In war, they were savage and cruel; for war always makes men so.
You know I always was a savage, and now am even more so.
The banshee is perhaps connected with ancestral or house spirits; the Wild Huntsman, the Gabriel hounds, the Seven Whistlers, &c., are traceable to some actual phenomenon; but the great mass of British goblindom cannot now be traced back to savage or barbarous analogues.
One day word came that a savage wolf had been seen in the forest.
"A'Ran looked pretty savage," she said with a shiver.
Thomson, Savage Island (London, 1902).
The day passed in confused and savage scuffles between the raw enthusiasts of either side, but by 5.30 P.M.
And Robert the Bruce was never again obliged to hide in the woods or to run from savage hounds.
"What a horrid, savage beast!" exclaimed a piglet; "and after we've been such good friends, too, and played with one another!"
This was the period of those devastating raids which made the savage Magyar horsemen the scourge and the terror of Europe.
Elaborate rules are accordingly drawn up to secure the maximum of benefit, and the minimum of inconvenience, from this sacred fire; and in the application of these rules does savage casuistry consist.
"Not much since being strung up by a savage at the bottom of the mountain, ma'am," Dan replied for him.
While this opportunity of educating and training a docile people was in the main neglected, savage abuse of power by their chiefs was prevented.
As if only the savage dwelt near enough to Nature and Truth to borrow a trope from them.
revolt against King Joseph, and the peasants dealt out savage reprisals to the French troops.
None of your savage brothers would properly complement such a beautiful little treasure, Romas, the woman had said with gentle humor.
Their conquests have extended as far as Niue, or Savage Island, 200 m.
By the people of northern India the country was known as Gondwana, after the savage tribes of Gonds by whom it was inhabited.
Among the savage tribes of the interior there is scarcely any idea of God and their superstitious practices can scarcely be considered as the expression of a definite religious idea.
In the 16th century Quercy was a stronghold of the Protestants, and the scene of a savage religious warfare.
In a word, he is from first to last an undomesticated and savage animal rendered serviceable by stupidity alone, without much skill on his master's part, or any co-operation on his own, save that of an extreme passiveness.
At the moment when Vereshchagin fell and the crowd closed in with savage yells and swayed about him, Rostopchin suddenly turned pale and, instead of going to the back entrance where his carriage awaited him, went with hurried steps and bent head, not knowing where and why, along the passage leading to the rooms on the ground floor.
It is now many years that men have resorted to the forest for fuel and the materials of the arts: the New Englander and the New Hollander, the Parisian and the Celt, the farmer and Robin Hood, Goody Blake and Harry Gill; in most parts of the world the prince and the peasant, the scholar and the savage, equally require still a few sticks from the forest to warm them and cook their food.
It suffered much in1865-1866from the savage struggle between Imperialists and Republicans, and in subsequent partisan warfare.
Up to this time the history of the province is little else than a record of savage warfare with the Apaches, Seris, Yaquis and other tribes.
Among the ruder or savage tribes they possess but one form; but the ingenuity of man has devised many inventions to increase his comforts; he has varied and multiplied the characters and kinds of domestic animals for the same purpose, and hence the various breeds of horses, cattle and dogs.
(3) The Dukajin, whose territory lies between that of the last-named group and the district of Jakova, include the Pulati, Shalla, Shoshi and other tribes; they are more independent and more savage than the Mi-shkodrak, 1 and have never paid tribute from time immemorial.
Meanwhile the Jesuits undertook the moral and religious culture of the natives, and of the scarcely less savage colonists.
During the rutting-season male camels become exceedingly savage and dangerous, uttering a loud bubbling roar and engaging in fierce contests with their fellows.
The savage reprisals on their suppression, in especial the "Bloody Assizes" of Jeffreys, produced a revulsion of public feeling.
NIUE (SAVAGE ISLAND or Niue-Fekai, as the natives call it), an island in the South Pacific Ocean, 14 m.
They have been described as "men who look the fiends they really are - of most sinister expression, with murder and every crime speaking from their savage eyes.
This is the reason he is poor; and for a similar reason we are all poor in respect to a thousand savage comforts, though surrounded by luxuries.
EDMUND BONNER (1500?-1569), bishop of London, was perhaps the natural son of George Savage, rector of Davenham, Cheshire, by Elizabeth Frodsham, who was afterwards married to Edmund Bonner, a sawyer of Hanley in Worcestershire.
Dr Thomas Savage, a missionary at the Gabun, who sent Owen information with regard to the original skull, had, however, himself proposed the name Troglodytes gorilla in 1847.
The same may be said of the lineal descendant of savage medicine - the magical leech-craft of European folk-lore; cures for toothache, warts, &c., act in spite of the disbelief of the sufferer; how far incredulity on the part of the healer would result in failure is an open question.
"Theft sacrilege" was treated in a separate series of equally savage clauses.
- The Khmers, the ancient inhabitants of Cambodia, are conjectured to have been the offspring of a fusion between the autochthonous dwellers in the Indo-Chinese peninsula, now represented by the Kouis and other savage tribes, and an invading race from the plateaus of central Asia.
But the opposition, while unable to deny the recuperation of Hungary, shut their eyes to everything but Tisza's " tyranny, " and their attacks were never so savage and unscrupulous as during the session of 1889, when threats of a revolution were uttered by the opposition leaders and the premier could only enter or leave the House under police protection.
Thomas Savage, 1501-1507.
The " Savage Diet " which assembled on the 18th of October the same year, to punish the rebels and restore order, well deserved its name.
Adjacent to the town are the two Augustus Cleveland monuments, one erected by government, and the other by the Hindus, to the memory of the civilian, who, as collector of Bhagalpur at the end of the 18th century, "by conciliation, confidence and benevolence, attempted and accomplished the entire subjection of the lawless and savage inhabitants of the Jungleterry of Rajmahal."
Thus, for instance, in his account of the transition from savage to civilized life, he assumes at v.
Africa, was settled in the Aegean area from a remote Neolithic antiquity, but, except in Crete, where insular security was combined with great natural fertility, remained in a savage and unproductive condition until far into the 4th millennium B.C. In Crete, however, it had long been developing a certain civilization, and at a period more or less contemporary with Dynasties XI.
and so on, creates "magnified nonnatural men,".who presently made their appearance in ritual (for to think a thing the savage must dance it);; whereupon personal intercourse becomes possible between such a being and the tribesmen, the more so because the supporters of law and order, the elders, will wish to associate themselves as closely as possible with the supreme law-giver.
Used in this sense faith healing is indistinguishable from much of savage leech-craft, which seeks to cure disease by expelling the evil spirit in some portion of the body.
If Tennyson had died of the savage article which presently appeared in the Quarterly Review, literature would have sustained terrible losses, but his name would have lived for ever among those of the great English poets.
In the hunter period the savage warrior does not enslave his vanquished enemy, but slays him; the women of a conquered tribe he may, however, carry off and appropriate as wives or as servants, for in this period domestic labour falls almost altogether on their sex.
For this purpose he organized, outside the regular administration, a large corps of civil officials and armed retainers, whose duty it was to obey him implicitly in all things; and with this force, which rose rapidly from 1000 to 6000 men, he acted like a savage invader in a conquered country.
The Reptilia include II species of the crocodile, alligator and lizard, including the savage jacare of the Amazon, several species of turtle, 4 species of batrachians, and 29 species of serpents, including the striped rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus), Lachesis mutus, and a rather rare species of Cophias.
Yet this eminent, this superior personage was an habitual drunkard, an uncouth savage who intruded upon the hospitality of wealthy foreigners, and was not ashamed to seize upon any dish he took a fancy to, and send it home to his wife.
895 led his savage hordes through the Vereczka pass into the regions of the Upper Ma ar Theiss, the land, now called Hungary, was, for the most conquest.
The fifth book, which has the most general interest, professes to explain the process by which the earth, the sea, the sky, the sun, moon and stars, were formed, the origin of life, and the gradual advance of man from the most savage to the most civilized condition.
At Milan it was more serious and lasted longer than elsewhere, as the movement was controlled by the anarchists under Arturo Labriola; the hooligans committed many acts of savage violence, especially against those workmen who refused to strike, and much property was wilfully destroyed.
Mine was, as it were, the connecting link between wild and cultivated fields; as some states are civilized, and others half-civilized, and others savage or barbarous, so my field was, though not in a bad sense, a half-cultivated field.
