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saturated

saturated

saturated Sentence Examples

  • "I'm OK," she said in a voice saturated with tears.

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  • Guilt and need warred as her senses became saturated with his oak-amber scent, the warmth of his body at her back.

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  • The mass is then covered with two-thirds of its weight of alcohol, and saturated with hydrochloric acid gas.

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  • According to Michel and Kraft, one litre of cold saturated solution of tin crystals weighs 1827 grammes and contains 1333 grammes of SnCl 2.

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  • According to Michel and Kraft, one litre of cold saturated solution of tin crystals weighs 1827 grammes and contains 1333 grammes of SnCl 2.

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  • The water, moreover, till it is saturated with gases, readily absorbs noxious vapours to which it may be exposed.

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  • Her senses became saturated quickly by his scent and heat.

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  • The weather was already growing wintry and morning frosts congealed an earth saturated by autumn rains.

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  • He spent much of his time in practising magic, and it was believed that he had so saturated his body with poisons that none could injure him.

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  • The saturated road no longer absorbed the water, which ran along the ruts in streams.

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  • Compounds in which all the units of affinity of the contained elements are engaged are said to be saturated, whilst those in which the affinities of the contained elements are not all engaged by other elements are said to be unsaturated.

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  • As a useful preliminary it is convenient to divide heterocyclic ring systems into two leading groups: (I) systems resulting from simple internal dehydration (or similar condensations) of saturated aliphatic compounds - such compounds are: the internal anhydrides or cyclic ethers of the glycols and thioglycols (ethylene oxide, &c.); the cyclic alkyleneimides resulting from the splitting off of ammonia between the amino groups of diaminoparaffins (pyrrolidine, piperazine, &c.); the cyclic esters of oxycarboxylic acids (lactones, lactides); the internal anhydrides of aminocarboxylic acids (lactams, betaines); cyclic derivatives of dicarboxylic acids (anhydrides, imides, alkylen-esters, alkylenamides, &c.).

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  • By reduction, the double linkages become saturated, and compounds result which stand in much about the same relation to the original nucleus as hexamethylene does to benzene.

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  • The water of the ocean is usually nearly saturated with calcium salts, which must continually be removed since they are always being added in the water brought down from the land.

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  • At the time I was writing "The Frost King," and this letter, like many others, contains phrases which show that my mind was saturated with the story.

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  • The upright white hewn studs and freshly planed door and window casings gave it a clean and airy look, especially in the morning, when its timbers were saturated with dew, so that I fancied that by noon some sweet gum would exude from them.

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  • Sir Charles Cameron attributes the prevalence of typhoid in certain areas in Dublin to the soil becoming saturated with faecal matter and specifically infected.

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  • Saturated steam is steam in contact with liquid water at a temperature which is the boiling point of the water and condensing point of the steam; superheated steam is steam out of contact with water heated above this temperature.

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  • The water in shallow seas, off the shores of islands or in lagoons, is saturated with calcium bicarbonate and if the amount of carbonic acid in solution be reduced by any means, normal carbonate must be precipitated.

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  • Unsaturated aldehydes are also known, corresponding to the olefine alcohols; they show the characteristic properties of the saturated aldehydes and can form additive compounds in virtue of their unsaturated nature.

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  • Unsaturated aldehydes are also known, corresponding to the olefine alcohols; they show the characteristic properties of the saturated aldehydes and can form additive compounds in virtue of their unsaturated nature.

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  • A plaster cast of the type is, when dry, saturated with shellac varnish and redried.

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  • This is generally effected by adding the calculated amount of potassium chloride (of which immense quantities are obtained as a by-product in the Stassfurt salt industry) dissolved in hot water to a saturated boiling solution of sodium nitrate; the common salt, which separates on boiling down the solution, is removed from the hot solution, and on cooling the potassium nitrate crystallizes out and is separated and dried.

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  • This is generally effected by adding the calculated amount of potassium chloride (of which immense quantities are obtained as a by-product in the Stassfurt salt industry) dissolved in hot water to a saturated boiling solution of sodium nitrate; the common salt, which separates on boiling down the solution, is removed from the hot solution, and on cooling the potassium nitrate crystallizes out and is separated and dried.

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  • When, as in the formation of naphthalene tetrachloride, for example, the one ring becomes saturated, the other might be expected to assume the normal centric form and become relatively inactive.

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  • It contains four independent constants; two of these may be calculated from the heats of combustion of saturated hydrocarbons, and the other two from the combustion of hydrocarbons containing double and triple linkages.

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  • Cut sheets, or articles made from them, may be saturated by being laid in powdered sulphur maintained for some hours at about 110° C. Sheets sulphured in this way can be made up into articles and joined together either by warming the parts to be united, or by means of indiarubber solution; after which the true vulcanization, or " curing," as it is termed, can be brought about in the usual way.

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  • It appears, therefore, that liquid oxygen is by far the most strongly paramagnetic liquid known, its susceptibility being more than four times greater than that of a saturated solution of ferric chloride.

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  • The solution turns yellow in colour, and, when saturated, deposits a pasty mass of crystals.

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  • Wallach (Ann., 1900, 312, p. 171) has shown that the saturated cyclic ketones yield oximes which by an application of the Beckmann reaction are converted into isoximes, and these latter on hydrolysis with dilute mineral acids are transformed into acyclic amino-acids; thus from cyclohexanone, e-amidocaproic acid (e-leucine) may be obtained: CH2" C NOH C CH 2 CH 2 7: ?12?CH2 CH2 NH /CH2 CH2 C02H CH2', An ingenious application of the fact that oximes easily lose the elements of water and form nitriles was used by A.

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  • Permeability is practically identical with the speed at which percolation takes place; through clay it is slow, but increases in rapidity through marls, loams, limestones, chalks, coarse gravels and fine sands, reaching a maximum in soil saturated with moisture.

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  • It is fairly soluble in water; too parts at o° dissolving 13.3 parts of the salt, and about 30 parts at 20°; the most saturated solution contains 327.4 parts of the salt in too of water; this solution boils at 114.1°.

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  • By concentrating the aqueous solution between 90-130° C., or by passing hydrochloric acid gas into a saturated aqueous solution, a second hydrated form of composition, SrC1 2.2H 2 O, is obtained.

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  • Rutherford examined it very carefully, and produced a magnetic detector for electric waves depending upon the power of electric oscillations in a coil to demagnetize a saturated bundle of steel wires placed in it.

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  • Rhombic sulphur may be obtained artificially by slowly crystallizing a solution of sulphur in carbon bisulphide, or, better, by exposing pyridine saturated with sulphuretted hydrogen to atmospheric oxidation (Ahrens, Ber., 1890, 23, p. 2708).

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  • The solution obtained may be evaporated in vacuo until it attains a density of 1.46 when, if partially saturated with potassium hydroxide and filtered, it yields crystals of potassium pentathionate, K 2 S 5 0 6.3H 2 0.

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  • The ringed structure of benzene, C 6 H 61 was first suggested in 1865 by August Kekule, who represented the molecule by six CH groups placed at the six angles of a regular hexagon, the sides of which denoted the valencies saturated by adjacent carbon atoms, the fourth valencies of each carbon atom being represented as saturated along alternate sides.

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  • The megass coming from the first mill was saturated with steam and water, in weight equal to between 20% and 30% and up to 40% of the original weight of the uncrushed canes.

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  • 2 7, p. 45 2), assuming that two liquids may be compared when the ratios of the volumes of the liquids to the volumes of the saturated vapours are the same, deduced that yV 3 (where y is the surface tension, and V the molecular volume of the liquid) causes all liquids to have the same temperature coefficients.

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  • 2 7, p. 45 2), assuming that two liquids may be compared when the ratios of the volumes of the liquids to the volumes of the saturated vapours are the same, deduced that yV 3 (where y is the surface tension, and V the molecular volume of the liquid) causes all liquids to have the same temperature coefficients.

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  • When a manufactured article has been saturated with sulphur in the melted sulphur bath, the heat necessary for vulcanization may be obtained either by highpressure steam, by heated glycerin, or by immersion in a sulphur bath heated to about 140° C. In this last case absorption of the sulphur and its intimate combination with the rubber occur simultaneously.

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  • The oldest rocks of Barbados, known as the Scotland series, are of shallow water origin, consisting of coarse grits, brown sandstones and sandy clays, in places saturated with petroleum and traversed by veins of manjak.

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  • One hundred parts of water at o° and at Ioo° dissolve 72.9 and 180 parts of the salt; at 120° the boiling-point of the saturated solution, 216 parts.

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  • The clays of the Rolling Downs formation overlie a series of sands and drifts, saturated with water under high pressure, which discharges at the surface as a flowing well, when a borehole pierces the impermeable cover.

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  • Cadmium sulphate, CdSO 4, is known in several hydrated forms; being deposited, on spontaneous evaporation of a concentrated aqueous solution, in the form of large monosymmetric crystals of composition 3CdSO 4.8H 2 O, whilst a boiling saturated solution, to which concentrated sulphuric acid has been added, deposits crystals of composition CdSO 4 4H 2 0.

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  • They are widely distributed, but are particularly abundant in certain tropical climates where active root absorption goes on while the air is nearly saturated with water vapour.

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  • The apparently structureless substance is saturated with it; and if once a cell is completely dried, even at a low temperature, in the enormous majority of cases its life iS gone and the restoration of water fails to enable it to recover.

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  • There is no need for cuticularization here, as the external dangerous influences do not reach the interior, and the processes of absorption which Boussingault attributed to the external cuticularized cells can take place freely through the, delicate cell-walls of the interior, saturated as these are with water.

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  • Another form, mixed with the variety just described, is obtained by adding 3 to 4 volumes of alcohol to a solution of ammonium sulphide saturated with sulphur and exposing the mixture to air at about 5°.

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  • Soc., 1888, 53, p. 278) is prepared by passing sulphuretted hydrogen gas into a nearly saturated aqueous solution of sulphur dioxide at about o° C. The solution is then allowed to stand for 48 hours and the process repeated many times until the sulphur dioxide is all decomposed.

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  • This soil is spongy, and, undergoing alternate contraction and expansion from being alternately comparatively dry and saturated with moisture, allows the heavy blocks to slip down by their own weight into the valley, where they become piled up, the valley stream afterwards removing the soil from among and over them.

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  • This heat of formation, like that of most hydrocarbons, is comparatively small: the heat of formation of saturated hydrocarbons is always positive, but the heat of formation of unsaturated hydrocarbons is frequently negative.

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  • Yahwism is a religion which appears upon a soil saturated with ideas and usages which find their parallel in extrabiblical sources and in neighbouring lands.

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  • We have to be saturated, as it were, with 18th-century influences, so that we can realize the conditions in which industry and trade were carried on, before we can rightly explain the course of development.

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  • The residue is then fused with caustic potash and nitre, dissolved in water, saturated with chlorine and distilled on the water-bath in a current of chlorine.

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  • of zinc, all the gold and copper and some silver and lead will be alloyed with the zinc to a so-called gold - or copper - crust, and the residual lead saturated with zinc. By removing from the surface of the lead this first crust and working it up separately (liquating, retorting and cupelling), dore silver is obtained.

