and of his consort Maria Luisa of Spain, was born in Florence in 1783, and from 1818-48 was viceroy of the kingdom of Lombardo-Venetia; his mother was the Princess Elizabeth, sister of Charles Albert, King of Sardinia.
In the extreme west the salinity of the surface water is about 36 3 per mille, and it increases eastwards to 37 6 east of Sardinia and 39 0 and upwards in the Levant.
He remained, however, loyal in sentiment to the house of Savoy, and, after the restoration of the king of Sardinia in 1814, he continued in the public service.
Messina fell on the 10th of July, but Garibaldi, instead of crossing to Calabria, secretly departed for Aranci Bay in Sardinia, where Bertani was fitting out an expedition against the papal states.
These two groups are divided by the deep valley of the Tirso, the only real river in Sardinia, which has a course of 94 m.
It is in this south-western portion of the island, and more particularly in the group of mountains to the north of Iglesias, that the mining industry of Sardinia is carried on.
The scenery is fine, but wild and desolate in most parts, and of a kind that appeals rather to the northern genius than to the Italian, to whom, as a rule, Sardinia is not attractive.
The coast of Sardinia contains few seaports, but a good proportion of these are excellent natural harbours.
In the south-west portion of Sardinia the island of S.
On the mainland, on the south shore of the Golfo dell' Asinara, is the harbour of Porto Torres, the only one of any importance on the north-west coast of Sardinia.
Geologically Sardinia consists of two hilly regions of Pre-Tertiary rock, separated by a broad depression filled with Tertiary deposits.
The climate of Sardinia is more extreme than that of Italy, but varies considerably in different districts.
Anthropologists, indeed, have recently observed a large proportion of individuals of exceptionally small stature, not found in Sardinia only, but elsewhere in south Italy also; though in Sardinia they are distributed over the whole island, and especially in the southern half.
Emigration is a comparatively new phenomenon in Sardinia, which began only in 1896, but is gaining ground.
Comparatively little grain is now produced, whereas under the republic Sardinia was one of the chief granaries of Rome.
A considerable portion of Sardinia, especially in the higher regions, is devoted to pasture.
In Roman times Sardinia, relatively somewhat more prosperous than at present, though not perhaps greatly different as regards its products, was especially noted as a grain-producing country.
The mining industry in Sardinia is confined in the main to the south-western portion of the island.
The railway system of Sardinia is in the hands of two companies - the Compagnia Reale delle Ferrovie Sarde, and the Compagnia delle Ferrovie Secondarie della Sardegna.
Sardinia is divided into two provinces - Cagliari and Sassari; the chief towns of the former (with their communal population in 1901) are: Cagliari (53,057); Iglesias (20,874); Quartu S.
- For the - years1897-1901statistics show that Sardinia has more thefts and frauds than any other region of Italy (1068.15 for Sardinia and 210.56 per 100,000 inhabitants per annum for the rest of Italy).
Sardinia has less convictions for serious crimes than any other compartimento of south Italy.
In 1887 a severe banking crisis occurred in Sardinia.
It is estimated that Sardinia pays, in local and general, direct and indirect taxation of all kinds, 23,000,000 lire (920,000), a sum corresponding to 35.44 lire per head.
The early history of Sardinia is entirely unknown.'
i'70, when it was proposed, after the capture of Phocaea and Teos in 545 B.C., that the remainder of the Ionian Greeks should emigrate to Sardinia) none of them ever came to anything.
The majority perhaps of the nuraghi of Sardinia present this simple type; but a very large number, and, among them, those best preserved, have considerable additions.
There were certainly no Egyptian colonies in Sardinia; the Egyptian objects and their imitations found in the island were brought there by the Phoenicians (W.
The only place where obsidian is known to be found in Sardinia in a natural state is the Punta Trebina, a mountain south-east of Oristano.
It is thus clear that in the Bronze Age Sardinia was fairly thickly populated over by far the greater part of its extent; this may explain the lack of Greek colonies, except for Olbia, the modern Terranova, and Neapolis on the cians.
