pasquale Villari, La Storia di Girolamo Savonarola (Firenze, Le Monnier, 1859); Von Reumont, Lorenzo de' Medici (Leipzig, 1874).
Of the monasteries, that of St Mark should be mentioned, as containing many works of Fra Angelico, besides relics of Savonarola, while of the private collections the only one of importance is that of Prince Corsini.
At this time the Dominican Fra Girolamo Savonarola was in Florence and aroused the whole city by his denunciations of ecclesiastical corruption and also of that of the Florentines.
Ill-health now gained on Lorenzo, and Savonarola, whom he had summoned to his bedside, refused to give absolution to the destroyer of Florentine liberties.
Ambassadors, one of whom was Savonarola, were sent to treat with the French king, but no agreement was arrived at until Charles entered Florence on the 17th of November at the head of 12,000 men.
But Charles would not depart, a fact which caused perpetual disturbance in the city, and it was not until the 28th of November, after an exhortation by Savonarola whom he greatly respected, that he left Florence.
Many proposals were made, none of them of practical value, until Savonarola, who had Savon- as a already made a reputation as a moral reformer, began states= his famous series of political sermons.
Savonarola also proposed a court of appeal for criminal and political crimes tried by the Otto di guardia e balia; this too was agreed to, but the right of appeal was to be, not to a court as Savonarola suggested, but to the Greater Council, a fact which led to grave abuses, as judicial appeals became subject to party passions.
But in spite of Savonarola's popularity there was a party called the Bigi (greys) who intrigued secretly in favour of the return of the Medici, while the men of wealth, called the Arrabbiati, although they hated the Medici, were even more openly opposed to the actual regime and desired to set up an aristocratic oligarchy.
The adherents of Savonarola were called the Piagnoni, or snivellers, while the Neutrali changed sides frequently.
Savonarola was again sent to the French camp, and his eloquence turned the king from any idea he may have had of reinstating the Medici.
Italy, Piero de' Medici, encouraged by the league, enlisted a number of mercenaries and marched on Florence, but the citizens, fired by Savonarola's enthusiasm, flew to arms and prepared for an energetic resistance; owing to Piero's incapacity and the exhaustion of his funds the expedition came to nothing.
hated Savonarola and was determined to destroy Alexander the republic, so as to reinstate the Medici temporarily VI.
All this decreased Savonarola's popularity to some extent, but the enemy having been beaten at Leghorn and the league being apparently on the point of breaking up, the Florentines took courage and the friar's party was once more in the ascendant.
New Medici plots having been discovered, Bernardo del Nero and other prominent citizens were tried and put to death; but the party hostile to Savonarola gained ground and had the support of the Franciscans, who were hostile to the Dominican order.
The Piagnoni were out of power, and a signory of Arrabbiati having been elected in 1498, a mob of Savonarola's opponents attacked the convent of St Mark where he resided, and he himself was arrested and imprisoned.
The outgoing signory secured the election of another which was of their way of thinking, and on the 22nd of May 1498 Savonarola was condemned to death and executed the following day.
The revived republic. Trial and execution of Savonarola (1498).
Capponi did his best to reform the city and save the situation, and while adopting Savonarola's tone in internal affairs, he saw the dangers in the foreign situation, realizing that a reconciliation between the pope and the emperor Charles V.
Carducci made preparations for a siege, but a large part of the people were against him, either from Medicean sympathies or fear, although the Frateschi, as the believers in Savonarola's views were called, supported him strongly.
degli Scelti was summoned, and a constitution similar to that of Savonarola's time was established.
Davidsohn's Geschichte der Stadt Florenz (Berlin, 1896); P. Villari's Savonarola (English ed., London, 1896) is invaluable for the period during which the friar's personality dominated Florence, and his Machiavelli (English ed., London, 1892) must be also consulted, especially for the development of political theories.
See also the bibliographies in MEDICI, MACHIAVELLI, SAVONAROLA, TUSCANY, &c. (L.
His biographical studies, Franz von Assisi (1856; 2nd ed., 1892), Katerina von Siena (1864; 2nd ed., 1892), Neue Propheten (Di Jungfrau von Orleans, Savonarola, Thomas Miinzer) are judiciou and sympathetic. Other works are: Hutterus redivivus oder Dog matik der evang.-luth.
The last of her band, Tommaso Caffarini, died in 1 434, but the work was taken up, though in other shape, by Savonarola, between Francis of Assisi and whom Catherine forms the connecting link.
Discouraged by this failure in the pulpit, Savonarola now devoted himself to teaching in the convent, but his zeal for the salvation of the apathetic townsfolk was soon to stir him to fresh efforts.
Savonarola's first success as a preacher was gained at St Gemignano (1484-1485), but it was only at Brescia in the following year that his power as an orator was fully revealed.