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  • By the second addition of zinc most of the silver will be collected in a saturated zinc-silver-lead crust, which, when worked up, gives fine silver.

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  • This heat of formation, like that of most hydrocarbons, is comparatively small: the heat of formation of saturated hydrocarbons is always positive, but the heat of formation of unsaturated hydrocarbons is frequently negative.

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  • the damping off of seedlingsand in saturated soils not only are the roots and root-hairs killed by asphyxiation, but the whole course of soil fermentation is altered, and it takes time to sweeten such by draining, because not only must the noxious bodies be gradually washed out and the lost salts restored, but the balance of suitable bacterial and fungal life must be restored.

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  • Albumins (as classified above) are soluble in water, dilute acids and alkalies, and in saturated neutral salt solutions; they are coagulated by heat.

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  • The residue is dissolved in alcohol and to the cold saturated solution a cold alcoholic solution of picric acid is added.

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  • When heated with monobasic saturated acids and zinc chloride it yields acridines.

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  • With substances prone to discolorization, as, for example, certain amino compounds, the operation may be conducted in an atmosphere of carbon dioxide, or the water may be saturated with sulphuretted hydrogen.

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  • When heated with monobasic saturated acids and zinc chloride it yields acridines.

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  • In several places the debris within the walls is saturated with sewage, and the water of the Fountain of the Virgin, and of many of the old cisterns, is unfit for drinking.

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  • A saturated solution of the gas, in water, is a colourless, oily, strongly fuming liquid which after a time decomposes, with separation of metaboric acid, leaving hydrofluoboric acid HF BF3 in solution.

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  • into two groups: (r) those exhibiting properties closely analogous to the aliphatic series - the polymethylenes, and (2) a series exhibiting properties differing in many respects from the aliphatic and polymethylene compounds, and characterized by a peculiar stability which is to be associated with the disposition of certain carbon valencies not saturated by hydrogen - the " aromatic series."

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  • Three such compounds are possible according to the number of valencies acting directly between the carbon atoms. Thus, if they are connected by one valency, and the remaining valencies saturated by hydrogen, we obtain the compound H 3 C CH 3, ethane.

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  • These last two compounds are termed unsaturated, whereas ethane is saturated.

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  • When in this condition the metal is popularly said to be " saturated."

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  • below the surface, is so strongly saturated with salt (up to 24%) that it is at once conducted to the boiling houses, while that of the others is first submitted to a process of evaporation.

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  • Crossing the mountains and descending their eastern slopes, the wind becomes less saturated and warmer, so that the formation of clouds ceases.

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  • If the latter be insoluble, the gas diffuses into the solution and, when this becomes saturated, escapes into the air.

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  • The isothermals are approximately equilateral hyperbolas (pv= constant), with the axes of p and v for asymptotes, for a gas or unsaturated vapour, but coincide with the isopiestics for a saturated vapour in presence of its liquid.

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  • saturated vapour), in which it occupies a volume v", the line BC represents the change of volume (v" - v').

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  • The substance is then cooled to the lower temperature 0" along the path CD, keeping it in the saturated state.

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  • In this process all the anode metals pass into solution except iridium and other refractory metals of that group, which remain as metals, and silver, which is converted into insoluble chloride; lead and bismuth form chloride and oxychloride respectively, and these dissolve until the bath is saturated with them, and then precipitate with the silver in the tank.

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  • It is, however, a curious question how, considering the increase of carbonic acid by the decomposition of organic bodies and possible submarine exhalations of volcanic origin, the water has not in some places become saturated and a precipitate of amorphous calcium carbonate formed in the deepest water.

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  • water saturated with salt, is the best for the purpose, but in practice it is found that, unless water is agitated with acetylene, or the gas bubbled through, the top layer soon gets saturated, and the gas then dissolves but slowly.

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  • If a few pieces of carbide be dropped into saturated chlorine water the bubbles of gas take I.

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  • Mexico was formerly one of the worst drained large cities of the New World, its subsoil being permanently saturated and its artificial drainage being through open ditches into the San Lazaro Canal which nominally discharged into Lake Texcoco.

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  • Within a recent geological period, central Aragon was undoubtedly submerged by the sea, and the parched chalky soil remains saturated with salt, while many of the smaller streams run brackish.

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  • On the lower slopes of the mountains a rank vegetation exists, which, from the conditions mentioned, is constantly saturated with moisture.

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  • A saturated solution of calcium chloride contains 325 parts of CaC1 2 to ioo of water at the boiling point (179.5°).

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  • Hot or dilute cold solutions deposit minute orthorhombic crystals of aragonite, cold saturated or moderately strong solutions, hexagonal (rhombohedral) crystals of calcite.

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  • The bishops were, for the most part, elegant triflers, as pliant as reeds, with no fixed principles and saturated with a false humanism.

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  • The anhydrous salt may be prepared by heating a saturated solution of the hydrated salt.

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  • The heptahydrate, Na2C03.7H20, is obtained by crystallizing a warm saturated solution in a vacuum; it appears to be dimorphous.

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  • We may here notice the "percarbonates" obtained by Wolffenstein and Peltner (Ber., 1908, 41, pp. 2 75, 280) on acting with gaseous or solid carbon dioxide on Na202, Na203 and NaHO 2 at low temperatures; the same authors obtained a perborate by adding sodium metaborate solution to a 50% solution of sodium peroxide previously saturated with carbon dioxide.

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  • But in consequence of the humidity of the climate of England it is better to suppose the air to be (on the average) two-thirds saturated with aqueous vapour, and then the standard temperature will be reduced to 60° F., so as to secure the same standard density; the density of the air being reduced perceptibly by the presence of the aqueous vapour.

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  • Meyer, Ber., 1876, 9, P. 543), C3H7NH 2 +HNO 2 =N 2 +2H 2 O+C 3 H 6; by the electrolysis of the alkali salts of saturated dicarboxylic acids; by the decomposition of 0-haloid fatty acids with sodium carbonate, CH 3 CHBr CH(CH 3) CO 2 H =CO 2 -1-HBr+CH 3 CH :CH CH 3; by distilling the barium salts of acids Cn,H 2, ,,- 2 0 2 with sodium methylate in vacuo (I.

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  • In the case of the Clark standard cell above mentioned the elements are mercury and zinc separated by a paste of mercurous sulphate mixed with a saturated solution of zinc sulphate.

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  • The cadmium sulphate solution is prepared by digesting a saturated solution of cadmium sulphate with cadmium hydroxide to remove free acid, care being taken not to raise the temperature above 70° C., and then by digesting it still further with mercurous sulphate until no more precipitation occurs.

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  • The cadmium sulphate solution must be saturated and have free crystals of the salt in it.

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  • In making the paste, so much cadmium sulphate must be added that a saturated solution of that salt is formed and is present in the cell.

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  • The most saturated solution contains 205 parts of the salt to 100 of water and boils at 135°.

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  • The salt K2S03 H20 may be obtained by crystallizing the metabisulphite, K 2 S 2 0 5 (from sulphur dioxide and a hot saturated solution of the carbonate, or from sulphur dioxide and a mixture of milk of lime and potassium sulphate) with an equivalent amount of potash.

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  • Be it enough for our purpose to say that he thoroughly saturated his mind with the " new learning," first at Oxford, where in 1515 he was admitted to the degree of M.A., and then in Cambridge, where the fame of Erasmus still lingered.

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  • The saturated aqueous solution is colourless and fumes strongly on exposure to air; after a time it darkens in colour owing to liberation of iodine.

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  • Bueb (Congress of German Gas Industries, March 1900) brings gas (free from tar) into intimate contact with a saturated solution of ferrous sulphate, when a "cyanogen mud" is obtained.

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  • Hydroferricyanic acid, H 3 Fe(NC)s, obtained by adding concentrated hydrochloric acid to a cold saturated solution of potassium ferricyanide, crystallizes in brown needles, and is easily decomposed.

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  • Chromium trioxide, Cr03, is obtained by adding concentrated sulphuric acid to a cold saturated solution of potassium bichromate, when it separates in long red needles; the mother liquor is drained off and the crystals are washed with concentrated nitric acid, the excess of which is removed by means of a current of dry air.

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  • On pouring a solution of chromous chloride into a saturated solution of sodium acetate, a red crystalline precipitate of chromous acetate is produced; this is much more permanent in air than the other chromous salts and consequently can be used for their preparation.

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  • Potassium chlorochromate, CrO 2 Cl OK, is produced when potassium bichromate is heated with concentrated hydrochloric acid and a little water, or from chromium oxychloride and saturated potassium chloride solution, when - it separates as a red crystalline salt.

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  • In small quantities, it may be prepared by the addition of concentrated sulphuric acid to a cold saturated solution of borax.

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  • When the limit is reached the solution is said to be saturated, and the system is in equilibrium.

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  • It is certain then that when dissolution occurs the available energy of the whole system is decreased by the process, while when equilibrium is reached and the solution is saturated the available energy is a minimum.

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  • When a variable quantity is at a minimum a slight change in the system does not affect its value, and therefore, when a solution is saturated, the increase in the available energy of the liquid phase produced by dissolving in it some of the solid must be equal to the decrease in the available energy of the solid phase, caused by the abstraction from the bulk of that part dissolved.

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  • A saturated solution is a system in equilibrium, and exhibits the thermodynamic relations which hold for all such systems. Just as two electrified bodies are in equilibrium when their electric potentials are equal, so two parts of a chemical and physical system are in equilibrium when there is equality between the chemical potentials of each component present in the two parts.

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  • The four phases are (I) crystals of salt, (2) crystals of ice, (3) a saturated solution of the salt in water, and (4) the vapour, which is that practically of water alone, since the salt is non-volatile at the temperature in question.

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  • Equilibrium between these phases is obtained at the freezing point of the saturated solution under the pressure of the vapour.

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  • Thus a mixture of ice, salt and the saturated solution has a constant freezing point, and the composition of the solution is constant and the same as that of the mixed solids which freeze out on the abstraction of heat.

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  • If the supply of ice fails first the temperature will rise, and, since solid salt remains, we pass along a curve OA giving the relation between temperature and the vapour pressure of the saturated solution.

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  • Or, by increasing the pressure, we eliminate the vapour and obtain the curve OF giving the relation between pressure, freezing point and composition when a saturated solution is in contact with ice and salt.

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  • Taking the point 0 to denote the state of equilibrium between ice, hydrate; saturated solution and vapour, we pass along OA till a new solid phase, that of Na2S04, appears at 32.6°; from this point arise four curves, analogous to those diverging from the point O.

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  • of a saturated solution of Na2S04 IoH 2 O.

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  • At B is a nonvariant system made up of ice, solid phenol, saturated solution and vapour.

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  • At B we have the non-variant cryohydric point at which ice, the hydrate Fe2C16 12H20, the saturated solution and the vapour are in equilibrium at 55° C. As the proportion 26 of salt is increased, the melting point of the con glomerate rises, till, at the -40 maximum point C, we have the pure compound the hydrate with twelve molecules ¦¦ 0.b, E, ?