But how happens it that he who is said to enjoy these things is so commonly a poor civilized man, while the savage, who has them not, is rich as a savage?
Their hostility to Captain Cook in 1774, which earned from him the name of Savage for the island, was due to their fear of foreign disease, a fear that has since been justified.
The top of international holiday insurance uk their prosperity or that savage holiday supplier towel specialties.
In the savage state every family owns a shelter as good as the best, and sufficient for its coarser and simpler wants; but I think that I speak within bounds when I say that, though the birds of the air have their nests, and the foxes their holes, and the savages their wigwams, in modern civilized society not more than one half the families own a shelter.
A man who doesn't know Paris is a savage.
Emily would reprimand him, "No brother of mine will act like a savage."
Both passed through phases of faith, but while even Positivism did not cool George Eliot's innate religious fervour, with George Sand religion was a passing experience, no deeper than her republicanism and less lasting than her socialism, and she lived and died a gentle savage.
In his private character Shane O'Neill was a brutal, uneducated savage.
which would be recognized at once as true scorpions by a child or a savage.
died on the r3th of March 1516, two years after the " Savage Diet," the ferocity of whose decrees he had feebly endeavoured to mitigate, leaving his two Subjection kingdoms to his son Louis, a child of ten, who was by the pronounced of age in order that his foreignguardians, Turks.
Among savage and nomadic nations the whole tribe often moves into new territory, either occupying it for the first time or exterminating or driving out the indigenous inhabitants.
That home was situated on the border of the Middlesex Fells, a rough and rocky woodland, 4000 acres in extent, as wild and savage in many places as the primeval forest.
Against this savage background of the forest Parkman shows the rise, progress and dramatic termination of the colossal struggle between France and Great Britain for colonial empire.
The Semite or savage who sets up a sacred stone or Bethel believes indeed that a divine power or influence enters the stone and dwells in it, and he treats the stone as if it were the god, kisses it, anoints it with oil, feeds the god in it by pouring out over it the blood of victims slain.
He submitted to the influence of the rigorists, and carried forward the war upon heresy, though not with the savage vehemence of his predecessor.
The scenes of the recurrent wars were mostly distant from Massachusetts proper, either in Maine or on Canadian or Acadian territory, although some savage inroads of the Indians were now and then made on the exposed frontier towns, as, for instance, upon Deerfield in 1704 and upon Haverhill in 1708.
Savage (Boston, 2 vols.
An account of savage life, therefore, includes the knowledge of the animal life of America and its distribution, regarding the continent, not only as a whole, but in those natural history provinces and migrations which governed and characterized the activities of the peoples.
In organization, engineering, strategy, offence and defence, the art of war was in the barbarous and the savage status or grade.
They are inseparable from industry; language, social organization and custom wait upon them: they explain the universe in the savage mind.
As for the second, the elements of savage voracity and wastefulness, of uncertainty as to cubical contents on uneven surface, and of the number of mouths to fill, make it hazardous to construct a chronological table on a shell-heap. Hudson's village sites in Patagonia contain pottery, and that brings them all into the territory of Indian archaeology.
To the north-west of Pinerolo, up the Chisone valley, there opens at Perosa Argentina the valley of St Martin, another important Waldensian valley, which is watered by the Germanasca torrent, and at Perrero splits into two branches, of which the Prali glen is far more fertile than that of Massello, the latter being the wildest and most savage of all the Waldensian valleys.
They were, as Milton said, " faithful and freeborn Englishmen and good Christians constrained to forsake their dearest home, their friends, and kindred, whom nothing but the wide ocean and the savage deserts of America could hide and shelter from the fury of the bishops."
Rarotonga and Mangaia, in the Cook group, and Niue or Savage Island are the largest of these; Penrhyn and Suwarrow, though but small coral atolls, contain excellent harbours.
This human creature, long-haired and sensual, was drawn away from a savage mode of life by a harlot, and Jastrow, followed by G.
Froude's temperament was sensitive, and he suffered from these attacks, which were often unjust and always too savage in tone.
In the first year of the 13th century, the Knights of the Sword, one of the numerous orders of crusading military monks, had been founded in Livonia to "convert" the pagan Letts, and, in 1208, the still more powerful Teutonic order was invited by Duke Conrad of Masovia to settle in the district of Kulm (roughly corresponding to modern East Prussia) to protect his territories against the incursions of the savage Prussians, a race closely akin to the Lithuanians.
Originally planted on the Baltic shore for the express purpose of christianizing their savage neighbours, these crusading monks had freely exploited the wealth and the valour of the West, ostensibly in the cause of religion, really for the purpose of founding a dominion of their own which, as time went on, lost more and more of its religious character, and was now little more than a German military forepost, extending from Pomerania to the Niemen, which deliberately excluded the Sla y s from the sea and thrived 'Archbishop of Gnesen 1219-1220.
Again, it should have been the first duty of the Republic adequately to fortify the dzikie pola, or "savage steppe," as the vast plain was called which extended from Kiev to the Black Sea, and some feeble attempts to do so were at last made.
He perceived at once that it was the only way of counteracting the restlessness of the sultan's protégés, the Protestant princes of Transylvania, whose undisciplined hordes, scarcely less savage than their allies the Turks and Tatars, were a perpetual menace both to Austria and to Poland.
In the spring he joined a war party of Algonquins and Hurons, discovered the great lake that bears his name, and, near the present Ticonderoga, took with his arquebus an important part in the victory which his savage friends obtained over the Iroquois.
She loved to be present at dramatic entertainments, and her participation in the private rehearsals of the Shepherd's Pastoral, written by her favourite Walter Montague, probably drew down upon her the savage attack of Prynne.
According to general tradition the natives, from whatever quarter derived, were a strange and savage people till they received some tincture of civilization from the Carthaginians, who early took possession of the islands and built themselves cities on their coasts.
The battle of Shiloh was a savage scuffle between two half-disciplined hosts, contested with a fury rare even in this war.
The terrors of this " savage sea and inhospitable shore," once described by Sallust, have, however, been greatly mitigated by the introduction of steam, the improvement of the harbours, and the establishment by the French government of an excellent system of lighthouses.
Powell, In Savage Isles and Settled Lands (London, 1892); " Sundowner," Rambles in Polynesia (London, 1897); M.
On this day Magruder with two divisions attacked superior forces about Fair Oaks and was repulsed, and again attacked at Savage Station with like results.
The country was wasted by the fury of this savage conqueror, but recovered something of its former prosperity under Ogdai Khan, his son, whose disposition was humane and benevolent.
Smith's letter to the editors is specially interesting for its account of the Encyclopedie and its criticism of Rousseau's pictures of savage life.
Spiders are also represented by a large number of genera and species, the most dreaded being the venomous " tarantula " and the savage " mygale."
The Totonacs inhabit northern Vera Cruz and speak a language related to that of the Mayas; the Tarascos form a small group living in Michoacan; the Matlanzingos, or Matlaltzincas, live near the Tarascos, the savage Apaches, a nomadic group of tribes ranging from Durango northward into the United States; the Opata-Pima group, inhabiting the western plateau region from Sonora and Chihuahua south to Guadalajara, is sometimes classed as a branch of the Nahuatlaca; the Seris, a very small family of savages, occupy Tiburon Island and the adjacent mainland of Sonora; and the Guaicuros, or Yumas, are to be found in the northern part of the peninsula of Lower California.
The native history of Mexico and Central America is entitled to more respect than the mere recollections of savage tribes.
The common soldiers went into battle brilliant in savage war-paint, but those of higher rank had helmets like birds and beasts of prey, armour of gold and silver, wooden greaves, and especially the ichcapilli, the quilted cotton tunic two fingers thick, so serviceable as a protection from arrows that the Spanish invaders were glad to adopt it.
These two last-mentioned weapons have the look of highly developed savage forms, while on the other hand the military organization was in some respects equal to that of an Asiatic nation, with its regular companies commanded each by its captain and provided with its standard.
The bear enjoys a large measure of respect from all savage races that come in contact with it, which shows itself in apologies and in festivals in its honour.
To this day there are numerous traces in popular belief, especially in Germany, of respect for the snake, which seems to be a survival of ancestor worship, such as still exists among the Zulus and other savage tribes; the "house-snake," as it is called, cares for the cows and the children, and its appearance is an omen of death, and the life of a pair of house-snakes is often held to be bound up with that of the master and mistress themselves.
