A saturated solution of the gas, in water, is a colourless, oily, strongly fuming liquid which after a time decomposes, with separation of metaboric acid, leaving hydrofluoboric acid HF BF3 in solution.
The residue is dissolved in alcohol and to the cold saturated solution a cold alcoholic solution of picric acid is added.
It appears, therefore, that liquid oxygen is by far the most strongly paramagnetic liquid known, its susceptibility being more than four times greater than that of a saturated solution of ferric chloride.
According to Michel and Kraft, one litre of cold saturated solution of tin crystals weighs 1827 grammes and contains 1333 grammes of SnCl 2.
It is fairly soluble in water; too parts at o° dissolving 13.3 parts of the salt, and about 30 parts at 20°; the most saturated solution contains 327.4 parts of the salt in too of water; this solution boils at 114.1°.
A saturated solution of calcium chloride contains 325 parts of CaC1 2 to ioo of water at the boiling point (179.5°).
The anhydrous salt may be prepared by heating a saturated solution of the hydrated salt.
The heptahydrate, Na2C03.7H20, is obtained by crystallizing a warm saturated solution in a vacuum; it appears to be dimorphous.
In the case of the Clark standard cell above mentioned the elements are mercury and zinc separated by a paste of mercurous sulphate mixed with a saturated solution of zinc sulphate.
The cadmium sulphate solution is prepared by digesting a saturated solution of cadmium sulphate with cadmium hydroxide to remove free acid, care being taken not to raise the temperature above 70° C., and then by digesting it still further with mercurous sulphate until no more precipitation occurs.
In making the paste, so much cadmium sulphate must be added that a saturated solution of that salt is formed and is present in the cell.
The most saturated solution contains 205 parts of the salt to 100 of water and boils at 135°.
The salt K2S03 H20 may be obtained by crystallizing the metabisulphite, K 2 S 2 0 5 (from sulphur dioxide and a hot saturated solution of the carbonate, or from sulphur dioxide and a mixture of milk of lime and potassium sulphate) with an equivalent amount of potash.
Bueb (Congress of German Gas Industries, March 1900) brings gas (free from tar) into intimate contact with a saturated solution of ferrous sulphate, when a "cyanogen mud" is obtained.
Hydroferricyanic acid, H 3 Fe(NC)s, obtained by adding concentrated hydrochloric acid to a cold saturated solution of potassium ferricyanide, crystallizes in brown needles, and is easily decomposed.
Chromium trioxide, Cr03, is obtained by adding concentrated sulphuric acid to a cold saturated solution of potassium bichromate, when it separates in long red needles; the mother liquor is drained off and the crystals are washed with concentrated nitric acid, the excess of which is removed by means of a current of dry air.
On pouring a solution of chromous chloride into a saturated solution of sodium acetate, a red crystalline precipitate of chromous acetate is produced; this is much more permanent in air than the other chromous salts and consequently can be used for their preparation.
In small quantities, it may be prepared by the addition of concentrated sulphuric acid to a cold saturated solution of borax.
A saturated solution is a system in equilibrium, and exhibits the thermodynamic relations which hold for all such systems. Just as two electrified bodies are in equilibrium when their electric potentials are equal, so two parts of a chemical and physical system are in equilibrium when there is equality between the chemical potentials of each component present in the two parts.
The four phases are (I) crystals of salt, (2) crystals of ice, (3) a saturated solution of the salt in water, and (4) the vapour, which is that practically of water alone, since the salt is non-volatile at the temperature in question.
Equilibrium between these phases is obtained at the freezing point of the saturated solution under the pressure of the vapour.
Thus a mixture of ice, salt and the saturated solution has a constant freezing point, and the composition of the solution is constant and the same as that of the mixed solids which freeze out on the abstraction of heat.
If the supply of ice fails first the temperature will rise, and, since solid salt remains, we pass along a curve OA giving the relation between temperature and the vapour pressure of the saturated solution.
Or, by increasing the pressure, we eliminate the vapour and obtain the curve OF giving the relation between pressure, freezing point and composition when a saturated solution is in contact with ice and salt.
Taking the point 0 to denote the state of equilibrium between ice, hydrate; saturated solution and vapour, we pass along OA till a new solid phase, that of Na2S04, appears at 32.6°; from this point arise four curves, analogous to those diverging from the point O.
of a saturated solution of Na2S04 IoH 2 O.
At B is a nonvariant system made up of ice, solid phenol, saturated solution and vapour.
At B we have the non-variant cryohydric point at which ice, the hydrate Fe2C16 12H20, the saturated solution and the vapour are in equilibrium at 55° C. As the proportion 26 of salt is increased, the melting point of the con glomerate rises, till, at the -40 maximum point C, we have the pure compound the hydrate with twelve molecules ¦¦ 0.b, E, ?
In the equation dP/dT= X/T(v 2 - v 1), P is the osmotic pressure, T the absolute temperature and X the heat of solution of unit mass of the solute when dissolving to form a volume v2 - v1 of saturated solution in an osmotic cylinder.
In all this investigation it should be noted that the heat of solution with which we are concerned is the heat effect when solid dissolves to form a saturated solution.
The saturated solution at 109.7° contains 40.35 parts of salt to ioo of water.
On cooling a saturated solution to - 10°, or by cooling a solution in hot hydrochloric acid, the hydrate NaCI.2H 2 O separates; on further cooling an aqueous solution to - 20° a cryohydrate containing 23.7% of the salt is deposited.