Soon, at a Dominican council at Reggio, Savonarola had occasion to display his theological learning and subtlety.
When Savonarola returned to Florence in 1490, his fame as an orator had gone there before him.
Savonarola's sole aim was to bring mankind nearer to God.
g p Savonarola rejected their advice and foretold the impending deaths of Lorenzo, of the pope and of the king of Naples.
Savonarola took up the challenge; his eloquence prevailed, and Fra Mariano was silenced.
Savonarola reluctantly came, and offered absolution upon three conditions.
Savonarola waited a few moments and then went away.
Savonarola's influence now rapidly increased.
Assassins were sent to kill him in his cell; but awed, it is said, by Savonarola's words and demeanour they fled dismayed from his presence.
Meanwhile Savonarola continued to denounce the abuses of the church and the guilt and corruption of mankind, and thundered forth predictions of heavenly wrath.
But even at this crisis Savonarola's influence was all-powerful, and a bloodless revolution was effected.
Savonarola was one of the envoys, Charles being known to entertain the greatest veneration for the friar who had so long predicted his coming and declared it to be divinely ordained.
Returning full of hope from Pietra Santa, Savonarola might well have been dismayed by the distracted state of public affairs.
The monarch was cowed, accepted moderate terms, and, yielding to Savonarola's remonstrances, left Florence on the 24th of November.
So the citizens turned to the patriot monk whose words had freed them of King Charles, and Savonarola became the lawgiver of Florence.
And, after much debate, as to the constitution of the new republic, Savonarola's influence carried the day in favour of Soderini's proposal of a universal or general government, with a great council on the Venetian plan.
Savonarola's programme of the new government was comprised in the following formula: - (r) fear of God and purification of manners; (2) promotion of the public welfare in preference to private interests; (3) a general amnesty to political offenders; (4) a council on the Venetian model, but with no doge.
Their fervour was too hot to be lasting, and Savonarola's uncompromising spirit roused the hatred of political adversaries as well as of the degraded court of Rome.
Abjuring pomps and vanities, its citizens observed the ascetic regime of the cloister; half the year was devoted to abstinence and few dared to eat meat on the fasts ordained by Savonarola.
Still more wonderful was Savonarola's influence over children, and their response to his appeals is a proof of the magnetic power of his goodness and purity.
It was with the aid of these youthful enthusiasts that Savonarola arranged the religious carnival of 1496, when the citizens gave their costliest possessions in alms to the poor, and tonsured monks, crowned with flowers, sang lauds and performed wild dances for the glory of God.
There is no proof that any book or painting of real merit was sacrificed, and Savonarola was neither foe to art nor to learning.
had long regretted the enfranchisement of St Mark's from the rule of the Lombard Dominicans, and now, having seen a transcript of one of Savonarola's denunciations of his crimes, resolved to silence this daring preacher.
But Savonarola indignantly spurned the offer, replying to it from the pulpit with the prophetic words: "No hat will I have but that of a martyr, reddened with my own blood."
The potent duke of Milan, Ludovico Sforza, and other foes were labouring for the same end, and already in July 1495 a papal brief had courteously summoned Savonarola to Rome.
Savonarola disregarded the command, but went to preach for a while in other Tuscan cities.
All Italy recognized that Savonarola's voice was arousing a storm that might shake even the power of Rome.
The threatened anathema was deferred, but a brief uniting St Mark's to a new Tuscan branch of the Dominicans now deprived Savonarola of his independent power.
The Arrabbiati and the Medicean faction merged political differences in their common hatred to Savonarola.
A signory openly hostile to Savonarola took office in May, and on Ascension Day his enemies ventured on active insult.
The outrage was discovered and remedied before the service began; and, although the Arrabbiati half filled the church and even sought to attempt his life, Savonarola kept his composure and delivered an impressive sermon.
Savonarola remained undaunted.
But in July Savonarola's friends were again in power and did their best to have his excommunication removed.
It is said that at least Bernardo del Nero would have been spared had Savonarola raised his voice, but, although refraining from any active part against the prisoners, the prior would not ask mercy for them.
The year 1498, in which Savonarola was to die a martyr's death, opened amid seemingly favourable auspices.
But menacing briefs poured in from Rome; the pope had read one of Savonarola's recent sermons on Exodus; the city itself was threatened with interdict, and the Florentine ambassador could barely obtain a short delay.
The papal threats were now too urgent to be disregarded, and the cowed signory entreated Savonarola to put an end to his sermons.
A creature of the Arrabbiati, a Franciscan friar named Francesco di Puglia, challenged Savonarola to prove the truth of his doctrines by the ordeal of fire.
And, when the Franciscan declared that he would enter the fire with Savonarola alone, Fra Domenico protested his willingness to enter it with any one in defence of his master's cause.