On theoretical grounds it is probable that animatism preceded animism; but savage thought is no more consistent than that of civilized man; and it may well be that animistic and panthelistic doctrines are held simultaneously by the same person.
In like manner one portion of the savage explanation of nature may have been originally animistic, another part animatistic.
Lists of phenomena from the contemplation of which the savage was led to believe in animism have been given by Dr Tylor, Herbert Spencer, Mr Andrew Lang and others; an animated controversy arose between the former as to the priority of their respective lists.
Seeing the phantasmic figures of friends at the moment when they were, whether at the point of death or in good health, many miles distant, must have led the savage irresistibly to the dualistic theory.
Just as in Europe the ghost of a dead person is held to haunt the churchyard or the place of death, although more orthodox ideas may be held and enunciated by the same person as to the nature of a future life, so the savage, more consistently, assigns different abodes to the multiple souls with which he credits man.
The savage attributes to animals the same ideas, the same mental processes as himself, and at the same time vastly greater power and cunning.
We distinguish between animate and inanimate nature, but this classification has no meaning for the savage.
The river speeding on its course to the sea, the sun and moon, if not the stars also, on their never-ceasing daily round, the lightning, fire, the wind, the sea, all are in motion and therefore animate; but the savage does not stop short here; mountains and lakes, stones and manufactured articles, are for him alike endowed with souls like his own; he deposits in the tomb weapons and food, clothes and implements, broken, it may be, in order to set free their souls; or he attains the same result by burning them, and thus sending them to the Other World for the use of the dead man.
The custom is common among several savage races, and these women, represented in the spiritual world by Fata, bequeath to us the French fee, in the sense of fairy.
Perrault also uses fee for anything that has magical quality; "the key was fee," had mana, or wakan, savage words for the supposed "power," or ether, which works magic or is the vehicle of magical influences.
Aristotle in his Ethics stigmatizes as "extremely unloving" (Xiav a4xXov) the denial that ancestors are interested in or affected by the fortunes of their descendants; and in effect ancestor-worship is the staple of most religions, ancient or modern, civilized or savage.
The aboriginal occupants of the greater part of North America were comparatively few in number, and except in Mexico were not advanced beyond the savage state, The geological processes that placed a much narrower ocean between North America and western Europe than between North America and eastern Asia secured to the New World the good fortune of being colonized by the leading peoples of the occidental Old World, instead of by the less developed races of the Orient.
"It was a savage dreary solitude, so utterly barren that at first Bernard and his companions were reduced to live on beech leaves."
The danger from the Iroquois on Lake Ontario had long cut her off from the most direct access to the West, and from the occupation of the Ohio valley leading to the Mississippi, but now free from this savage scourge she could go where she would.
He saw active service in savage warfare, and in 1887 served as a field-cornet.
He saw one of his uncles dragged from the palace and butchered by a savage mob.
In the dry season, however, it is obstructed by reefs, sandbanks, shallows, snags, trees and floating timber from the "Apostadero" up, so that even canoes find its ascent difficult, while savage hordes along its banks add to the dangers to be encountered.
Another Tibetan epic in Khaur, the Gyaldrung, praises Dagyolong, a famous warrior who subdued the savage men of Kham.
This strip of country has its: own native chiefs, but is' under the control of a high Manchu officer stationed at Lhasa, known colloquially as the " superintendent of savage tribes."
It was perpetuated from a savage past in the custom of cutting off the right hand of a man who died without heir, and sending it as proof of main-morte to the feudal lord.
To the savage, death from natural causes is inexplicable.
The savage conception of a future state is one that involves no real break in the continuity of life as he leads it.
The history of witchcraft in Europe and its attendant horrors, so vividly painted in Lecky's Rise of Rationalism, are but echoes of this universal refusal of savage man to accept death as the natural end of life.
The savage explains the processes of inanimate nature by assuming that living beings or spirits, possessed of capacities similar to his own, are within the inanimate object.
This miniature man is the savage's conception of the soul; sleep and trance being regarded as the temporary, death as the permanent, absence of the soul.
It is regarded by many savage peoples as highly dangerous to arouse a sleeper suddenly, as his soul may not have time to return.
It expresses the savage belief that there departs from the dying in the final expiration a something tangible, capable of separate existence - the soul.
684, to the custom, which survives to-day as a ceremonial practice among many savage and semi-civilized people.
Such examples might be multiplied unendingly, but enough has been said to show that the attitude of civilized man towards the sphinx-riddle of his end has been in part dictated and is even still influenced by the savage belief that to die is unnatural.
Having for some time learnt to be aggressive, she girded herself for the difficult work of teaching the nations a higher faith than a savage form of nature-worship, and of fitting them to become members of an enlightened Christendom.
Driven by persecution from Moravia, hunted into mountain-caves and forests, they had scarcely secured a place of refuge in Saxony before, " though a mere handful in numbers, yet with the spirit of men banded for daring and righteous deeds, they formed the heroic design, and vowed the execution of it before God, of bearing the gospel to the savage and perishing tribes of Greenland and the West Indies, of whose condition report had brought a mournful rumour to their ears.
The history of mission work here is one of exploration and peril amongst savage peoples, multitudinous languages and an adverse climate, but it has been marked by wise methods as well as enthusiastic devotion, industrial work being one of the basal principles.
In 1846 a teacher was placed on Niue, Savage Island, and in ten years it was evangelized.
There is little doubt that this savage outburst was.
The Kubus, a savage forest people of the highlands, were believed by some to be Negrito owing to the frizzled character of their hair, but it appears certain that they are Malayan.
by the glowing coals of any primeval savage's wood fire, and the resulting metallic iron would then differ so strikingly from any object which he had previously seen, that its very early use by our race is only natural.
The first observing savage who noticed it among his ashes might easily infer that it resulted from the action of burning wood on certain extremely heavy stones.
The oxide ores of copper would be deoxidized by the savage's wood fire even more easily than those of iron, and the resulting copper would be recognized more easily than iron, because it would be likely to melt and run together into a mass conspicuous by its bright colour and its very great malleableness.
These instances of the very early use of this metal, intrinsically at once so useful and so likely to disappear by rusting away, tell a story like that of the single foot-print of the savage which the waves left for Robinson Crusoe's warning.
We can picture to ourselves how in the first period the savage smith, step by step, bettered his control over his fire, at once his source of heat and his deoxidizing agent.
Thus perished, by the savage act of an infuriated mob, one of the greatest statesmen of his age.
Connected with the church there are two chapels, one of which, Rivers Chapel, belonged to a college of secular priests founded in 1501 by Thomas Savage, afterwards archbishop of York.
Gathering around them many of the Covenanters who clung tenaciously to their standards of faith, these ministers began to preach in the fields, and a period of persecution marked by savage hatred and great brutality began.
Among primitive savage races abortion is practised to a far less extent than infanticide, which offers a simpler way of getting rid of inconvenient progeny.
They now became almost savage.
But the most remarkable of the persons with whom at this time Johnson consorted was Richard Savage, an earl's son, a shoemaker's apprentice, who had seen life in all its forms, who had feasted among blue ribands in St James's Square, and had lain with fifty pounds weight of irons on his legs in the condemned ward of Newgate.
During some months Savage lived in the closest familiarity with Johnson; and then the friends parted, not without tears.
Savage went to the west of England, lived there as he had lived everywhere, and in 1743 died, penniless and heartbroken, in Bristol Gaol.
The Life of Savage was anonymous; but it was well known in literary circles that Johnson was the writer.
That knowledge he had derived partly from books, and partly from sources which had long been closed: from old Grub Street traditions; from the talk of forgotten poetasters and pamphleteers, who had long been lying in parish vaults; from the recollections of such men as Gilbert Walmesley, who had conversed with the wits of Button, Cibber, who had mutilated the plays of two generations of dramatists, Orrery, who had been admitted to the society of Swift and Savage, who had rendered services of no very honourable kind to Pope.
Savage's Life Johnson reprinted nearly as it had appeared in 1744.
From the "Life of Savage" to the "Life of Pope" it developed a great deal, and in the main improved.
Such theories are the modern scientific or semi-scientific counterparts of the primitive animism of savage races, and may be compared with the hylozoism of the Greek physicists.
Since its foundation the society has done much to make English colonization a synonym for humane and generous treatment of savage races.
South of the Benue, near the Niger confluence, dwell the savage and warlike Okpotos, Bassas and other tribes.
All of these heads show a high forehead and a pointed beard; and such expression as may be discovered is grave but not savage.