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  • The 20 40 60 80 100 liquid then becomes saturated with B also, and, if inoculated with B crystals, will deposit B alongside of A, till the whole mass is solid.

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  • If the solution in the cylinder be kept saturated by the presence FIG.

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  • of crystals of the solute, crystals will dissolve as solvent enters, and the solution remains saturated throughout.

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  • In the equation dP/dT= X/T(v 2 - v 1), P is the osmotic pressure, T the absolute temperature and X the heat of solution of unit mass of the solute when dissolving to form a volume v2 - v1 of saturated solution in an osmotic cylinder.

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  • This result must hold good for any solution, but if the solution be dilute when saturated, that is, if the solubility be small, the equation shows that if there be no heat effect when solid dissolves to form a saturated solution, the solubility is independent of temperature, for, in accordance with the gas laws, the osmotic pressure of a dilute solution of constant concentration is proportional to the absolute temperature.

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  • In all this investigation it should be noted that the heat of solution with which we are concerned is the heat effect when solid dissolves to form a saturated solution.

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  • Thus cupric chloride dissolves in much water with an evolution of heat, but when the solution is nearly saturated, it is cooled by taking up more of the solid.

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  • The substances used as tests in these reactions are caustic potash and calcium hypochlorite; the former being the substance dissolved in an equal weight of water and the latter a saturated extract of bleaching powder in water.

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  • The molten metal has a specific gravity of 2 � S4, that of molten cryolite saturated with alumina is 2.3 5, and that of the fluoride Al 2 F 6 2NaF saturated with alumina 1.97.

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  • Lime in the caustic state is beneficially applied to soils which contain an excess of inert vegetable matter, and hence may be used for the improvement of old garden soils saturated with humus, or of peaty soils not thoroughly reclaimed.

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  • Garden pots are made with a comparatively large hole in the bottom, and those of the largest size have also holes at the side near the bottom; these openings are to prevent the soil becoming saturated or soured with superabundant water.

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  • At this point selection ceases; the remaining molten metal freezes as a whole, and in freezing splits up into a conglomerate eutectic of (1) austenite of about 2.2% of carbon, and therefore saturated with that element, and (2) cementite; and with this eutectic is mixed the " primary " austenite which froze out as the temperature sank from v to v'.

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  • Hantzsch, Ber., This assumption also shows the relationship of the diazonium hydroxides to other quaternary ammonium compounds, for most of the quaternary ammonium hydroxides (except such as have the nitrogen atom attached to four saturated hydrocarbon radicals) are unstable, and readily pass over into compounds in which the hydroxyl group is no longer attached to the amine nitrogen; thus the syn-diazo hydroxides are to be regarded as pseudo-diazonium derivatives.

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  • In Morocco and generally throughout North Africa there is a considerable demand for green tea, which is drunk hot out of glasses, the liquor being almost saturated with sugar and strongly flavoured with mint.

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  • The saturated solution at 109.7° contains 40.35 parts of salt to ioo of water.

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  • On cooling a saturated solution to - 10°, or by cooling a solution in hot hydrochloric acid, the hydrate NaCI.2H 2 O separates; on further cooling an aqueous solution to - 20° a cryohydrate containing 23.7% of the salt is deposited.

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  • in thickness (Marston 23-26 yds.); it has above it, apparently lying in the recesses of its surface, a layer of saturated brine.

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  • Through this space the fresh surface water finds its way, and dissolving the salt below rises in the inner tube as brine, but only to such a level that the two columns bear to one another the relation of ten to twelve, this being the inverse ratio of the respective weights of saturated brine and fresh water.

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  • Many brine springs also occur in a more or less saturated condition.

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  • The brine used in the salt manufacture in England is very nearly saturated, containing 25 or 26% of sodium chloride, the utmost water can take up being 27%; and it ranges from 38 to 42 oz.

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  • Saltmaking is by no means an unhealthy trade, some slight soreness of the eyes being the only affection sometimes complained of; indeed the atmosphere of steam saturated with salt in which the workmen live seems specially preservative against colds, rheumatism, neuralgia, &c.

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  • Yet these two schools of Sufis were never quite similar; on Sunnite soil Sufiism could not openly impugn orthodox views, while in Persia it was saturated with Shiite heresy and the pantheism of the extreme devotees of 'Ali.

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  • The residue is then dissolved in water, decolorized by animal charcoal and saturated at 50 C. with oxalic acid.

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  • From the crude oxide so obtained (which contains lanthanum and didymium oxides) the cerium may be separated by conversion into its double sulphate on the addition of potassium sulphate, the sulphates of the cerium group being insoluble in a saturated solution of potassium sulphate.

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  • A nearly saturated solution of sodium chloride is obtained by purifying natural or artificial brine, i.e.

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  • The ammoniacal salt solution is now saturated with carbon dioxide.

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  • Pinerua separates the metals by taking advantage of the fact that cobalt chloride is soluble in ether which has been saturated with hydrochloric acid gas at low temperature.

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  • The total heat of the saturated vapour at any temperature is usually defined as the quantity of heat required to raise unit mass of the liquid from any convenient zero up to the temperature considered, and then to evaporate it at that temperature under the constant pressure of saturation.

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  • The usual definition of total heat applies only to a saturated vapour.

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  • This agrees with the usual definition in the special case of a saturated vapour, if the liquid is heated under the final pressure p, as is generally the case in heat engines and in experimental measurements of H.

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  • p. 173) that the increase of the total heat of a saturated vapour between any two temperatures should be equal to the specific heat S of the vapour at constant pressure multiplied by the difference of temperature, provided that the saturated vapour behaved as an ideal gas, and that its specific heat was independent of the pressure and temperature.

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  • If the saturated vapour behaves as a perfect gas, the change of intrinsic energy E depends only on the temperature limits, and is equal to s (8-00), where s is the specific heat at constant volume.

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  • Zeuner, at a later date (La Chaleur, p.441) employing the empirical, formula pv= BO +Cp 25 for saturated steam, found the value S = 568, which further increased the discrepancy.

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  • It was first employed in the case of steam by Peabody as a means of estimating the wetness of saturated steam, which is an important factor in testing the performance of an engine.

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  • (12) If the steam at A contains a fraction z of suspended moisture, the total heat H A is less than the value for dry saturated steam at A by the amount zL.

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  • If the steam at A were dry and saturated, we should have, assuming Regnault's formula (to), H A -H D = 305 (0'-O), whence, if S = .475, we have zL = .3 0 5 (0 '- 0)-.

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  • It is evident that this is a very delicate method of determining the wetness z, but, since with dry saturated steam at low pressures this formula always gives negative values of the wetness, it is clear that Regnault's numerical coefficients must be wrong.

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  • Assuming dH/do = 0.305 for saturated steam, he found that S was nearly independent of the pressure at constant temperature, but that it varied with the temperature from o 387 at 100° C. to o 665 at 160° C. Writing Q for the Joule-Thomson " cooling effect," dO/dp, or the slope BC/AC of the line of constant total heat, he found that Q was nearly independent of the pressure at constant temperature, a result which agrees with that of Joule and Thomson for air and COs; but that it varied with the temperature as (1/0) 3.8 instead of (i/0) 2.

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  • 37, p. 504, 1889) to give values of the total heat to to 6 calories too large between o° and 40° C. At low pressures and temperatures it is probable that saturated steam behaves very nearly as an ideal gas, and that the variation of the total heat is closely represented by Rankine's equation with the ideal value of S.

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  • The rate of increase of the total heat, instead of being constant for saturated steam as in Regnault's formula, is given by the equation dH/d0 =S(1 - Qdp/d0).

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  • Since it is much easier to measure p than either L or v, the relation has generally been employed for deducing either L or v from observations of p. For instance, it is usual to calculate the specific volumes of saturated steam by assuming Regnault's formulae for p and L.

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  • The reason for adopting this method is that the specific volume of a saturated vapour cannot be directly measured with sufficient accuracy on account of the readiness with which it condenses on the surface of the containing vessel.

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  • where and Table Of Properties Of Saturated Steam The values of the coaggregation-volume c, which form the starting-point of the calculation, are found by taking n =10/3 for convenience of division in formula (13).

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  • The gas must be collected either by downward displacement, since it is soluble in water and also attacks mercury; or over a saturated salt solution, in which it is only slightly soluble.

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  • Water saturated with chlorine at 0° C. deposits crystals of a hydrate C1 2.8H 2 O, which is readily decomposed at a higher temperature into its constituents.

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  • For purposes of substitution, the free element as a rule only works slowly on saturated compounds, but the reaction may be accelerated by the action of sunlight or on warming, or by using a "carrier."

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  • Thatched roofs are not now allowed in London or other towns and their vicinity, but if saturated with a solution of lime the thatch is said to be incombustible.

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  • Six anodes were suspended, alternately with four cathodes, in a saturated solution of copper sulphate in a cylindrical fire-clay trough, all the anodes being connected in one parallel group, and all the cathodes in another.

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  • of cathode, and an electrolyte containing qlb of copper sulphate and z lb of sulphuric acid per gallon, all the gold, platinum and silver present in the crude copper anode remain as metals, undissolved, in the anode slime or mud, and all the lead remains there as sulphate, formed by the action of the sulphuric acid (or S04 ions); he found also that arsenic forms arsenious oxide, which dissolves until the solution is saturated, and then remains in the slime, from which on long standing it gradually dissolves, after conversion by secondary reactions into arsenic oxide; antimony forms a basic sulphate which in part dissolves; bismuth partly dissolves and partly remains, but the dissolved portion tends slowly to separate out as a basic salt which becomes added to the slime; cuprous oxide, sulphide and selenides remain in the slime, and very slowly pass into solution by simple chemical action; tin partly dissolves (but in part separates again as basic salt) and partly remains as basic sulphate and stannic oxide; zinc, iron, nickel and cobalt pass into solution - more readily indeed than does the copper.

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  • Their waters are saturated with saline compounds, which in some cases have considerable commercial value.

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  • In the person of his son, the throne was occupied by a soldier and stateiman of genius, saturated with Greek culture and Greek thought, and intolerant of every goal but the highest.

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  • Guntz (Comptes rendus, 1901, 133, p. 872) electrolyses a saturated solution of barium chloride using a mercury cathode and obtains a 3% barium amalgam; this amalgam is transferred to an iron boat in a wide porcelain tube and the tube slowly heated electrically, a good yield of pure barium being obtained at about looo C. The metal when freshly cut possesses a silver white lustre, is a little harder than lead, and is extremely easily oxidized on exposure; it is soluble in liquid ammonia, and readily attacks both water and alcohol.

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  • A saturated solution of the hydroxide deposits on cooling a hydrated form Ba(OH) 2.8H 2 0, as colourless quadratic prisms, which on exposure to air lose seven molecules of water of crystallization.

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  • Barium nitrate, Ba(N03)2, is prepared by dissolving either the carbonate or sulphide in dilute nitric acid, or by mixing hot saturated solutions of barium chloride and sodium nitrate.

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  • The same substance may be able to exist in two different states at the same temperature and pressure, as when water and its saturated vapour are contained in the same vessel.