As Savonarola resolutely declined the trial, the Franciscan deputed a convert, one Giuliano dei Rondinelli, to go through the ordeal with Fra Domenico.
Savonarola, perceiving that a trap was being laid for him, discountenanced the "experiment" until his calmer judgment was at last overborne by the fanaticism of his followers.
Aided by the signory, which was playing into the hands of Rome, the Arrabbiati and Compagnacci pressed the matter on, and the way was now clear for Savonarola's destruction.
were led by Savonarola carrying the host, which he reverently deposited on an altar prepared in his portion of the loggia.
The Franciscans began to urge fantastic' objections, and, when Savonarola insisted that his champion should bear the host, they cried out against the sacrilege of exposing the Redeemer's body to the flames.
The Franciscans slipped away unobserved, but Savonarola raising the host attempted to lead.
In vain Savonarola besought them to lay down their arms. When the church was finally stormed Savonarola was seen praying at the altar, and Fra Domenico, armed with an enormous candlestick, guarding him from the blows of the mob.
Thereupon Savonarola turned, bade farewell to the brethren, and, accompanied by the faithful Domenico,.
The prisoners were conveyed to the Palazzo Vecchio, and Savonarola was lodged in the tower cell which had once harboured Cosimo de' Medici.
have perhaps saved Savonarola's life, Charles of France, had died on the day of the ordeal by fire.
Savonarola's judges were chosen from his bitterest foes.
They had the pope's orders that Savonarola was to die "even were he a second John the Baptist."
Savonarola listened unmoved to the awful words, and then quietly resumed his interrupted devotions.
The only favour Savonarola craved before death was a short interview with his fellow victims. This the signory unwillingly granted.
Savonarola prayed with the two men, gave them his blessing, and exhorted them.
Midnight was long past when Savonarola was led back to his cell.
To the bishop's formula, "I separate thee from the church militant and the church triumphant," Savonarola replied in firm tones, "Not from the church triumphant; that is beyond thy power."
By a refinement of cruelty Savonarola was the last to suffer.
Savonarola's party was apparently annihilated by his death, but, when in 1529-1530 Florence was exposed to the horrors predicted by him, the most heroic defenders of his beloved if ungrateful city were Piagnoni who ruled their lives by his precepts and revered his memory as that of a saint.
Savonarola's writings may be classed in three categories: - (I) numerous sermons, collected mainly by Lorenzo Violi, one of his most enthusiastic hearers; (2) an immense number of devotional and moral essays and some theological works, of which Il Trionfo della Croce is the chief; (3) a few short poems and a political treatise on the government of Florence.
Although his faith in the dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church never swerved, his strenuous protests against papal corruptions, his reliance on the Bible as his surest guide, and his intense moral earnestness undoubtedly connect Savonarola with the movement that heralded the Reformation.
Rudelbach, Hieronymus Savonarola and seine Zeit, aus den Quellen dargestellt (Hamburg, 1835); Karl Meier, Girolamo Savonarola, aus grossentheils handschriftlichen Quellen dargestellt (Berlin, 1836); Padre Vincenzo Marchese, Storia di S.
Perrens, Jerome Savonarola, sa vie, ses predications, ses ecrits (Paris, 1853); R.
Madden, The Life and Martyrdom of Girolamo Savonarola, &c. (London, 18 54); Bartolommeo Aquarone, Vita di Fra Geronimo Savonarola (Alessandria, 1857); L.
von Ranke, "Savonarola and die Florentinische Republik" in his Hist.-biogr.
The standard modern work on Savonarola is Pasquale Villari's, La Storia di Fra Girolamo Savonarola e de' suoi tempi (Florence, 1887) based on an exhaustive study of the original authorities and containing a number of new documents (English translation by Linda Villari, London, 1889).
J., Girolamo Savonarola (London, 1899).
Casanova have published a Scelta di prediche e scritti di Fra Girolamo Savonarola con nuovi documenti (Florence, 1898); Il Savonarola e la critica tedesca (Florence, 1900), a selection of translations from the German.
PIETRO MARTIRE VERMIGLI, generally known as Peter Martyr (1500-1562), born at Florence on the 8th of May 1500, was son of Stefano Vermigli, a follower of Savonarola, by his first wife, Maria Fumantina.
Towards the close of the century comes John Wycliffe and his English travelling preachers, who passed the torch to Hus and the Bohemians, and in the next age Savonarola, who was to Florence what Jeremiah had been to Jerusalem.
The terrible tragedy which was consummated on the 23rd of May 1498 before the Palazzo Vecchio, in Florence, casts a lurid light upon the irreconcilable opposition in which the wearers of the papal dignity stood to medieval piety; for Girolamo Savonarola was in every fibre a loyal son of the medieval Church.
Twenty years after Savonarola's death Martin Luther made public his theses against indulgences.