His idea of studying man as one of the animals, and of collecting facts about savage tribes to throw light on the problems of civilization, bring him into contact with the one, and his intimate knowledge of Greek philosophy with the other.
His Homer and the Epic appeared in 1893; a new prose translation of The Homeric Hymns in 1899, with essays literary and mythological, in which parallels to the Greek myths are given from the traditions of savage races; and his Homer and his Age in 1906.
The earliest of these works was Custom and Myth (1884); in Myth, Literature and Religion (2 vols., 1887, French trans., 1896) he explained the irrational elements of mythology as survivals from earlier savagery; in The Making of Religion (an idealization of savage animism) he maintained the existence of high spiritual ideas among savage races, and instituted comparisons between savage practices and the occult phenomena among civilized races; he dealt with the origins of totemism in Social Origins, printed (1903) together with J.
C. Dent (2 vols., Toronto, 1885), a bitter attack is made on him, which drew a savage reply from another son-in-law, John King, K.C., called The Other Side of the Story.
Only in the higher tracts are there rugged features recalling the more savage character of Highland scenery.
There are also traces of the persistence of descent in the female line, especially in the case of the Pictish royal family, but such survivals of savage institutions, or such a modification of male descent for the purpose of ensuring the purity of the royal blood, yield no firm ground for a decision as to whether the Picts were " Aryans " or " non-Aryans."
On account of the threatening procedure of Otto, they permitted him shortly afterwards to return, upon which, with the sanction of Otto, he took savage vengeance on those who had formerly opposed him.
The Polynesians were by no means a savage people when they entered the Pacific. Indeed their elaborate historical legends show that they possessed a considerable amount of civilization.
Savage and untameable mountaineers, they long defied the Roman arms and made themselves a name for wild freedom.
Minot Judson Savage >>
xviii., xxxiii.), the more noteworthy when one considers the tenacity of the savage talio and its retention, though with some modifications, in the Babylonian code.
Winthrop's Journal, an invaluable record of early Massachusetts history, was printed in part in Hartford in 1790; the whole in Boston, edited by James Savage, as The History of New England from 1630 to 1649, in 1825-1826, and again in 1853; and in New York, edited by James K.
The main evidence of the virtue attained by them lies in the voluntary subjection to them of the savage beasts among which they lived.
But in his eagerness to seize the whole inheritance of his rival, Louis drove his daughter and heiress, Mary of Burgundy, into marriage with Maximilian of Austria (afterwards the emperor Maximilian I.),who successfully defended Flanders after a savage raid by Antoine de Chabannes.
There were border wars with rebellious savage tribes, attacks made by Chinese pirates seeking plunder or refuge, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tornadoes and the periodical visits of marauders from the southern islands.
The aboriginal occupants of the greater part of North America were comparatively few in number, and except in Mexico were not advanced beyond the savage state.
Grassmann made in 1854 a somewhat savage onslaught on Cauchy and De St Venant, the former of whom had invented, while the latter had exemplified in application, the system of " clefs algebriques," which is almost precisely 1 Die Ausdehnungslehre, Leipsic, 1844; 2nd ed., vollstandig and in strenger Form bearbeitet, Berlin, 1862.1862.
Among the Carolines and the Marshalls darker and more savage communities are found, suggesting a Melanesian element, which is further traceable in the Ebon (Marshall) and other languages.
The blind minstrel was the counterpart of the noble savage.
His prestige and his good qualities, carefully fostered by Seneca, made him popular, while his childish vanity, ungovernable selfishness and savage temper were as yet unsuspected.
Seneca had seen from the first that the real danger with Nero lay in the savage vehemence of his passions, and he made it his chief aim to stave off by every means in his power the dreaded outbreak.
Beneath the surface of brilliant social culture lurked gross appetites and savage passions, unrestrained by medieval piety, untutored by modern experience.
Yet nothing is less true; for the savage, more than the civilized man, is tied down at every step with superstitious scruples and restrictions barely traceable in higher civilizations except as primitive survivals.
The Apache Indians, the most savage of all, were placed on reservations somewhat later, but for many years bands of their warriors would escape and make raids into New Mexico, Arizona and Mexico.
The consequence of this was, that a capital player's wardrobe " [came to include] " what they call natural heads of hair; there is the comedy head of hair, and the tragedy ditto; the silver locks, and the common gray; the carotty poll, and the yellow caxon; the savage black, and the Italian brown, and Shylock's and Falstaff's very different heads of hair; ...
Progress, or at all events change, does indeed take place, though very slowly, since the most primitive savage we know of has his portion of human intelligence, looks after and before, nay, in regard to the pressing needs of every day shows a quite remarkable shrewdness and resource.
Primitive religions are like so many similar beads on a string; and the concern of the student of comparative religion is at this stage mainly with the nature of the string, to wit, the common conditions of soul and society that make, say, totemism, or taboo, very much the same thing all the savage world over, when we seek to penetrate to its essence.
But the expert, confining his attention to the known savage, finds him already religious, nay, encumbered with religious survivals of all kinds; for him, then, it suffices to describe things as they now are, or as they were in the comparatively recent fore-time.
The inwardness of savage religion - the meaning it has for those who practise it - constitutes its essence and meaning likewise for him, who after all is a man and a brother, not one who stands really outside.
64) that to constrain or coerce a personal being is to treat him as an inanimate agent; for such a principle is quite inapplicable to cases of mere terrorism, whilst it may be doubted if it even renders the sense of the savage magician's typical notion of his modus operandi, viz.
The primitive notion that perhaps comes nearest to our " sacred," whilst it immediately underlies the meanings of the Latin sacer and sanctus, is that of a taboo, a Polynesian term for which equivalents can be quoted from most savage vocabularies.
It is possible, however, that the savage always distinguishes in a dim way between the material medium and the indwelling principle of vital energy, examples of a pure fetishism, in the sense of the cult of the purely material, recognized as such, being hard to find.
The prominence of the notion of the Alcheringa " dreamtime," or sacred past, in Central Australian religion illustrates the essential connexion perceived by the savage to lie between the sacred and the traditional.
On the whole, however, savage society tends to regard it as something acquired, the product of acts and abstinences having a traditional character for imparting magicoreligious virtue.
Again, the savage universe is no preserve of man, but is an open field wherein human and non-human activities of all sorts compete on more or less equal terms, yet so that a certain measure of predominance may be secured by a judicious combination of forces.
His religion is, however, anything but an abstraction to the savage, and stands rather for the whole of his concrete life so far as it is penetrated by a spirit of earnest endeavour.
A child of civilized parents brought up from the first amongst savages is a savage, neither more nor less.
svayambhu, but certain questions have been by implication asked and answered, which the demonology of the savage has not yet raised.
that in the life of the savage religion plays a comparatively small part, can be satisfactorily established.
The evidence rather implies that, so far as the sanctions of religion affect the savage at all, they affect him with unusual force.
The savage who finds himself encompassed by taboos which he dare not break, lives up to his religion with a faithfulness which many professing Christians fail to reach.
In what is now the republic of Ecuador, the only peopled portions are the central valley, between the two ridges of the Andes - height 7000 to 12,000 feet - and the hot plain at their western base; nor do the wooded slopes appear to have been inhabited, except by scattered savage hordes, even in the time of the Incas.
process employed ritually in all religions and among all races, civilized or savage, partly as a mode of ridding persons and things of dangerous influences and diseases, especially of the demons (Persian drug, Greek pes, Armenian dev) which are or cause those diseases; and partly as a means of introducing into things and persons a sacramental or divine influence, a holy emanation, spirit or power.
Among many savage races there is developed a remarkable power of foot-grasp, which in a lesser degree is often so noticeable among sailors.
In his absence Abd-ul-Munim Khan, the lJzbeg commander, attacked the sacred city, obtained possession of it while the shah lay helplessly ill at Teheran, and allowed his savage soldiers full licence to kill and plunder.
Among many other sufferers Imam Kuli Khan, conqueror of Lar and Hormuz, the son of one of Abbass most famous generals, founder of a college at Shiraz, and otherwise a public benefactor, fell a victim tO his savage cruelty.
Furious at the escape of his rival, the savage conqueror ordered a general massacre; 20,000 women and children were sold into slavery, and 70,000 eyes of the inhabitants of Kermn were brought to Aga Mahommed on a platter.