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  • The following results have been obtained Clean 74.o Greasy to the point where camphor motions nearly cease 53.o Saturated with olive oil 41.0 Saturated with sodium oleate 25 o (Phil.

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  • The "syrup" employed for medicinal purposes consists of a concentrated or saturated solution of refined sugar in distilled water.

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  • A saturated solution of potassium chlorate in strong nitric acid is added, and the mass evaporated to dryness.

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  • The filtrate diluted to 200 cc. is carefully neutralized with hydrochloric acid, and excess of 6 cc. of the strong acid is added, and the solution saturated with hydrogen sulphide, which precipitates the copper and cadmium, metals which would otherwise interfere.

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  • A saturated solution (1 in woo of warm water), thymol gauze and an ointment are used.

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  • A compound of composition, SeS0 5, has been obtained by the addition of selenium dioxide to sulphuric acid saturated with sulphur trioxide (R.

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  • With oil it was accordingly at one time saturated in hopes of reviving the colours.

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  • It can be obtained also, although in a somewhat impure condition, by the direct action of bromine on various saturated hydrocarbons (e.g.

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  • It can be condensed to a liquid, which boils at - 64.9°C. (under a pressure of 738.2 mm.), and, by still further cooling, gives colourless crystals which melt at - 88.5° C. It is readily soluble in water, forming the aqueous acid, which when saturated at 0° C. has a specific gravity of 1.78.

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  • At the siege of Plataea (429 B.C.) the Spartans attempted to burn the town by piling up against the walls wood saturated with pitch and sulphur and setting it on fire (Thuc. ii.

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  • The diamide, PO (NH 2) (NH), results when the pentachloride is saturated with ammonia gas and the first formed chlorophosphamide, PC1 3 (NH 2) 2, is decomposed by water.

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  • An inch falling in a single day on a saturated mountain area will nearly all reach the rivers, but if it falls during a drought seven-eighths may be lost so far as the period of the drought is concerned.

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  • In estimating the evaporation to be deducted from the rainfall for the purpose of determining the flow into a reservoir, it is important to bear in mind that the loss from a constant water surface is nearly one and a half times as great as from the intermittently saturated land surface.

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  • With the exception of the Red Marls forming the upper part of the Keuper, most of the New Red Sandstone is permeable, and some parts contain, when saturated, even more water than solid chalk; but, just as in the case of the chalk, a well or borehole in the sandstone yields very little water unless it strikes a fissure; hence, in New Red Sandstone, also, it is a common thing to form underground chambers or adits in search of additional fissures, and sometimes to sink many vertical boreholes with the same object in view.

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  • 85 when dry and 2.07 when saturated, which would bring the line of pressures even closer to the outer face at the top of the counterfort.

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  • POLYMETHYLENES, in chemistry, cyclic compounds, the simplest members of which are saturated hydrocarbons of general formula C 7, H 2nj where n may be r to 9, and known as tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, and hepta-methylene, &c., or cyclo- propane, -butane, -pentane, -hexane, -heptane, &c.: - CH 21 CH 2 CH 2 CH2.CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2?C1H,, I I H ?

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  • The ketones are obtained by the dry distillation of the calcium salts of dibasic saturated aliphatic acids (J.

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  • For example, on reduction with zinc and alcoholic potash, the a/' compounds give saturated ketones and also bi-molecular compounds, the Jay being unaffected; the Jay series react with hydroxylamine in a normal manner, the a/3 yield oxamino-oximes.

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  • Again, the most convenient site for oil wells is the crest of an anticline or "dome," where an impervious stratum imprisons the gas and oil in a subjacent saturated layer under pressure.

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  • Their northern slope, which is occupied by the three Guianas first named, is saturated and river-torn; but their southern one, Brazilian Guiana, is in general thirsty and semi-barren, and the driest region of the Amazon valley.

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  • Before it reaches the plains it receives a great number of small streams from impenetrable, saturated and much broken mountainous districts, where the dense and varied vegetation seems to fight for every square foot of ground.

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  • The hydrocarbons, upon which the luminosity of the flame entirely depends, are divided in the analysis into two groups, saturated and unsaturated, according to their behaviour with a solution of bromine in potassium bromide, which has the power of absorbing those termed "unsaturated," but does not affect in diffused daylight the gaseous members of the "saturated" series of hydrocarbons.

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  • The chief unsaturated hydrocarbons present in coal gas are: ethylene, C2H4, butylene, C 4 H 8, acetylene, C 2 H 2, benzene, C 6 H 61 and naphthalene,C 10 H 8, and the saturated hydrocarbons consist chieflyof methane, CH 4, and ethane, C2H6.

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  • Gas leaves the retorts saturated with naphthalene, and its capacity for holding that impurity seems to be augmented by the presence of water vapour.

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  • To do this, saturated ammoniacal liquor is decomposed by lime in the presence of steam, and the freed ammonia is passed into strong sulphuric acid, the saturated solution of ammonium sulphate being carefully crystallized.

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  • When escaping from the acid tower, the gas contains about% NH 3, and has a temperature of about 80° C. and is saturated with aqueous vapour.

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  • The monohydrate also results as a white precipitate when concentrated sulphuric acid is added to a saturated solution of ferrous sulphate.

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  • Divers obtains it by mixing cold saturated solutions containing one molecular proportion of sodium nitrate, and two molecular proportions of acid sodium sulphite, and then adding a saturated solution of potassium chloride to the mixture.

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  • Salt, too, is obtained from the ashes of wood saturated by sea-water.

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  • Sulphuretted hydrogen is passed through the liquid until it is thoroughly saturated, the excess of sulphuretted hydrogen is expelled from the solution by a brisk stream of carbon dioxide, and the precipitate is filtered on a Gooch crucible and washed with water containing a little sulphuretted hydrogen and dried at 100° C.; it is then well washed with small quantities of pure carbon disulphide to remove any free sulphur, again dried and weighed.

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  • Arsenic can also be estimated by volumetric methods; for this purpose it must be in the arsenious condition, and the method of estimation consists in converting it into the arsenic condition by means of a standard solution of iodine, in the presence of a cold saturated solution of sodium bicarbonate.

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  • White arsenic exists in two crystalline forms (octahedral and prismatic) and one amorphous form; the octahedral form is produced by the rapid cooling of arsenic vapour, or by cooling a warm saturated solution in water, or by crystallization from hydrochloric acid, and also by the gradual transition of the amorphous variety, this last phenomenon being attended by the evolution of heat.

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  • The prismatic variety of the oxide can be obtained by crystallization from a saturated boiling solution in potassium hydroxide, or by the crystallization of a solution of silver arsenite in nitric acid.

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  • They pass into the refrigerator, where they are condensed and fall back as a condensed liquid through the meal, percolating it as they pass downwards, and reaching to the bottom of the vessel as a more or less saturated solution of oil in the solvent.

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  • Thus it points the way to the application of a further method to resolve the isolated fatty acids of an oil or fat into saturated fatty acids, which do not absorb iodine, and into unsaturated fatty acids, which absorb iodine in various proportions as shown above.

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  • This separation is effected by converting the alkali soaps of the fatty acids into lead soaps and treating the latter with ether, in which the lead salts of the saturated acids are insoluble, whereas the salts of the above-named unsaturated acids are soluble.

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  • The saturated fatty acids can then be further examined, and valuable information is gained by the determination of the melting-points and by treatment with solvents.

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  • So far as the air discharged from the expansion cylinder is concerned, its humidity is precisely the same so long as its temperature and pressure are the same, inasmuch as when discharged from the expansion cylinder it is always in a saturated condition for that temperature and pressure.

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  • -Ledoux's Table for Saturated Sulphur Dioxide Vapour (S02) [[Table Iv]].- Mollier's Table for Saturated Anhydrous Ammonia Vapour (NH3).

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  • [[Table V]].- Mollier's Table for Saturated Carbon Dioxide Vapour (C02) The action of a vapour compression machine is shown in fig.

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  • "I'm OK," she said in a voice saturated with tears.

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  • Her senses became saturated quickly by his scent and heat.

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  • Guilt and need warred as her senses became saturated with his oak-amber scent, the warmth of his body at her back.

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  • Hence consumption of food rich in saturated fatty acids would raise cholesterol levels concurrently.

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  • addition of hydrogen to unsaturated molecules reduces the number of double bonds; the triglycerides become more saturated.

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  • It is possible to create full-color anaglyphs if one is careful and doesn't use greatly saturated colors.

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  • Appendix on handling emulsions, e.g. breaking up an emulsion by adding saturated brine.

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  • Know how to distinguish alkenes (as unsaturated hydrocarbons) from alkanes (as saturated hydrocarbons) using addition reactions with aqueous bromine.

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  • calcium carbonate saturated with carbon dioxide creates an acidic medium in which the coral sand is dissolved as calcium hydrogen carbonate.

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  • catchments saturated, rivers were very susceptible to further significant rainfall.

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  • It lets users analyze their personal daily food intake, including total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium.

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  • Chroma The degree of saturation of a particular color low chroma The degree of saturation of a particular color low chroma means a pastel color, high chroma means a saturated color.

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  • The XRF signal was saturated by the pigment lead chromate.

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  • When I print " photo prints " the printed image is too contrasty and the colors are too saturated.

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  • deep-seated human belief in the concept of eternity, the rich saturated cobalt blue.

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  • The Division is the UK's foremost supplier of saturated polyester resins for the manufacture of flexible urethane foam and polyurethane elastomers.

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  • I would expect the rate of spread to be approximately exponential, until the net begins to become saturated.

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  • Eating too much saturated fat is related to heart disease.

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  • You're also adding to the already high saturated fat by piling on more meat.

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  • Hence consumption of food rich in saturated fatty acids would raise cholesterol levels concurrently.

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  • Furthermore, the recipient mailbox is reportedly saturated, which suggests perhaps that people are incredibly gullible and have already bitten for this scam!

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  • humidity of the air is the ratio of the actual amount of moisture in the air to the saturated amount.

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  • Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons; they only contain single bonds.

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  • A simple change from butter to margarine is a simple way to start cutting down on your saturated fat intake.

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  • long distanceBritain's leading long-distance runner, has said: " The event is saturated with EPO.

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  • Heavy CO 2 saturated water descends through lighter formation water and carbonate minerals gradually precipitate driven by ionic equilibrium.

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  • He uses a wide intensity of colors, alternating between saturated hues and muted, almost monochromatic effects.

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  • Cheese now outranks meat as the number one source of saturated fat in our diets.

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  • saturated pixels are flagged by a value of 32767 on the GPHOT image file, and can easily be identified during spectrum extraction.

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  • polyunsaturated fat spreads contain less total fat (around 60 per cent) of which less than 20 per cent is saturated.

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  • traditional quiche would be higher in ' bad ' or saturated fat due to the pastry.

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  • It was simply reeking with cholera germs, having a mud floor that had become saturated with filth.

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  • relative humidity of the air is the ratio of the actual amount of moisture in the air to the saturated amount.

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  • saturated fat is related to heart disease.

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  • saturated hydrocarbons and know their properties.