From the crude oxide so obtained (which contains lanthanum and didymium oxides) the cerium may be separated by conversion into its double sulphate on the addition of potassium sulphate, the sulphates of the cerium group being insoluble in a saturated solution of potassium sulphate.
A nearly saturated solution of sodium chloride is obtained by purifying natural or artificial brine, i.e.
Six anodes were suspended, alternately with four cathodes, in a saturated solution of copper sulphate in a cylindrical fire-clay trough, all the anodes being connected in one parallel group, and all the cathodes in another.
Guntz (Comptes rendus, 1901, 133, p. 872) electrolyses a saturated solution of barium chloride using a mercury cathode and obtains a 3% barium amalgam; this amalgam is transferred to an iron boat in a wide porcelain tube and the tube slowly heated electrically, a good yield of pure barium being obtained at about looo C. The metal when freshly cut possesses a silver white lustre, is a little harder than lead, and is extremely easily oxidized on exposure; it is soluble in liquid ammonia, and readily attacks both water and alcohol.
A saturated solution of the hydroxide deposits on cooling a hydrated form Ba(OH) 2.8H 2 0, as colourless quadratic prisms, which on exposure to air lose seven molecules of water of crystallization.
The "syrup" employed for medicinal purposes consists of a concentrated or saturated solution of refined sugar in distilled water.
A saturated solution of potassium chlorate in strong nitric acid is added, and the mass evaporated to dryness.
A saturated solution (1 in woo of warm water), thymol gauze and an ointment are used.
To do this, saturated ammoniacal liquor is decomposed by lime in the presence of steam, and the freed ammonia is passed into strong sulphuric acid, the saturated solution of ammonium sulphate being carefully crystallized.
The monohydrate also results as a white precipitate when concentrated sulphuric acid is added to a saturated solution of ferrous sulphate.
Divers obtains it by mixing cold saturated solutions containing one molecular proportion of sodium nitrate, and two molecular proportions of acid sodium sulphite, and then adding a saturated solution of potassium chloride to the mixture.
Arsenic can also be estimated by volumetric methods; for this purpose it must be in the arsenious condition, and the method of estimation consists in converting it into the arsenic condition by means of a standard solution of iodine, in the presence of a cold saturated solution of sodium bicarbonate.
White arsenic exists in two crystalline forms (octahedral and prismatic) and one amorphous form; the octahedral form is produced by the rapid cooling of arsenic vapour, or by cooling a warm saturated solution in water, or by crystallization from hydrochloric acid, and also by the gradual transition of the amorphous variety, this last phenomenon being attended by the evolution of heat.
They pass into the refrigerator, where they are condensed and fall back as a condensed liquid through the meal, percolating it as they pass downwards, and reaching to the bottom of the vessel as a more or less saturated solution of oil in the solvent.
A saturated solution is one in which no more solute will dissolve at that temperature.
supernatant fluid above the crystals is a saturated solution of iodine.
It is fairly soluble in water; too parts at oÃ‚° dissolving 13.3 parts of the salt, and about 30 parts at 20Ã‚°; the most saturated solution contains 327.4 parts of the salt in too of water; this solution boils at 114.1Ã‚°.
A saturated solution of calcium chloride contains 325 parts of CaC1 2 to ioo of water at the boiling point (179.5Ã‚°).
The cadmium sulphate solution is prepared by digesting a saturated solution of cadmium sulphate with cadmium hydroxide to remove free acid, care being taken not to raise the temperature above 70Ã‚° C., and then by digesting it still further with mercurous sulphate until no more precipitation occurs.
The most saturated solution contains 205 parts of the salt to 100 of water and boils at 135Ã‚°.
Taking the point 0 to denote the state of equilibrium between ice, hydrate; saturated solution and vapour, we pass along OA till a new solid phase, that of Na2S04, appears at 32.6Ã‚°; from this point arise four curves, analogous to those diverging from the point O.
At B we have the non-variant cryohydric point at which ice, the hydrate Fe2C16 12H20, the saturated solution and the vapour are in equilibrium at 55Ã‚° C. As the proportion 26 of salt is increased, the melting point of the con glomerate rises, till, at the -40 maximum point C, we have the pure compound the hydrate with twelve molecules ¦¦ 0.b, E, ?
Pure sodium chloride, which may be obtained by passing hydrochloric acid gas into a saturated solution of the commercial salt, whereupon it is precipitated, forms colourless, crystalline cubes (see also below under Rock salt) which melt at 815.4Ã‚°, and begins to volatilize at slightly higher temperatures.
The saturated solution at 109.7Ã‚° contains 40.35 parts of salt to ioo of water.
On cooling a saturated solution to - 10Ã‚°, or by cooling a solution in hot hydrochloric acid, the hydrate NaCI.2H 2 O separates; on further cooling an aqueous solution to - 20Ã‚° a cryohydrate containing 23.7% of the salt is deposited.
Bromous acid is formed by adding bromine to a saturated solution of silver nitrate (A.
On the addition of concentrated sulphuric acid to a cold saturated solution of the salt, red crystals of chromium trioxide, Cr03, separate (see Chromium), whilst when warmed with concentrated hydrochloric acid and a little water, potassium chlorochromate is produced.
The supernatant fluid above the crystals is a saturated solution of iodine.
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