The vast spaces of the veld, the silence of the solitudes, the marvellous, varied and abundant animal life, the savage, half-weird character of the natives and the wild adventure of the early colonists have been caught with a true spirit of genius.
Kidd, The Essential Kafir (1904); Savage Childhood (1906), and Kafir Socialism and the Dawn of Individualism (1908); J.
In Scotland episcopacy was set up, the covenant to which Charles had taken so many solemn oaths burnt by the common hangman, and Argyll brought to the scaffold, while the kingdom was given over to the savage and corrupt administration of Lauderdale.
They are a fierce and savage people who have preserved their independence.
The new king's Sadducean proclivities rendered him odious to the populace, which rose in revolt, but only to bring upon itself a savage revenge.
In January of 1881 were fought the battles of Chorillos and Miraflores, attended by heavy slaughter and savage excesses on the part of the Chilean troops.
Starting from Path, he penetrated to the banks of the Tocantins, making numerous converts to Christianity and civilization among the most savage tribes; but after two years of unceasing labour, during which every difficulty was placed in his way by the colonial authorities, he saw that the Indians must be withdrawn from the jurisdiction of the governors, to prevent their exploitation, and placed under the control of the members of a single religious society.
The failure caused a savage outburst of wrath in the country.
This savage punishment was approved by the higher officers of the navy, who showed great lenity to men of their own rank.
As in India, after the expulsion of Buddhism, the degrading worship of Siva and his dusky bride had been incorporated into Hinduism from the savage devil worship of Aryan and of non-Aryan tribes, so, as pure Buddhism died away in the north, the Tantra system, a mixture of magic and witchcraft and sorcery, was incorporated into the corrupted Buddhism.
The Homeric view of him as the All-Father is a high spiritual concept, but one of which many savage religions of our own time are capable.
Koch, Der Kaukasus (Berlin, 1882); C. Phillipps Woolley, Savage Svanetia (2 vols., London, 1883); E.
Between the last-named river and the Lualaba dwell the savage and cannibal Batetela and Bakussu.
The most savage and truculent of the tribes are those who live in the forest regions; the most advanced in culture, the dwellers in the plains.
in the Romagna, he directed, or rather assisted in, the savage suppression of the revolt of the inhabitants of Cesena against the papal authority.
Savage and barbaric religions recognize it, and the mythology of the world has hardly a more universal theme.
The capacity of the cranium is estimated in cubic measure by filling it with sand, &c., with the general result that the civilized white man is found to have a larger brain than the barbarian or savage.
But the researches of anthropologists in recent years have proved that the civilization of man has been gradually developed from an original stone-age culture, such as characterizes modern savage life.
Nor is such a system of communication only theoretically conceivable; it is, and always has been, in practical operation between people ignorant of one another's language, and as such is largely used in the intercourse of savage tribes.
Thus the savage, uttering the sound waow!
An examination of the details of savage life shows not only that there is an immeasurable difference between the rudest man and the highest lower animal, but also that the least cultured savages have themselves advanced far beyond the lowest intellectual and moral state at which human tribes can be conceived as capable of existing, when placed under favourable circumstances of warm climate, abundant food, and security from too severe destructive influences.
The Australian black-fellow or the forest Indian of Brazil, who may be taken as examples of the lowest modern savage, had, before contact with whites, attained to rudimentary stages in many of the characteristic functions of civilized life.
In the simple arts of broiling and roasting meat, the use of hides and furs for covering, the plaiting of mats and baskets, the devices of hunting, trapping and fishing, the pleasure taken in personal ornament, the touches of artistic decoration on objects of daily use, the savage differs in degree but not in kind from the civilized man.
The domestic and social affections, the kindly care of the young and the old, some acknowledgment of marital and parental obligation, the duty of mutual defence in the tribe, the authority of the elders, and general respect to traditional custom as the regulator of life and duty, are more or less well marked in every savage tribe which is not disorganized and falling to pieces.
Lastly, there is usually to be discerned amongst such lower races a belief in unseen powers pervading the universe, this belief shaping itself into an animistic or spiritualistic theology, mostly resulting in some kind of worship. If, again, high savage or low barbaric types be selected, as among the North American Indians, Polynesians, and Kaffirs of South Africa, the same elements of culture appear, but at a more advanced stage, namely, a more full and accurate language, more knowledge of the laws of nature, more serviceable implements, more perfect industrial processes, more definite and fixed social order and frame of government, more systematic and philosophic schemes of religion and a more elaborate and ceremonial worship. At intervals new arts and ideas appear, such as agriculture and pasturage, the manufacture of pottery, the use of metal implements and the device of record and communication by picture writing.
Along such stages of improvement and invention the bridge is fairly made between savage and barbaric culture; and this once attained to, the remainder of the series of stages of civilization lies within the range of common knowledge.
That processes of development similar to these were in prehistoric times effective to raise culture from the savage to the barbaric level, two considerations especially tend to prove.
The same races who were found making thread by the laborious process of twisting with the hand, would hardly have disused, if they had ever possessed, so simple a labour-saving device as the spindle, which consists merely of a small stick weighted at one end; the spindle may, accordingly, be regarded as an instrument invented somewhere between the lowest and highest savage levels (Tylor, Early Hist.
In this way the history of numeral words furnishes actual proof of that independent intel lectural progress among savage tribes which some writers have rashly denied.
Such words as hand, hands, foot, man, &c., are used as numerals signifying 5, 10, 15, 20, &c., among many savage and barbaric peoples; thus Polynesian lima, i.e.
" one man," means 20, &c., &c. The existence of such expressions demonstrates that the people who use them had originally no spoken names for these numbers, but once merely counted them by gesture on their fingers and toes in low savage fashion, till they obtained higher numerals by the inventive process of describing in words these counting-gestures.
Thus the modern Hindu, though using civilized means for lighting his household fires, retains the savage " fire-drill " for obtaining fire by friction of wood when what he considers pure or sacred fire has to be produced for sacrificial purposes; while in Europe into modern times the same primitive process has been kept up in producing the sacred and magical " need-fire," which was lighted to deliver cattle from a murrain.
Again, the funeral offerings of food, clothing, weapons, &c., to the dead are absolutely intelligible and purposeful among savage races, who believe that the souls of the departed are ethereal beings capable of consuming food, and of receiving and using the souls or phantoms of any objects sacrificed for their use.
In like manner magic still exists in the civilized world as a survival from the savage and barbaric times to which it originally belongs, and in which is found the natural source and proper home of utterly savage practices still carried on by ignorant peasants in Great Britain, such as taking omens from the cries of animals, or bewitching an enemy by sticking full of pins and hanging up to shrivel in the smoke an image or other object, that similar destruction may fall on the hated person represented by the symbol (Tylor, Primitive Culture, ch.
The Stone Age represents the early condition of mankind in general, and has remained in savage districts up to modern times, while the introduction of metals need not at once supersede the use of the old stone hatchets and arrows, which have often long continued in dwindling survival by the side of the new bronze and even iron ones.
Although the three divisions of savage, barbaric, and civilized man do not correspond at all perfectly with the Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages, this classification of civilization has proved of extraordinary value in arranging in their proper order of culture the nations of the Old World.
Lastly, still following the main lines of human culture, the primitive germs of religious institutions have to be traced in the childish faith and rude rites of savage life, and thence followed in their expansion into the vast systems administered by patriarchs and priests, henceforth taking under their charge the precepts of morality, and enforcing them under divine sanction, while also exercising in political life an authority beside or above the civil law.
That the men of the Quaternary period knew the savage art of producing fire by friction, and roasted the flesh on which they mainly subsisted, is proved by the fragments of charcoal found in the cave deposits, where also occur bone awls and needles, which indicate the wearing of skin clothing, like that of the modern Australians and Fuegians.
They were a savage people, perhaps.
The fire was produced by the ordinary savage fire-drill.
The task to be accomplished was to march over 400 miles of a mountainous and little-known country, inhabited by savage tribes, to the camp or fortress of Theodore, and compel him to deliver up his captives.
G.) 11VERS, [[Richard Savage, 4th Earl]] (c. 1660-1712), was the second son of Thomas, 3rd earl; and after the death about 1680 of his elder brother Thomas, styled Viscount Colchester, he was designated by that title until he succeeded to the peerage.
Early in life Richard Savage acquired notoriety by his dare-devilry and dissipation, and he was, too, one of the most conspicuous rakes in the society of the period.