One scandal followed hard on the other, and opposition naturally sprang up. Unfortunately, Savonarola, the head of that opposition, transgressed all bounds in his wellmeant zeal.
His fall soon followed, when he had lost all ground in Florence; and his execution on the 23rd of May 1498 freed Alexander from a formidable enemy (see Savonarola).
From the Catholic standpoint Savonarola must certainly be condemned: mainly because he completely forgot the doctrine of the Church that the sinful and vicious life of superiors, including the pope, is not competent to abrogate their jurisdiction.
Girolamo Savonarola >>
In the centre the colossal statue of Luther rises, on a pedestal at the base of which are sitting figures of Peter Waldo, Wycliffe, Hus and Savonarola, the heralds of the Reformation; at the corners of the platform, on lower pedestals, are statues of Luther's contemporaries, Melanchthon, Reuchlin, Philip of Hesse, and Frederick the Wise of Saxony, between which are allegorical figures of Magdeburg (mourning), Spires (protesting) and Augsburg (confessing).
as first duke in 1452 (in which year Girolamo Savonarola was born here), and in 1470 was made duke of Ferrara by Pope Paul II.
But his purely political action was very restricted, and not to be compared with that of a Rienzi or a Savonarola.
PIERO SODERINI (1450-1513), Florentine statesman, was elected gonfalonier for life in 1502 by the Florentines, who wished to give greater stability to their republican institutions, which had been restored after the expulsion of Piero de' Medici and the martyrdom of Savonarola.
It was not hard to attack the system under which Rodrigo Borgia wore the tiara, while Girolamo Savonarola went to the stake; or in which Julius II.
Aristarchus of Samos, Martianus Capella (the precursor of Copernicus), Cicero, Favorinus, Sextus Empiricus, Juvenal, and in a later age Savonarola and Pico della Mirandola, and La Fontaine, a contemporary of the neutral La Bruyere, were all pronounced opponents of astrology.
During his residence abroad he became acquainted with Budaeus (Guillaume Bude) and Erasmus, and with the teaching of Savonarola.
In 1881 Mr Austin returned to verse with a tragedy, Savonarola, to which he added Soliloquies in 1882, Prince Lucifer in 1887, England's Darling in 1896, The Conversion of Winckelmann in 1897, &c. A keen Conservative in politics, for several years he edited The National Review, and wrote leading articles for The Standard, On Tennyson's death in 1892 it was felt that none of the then living poets, except Swinburne or William Morris, who were outside consideration on other grounds, was of sufficient distinction to succeed to the laurel crown, and for several years no new poet-laureate was nominated.
Numerous processions were held, Savonarola's sermons against corruption and vice seemed to have temporarily transformed the citizens, and the carnival of 1497 remained famous for the burning of the "vanities" (i.e.
GIROLAMO SAVONAROLA (1452-1498), Italian monk and martyr, was born at Ferrara on the 21st of September 1452, the third child of Michele Savonarola and his wife Elena Bonaccossi of Mantua.
His grandfather, Michele Savonarola, a Paduan physician of much repute and learning, had settled in Ferrara, and gained a large fortune there.
His suit was repulsed with disdain; no Strozzi, he was told, might stoop to wed a Savonarola.
At first Savonarola was enchanted with Florence.
In 1483 Savonarola was Lenten preacher in the church of St Lorenzo, but his plain, earnest exhortations attracted few hearers, while all the world thronged to Santo Spirito to enjoy the elegant rhetoric of Fra Mariano da Genazzano.
Savonarola, however, refused to conform to the usage.
The same year witnessed the fulfilment of Savonarola's second prediction in the death of Innocent VIII.
The laws and edicts of this period read like paraphrases of Savonarola's sermons, and indeed his counsels were always given as addenda to the religious exhortations in which he denounced the sins of his country and the pollution of the church, and urged Florence to cast off iniquity and become a truly Christian city, a pattern not only to Rome but to the world at large.
Savonarola addressed to the pontiff a letter of condolence, boldly urging him to bow to the will of Heaven and repent while there was yet time.
Undismayed by personal danger, Savonarola resolved to appeal to all Christendom against the unrighteous pontiff, and despatched letters to the rulers of Europe adjuring them to assemble a council to condemn this antipope.
The doors of St Mark's were hastily secured, and Savonarola discovered that his adherents had secretly prepared arms and munitions and were ready to stand a siege The signory sent to order all laymen to quit the cloister, and a special summons to Valori.
Though physically unable to resist torture, Savonarola's clearness of mind returned whenever he was at peace in his cell.
No extremity of torture could make him recant or extract a syllable to Savonarola's hurt; he steadfastly repeated his belief in the divinity of the prior's mission.
During their forty days of confinement and torture each one had been told that the others had recanted, and the false report of Savonarola's confession had been shown to the two monks.
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