Savart (" Memoire sur la constitution des veines liquides lancees par des orifices circulaires en minces parois," Ann.
Savart showed, by a suitable isolation of the reservoir from tremors, whether due to external sources or to the impact of the jet itself in the vessel placed to receive it.
Two laws were formulated by Savart with respect to the length of the continuous portion of a jet, and have been to a certain extent explained by Plateau.
When the head is given, Savart found the length to be proportional to the diameter of the orifice.
When the circumstances of the experiment are such that the reservoir is influenced by the shocks due to the impact of the jet, the disintegration usually establishes itself with complete regularity, and is attended by a musical note (Savart).
The pitch of the note, though not absolutely definite, cannot differ much from that which corresponds to the division of the jet into wave-lengths of maximum instability; and, in fact, Savart found that the frequency was directly as the square root of the head, inversely as the diameter of the orifice, and independent of the nature of the fluid - laws which follow immediately from Plateau's theory.
Reasoning from some observations of Savart, Plateau finds in this way 4.38 as the ratio of the length of a division to the diameter of the jet.
With respect to the limits of pitch, Savart found that the note might be a fifth above, and more than an octave below, that proper to the jet.
When the resolution is effected in a perfectly periodic manner, each drop is in the same phase of its vibration as it passes through a given point of space; and thence arises the remarkable appearance of alternate swellings and contractions described by Savart.
Even when the resolution is regularized by the action of external vibrations of suitable frequency, as in the beautiful experiments of Savart and Plateau, the drops must still come into contact before they reach the summit of their parabolic path.
An instance of considerable importance is afforded by the combination known as Savart's plate.
Of polarimeters for the study of rotary polarization there are three principal forms. In Wild's polaristrobometer, light from a soda flame, rendered parallel by a lens, is polarized by a Nicol's prism, and after traversing the space into which the active substance is to be inserted, falls on a Savart's plate placed in front of an astronomical telescope of low power, that contains in its eyepiece a Nicol's prism, which with the plate forms a Savart's analyser.
Savart's toothed wheel apparatus, named alter Felix Savart (1791-1841), a French physicist and surgeon, consists of a brass wheel, whose edge is divided into a number of equal projecting teeth distributed uniformly over the circumference, and which is capable of rapid rotation about an axis perpendicular to its plane and passing through its centre, by means of a series of multiplying wheels, the last of which is turned round by the hand.
Now, suppose that the note produced with Savart's apparatus is in unison with A3, when the experimenter turns round the first wheel at the rate of 60 turns per minute or one per second, and that the circumferences of the various multiplying wheels are such that the rate of revolution of the toothed wheel is thereby increased 44 times, then the latter wheel will perform 44 revolutions in a, second,.
Savart's analyser consists, of a Savart's plate (see above) connected to a Nicol's prism, the principal section of which bisects the angle between the principal.
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