Richard Savage, the poet, claimed identity with Lady Macclesfield's son by Lord Rivers, but though his story was accepted by Dr Johnson and was very generally believed, the evidence in its support is faulty in several respects.
As Rivers left no legitimate son the earldom passed on his death to his cousin, John Savage, grandson of the 2nd earl, and a priest in the Roman Catholic Church, on whose death, about 1735, all the family titles became extinct.
The region was inhospitable, the domain a prey to lawless exaction, the house itself savage and disorderly.
His wife, Catherine Maclean, who had previously been the wife of the earl of Argyll, was kept by Shane O'Neill as his mistress and bore him several children, though grossly ill-treated by her savage captor; Calvagh himself was subjected to atrocious torture"during the three years that he remained O'Neill's prisoner.
This section was written therefore after 134 B.C., when the breach between John Hyrcanus and the Pharisees took place and before the savage massacres of the latter by Jannaeus (95 B.C.); for it is not likely that in a book dealing with the sufferings of the Pharisees such a reference would be omitted.
Pomerania, protected on the south by virgin forests and almost impenetrable morasses, was in those days inhabited by a valiant and savage Slavonic race akin to the Wends, who clung to paganism with unconquerable obstinacy.
Among the tribes which are still living in a savage state are the Mesayas, Caquetas, Mocoas, Amarizanos, Guipanabis and Andaquies of the unsettled eastern territories; the Goajiros, Motilones, Guainetas, and Cocinas of the Rio Hacha, Upar and Santa Marta districts; and the Dariens, Cunacunas, and Chocos of the Atrato basin.
With all his native ability, Chmielnicki was but an eminent savage.
Out of such conditions arose the buccaneer, alternately sailor and hunter, even occasionally a planter - roving, bold, unscrupulous, often savage, with an intense detestation of Spain.
The savage punishment of the Neapolitan Republicans is dealt with in more detail under Naples, Nelson and Caracciolo, but it is necessary to say here that the king, and above all the queen, were particularly anxious that no mercy should be shown to the rebels, and Maria Carolina made use of Lady Hamilton, Nelson's mistress, to induce him to execute her own spiteful vengeance.
The parliament was now dismissed, and Ferdinand inaugurated an era of savage persecution, supported by spies and informers, against the Liberals and Carbonari, the Austrian commandant in vain protesting against the savagery which his presence alone rendered possible.
Ranuccio was a reserved and gloomy bigot; he instituted savage persecutions against supposed witches and heretics, and lived in perpetual terror of plots.
The Veddahs exhibit the phenomenon of a race living the wildest of savage lives and yet speaking an Aryan dialect.
Docile and easily tamed when young, old males of many of the species become exceedingly morose and savage in captivity.
were reckoned the chief monarchs of England, and exercised a widespread influence over the southern realms, yet each had to win his supremacy by his own sword; and when Edwin and Oswald fell before the savage heathen Penda, and Ecgfrith was cut off by the Picts, there was a gap of anarchy before another king asserted hh superior power.
Imperialism, which had been excited by Lord Beaconsfields policy in 1878, and by the prospect of a war with a great European power, fell into discredit when it degenerated into a fresh expedition into Afghanistan, and an inglorious war with a savage African tribe.
Before the conquest of South America, the Rio de las Amazonas had no general name; for, according to a common custom, each savage tribe gave a name only to the section of the river which it occupied - such as Paranaguazu, Guyerma, Solimoes and others.
The country it traverses in its extremely sinuous course is very level, similar in character to that of the Jurua, and is a fostered wilderness occupied by a few savage hordes.
It is still occupied by savage tribes.
4 In his Principles of Sociology Herbert Spencer collected, from the accounts we have of various savage tribes in widely separated 3 Confucianism ought perhaps to be named as one.
Savage, who has found his guides in Darwin and Spencer.
Of this savage design eleven months' notice is given (iii.
In 1653 the weakness and disorder of Poland, which had just emerged, bleeding at every pore, from the savage Cossack war, encouraged Alexius to attempt to recover from her secular rival the old Russian lands.
3 6 ) describes them as savage women, whose persons were covered with hair, which gave rise to the story of their snaky hair and girdle.
In the first hours of the 11th of June the conspirators surrounded the palace with troops, forced an entrance and assassinated both King Alexander and Queen Draga in a most cruel and savage manner.
The Fijians combined with this greediness a savage and merciless natures.
In 1860 he took charge of the Mount Savage Iron Works, in Cumberland, Maryland.
The sneers of Horace Walpole, and the savage attack of Smollett in The Adventures of an Atom, are animated by personal or political spite.
It is this irrational and unnatural element - .as Max Muller says, " the silly, savage and senseless element " - that makes mythology the puzzle which men have so long found it.
that Lafitau, a Jesuit missionary in North America, while inclined to take a mystical view of the secrets concealed by Iroquois myths, had also pointed out the savage element surviving in Greek mythology.5 Recent Mythological Systems. - Up to a very recent date students of mythology were hampered by orthodox traditions, and still more by ignorance of the ancient languages and of the natural history of man.
The problem was to explain what he calls " the silly, savage and senseless element " in mythology (Sel.
Max Muller says (speaking of the Greeks), " their poets had an instinctive aversion to everything excessive or monstrous, yet they would relate of their gods what would make the most savage of Red Indians creep and shudder " - stories, that is, of the cannibalism of Demeter, of the mutilation of Uranus, the cannibalism of Cronus, who swallowed his own children, and the like.
5 savage and senseless elements in the legends of the gods will be shown to have a natural significance, as descriptions of sky, storms, sunset, water, fire, dawn, twilight, the life of earth, and other celestial and terrestrial existences.
We must also bear in mind that early men when they conceived, and savage men when they conceive, of the sun, moon, wind, earth, sky and so forth, have no such ideas in their minds as we attach to these names.
On the other hand, the most ordinary savage does not misunderstand so universal a custom as the imposition of names peculiar to animals or derived from atmospheric phenomena.
But, while the possibility of the diffusion of myths by borrowing and transmission must be allowed for, the hypothesis of the origin of myths in the savage state of the intellect supplies a ready explanation of their wide diffusion.
" To this we may answer that the human mind had to pass through the savage stage of thought, that this stage was for all practical purposes " identically the same " everywhere, and that to civilized observers it does resemble " a temporary madness."
In the former case he neglects the study of savage myths; in the latter he unconsciously accommodates what he hears to what he calls " the truth."
Yet again we must remember that the leading questions of a European inquirer may furnish a savage with a thread on which to string answers which the questions themselves have suggested.
" The question starts the invention of the savage on a deluge-myth, of which, perhaps, the idea has never before entered his mind.
By this time, too, almost every explorer of savage life is a theorist.
Another method of obtaining evidence is by the comparative study of savage laws and institutions.
All these ideas are the stuff of which myths are made, and the evidence of savage institutions, in every part of the world, proves that these ideas are the universal inheritance of savages.
Savage men are like ourselves in curiosity and anxiety causas cognoscere rerum, but with our curiosity they do not possess our powers of attention.
Curiosity and credulity, then, are the characteristics of the savage intellect.
When a phenomenon presents itself the savage requires an explanation, and that explanation he makes for himself, or receives from tradition, in the shape of a myth.
The basis of these myths, which are just as much a part of early conjectural science as of early religion, is naturally the experience of the savage as construed by himself.
If there were no direct evidence in favour of Tylor's opinion, it would be enough to point to the nature of savage myths themselves.
Thus savage myths answer the questions - What was the origin of the world, and of men, and of beasts ?
Savage mythology, which is also savage science, has a reply to all these and all similar questions, and that reply is always found in the shape of a story.
But they frame their stories, necessarily and naturally, in harmony with their general theory of things, with what we may call " savage metaphysics."
To the savage, and apparently to men more backward than the most backward peoples we know, all nature was a congeries of animated personalities.
The savage's notion of personality is more a universally diffused feeling than a reasoned conception, and this feeling of a personal self he impartially distributes all over the world as known to him.
3 This opinion we may name personalism, and it is the necessary condition of savage (and, as will be seen, of civilized) mythology.
We must remember, however, that to the savage, Sky, Sun, Sea, Wind, are not only persons, but they are savage persons.
The savage regards all animals as endowed with personality.
These may serve as examples of the savage belief in the human intelligence of animals.
But the chief evidence for the savage theory of man's close kinship with the lower animals is found in the institution called totemism - the belief that certain stocks of men in the various tribes are descended by blood descent from, or are developed out of, or otherwise connected with, certain objects animate or inanimate, but especially with beasts.