There were salt-works in Sardinia too as early as about 150 B.C., as is attested by an inscription assigned to this date in Latin, Greek and Punic, being a dedication by one Cleon salari(us) soc(iorum) s(ervus) (Corp. Inscr.
Aemilius Scaurus, praetor in 53 B.C. Cicero, speaking no doubt to his brief, gives them a very bad character, adding " ignoscent alii viri boni ex Sardinia; credo enim esse quosdam ".
67 Nero restored Sardinia to the senate (but not Corsica) in exchange for Achaea, and the former was then governed by a legatus pro praetore; but Vespasian took it over again before A.D.
The name Barbaria for the mountainous district in the east centre of Sardinia, in the district of Nuoro, which still exists in the form Barbargia, goes back to the Roman period, the civitates Barbariae being mentioned in an inscription of the time of Tiberius (Corp. inscr.
In 1241 Adelasia, heiress of Gallura and Logudoro, was married as her third husband to Enzio, the natural son of Frederick II., who received the title of king of Sardinia from his father, but fell into the hands of the Bolognese in 1249, and 3 Three inscriptions of the middle of this century, set up by the iipXcov Zap8'vias with the title protospatarius, are illustrated by A.
After the time of Constantine, the administration of Sardinia was separated from that of Corsica, each island being governed by a praeses dependent on the vicarius urbis Romae.
The Pisans and Genoese now disputed about the ownership of Sardinia, but the pope and the emperor decided in favour of Pisa.
In 1717, however, Cardinal Alberoni retook Cagliari for Spain; but this state of things was short-lived, for in 1720, by the treaty of London, Sardinia passed in exchange for Sicily to the dukes of Savoy, to whom it brought the royal title.
Tennant, Sardinia and its Resources (London, 1885); G.
(Leipzig, 1909); and " Dolmens, Tombs of the Giants and Nuraghi of Sardinia," in Papers of the British School at Rome, v.
In the 18th century concordats are numerous: there are two for Spain, in 1737 and 1753; two for the duchy of Milan, in 1757 and 1784; one for Poland, in 1736; five for Sardinia and Piedmont, in 1727, 1741, 1742, 1750 and 1770; and one for the kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1741.
Having served in the army in Spain and Sardinia, he became curule aedile, praetor and (after an unsuccessful attempt in 117) consul in 115.
In 56 Scaurus was praetor, and in the following year governor of Sardinia.
The new duke, unwilling to yield to the wishes of his people for greater political liberty, was soon compelled to take flight, and the duchy was for a time ruled by a provisional government and by Charles Albert of Sardinia; but in April 1849 Baron d'Aspre with 15,000 Austrians took possession of Parma, and the ducal government was restored under Austrian protection.
After travelling through many of the Aegean islands, through Sicily, Sardinia and Magna Graecia, everywhere conferring benefits and receiving divine honours, Aristaeus reached Thrace, where he was initiated into the mysteries of Dionysus, and finally disappeared near Mount Haemus.
Southwards it extends to Sardinia, Sicily and the Morea.
It forms, like Giglio and Monte Cristo, part of a sunken mountain range extending towards Corsica and Sardinia.
The three great islands of Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica are closely connected with Italy, both by geographical position and community of language, but they are considered at length in separate articles.
In 1906 there were 1805 mandamenti and 8290 communes, and 4 boroughs in Sardinia not connected with communes.
in Venetia, Emilia, the Marches, Umbria and Tuscany the proportion of concentrated population is only from 40 to 55%; in Piedmont, Liguria and Lombardy the proportion rises to from 70 to 76%; in southern Italy, Sicily and Sardinia it attains a maximum of from 76 to 93%.
Tuscany gives I20, Latium 1.14%, Apulia only I~02, while Sardinia with 0.34% occupies an exceptional position.
In Sardinia it extends along the southern and western coasts.