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  • saturated fatty acids, salt, sugar etc should therefore not be promoted on this basis.

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  • saturated fat intake.

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  • saturated soils in order to reduce the volume of the voids.

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  • saturated fat, cholesterol and obesity.

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  • Dewpoint: the temperature at which a given air/water vapor mixture is saturated with water vapor (i.e.

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  • saturated with moisture, the natural habitat of much wildlife.

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  • saturated with oxygen, smokers are down to about 85% of normal.

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  • saturated fatty acids: Fatty acids in which only one area of the molecule is not saturated with hydrogen.

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  • saturated with blood.

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  • saturated again with water there were large pools of water on the fields adjacent to the weather station.

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  • saturated fats such as sunflower or olive oil rather than saturated fats such as butter.

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  • saturated fat by piling on more meat.

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  • Many people in the UK are eating too much fat, especially saturated fat.

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  • The access line is completely saturated during a 25 second period at the center of the period.

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  • If partly saturated air is cooled without changing its pressure or amount of water vapor, a point is reached when it becomes saturated.

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  • According to Hi-Fi News, 'the wonderfully fluid images and deeply saturated colors painted by this Fujitsu combination are little short of mouth-watering.

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  • Above the water table is the zone where the ground is not fully saturated.

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  • saturated fats are the BAD fats.

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  • Thus, beef fat is more saturated than chicken fat and vegetable shortening is more saturated than vegetable oil.

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  • Alkanes are saturated as they contain only single bonds.

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  • At doses above 200 mg, the absorption was saturated probably due to poor solubility.

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  • A saturated solution is one in which no more solute will dissolve at that temperature.

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  • sulfate solution should be saturated throughout the test.

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  • supernatant fluid above the crystals is a saturated solution of iodine.

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  • A pledget of cotton saturated with passiflora and introduced into a carious tooth has promptly allayed violent toothache.

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  • However, on being searched by a female warder her clothing was found to be saturated with blood.

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  • windbreak material but the posts would work loose in the saturated winter ground.

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  • The formation of spores is used as an analytical method for determining whether a yeast is contaminated with another species, - for example: a sample of yeast is placed on a gypsum or porcelain block saturated with water; if in ten days at a temperature of 52° F.

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  • It may be produced by placing quantities of horse-dung saturated with the urine of horses, especially of stud horses, with alternate layers of rich earth, and covering the whole with straw, to exclude rain and air; the spawn commonly appears in the heap in about two months afterwards.

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  • He spent much of his time in practising magic, and it was believed that he had so saturated his body with poisons that none could injure him.

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  • In several places the debris within the walls is saturated with sewage, and the water of the Fountain of the Virgin, and of many of the old cisterns, is unfit for drinking.

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  • A saturated solution of the gas, in water, is a colourless, oily, strongly fuming liquid which after a time decomposes, with separation of metaboric acid, leaving hydrofluoboric acid HF BF3 in solution.

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  • The clays of the Rolling Downs formation overlie a series of sands and drifts, saturated with water under high pressure, which discharges at the surface as a flowing well, when a borehole pierces the impermeable cover.

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  • All this, especially in a writer like Schutz, who is saturated with every progressive tendency of the time, seems to point to a deep sense of the appropriate style of trombone writing.

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  • Rutherford examined it very carefully, and produced a magnetic detector for electric waves depending upon the power of electric oscillations in a coil to demagnetize a saturated bundle of steel wires placed in it (see Phil.

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  • Cadmium sulphate, CdSO 4, is known in several hydrated forms; being deposited, on spontaneous evaporation of a concentrated aqueous solution, in the form of large monosymmetric crystals of composition 3CdSO 4.8H 2 O, whilst a boiling saturated solution, to which concentrated sulphuric acid has been added, deposits crystals of composition CdSO 4 4H 2 0.

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  • They are widely distributed, but are particularly abundant in certain tropical climates where active root absorption goes on while the air is nearly saturated with water vapour.

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  • The apparently structureless substance is saturated with it; and if once a cell is completely dried, even at a low temperature, in the enormous majority of cases its life iS gone and the restoration of water fails to enable it to recover.

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  • There is no need for cuticularization here, as the external dangerous influences do not reach the interior, and the processes of absorption which Boussingault attributed to the external cuticularized cells can take place freely through the, delicate cell-walls of the interior, saturated as these are with water.

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  • the damping off of seedlingsand in saturated soils not only are the roots and root-hairs killed by asphyxiation, but the whole course of soil fermentation is altered, and it takes time to sweeten such by draining, because not only must the noxious bodies be gradually washed out and the lost salts restored, but the balance of suitable bacterial and fungal life must be restored.

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  • Even these species are sometimes left stranded by low spring tides, though the mud in which they are rooted remains saturated with sea-water.

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  • Rhombic sulphur may be obtained artificially by slowly crystallizing a solution of sulphur in carbon bisulphide, or, better, by exposing pyridine saturated with sulphuretted hydrogen to atmospheric oxidation (Ahrens, Ber., 1890, 23, p. 2708).

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  • Another form, mixed with the variety just described, is obtained by adding 3 to 4 volumes of alcohol to a solution of ammonium sulphide saturated with sulphur and exposing the mixture to air at about 5°.

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  • Soc., 1888, 53, p. 278) is prepared by passing sulphuretted hydrogen gas into a nearly saturated aqueous solution of sulphur dioxide at about o° C. The solution is then allowed to stand for 48 hours and the process repeated many times until the sulphur dioxide is all decomposed.

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  • The solution obtained may be evaporated in vacuo until it attains a density of 1.46 when, if partially saturated with potassium hydroxide and filtered, it yields crystals of potassium pentathionate, K 2 S 5 0 6.3H 2 0.

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  • This soil is spongy, and, undergoing alternate contraction and expansion from being alternately comparatively dry and saturated with moisture, allows the heavy blocks to slip down by their own weight into the valley, where they become piled up, the valley stream afterwards removing the soil from among and over them.

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  • The residue is dissolved in alcohol and to the cold saturated solution a cold alcoholic solution of picric acid is added.

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  • Yahwism is a religion which appears upon a soil saturated with ideas and usages which find their parallel in extrabiblical sources and in neighbouring lands.

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  • We have to be saturated, as it were, with 18th-century influences, so that we can realize the conditions in which industry and trade were carried on, before we can rightly explain the course of development.

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  • The mass is then covered with two-thirds of its weight of alcohol, and saturated with hydrochloric acid gas.

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  • The residue is then fused with caustic potash and nitre, dissolved in water, saturated with chlorine and distilled on the water-bath in a current of chlorine.

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  • Compounds in which all the units of affinity of the contained elements are engaged are said to be saturated, whilst those in which the affinities of the contained elements are not all engaged by other elements are said to be unsaturated.

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  • into two groups: (r) those exhibiting properties closely analogous to the aliphatic series - the polymethylenes, and (2) a series exhibiting properties differing in many respects from the aliphatic and polymethylene compounds, and characterized by a peculiar stability which is to be associated with the disposition of certain carbon valencies not saturated by hydrogen - the " aromatic series."

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  • Three such compounds are possible according to the number of valencies acting directly between the carbon atoms. Thus, if they are connected by one valency, and the remaining valencies saturated by hydrogen, we obtain the compound H 3 C CH 3, ethane.

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  • These last two compounds are termed unsaturated, whereas ethane is saturated.

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  • Two primary divisions of carbocyclic compounds may be conveniently made: (I) those in which the carbon atoms are completely saturated - these are known by the generic term polymethylenes, their general formula being (CH 2), t: it will be noticed that they are isomeric with ethylene and its homologues; they differ, however, from this series in not containing a double linkage, but have a ringed structure; and (2) those containing fewer hydrogen atoms than suffice to saturate the carbon valencies - these are known as the aromatic compounds proper, or as benzene compounds, from the predominant part which benzene plays in their constitution.

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  • The ringed structure of benzene, C 6 H 61 was first suggested in 1865 by August Kekule, who represented the molecule by six CH groups placed at the six angles of a regular hexagon, the sides of which denoted the valencies saturated by adjacent carbon atoms, the fourth valencies of each carbon atom being represented as saturated along alternate sides.

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  • Arguing from the existence of only one mono-substitution derivative, and of three di-derivatives (statements of which the rigorous proof was then wanting), he was led to arrange the six carbon atoms in a ring, attaching a hydrogen atom to each carbon atom; being left with the fourth carbon valencies, he mutually saturated these in pairs, thus obtaining the symbol I (see below).

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  • When, as in the formation of naphthalene tetrachloride, for example, the one ring becomes saturated, the other might be expected to assume the normal centric form and become relatively inactive.

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  • By reduction, the double linkages become saturated, and compounds result which stand in much about the same relation to the original nucleus as hexamethylene does to benzene.

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  • As a useful preliminary it is convenient to divide heterocyclic ring systems into two leading groups: (I) systems resulting from simple internal dehydration (or similar condensations) of saturated aliphatic compounds - such compounds are: the internal anhydrides or cyclic ethers of the glycols and thioglycols (ethylene oxide, &c.); the cyclic alkyleneimides resulting from the splitting off of ammonia between the amino groups of diaminoparaffins (pyrrolidine, piperazine, &c.); the cyclic esters of oxycarboxylic acids (lactones, lactides); the internal anhydrides of aminocarboxylic acids (lactams, betaines); cyclic derivatives of dicarboxylic acids (anhydrides, imides, alkylen-esters, alkylenamides, &c.).

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  • If a be the heat evolved by each carbon atom, and # that by each hydrogen atom, the thermal effect may be expressed as H =na+2m/ - A, where A is the heat required to break the molecule into itsconstituent atoms. If the hydrocarbon be saturated, i.e.

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  • It contains four independent constants; two of these may be calculated from the heats of combustion of saturated hydrocarbons, and the other two from the combustion of hydrocarbons containing double and triple linkages.

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  • At the time of Eusebius the Greek Church was saturated with prejudice against the book and with doubts as to its canonicity.

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  • Saturated steam is steam in contact with liquid water at a temperature which is the boiling point of the water and condensing point of the steam; superheated steam is steam out of contact with water heated above this temperature.

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  • Wallach (Ann., 1900, 312, p. 171) has shown that the saturated cyclic ketones yield oximes which by an application of the Beckmann reaction are converted into isoximes, and these latter on hydrolysis with dilute mineral acids are transformed into acyclic amino-acids; thus from cyclohexanone, e-amidocaproic acid (e-leucine) may be obtained: CH2" C NOH C CH 2 CH 2 7: ?12?CH2 CH2 NH /CH2 CH2 C02H CH2', An ingenious application of the fact that oximes easily lose the elements of water and form nitriles was used by A.

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  • The water of the ocean is usually nearly saturated with calcium salts, which must continually be removed since they are always being added in the water brought down from the land.

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  • The water in shallow seas, off the shores of islands or in lagoons, is saturated with calcium bicarbonate and if the amount of carbonic acid in solution be reduced by any means, normal carbonate must be precipitated.

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  • Albumins (as classified above) are soluble in water, dilute acids and alkalies, and in saturated neutral salt solutions; they are coagulated by heat.