Savage man also believes that many of his own tribe-fellows have the power of assuming the shapes of animals, and that the souls of his dead kinsfolk revert to animal forms.
The last peculiarity in savage philosophy to which we need call attention here is the belief in spirits and in human intercourse with the shades of the dead.
With the savage natural death is not a universal and inevitable ordinance.
It is almost superfluous to quote here the voluminous evidence for the intercourse with spirits which savage chiefs and medicine men are believed to maintain.
The result of our examination, so far, is that in savage opinion sky, wind, sun, sea and many other phenomena have, being personal, all the powers attributed to real human persons.
This is the philosophy of savage life, and it is on these principles that the savage constructs his myths, while these, again, are all the scientific explanations of the universe with which he has been able to supply himself.
There is no such consistency of opinion in myths, whether of civilized or savage races.
It will appear that, while the non-civilized gods are often theriomorphic, made in accordance with the ideas of non-civilized men, the civilized gods retain many characteristics of the savage gods, and these characteristics are the " irrational element " in the divine myths.
It is not easy to separate the discussion of savage myths of gods from the problem, Whence and how arose the savage belief in gods ?
By reflection on dreams, in which the self, or " spirit," of the savage seems to wander free from the bounds of time and space, to see things remote, and to meet and recognize dead friends or foes; by speculation on the experiences of trance and of phantasms of the dead or living, beheld with waking eyes; by pondering on the phenomena of shadows, of breath, of death and life, the savage evolved the idea of a separable soul or spirit capable of surviving bodily death.
These are the doctrines of animism, and, according to the usual anthropological theory, these spirits come to thrive to god's estate in favourable circumstances, as where the dead man, when alive, had great man y or wakan, a great share of the ether, so to speak, which, in savage metaphysics, is the viewless vehicle of magical influences.
But all over the savage world, especially in Africa, spirit worship has sprung up and choked the All-Father, who, however, in most savage regions, abides as a name, receiving no sacrifice, and, save among the Masai, seldom being addressed in prayer.
In short, " their Red Dawn," if red dawn he be, is a person, and a savage person, adored exactly as the actual fathers and grandfathers of the Hottentots are adored.
Before Qat's time there had been no night, but he purchased a sufficient allowance of darkness from I Qong, that is, night considered as a person in accordance with the law of savage thought already explained.
In Sproat's Scenes from Savage Life (1868) there is a good account of Aht opinions by a settler who had won the confidence of the natives between 1860 and 1868.
Passing from the lower savage myths, of which space does not permit us to offer a larger selection, we turn to races in the upper strata of barbarism.
Maui in some respects answers to the chief of the Adityas in Vedic mythology; in others he answers to Qat, Quawteaht, and other savage divine personages.
The whole system, as far as it can be called a system, of Maori mythology is obviously based on the savage conceptions of the world which have already been explained.
Their religion had its fine lucid intervals, but their mythology and ritual were little better than savage ideas, elaborately worked up by the imagination of a cruel and superstitious priesthood.
But in grotesque and savage points of faith the ancient Egyptians, the Greeks, and the Vedic Indians ran even the Aztecs pretty close.
Such ideas are consonant with, and may be traced to the confused and nebulous condition of, savage thought.
The beast-gods and dualistic and creative myths of savages are looked on as the natural product of the savage reason and fancy.
So far the identity of custom with savage totemism is absolute.
Osiris, Horus, Typhon (Seth), Isis and Nephthys were the children of Seb (whom the Greeks identified with Cronus); the myths of their birth were peculiarly savage and obscene.
But we apply no such explanation to similar savage legends, and our theory is that the Osirian myth is only one of these retained to the time of Plutarch by the religious conservatism of a__race which, to the time of Plutarch, preserved in full vigour most of the practices of totemism.
As a slight confirmation of the possibility of this theory we may mention that Greek mysteries retained two of the features of savage mysteries.
The hypothesis that the rites and the stories are savage inventions surviving into civilized religion seems better to meet the difficulty.
In this aspect they are natural phenomena still, but phenomena as originally conceived of by the personifying imagination of the savage, and credited, like the gods of the Maori or the Australian, with all manner of freaks, adventures and disguises.
Like most gods, they had struggles for pre-eminence with Titanic opponents, the Asuras, who partly answer to the Greek Titans and the Hawaiian foes of the divine race, or to the Scandinavian giants and the enemies who beset the savage creative beings.
The legends are survivals of a time in which natural phenomena were regarded, not as we regard them, but as persons, and savage persons, Alcheringa folk, in fact, and became the centres of legends in the savage manner.
Space does not permit us to recount the equally puerile and barbarous legends of Vishnu, Agni, the loves of Vivasvat in the form of a horse, the adventures of Soma, nor the Vedic amours (paralleled in several savage mythologies) of Pururavas and Urvasi.2 Divine Myths of Greece.
Yet in the mythology and religion of Greece we find abundant survivals of savage manners and of savage myths.
The survivals of rites, objects of worship, and sacrifices like these prove that religious conservatism in Greece retained much of savage practice, and the Greek mythology is not less full of ideas familiar to the lowest races.
The system of Hesiod is a medley of later physical speculation and of poetic allegory, with matter which we, at least, regard as savage survivals, like the mutilation of Heaven and the swallowmyth.'
In these we more distinctly perceive the savage element.
We have already seen that this is the ordinary pedigree of savage stocks in Asia, Africa, Australia and America, while animals appear among Irish tribes and in Egyptian and ancient English genealogies.'
The tales of divine cannibalism to which Pindar refers with awe, the mutilation of Dionysus Zagreus, the unspeakable abominations of Dionysus, the loves of Hera in the shape of a cuckoo, the divine powers of metamorphosing men and women into beasts and stars - these tales come to us as echoes of the period of savage thought.
The general conclusion is that many of the Greek deities were originally elemental, the elements being personified in accordance with the laws of savage imaginations.
Zeus is the sky, but not our sky; he had originally a personal character, and that a savage or barbarous character.
The Scandinavian cosmogonic myth (with its parallels among races savage and civilized) is given elsewhere.
These vary in quality with the civilization of the races in which they are current, but the same ideas which we proceed to state pervade all cosmogonical myths, savage and civilized.
In savage and civilized myths they are usually metamorphosed men, women and beasts.
This is a thoroughly good example of the savage myths (as in Peru, according to Acosta) by which beasts and anthropomorphic gods and stars are all jumbled together.'
The Andaman Islanders account for the white brilliance of the moon by saying that he is daubing himself with white clay, a custom common in savage and Greek mysteries.
- Few savage races regard death as a natural event.
myths may be adorned and classified marchen, in themselves survivals of savage fancy, see Fortnightly Review, May 1872, " Myths and Fairy Tales."
The Catalans attained emancipation from feudal subjection by a successiori of savage peasant revolts in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Dietrich (elected U.S. Senator) Ezra P. Savage (lieut.-governor, succeeding) John H.
His incalculableness, his savage cruelty (like most of the princes of his house he was a fanatical Catholic and persecutor) and his perpetual restlessness point plainly enough to a disordered mind.
When there is no other means of entering into commercial relations with remote and savage races save by enterprise of such magnitude that private individuals could not incur the risk involved, then a company may be well entrusted with special privileges for the purpose, as an inventor is accorded a certain protection by law by means of a patent which enables him to bring out his invention at a profit if there is anything in it.
But the savage robber powers which, to the disgrace of Europe, infested the commerce and the coasts, not only of the Mediterranean but even for a time of the ocean; who were not finally suppressed till the 19th century was well advanced; and who are properly known as the Barbary pirates, arose in the 16th century, attained their greatest height in the 7th, declined gradually throughout the 18th and were extinguished about 1830.
The covering of this savage but cowardly little night-prowler is a sort of short hair, not fur.
The medley of other Malayan tribes, of a more or less savage type, living in the island, are known under the collective name of Alfuros.
Sproat, Savage Life.
Lastly, fire is said (owing to this confusion) to have been stolen, and the term which meant the common savage fire-stick is by a process of delusion conceived to represent, not a stick, but a person, Prometheus, who stole fire.
The barrel waved unsteadily on the chest of the savage as he closed in on Bordeaux.
abetted by a vociferous right-wing press, conservatives have been waging a savage ' culture war ' on Austria's intelligentsia for decades.
But now, Tonwell has been overrun by savage barbarians.