(2) The region of olives comprises the internal Sicilian valleys and part of the mountain slopes; in Sardinia, the valleys near the coast on the S.E., S.W.
In Sardinia it covers the mountain slopes to a considerable height, and in Sicily covers the sides of the Madonie range, reaching a level above 3000 ft.
(4) The region of chestnuts extends from the valleys to the high plateaus of the Alps, along the northern slopes of the Apennines in Liguria, Modena, Tuscany, Romagna, Umbria, the Marches and along the southern Apennines to the Calabrian and Sicilian ranges, as well as to the mountains of Sardinia.
The barley zone is geographicall xtensive but embraces not more than 1% of the total area, of whic raif is situated in Sardinia and Sicily.
Rome is an exception to the former rule and imports garden produce largely from the neighborhood of Naples and from Sardinia.
In Sardinia the cultivation is extensive, but receives little attention.
Almonds are widely cultivated in Sicily, Sardinia and the sor~ithern provinces; walnut trees throughout the peninsula, their wood being more important than their fruit; hazel nuts, figs, prickly pears (used in the south and the islands for hedges, their fruit being a minor consideration), peaches, pears, locust beans and pistachio nuts are among the other fruits.
In Sicily the so-called Modica race is of note; and in Sardinia there is a distinct stock which seldom exceeds the weight of 700 lb.
Large farms are f&und in certain of the more open districts; but in Italy generally, and especially in Sardinia, the land is very much subdivided.
In Sardinia landlord-farming and leasehold prevail.
The bulk of the sulphur mines are in Sicily, while the majority of the lead and zinc mines are in Sardinia; much of the lead smelting is done at Pertusola, near Genoa, the company formed for this purpose having acquired many of the Sardinian mines.
Fishing and trawling are carried on chiefly off the Italian (especially Ligurian, Austrian and Tunisian coasts; coral is found principally near Sardinia and Sicily, and sponges almost exclusively off Sicily arid Tunisia in tile neighborhood of Sfax.
Ihe main fisheries are in Sardinia, Sicily and Elba.
To some extent the industry also exists in Emilia, Calabria, Basilicata, the Abruzzi, Sardinia and Sicily.
Since then special laws have hampered development, some provinces, as for instance Sardinia, being allowed to manufacture for their own consumption but not for export.
In Sardinia wage-earners are paid lod.
The peasants somewhat rarely use animal foodthis is most largely used in Sardinia and least in Sicilybread and polenta or macaroni and vegetables being the staple diet.
Distributive co-operation is confined almost entirely to Piedmont, Liguria, Lombardy, Venetia, Emilia and Tuscany, and is practically unknown in Basilicata, the Abruzzi and Sardinia.
(For the Sicilian and Sardinian lines, see SICILY and SARDINIA.) The speed of the trains is not high, nor are the runs without stoppage long as a rule.
m.; in central Italy 993; in southern Italy 405; in Sardinia 596, and in Sicily only 244.
per 1000; Tuscany has 39; Venetia, 42; Calabria, 144; Rome, 146; Apulia, 153; and Sardinia, 360 per 1000.
The high average in Sardinia is chiefly due to cases within the competence of the conciliation offices.
The sea-coast cities of the south, and the islands, Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, preserved their independence.
employed the Pisans in 980 against the Greeks in Lower Italy, and the Pisans and Genoese together attacked the Saracens of Sardinia in 1017.
pero~ In his single person he combined the prestige of empire with the crowns of Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, Germany and Burgundy; and in 1225, by marriage with Yolande de Brienne, he added that of Jerusalem.
Next year Bologna rose against him, defeated his troops and took his son Enzio, king of Sardinia, prisoner at Fossaita.
They fought their duel out upon the Bosporus, off Sardinia, and in the Morea, with various success.
Charles of Austria, now emperor, took Milan, Mantua, Naples and Sardinia for his portion of the Italian spoil.