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  • When a manufactured article has been saturated with sulphur in the melted sulphur bath, the heat necessary for vulcanization may be obtained either by highpressure steam, by heated glycerin, or by immersion in a sulphur bath heated to about 140° C. In this last case absorption of the sulphur and its intimate combination with the rubber occur simultaneously.

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  • Cut sheets, or articles made from them, may be saturated by being laid in powdered sulphur maintained for some hours at about 110° C. Sheets sulphured in this way can be made up into articles and joined together either by warming the parts to be united, or by means of indiarubber solution; after which the true vulcanization, or " curing," as it is termed, can be brought about in the usual way.

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  • A plaster cast of the type is, when dry, saturated with shellac varnish and redried.

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  • of zinc, all the gold and copper and some silver and lead will be alloyed with the zinc to a so-called gold - or copper - crust, and the residual lead saturated with zinc. By removing from the surface of the lead this first crust and working it up separately (liquating, retorting and cupelling), dore silver is obtained.

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  • By the second addition of zinc most of the silver will be collected in a saturated zinc-silver-lead crust, which, when worked up, gives fine silver.

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  • When in this condition the metal is popularly said to be " saturated."

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  • It appears, therefore, that liquid oxygen is by far the most strongly paramagnetic liquid known, its susceptibility being more than four times greater than that of a saturated solution of ferric chloride.

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  • The solution turns yellow in colour, and, when saturated, deposits a pasty mass of crystals.

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  • The megass coming from the first mill was saturated with steam and water, in weight equal to between 20% and 30% and up to 40% of the original weight of the uncrushed canes.

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  • Permeability is practically identical with the speed at which percolation takes place; through clay it is slow, but increases in rapidity through marls, loams, limestones, chalks, coarse gravels and fine sands, reaching a maximum in soil saturated with moisture.

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  • Sir Charles Cameron attributes the prevalence of typhoid in certain areas in Dublin to the soil becoming saturated with faecal matter and specifically infected.

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  • It is fairly soluble in water; too parts at o° dissolving 13.3 parts of the salt, and about 30 parts at 20°; the most saturated solution contains 327.4 parts of the salt in too of water; this solution boils at 114.1°.

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  • One hundred parts of water at o° and at Ioo° dissolve 72.9 and 180 parts of the salt; at 120° the boiling-point of the saturated solution, 216 parts.

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  • The oldest rocks of Barbados, known as the Scotland series, are of shallow water origin, consisting of coarse grits, brown sandstones and sandy clays, in places saturated with petroleum and traversed by veins of manjak.

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  • With substances prone to discolorization, as, for example, certain amino compounds, the operation may be conducted in an atmosphere of carbon dioxide, or the water may be saturated with sulphuretted hydrogen.

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  • The water, moreover, till it is saturated with gases, readily absorbs noxious vapours to which it may be exposed.

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  • By concentrating the aqueous solution between 90-130° C., or by passing hydrochloric acid gas into a saturated aqueous solution, a second hydrated form of composition, SrC1 2.2H 2 O, is obtained.

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  • below the surface, is so strongly saturated with salt (up to 24%) that it is at once conducted to the boiling houses, while that of the others is first submitted to a process of evaporation.

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  • Crossing the mountains and descending their eastern slopes, the wind becomes less saturated and warmer, so that the formation of clouds ceases.

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  • If the latter be insoluble, the gas diffuses into the solution and, when this becomes saturated, escapes into the air.

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  • The isothermals are approximately equilateral hyperbolas (pv= constant), with the axes of p and v for asymptotes, for a gas or unsaturated vapour, but coincide with the isopiestics for a saturated vapour in presence of its liquid.

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  • saturated vapour), in which it occupies a volume v", the line BC represents the change of volume (v" - v').

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  • The substance is then cooled to the lower temperature 0" along the path CD, keeping it in the saturated state.

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  • In this process all the anode metals pass into solution except iridium and other refractory metals of that group, which remain as metals, and silver, which is converted into insoluble chloride; lead and bismuth form chloride and oxychloride respectively, and these dissolve until the bath is saturated with them, and then precipitate with the silver in the tank.

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  • It is, however, a curious question how, considering the increase of carbonic acid by the decomposition of organic bodies and possible submarine exhalations of volcanic origin, the water has not in some places become saturated and a precipitate of amorphous calcium carbonate formed in the deepest water.

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  • water saturated with salt, is the best for the purpose, but in practice it is found that, unless water is agitated with acetylene, or the gas bubbled through, the top layer soon gets saturated, and the gas then dissolves but slowly.

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  • If a few pieces of carbide be dropped into saturated chlorine water the bubbles of gas take I.

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  • Mexico was formerly one of the worst drained large cities of the New World, its subsoil being permanently saturated and its artificial drainage being through open ditches into the San Lazaro Canal which nominally discharged into Lake Texcoco.

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  • Within a recent geological period, central Aragon was undoubtedly submerged by the sea, and the parched chalky soil remains saturated with salt, while many of the smaller streams run brackish.

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  • On the lower slopes of the mountains a rank vegetation exists, which, from the conditions mentioned, is constantly saturated with moisture.

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  • A saturated solution of calcium chloride contains 325 parts of CaC1 2 to ioo of water at the boiling point (179.5°).

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  • Hot or dilute cold solutions deposit minute orthorhombic crystals of aragonite, cold saturated or moderately strong solutions, hexagonal (rhombohedral) crystals of calcite.

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  • The bishops were, for the most part, elegant triflers, as pliant as reeds, with no fixed principles and saturated with a false humanism.

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  • The anhydrous salt may be prepared by heating a saturated solution of the hydrated salt.

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  • The heptahydrate, Na2C03.7H20, is obtained by crystallizing a warm saturated solution in a vacuum; it appears to be dimorphous.

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  • We may here notice the "percarbonates" obtained by Wolffenstein and Peltner (Ber., 1908, 41, pp. 2 75, 280) on acting with gaseous or solid carbon dioxide on Na202, Na203 and NaHO 2 at low temperatures; the same authors obtained a perborate by adding sodium metaborate solution to a 50% solution of sodium peroxide previously saturated with carbon dioxide.

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  • But in consequence of the humidity of the climate of England it is better to suppose the air to be (on the average) two-thirds saturated with aqueous vapour, and then the standard temperature will be reduced to 60° F., so as to secure the same standard density; the density of the air being reduced perceptibly by the presence of the aqueous vapour.

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  • Meyer, Ber., 1876, 9, P. 543), C3H7NH 2 +HNO 2 =N 2 +2H 2 O+C 3 H 6; by the electrolysis of the alkali salts of saturated dicarboxylic acids; by the decomposition of 0-haloid fatty acids with sodium carbonate, CH 3 CHBr CH(CH 3) CO 2 H =CO 2 -1-HBr+CH 3 CH :CH CH 3; by distilling the barium salts of acids Cn,H 2, ,,- 2 0 2 with sodium methylate in vacuo (I.

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  • In the case of the Clark standard cell above mentioned the elements are mercury and zinc separated by a paste of mercurous sulphate mixed with a saturated solution of zinc sulphate.

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  • The cadmium sulphate solution is prepared by digesting a saturated solution of cadmium sulphate with cadmium hydroxide to remove free acid, care being taken not to raise the temperature above 70° C., and then by digesting it still further with mercurous sulphate until no more precipitation occurs.

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  • The cadmium sulphate solution must be saturated and have free crystals of the salt in it.

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  • In making the paste, so much cadmium sulphate must be added that a saturated solution of that salt is formed and is present in the cell.

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  • The most saturated solution contains 205 parts of the salt to 100 of water and boils at 135°.

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  • The salt K2S03 H20 may be obtained by crystallizing the metabisulphite, K 2 S 2 0 5 (from sulphur dioxide and a hot saturated solution of the carbonate, or from sulphur dioxide and a mixture of milk of lime and potassium sulphate) with an equivalent amount of potash.

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  • Be it enough for our purpose to say that he thoroughly saturated his mind with the " new learning," first at Oxford, where in 1515 he was admitted to the degree of M.A., and then in Cambridge, where the fame of Erasmus still lingered.

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  • The saturated aqueous solution is colourless and fumes strongly on exposure to air; after a time it darkens in colour owing to liberation of iodine.

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  • Bueb (Congress of German Gas Industries, March 1900) brings gas (free from tar) into intimate contact with a saturated solution of ferrous sulphate, when a "cyanogen mud" is obtained.

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  • Hydroferricyanic acid, H 3 Fe(NC)s, obtained by adding concentrated hydrochloric acid to a cold saturated solution of potassium ferricyanide, crystallizes in brown needles, and is easily decomposed.

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  • Chromium trioxide, Cr03, is obtained by adding concentrated sulphuric acid to a cold saturated solution of potassium bichromate, when it separates in long red needles; the mother liquor is drained off and the crystals are washed with concentrated nitric acid, the excess of which is removed by means of a current of dry air.

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  • On pouring a solution of chromous chloride into a saturated solution of sodium acetate, a red crystalline precipitate of chromous acetate is produced; this is much more permanent in air than the other chromous salts and consequently can be used for their preparation.

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  • Potassium chlorochromate, CrO 2 Cl OK, is produced when potassium bichromate is heated with concentrated hydrochloric acid and a little water, or from chromium oxychloride and saturated potassium chloride solution, when - it separates as a red crystalline salt.

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  • In small quantities, it may be prepared by the addition of concentrated sulphuric acid to a cold saturated solution of borax.

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  • When the limit is reached the solution is said to be saturated, and the system is in equilibrium.

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  • It is certain then that when dissolution occurs the available energy of the whole system is decreased by the process, while when equilibrium is reached and the solution is saturated the available energy is a minimum.

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  • When a variable quantity is at a minimum a slight change in the system does not affect its value, and therefore, when a solution is saturated, the increase in the available energy of the liquid phase produced by dissolving in it some of the solid must be equal to the decrease in the available energy of the solid phase, caused by the abstraction from the bulk of that part dissolved.

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  • A saturated solution is a system in equilibrium, and exhibits the thermodynamic relations which hold for all such systems. Just as two electrified bodies are in equilibrium when their electric potentials are equal, so two parts of a chemical and physical system are in equilibrium when there is equality between the chemical potentials of each component present in the two parts.

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  • The four phases are (I) crystals of salt, (2) crystals of ice, (3) a saturated solution of the salt in water, and (4) the vapour, which is that practically of water alone, since the salt is non-volatile at the temperature in question.

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  • Equilibrium between these phases is obtained at the freezing point of the saturated solution under the pressure of the vapour.

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  • Thus a mixture of ice, salt and the saturated solution has a constant freezing point, and the composition of the solution is constant and the same as that of the mixed solids which freeze out on the abstraction of heat.

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  • If the supply of ice fails first the temperature will rise, and, since solid salt remains, we pass along a curve OA giving the relation between temperature and the vapour pressure of the saturated solution.

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  • Or, by increasing the pressure, we eliminate the vapour and obtain the curve OF giving the relation between pressure, freezing point and composition when a saturated solution is in contact with ice and salt.