They call the sun dance barbarous, savage, a bloody superstition.
This is because music does indeed soothe the savage beast, or in this case, the baby.
But the most savage beast you're likely to encounter here is the owner's dog Zoe, six inches of terrifying Maltese terrier.
What can we do in terms of a code of conduct to stop you from getting a savage beating?
The innocent girl, Lisa, finds herself the object of the savage brutes ' sordid desires.
For similar reasons, the Ghost in the Machine happily coexists with the Noble Savage.
disconnected facts which I can only compare to the savage taste for beads.
Indeed, his extension of means-testing provides a savage discouragement to saving.
Only a few months later, they are deeply embroiled in a savage situation in which three of our boys have already died.
fondle factor is now the defunct Savage Model 99.
LAND OF COLLEGE PROPHETS " College Prophets: A century old guild of students who make savage their bodies yet refine their minds " .
They taught it science, philosophy, religion, and civilized the savage hordes of the earth.
The Seven Deadly Sins was a savage indictment of the society around him.
leech gatherer or the noble savage all over again in modern dress.
martyred by pagans whose savage customs he had denounced.
Hitler watched them for a few moments, a savage fury blazing from his pale blue eyes.
In 1975 he was the prime mover in the rescue of the Savage Company Archives from King's Lynn.
noble savage " about this headline.
noble savage ' living in harmony with nature. b ).
octavo pages of the life of Savage at a sitting; but then I sat up all night.
He was martyred by pagans whose savage customs he had denounced.
Another of our second placers was Savage's boss, Mark Hughes.
Surely the reliques of this worthy prelate deserved a more reverend respect even among savage beasts.
prime mover in the rescue of the Savage Company Archives from King's Lynn.
Puritan ministers visited both Savage and Butler in the condemned cells in the run up to their hangings.
But it's not a normal religiosity, it is a wild religiosity, savage?
The savage repression of local populations usually did enough to put people off of joining any local resistance force.
Even the slightest whisper of dissent provoked savage reprisals.
noted local restaurateurs Richard and Gill Savage run the Swan with their family and provide home-cooked quality food and service second to none.
Savage have their own crazy circadian rhythm, a cosmic loop.
Comedy doesn't get much blacker than this savage satire on terrorism.
Will they be eaten by parasites, or killed by a particularly savage frost?
We also spoke to sometimes savage PAs in an attempt to gain direct access to our targets.
He dealt about his blows with almost savage violence.
The cumulative effect of the stories is made all the more brutal for the primitive and often savage masculine code of ethics which prevails.
No ' noble savage ' he, the tasks he prescribes for Jason amount to a death sentence.
It is precisely the elemental god of Browning's Caliban, and of the primitive savage!
He even managed to avoid Karelin's most savage throw, a reverse body lift.
savage beast for the next turn.
savage indictment of the society around him.
savage wolves " who " will not spare the flock " .
savage satire on terrorism.
savage repression of local populations usually did enough to put people off of joining any local resistance force.
Socialist Party members were not put off by savage dogs and heavy sleet and snow!
specialty of international holiday insurance uk their prosperity or that savage holiday supplier towel specialties.
studied oil painting with Betty Savage in Polson, Mt., with Joan Mason in St. Ignatius, Mt.
swarthy, savage fellows of some country, anyhow.
He lasted 6 hours on the cross, enduring the savage taunts of his disillusioned former followers.
trampleymbolic aliens are frequently replaced by a savage authoritarian regime trampling on freedom.
underminet at first hand in the undermining of confidence and bouts of depression that these often savage attacks engendered in him.
That has a richard wright 's savage exciting way to.
Holiday party held every year they savage holiday wright dies a happy.
She had not with the advantage Richard wright 's savage airplane what is.
From the savage state, through the terror that gives birth to religions, through the creation of families by marriage, through burial rites and piety towards the dead, men approach civilization with the aid of poetic wisdom, and pass through three periods - the divine, heroic and human - in which they have three forms of government, language, literature, jurisprudence and civilization.
Moreover parliament was so far from pressing disendowment that on the petition of the Commons it passed a savage act against the heresies " commonly called Lollardry " which " aimed at the destruction of the king and all temporal estates," making Lollards felons and ordering every justice of the peace to hunt down their schools, conventicles, congregations and confederacies.
Sorcery, the scars raised on the body, the knocking out of teeth, circumcision and rules as to marriage have been quoted; but many such customs are found among savage peoples far distant from each other and entirely unrelated.
Valenciennes, the chief centre of disturbance in the south, was besieged and taken by Philip de Noircarmes, governor of Hainault, who inflicted a savage vengeance (April 1567).
The fruit-eating savage cannot stray beyond his woods which bound his life as the water bounds that of a fish; the hunter is free to live on the margin of forests or in open country, while the robber or warrior from some natural stronghold of the mountains sweeps over the adjacent plains and carries his raids into distant lands.
To explicate, however, and purge the meaning of that "strong heart" and "clean" which the savage after his fashion can wish and ask for, remained the task of the higher and more self-conscious types of religion.
above sea-level on a plateau between the Great Savage and Dans mountains, and its delightful scenery and air have made it attractive as a summer resort.
They have, for example, a demon of the waterfall, a demon of wild-beast tracks, a demon which interferes with snares for wild-fowl, a baboon demon, which takes possession of dancers and causes them to perform wonderful feats of climbing, &c. But it is impossible to do more than deal with a few types, which will illustrate the main features of the demonology of savage, barbarous and semicivilized peoples.
They are savage and quarrelsome, but are naturally excellent water-dogs.
Among those who denounced it - besides some whose names are now little known, but are recorded in the pages of Clarkson - were Baxter, Sir Richard Steele (in Inkle and Yarico), the poets Southern (in Oroonoko), Pope, Thomson, Shenstone, Dyer, Savage and above all Cowper (see his Charity, and Task, bk.
But no armed manifestation of revolt had taken place until the lawless and savage conduct of the Janissaries, who had made themselves masters of the country, assisted by the notorious governor of Vidin, Pasvan Oglu, 2 Text in Martens, Recueil, 2nd series, vol.
Among his other works are The Phantom Ship (1839); A Diary in America (1839); 011a Podrida (1840), a collection of miscellaneous papers; Poor Jack (1840); Joseph Rushbrook (1841); Percival Keene (1842); Monsieur Violet (1842); The Privateer's Man (1844); The Mission, or Scenes in Africa (1845); The Little Savage (1848-1849), published posthumously; and Valerie, not completed (1849).
In Transylvania the princes of the Bathory family (1571-1604) were ardent disciples of the Jesuit fathers, and Sigismund Bathory in particular persecuted fiercely, his fury being especially directed against the queer judaizing sect known as the Sabbatarians, whose tenets were adopted by the Szeklers, the most savage of " the three nations " of Transylvania, many thousands of whom were, after a bloody struggle, forced to emigrate.
McGillivray was polished in manners, of cultivated intellect, was a shrewd merchant, and a successful speculator; but he had many savage traits, being noted for his treachery, craftiness and love of barbaric display.
On re-entering Milan Charles Albert was badly received and reviled as a traitor by the Republicans, and although he declared himself ready to die defending the city the municipality treated with Radetzky for a capitulation; the mob, urged on by the demagogues, made a savage demonstration against him at the Palazzo Greppi, whence he escaped in the night with difficulty and returned to Piedmont with his defeated armp. The French Republic offered to intervene in the spring of 1848, but Charles Albert did not desire foreign aid, the more so as in this case it would have had to be paid for by the cession of Nice and Savoy.
(See Skeat's e tymological Dictionary as to various forms of the word, and Meyer, Lehrbuch des deutschen Staatsrechts, 15, as to its derivation.) Sovereignty may be viewed in three ways: there is the historical explanation of its origin and growth, its rude beginning in the savage horde, its completion in the modern state; there is the analytical or juridical explanation; there is also what (for want of a better phrase) may be called the organic explanation of sovereignty.
He perceived at once that it was the only way of counteracting the restlessness of the sultan's protÃ©gÃ©s, the Protestant princes of Transylvania, whose undisciplined hordes, scarcely less savage than their allies the Turks and Tatars, were a perpetual menace both to Austria and to Poland.
The more dismal, the more savage, the more hopeless a spot appeared, the more did it please their rigid mood.
From the inability of the savage in all ages and in all lands to comprehend death as a natural phenomenon, there results a tendency to personify death, and myths are invented to account for its origin.