After this marriage Philip broke the peace of Europe by invading Sardinia.
by the forced exchange of Sicily for the island of Sardinia.
The duchy of Savoy in his days became a kingdom, and Sardinia, though it seemed a poor exchange for Sicily, was a far less perilous possession than the larger and wealthier island would have been.
The three branches of the Bourbon house, ruling in France, Austrian Spain and the Sicilies, joined with Prussia, Bavaria and the kingdom of Sardinia to despoil Maria Theresa of her heritage.
Lombardy was made the seat of war; and here the king of Sardinia acted as in some sense the arbiter of the situation.
The kingdom of Sardinia was administered upon similar principles, but with less of geniality.
Of the nominally independent states the chief were the kingdom of Sardinia, ruled over by the house of Savoy, and comprising Piedmont, the isle of Sardinia and nominally Savoy and Nice, though the two provinces last named had virtually been lost to the monarchy since the campaign of 1793.
The first fortnight of Napoleons campaign of 1796 detached Sardinia from alliance with Austria and England.
Further, at the close of 1798 they virtually compelled the young king of Sardinia, Charles Emmanuel IV., to abdicate at Turin.
He retired to the island of Sardinia, while the French despoiled Piedmont, thereby adding fuel to the resentment rapidly growing against them in every part of Europe.
To the kingdom of Sardinia, now reconstituted under Victor Emmanuel I., France ceded its old provinces, Savoy and Nice; and the allies, especially Great Britain and Austria, insisted on the addition to that monarchy of the territories of the former republic of Genoa, in respect of which the king took the title of duke of Genoa, in order to strengthen it for the duty of acting as a buffer state between France and the smaller states of central Italy.
Austria also concluded offensive and defensive alliancqs with Sardinia Tuscany and Naples; and Metternichs ambition was to make Austrian predominance over Italy still more absolute, by placing an Austrian archduke on the Sardinian throne.
Victor Emmanuel I., the king of Sardinia, was the only native ruler in the peninsula, and the Savoy dynasty was popular with all classes.
In May 1859 Ferdinand of Naples was succeeded by his son Francis II., who gave no signs of any intention to change his fathers policy, and, in spite of Napoleons advice, refused to grant a constitution or to enter into an alliance with Sardinia.
the succession of the kings of Sardinia.
disturbances at Buggeru in Sardinia and Castelluzzo in Sicily, in both of which places the troops were compelled to use their arms and several persons were killed and wounded; at a demonstration at Sestri Ponente in Liguria to protest against what was called the Buggeru massacre, four carabineers and eleven rioters were injured.
Free sulphur may also result from the decomposition of pyrites, as in pyritic shales and lignites, or from the alteration of galena: thus crystals of sulphur occur, with anglesite, in cavities in galena at Monteponi near Iglesias in Sardinia; whilst the pyrites of Rio Tinto in Spain sometimes yield sulphur on weathering.
coast of Sardinia, in the province of Sassari, 21 m.
It was originally founded by the Doria family of Genoa about 1102, but was occupied by the house of Aragon in 1 354, who held it successfully against various attacks until it fell to the house of Savoy with the rest of Sardinia in 1720.
The sovereigns of Sardinia, Naples, Portugal and Spain were dethroned, the pope was driven from Rome, the Rhine Confederation was extended till France obtained a footing on the Baltic, the grand-duchy of Warsaw was reorganized and strengthened, the promised evacuation of Prussia was indefinitely postponed, an armistice between Russia and Turkey was negotiated by French diplomacy in such a way that the Russian troops should evacuate the Danubian principalities, which Alexander intended to annex to his empire, and the scheme for breaking up the Ottoman empire and ruining England by the conquest of India, which had been one of the most attractive baits in the Tilsit negotiations, but which had not been formulated in the treaty, was no longer spoken of.
Candia), after Sicily and Sardinia the largest island in the Mediterranean, situated between 34° 50' and 35° 40' N.