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  • Taking the point 0 to denote the state of equilibrium between ice, hydrate; saturated solution and vapour, we pass along OA till a new solid phase, that of Na2S04, appears at 32.6°; from this point arise four curves, analogous to those diverging from the point O.

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  • of a saturated solution of Na2S04 IoH 2 O.

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  • At B is a nonvariant system made up of ice, solid phenol, saturated solution and vapour.

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  • At B we have the non-variant cryohydric point at which ice, the hydrate Fe2C16 12H20, the saturated solution and the vapour are in equilibrium at 55° C. As the proportion 26 of salt is increased, the melting point of the con glomerate rises, till, at the -40 maximum point C, we have the pure compound the hydrate with twelve molecules ¦¦ 0.b, E, ?

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  • The 20 40 60 80 100 liquid then becomes saturated with B also, and, if inoculated with B crystals, will deposit B alongside of A, till the whole mass is solid.

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  • If the solution in the cylinder be kept saturated by the presence FIG.

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  • of crystals of the solute, crystals will dissolve as solvent enters, and the solution remains saturated throughout.

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  • In the equation dP/dT= X/T(v 2 - v 1), P is the osmotic pressure, T the absolute temperature and X the heat of solution of unit mass of the solute when dissolving to form a volume v2 - v1 of saturated solution in an osmotic cylinder.

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  • This result must hold good for any solution, but if the solution be dilute when saturated, that is, if the solubility be small, the equation shows that if there be no heat effect when solid dissolves to form a saturated solution, the solubility is independent of temperature, for, in accordance with the gas laws, the osmotic pressure of a dilute solution of constant concentration is proportional to the absolute temperature.

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  • In all this investigation it should be noted that the heat of solution with which we are concerned is the heat effect when solid dissolves to form a saturated solution.

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  • Thus cupric chloride dissolves in much water with an evolution of heat, but when the solution is nearly saturated, it is cooled by taking up more of the solid.

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  • The substances used as tests in these reactions are caustic potash and calcium hypochlorite; the former being the substance dissolved in an equal weight of water and the latter a saturated extract of bleaching powder in water.

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  • The molten metal has a specific gravity of 2 � S4, that of molten cryolite saturated with alumina is 2.3 5, and that of the fluoride Al 2 F 6 2NaF saturated with alumina 1.97.

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  • Lime in the caustic state is beneficially applied to soils which contain an excess of inert vegetable matter, and hence may be used for the improvement of old garden soils saturated with humus, or of peaty soils not thoroughly reclaimed.

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  • Garden pots are made with a comparatively large hole in the bottom, and those of the largest size have also holes at the side near the bottom; these openings are to prevent the soil becoming saturated or soured with superabundant water.

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  • At this point selection ceases; the remaining molten metal freezes as a whole, and in freezing splits up into a conglomerate eutectic of (1) austenite of about 2.2% of carbon, and therefore saturated with that element, and (2) cementite; and with this eutectic is mixed the " primary " austenite which froze out as the temperature sank from v to v'.

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  • Hantzsch, Ber., This assumption also shows the relationship of the diazonium hydroxides to other quaternary ammonium compounds, for most of the quaternary ammonium hydroxides (except such as have the nitrogen atom attached to four saturated hydrocarbon radicals) are unstable, and readily pass over into compounds in which the hydroxyl group is no longer attached to the amine nitrogen; thus the syn-diazo hydroxides are to be regarded as pseudo-diazonium derivatives.

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  • In Morocco and generally throughout North Africa there is a considerable demand for green tea, which is drunk hot out of glasses, the liquor being almost saturated with sugar and strongly flavoured with mint.

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  • Pure sodium chloride, which may be obtained by passing hydrochloric acid gas into a saturated solution of the commercial salt, whereupon it is precipitated, forms colourless, crystalline cubes (see also below under Rock salt) which melt at 815.4°, and begins to volatilize at slightly higher temperatures.

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  • The saturated solution at 109.7° contains 40.35 parts of salt to ioo of water.

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  • On cooling a saturated solution to - 10°, or by cooling a solution in hot hydrochloric acid, the hydrate NaCI.2H 2 O separates; on further cooling an aqueous solution to - 20° a cryohydrate containing 23.7% of the salt is deposited.

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  • in thickness (Marston 23-26 yds.); it has above it, apparently lying in the recesses of its surface, a layer of saturated brine.

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  • Through this space the fresh surface water finds its way, and dissolving the salt below rises in the inner tube as brine, but only to such a level that the two columns bear to one another the relation of ten to twelve, this being the inverse ratio of the respective weights of saturated brine and fresh water.

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  • Many brine springs also occur in a more or less saturated condition.

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  • The brine used in the salt manufacture in England is very nearly saturated, containing 25 or 26% of sodium chloride, the utmost water can take up being 27%; and it ranges from 38 to 42 oz.

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  • Saltmaking is by no means an unhealthy trade, some slight soreness of the eyes being the only affection sometimes complained of; indeed the atmosphere of steam saturated with salt in which the workmen live seems specially preservative against colds, rheumatism, neuralgia, &c.

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  • Yet these two schools of Sufis were never quite similar; on Sunnite soil Sufiism could not openly impugn orthodox views, while in Persia it was saturated with Shiite heresy and the pantheism of the extreme devotees of 'Ali.

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  • The residue is then dissolved in water, decolorized by animal charcoal and saturated at 50 C. with oxalic acid.

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  • From the crude oxide so obtained (which contains lanthanum and didymium oxides) the cerium may be separated by conversion into its double sulphate on the addition of potassium sulphate, the sulphates of the cerium group being insoluble in a saturated solution of potassium sulphate.

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  • A nearly saturated solution of sodium chloride is obtained by purifying natural or artificial brine, i.e.

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  • This solution is saturated with ammonia, produced in the recovery plant (see below), in vessels provided with mechanical agitators and strongly cooled by coils of pipes through which cold water is made to flow.

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  • The ammoniacal salt solution is now saturated with carbon dioxide.

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  • Pinerua separates the metals by taking advantage of the fact that cobalt chloride is soluble in ether which has been saturated with hydrochloric acid gas at low temperature.

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  • The total heat of the saturated vapour at any temperature is usually defined as the quantity of heat required to raise unit mass of the liquid from any convenient zero up to the temperature considered, and then to evaporate it at that temperature under the constant pressure of saturation.

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  • The usual definition of total heat applies only to a saturated vapour.

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  • This agrees with the usual definition in the special case of a saturated vapour, if the liquid is heated under the final pressure p, as is generally the case in heat engines and in experimental measurements of H.

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  • p. 173) that the increase of the total heat of a saturated vapour between any two temperatures should be equal to the specific heat S of the vapour at constant pressure multiplied by the difference of temperature, provided that the saturated vapour behaved as an ideal gas, and that its specific heat was independent of the pressure and temperature.

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  • If the saturated vapour behaves as a perfect gas, the change of intrinsic energy E depends only on the temperature limits, and is equal to s (8-00), where s is the specific heat at constant volume.

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  • Zeuner, at a later date (La Chaleur, p.441) employing the empirical, formula pv= BO +Cp 25 for saturated steam, found the value S = 568, which further increased the discrepancy.

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  • It was first employed in the case of steam by Peabody as a means of estimating the wetness of saturated steam, which is an important factor in testing the performance of an engine.

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  • (12) If the steam at A contains a fraction z of suspended moisture, the total heat H A is less than the value for dry saturated steam at A by the amount zL.

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  • If the steam at A were dry and saturated, we should have, assuming Regnault's formula (to), H A -H D = 305 (0'-O), whence, if S = .475, we have zL = .3 0 5 (0 '- 0)-.

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  • It is evident that this is a very delicate method of determining the wetness z, but, since with dry saturated steam at low pressures this formula always gives negative values of the wetness, it is clear that Regnault's numerical coefficients must be wrong.

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  • Assuming dH/do = 0.305 for saturated steam, he found that S was nearly independent of the pressure at constant temperature, but that it varied with the temperature from o 387 at 100° C. to o 665 at 160° C. Writing Q for the Joule-Thomson " cooling effect," dO/dp, or the slope BC/AC of the line of constant total heat, he found that Q was nearly independent of the pressure at constant temperature, a result which agrees with that of Joule and Thomson for air and COs; but that it varied with the temperature as (1/0) 3.8 instead of (i/0) 2.

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  • 37, p. 504, 1889) to give values of the total heat to to 6 calories too large between o° and 40° C. At low pressures and temperatures it is probable that saturated steam behaves very nearly as an ideal gas, and that the variation of the total heat is closely represented by Rankine's equation with the ideal value of S.

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  • The rate of increase of the total heat, instead of being constant for saturated steam as in Regnault's formula, is given by the equation dH/d0 =S(1 - Qdp/d0).

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  • Since it is much easier to measure p than either L or v, the relation has generally been employed for deducing either L or v from observations of p. For instance, it is usual to calculate the specific volumes of saturated steam by assuming Regnault's formulae for p and L.

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  • The reason for adopting this method is that the specific volume of a saturated vapour cannot be directly measured with sufficient accuracy on account of the readiness with which it condenses on the surface of the containing vessel.

    0
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  • where and Table Of Properties Of Saturated Steam The values of the coaggregation-volume c, which form the starting-point of the calculation, are found by taking n =10/3 for convenience of division in formula (13).

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  • The gas must be collected either by downward displacement, since it is soluble in water and also attacks mercury; or over a saturated salt solution, in which it is only slightly soluble.

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  • Water saturated with chlorine at 0° C. deposits crystals of a hydrate C1 2.8H 2 O, which is readily decomposed at a higher temperature into its constituents.

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  • For purposes of substitution, the free element as a rule only works slowly on saturated compounds, but the reaction may be accelerated by the action of sunlight or on warming, or by using a "carrier."

    0
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  • Thatched roofs are not now allowed in London or other towns and their vicinity, but if saturated with a solution of lime the thatch is said to be incombustible.

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  • Six anodes were suspended, alternately with four cathodes, in a saturated solution of copper sulphate in a cylindrical fire-clay trough, all the anodes being connected in one parallel group, and all the cathodes in another.

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  • of cathode, and an electrolyte containing qlb of copper sulphate and z lb of sulphuric acid per gallon, all the gold, platinum and silver present in the crude copper anode remain as metals, undissolved, in the anode slime or mud, and all the lead remains there as sulphate, formed by the action of the sulphuric acid (or S04 ions); he found also that arsenic forms arsenious oxide, which dissolves until the solution is saturated, and then remains in the slime, from which on long standing it gradually dissolves, after conversion by secondary reactions into arsenic oxide; antimony forms a basic sulphate which in part dissolves; bismuth partly dissolves and partly remains, but the dissolved portion tends slowly to separate out as a basic salt which becomes added to the slime; cuprous oxide, sulphide and selenides remain in the slime, and very slowly pass into solution by simple chemical action; tin partly dissolves (but in part separates again as basic salt) and partly remains as basic sulphate and stannic oxide; zinc, iron, nickel and cobalt pass into solution - more readily indeed than does the copper.

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  • Their waters are saturated with saline compounds, which in some cases have considerable commercial value.

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  • In the person of his son, the throne was occupied by a soldier and stateiman of genius, saturated with Greek culture and Greek thought, and intolerant of every goal but the highest.

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  • Guntz (Comptes rendus, 1901, 133, p. 872) electrolyses a saturated solution of barium chloride using a mercury cathode and obtains a 3% barium amalgam; this amalgam is transferred to an iron boat in a wide porcelain tube and the tube slowly heated electrically, a good yield of pure barium being obtained at about looo C. The metal when freshly cut possesses a silver white lustre, is a little harder than lead, and is extremely easily oxidized on exposure; it is soluble in liquid ammonia, and readily attacks both water and alcohol.

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  • A saturated solution of the hydroxide deposits on cooling a hydrated form Ba(OH) 2.8H 2 0, as colourless quadratic prisms, which on exposure to air lose seven molecules of water of crystallization.

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  • Barium nitrate, Ba(N03)2, is prepared by dissolving either the carbonate or sulphide in dilute nitric acid, or by mixing hot saturated solutions of barium chloride and sodium nitrate.

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  • The same substance may be able to exist in two different states at the same temperature and pressure, as when water and its saturated vapour are contained in the same vessel.

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  • The following results have been obtained Clean 74.o Greasy to the point where camphor motions nearly cease 53.o Saturated with olive oil 41.0 Saturated with sodium oleate 25 o (Phil.

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  • The "syrup" employed for medicinal purposes consists of a concentrated or saturated solution of refined sugar in distilled water.

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  • A saturated solution of potassium chlorate in strong nitric acid is added, and the mass evaporated to dryness.

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  • The filtrate diluted to 200 cc. is carefully neutralized with hydrochloric acid, and excess of 6 cc. of the strong acid is added, and the solution saturated with hydrogen sulphide, which precipitates the copper and cadmium, metals which would otherwise interfere.

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  • A saturated solution (1 in woo of warm water), thymol gauze and an ointment are used.

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  • A compound of composition, SeS0 5, has been obtained by the addition of selenium dioxide to sulphuric acid saturated with sulphur trioxide (R.

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  • With oil it was accordingly at one time saturated in hopes of reviving the colours.

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  • It can be obtained also, although in a somewhat impure condition, by the direct action of bromine on various saturated hydrocarbons (e.g.

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  • It can be condensed to a liquid, which boils at - 64.9°C. (under a pressure of 738.2 mm.), and, by still further cooling, gives colourless crystals which melt at - 88.5° C. It is readily soluble in water, forming the aqueous acid, which when saturated at 0° C. has a specific gravity of 1.78.

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  • Bromous acid is formed by adding bromine to a saturated solution of silver nitrate (A.

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  • At the siege of Plataea (429 B.C.) the Spartans attempted to burn the town by piling up against the walls wood saturated with pitch and sulphur and setting it on fire (Thuc. ii.

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  • The diamide, PO (NH 2) (NH), results when the pentachloride is saturated with ammonia gas and the first formed chlorophosphamide, PC1 3 (NH 2) 2, is decomposed by water.

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  • An inch falling in a single day on a saturated mountain area will nearly all reach the rivers, but if it falls during a drought seven-eighths may be lost so far as the period of the drought is concerned.

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  • In estimating the evaporation to be deducted from the rainfall for the purpose of determining the flow into a reservoir, it is important to bear in mind that the loss from a constant water surface is nearly one and a half times as great as from the intermittently saturated land surface.

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  • With the exception of the Red Marls forming the upper part of the Keuper, most of the New Red Sandstone is permeable, and some parts contain, when saturated, even more water than solid chalk; but, just as in the case of the chalk, a well or borehole in the sandstone yields very little water unless it strikes a fissure; hence, in New Red Sandstone, also, it is a common thing to form underground chambers or adits in search of additional fissures, and sometimes to sink many vertical boreholes with the same object in view.

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  • 85 when dry and 2.07 when saturated, which would bring the line of pressures even closer to the outer face at the top of the counterfort.

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  • POLYMETHYLENES, in chemistry, cyclic compounds, the simplest members of which are saturated hydrocarbons of general formula C 7, H 2nj where n may be r to 9, and known as tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, and hepta-methylene, &c., or cyclo- propane, -butane, -pentane, -hexane, -heptane, &c.: - CH 21 CH 2 CH 2 CH2.CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2?C1H,, I I H ?

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  • The ketones are obtained by the dry distillation of the calcium salts of dibasic saturated aliphatic acids (J.

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  • For example, on reduction with zinc and alcoholic potash, the a/' compounds give saturated ketones and also bi-molecular compounds, the Jay being unaffected; the Jay series react with hydroxylamine in a normal manner, the a/3 yield oxamino-oximes.

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  • Again, the most convenient site for oil wells is the crest of an anticline or "dome," where an impervious stratum imprisons the gas and oil in a subjacent saturated layer under pressure.

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  • Their northern slope, which is occupied by the three Guianas first named, is saturated and river-torn; but their southern one, Brazilian Guiana, is in general thirsty and semi-barren, and the driest region of the Amazon valley.

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  • Before it reaches the plains it receives a great number of small streams from impenetrable, saturated and much broken mountainous districts, where the dense and varied vegetation seems to fight for every square foot of ground.

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  • The hydrocarbons, upon which the luminosity of the flame entirely depends, are divided in the analysis into two groups, saturated and unsaturated, according to their behaviour with a solution of bromine in potassium bromide, which has the power of absorbing those termed "unsaturated," but does not affect in diffused daylight the gaseous members of the "saturated" series of hydrocarbons.

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  • The chief unsaturated hydrocarbons present in coal gas are: ethylene, C2H4, butylene, C 4 H 8, acetylene, C 2 H 2, benzene, C 6 H 61 and naphthalene,C 10 H 8, and the saturated hydrocarbons consist chieflyof methane, CH 4, and ethane, C2H6.

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  • Gas leaves the retorts saturated with naphthalene, and its capacity for holding that impurity seems to be augmented by the presence of water vapour.

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  • To do this, saturated ammoniacal liquor is decomposed by lime in the presence of steam, and the freed ammonia is passed into strong sulphuric acid, the saturated solution of ammonium sulphate being carefully crystallized.

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  • When escaping from the acid tower, the gas contains about% NH 3, and has a temperature of about 80° C. and is saturated with aqueous vapour.

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  • This air, after being heated to 76° C., and saturated with steam in the tower C, passes through 1 into the generator G.

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  • The monohydrate also results as a white precipitate when concentrated sulphuric acid is added to a saturated solution of ferrous sulphate.

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  • Divers obtains it by mixing cold saturated solutions containing one molecular proportion of sodium nitrate, and two molecular proportions of acid sodium sulphite, and then adding a saturated solution of potassium chloride to the mixture.

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  • Salt, too, is obtained from the ashes of wood saturated by sea-water.

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  • Sulphuretted hydrogen is passed through the liquid until it is thoroughly saturated, the excess of sulphuretted hydrogen is expelled from the solution by a brisk stream of carbon dioxide, and the precipitate is filtered on a Gooch crucible and washed with water containing a little sulphuretted hydrogen and dried at 100° C.; it is then well washed with small quantities of pure carbon disulphide to remove any free sulphur, again dried and weighed.

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  • Arsenic can also be estimated by volumetric methods; for this purpose it must be in the arsenious condition, and the method of estimation consists in converting it into the arsenic condition by means of a standard solution of iodine, in the presence of a cold saturated solution of sodium bicarbonate.

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  • White arsenic exists in two crystalline forms (octahedral and prismatic) and one amorphous form; the octahedral form is produced by the rapid cooling of arsenic vapour, or by cooling a warm saturated solution in water, or by crystallization from hydrochloric acid, and also by the gradual transition of the amorphous variety, this last phenomenon being attended by the evolution of heat.

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  • The prismatic variety of the oxide can be obtained by crystallization from a saturated boiling solution in potassium hydroxide, or by the crystallization of a solution of silver arsenite in nitric acid.

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  • On the addition of concentrated sulphuric acid to a cold saturated solution of the salt, red crystals of chromium trioxide, Cr03, separate (see Chromium), whilst when warmed with concentrated hydrochloric acid and a little water, potassium chlorochromate is produced.

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  • They pass into the refrigerator, where they are condensed and fall back as a condensed liquid through the meal, percolating it as they pass downwards, and reaching to the bottom of the vessel as a more or less saturated solution of oil in the solvent.

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  • Thus it points the way to the application of a further method to resolve the isolated fatty acids of an oil or fat into saturated fatty acids, which do not absorb iodine, and into unsaturated fatty acids, which absorb iodine in various proportions as shown above.

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  • This separation is effected by converting the alkali soaps of the fatty acids into lead soaps and treating the latter with ether, in which the lead salts of the saturated acids are insoluble, whereas the salts of the above-named unsaturated acids are soluble.

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  • The saturated fatty acids can then be further examined, and valuable information is gained by the determination of the melting-points and by treatment with solvents.

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  • So far as the air discharged from the expansion cylinder is concerned, its humidity is precisely the same so long as its temperature and pressure are the same, inasmuch as when discharged from the expansion cylinder it is always in a saturated condition for that temperature and pressure.

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  • -Ledoux's Table for Saturated Sulphur Dioxide Vapour (S02) [[Table Iv]].- Mollier's Table for Saturated Anhydrous Ammonia Vapour (NH3).

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  • [[Table V]].- Mollier's Table for Saturated Carbon Dioxide Vapour (C02) The action of a vapour compression machine is shown in fig.

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  • Traditional quiche would be higher in ' bad ' or saturated fat due to the pastry.

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  • It was simply reeking with cholera germs, having a mud floor that had become saturated with filth.

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  • Know that alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons and know their properties.

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  • Products high in saturated fatty acids, salt, sugar etc should therefore not be promoted on this basis.

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  • This is a simple way to reduce your saturated fat intake.

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  • Water must be displaced from saturated soils in order to reduce the volume of the voids.

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  • The causes are the same old suspects - too little fiber, saturated fat, cholesterol and obesity.

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  • Dewpoint: the temperature at which a given air/water vapor mixture is saturated with water vapor (i.e.

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  • Wetland: Lowland areas, such as marshes and swamps, that are saturated with moisture, the natural habitat of much wildlife.

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  • So instead of normally having 100% of the hemoglobin saturated with oxygen, smokers are down to about 85% of normal.

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  • Monounsaturated fatty acids: Fatty acids in which only one area of the molecule is not saturated with hydrogen.

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  • Wars there have been in the past; this earth is saturated with blood.

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  • With the soil saturated again with water there were large pools of water on the fields adjacent to the weather station.

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  • Use unsaturated fats such as sunflower or olive oil rather than saturated fats such as butter.

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  • Many people in the UK are eating too much fat, especially saturated fat.

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  • Only because their imagination is thoroughly saturated with Christian symbol and doctrine are they able to manifest a fully realized and believable heaven.

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  • The access line is completely saturated during a 25 second period at the center of the period.

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  • If partly saturated air is cooled without changing its pressure or amount of water vapor, a point is reached when it becomes saturated.

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