CAGLIARI (anc. Carales), the capital of the island of Sardinia, an archiepiscopal see, and the chief town of the province of Cagliari, which embraces the southern half of the island.
485 the whole of Sardinia was taken by the Vandals from Africa; but in 533 it was retaken by Justinian.
invested the kings of Aragon with Sardinia, and in 1326 they finally drove the Pisans out of Cagliari, and made it the seat of their government.
In 1720 it was ceded by the latter, in exchange for Sicily, to the duke of Savoy, who assumed the title of king of Sardinia (Cagliari continuing to be the seat of government), and this remained the title of the house of Savoy until 1861.
of April 1792) and against Sardinia (15th of May 1792).
His last time of furlough in Corsica is remarkable for the failure of the expedition in which he and his volunteers took part, against la Maddalena, a small island off the coast of Sardinia.
Sardinia has Aegean sites, e.g.
Mediterranean, in Sicily, Italy, Sardinia and Spain, and in the E.
Sicily, Sardinia and Spain.
Catulus defeated him at the Mulvian bridge and near Cosa in Etruria, and Lepidus made his escape to Sardinia, where he died soon afterwards.
- Lancashire (Down Holland Moss), Holland, Sweden, Sardinia, Kaluga (Russia), Red Sea, Mediterranean.
The Pisans conquered Sardinia at the instigation of Benedict VIII.
The rabbit is believed to be a native of the western half of the Mediterranean basin, and still abounds in Spain, Sardinia, southern Italy, Sicily, Greece, Tunis and Algeria;.
of Sardinia from the Austrian alliance, but was not permitted to cross the Sardinian frontier.
When twenty-one years of age he composed a treatise on the figure of the earth, and the reputation which he soon acquired led to his appointment by the king of Sardinia to the professorship of philosophy in the college of Casale.
Anglesite, or lead sulphate, PbSO 4, is poor in silver, and is only exceptionally mined by itself; it occurs in quantity in France, Spain, Sardinia and Australia.
He was of French extraction, his great grandfather, a cavalry captain, having passed from the service of France to that of Sardinia, and settled in Turin under Emmanuel II.
The new pope Boniface VIII., elected in 1294 at Naples under the auspices of King Charles, mediated between the latter and James, and a most dishonourable treaty was signed: James was to marry Charles's daughter Bianca and was promised the investiture by the pope of Sardinia and Corsica, while he was to leave the Angevin a free hand in Sicily and even to assist him if the Sicilians resisted.
He was here practically at the meeting-point of four distinct jurisdictions - Geneva, the canton Vaud, Sardinia and France, while other cantons were within easy reach; and he bought other houses dotted about these territories, so as never to be without a refuge close at hand in case of sudden storms. At Les Delices he set up a considerable establishment, which his great wealth made him able easily to afford.
Dr Johnson's Jacobite sympathies are well known, and on the death of Victor Emmanuel I., the ex-king of Sardinia, in 1824, Lord Liverpool wrote to Canning saying "there are those who think that the ex-king was the lawful king of Great Britain."
Perrot and C. Chipiez, History of Art in Sardinia, Judaea, Syria and Asia Minor (Eng.
By this treaty Corsica was assigned to the Etruscans while Carthage obtained Sardinia.
Of less importance is the silicate, Zn 2 SiO 4 H 2 0, named electric calamine or hemimorphite; this occurs in quantity in Altenburg near Aix-laChapelle, Sardinia, Spain and the United States (New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Missouri, Wisconsin).
His next exploit was the conquest and plunder of Sicily, after which he subdued Corsica and Sardinia and sent a Gothic fleet against the coasts of Greece.
who contended that there existed once a single great Iberian people, speaking a distinct language of their own; that an essentially " Iberian " population was to be found in Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, in southern France, and even in the British Isles; and that the Basques of the present day were remnants of this race, which had elsewhere been expelled or absorbed.
d'Arbois de Jubainville, for example (Les Premiers habitants de l'Europe, Paris, 1877), maintained that besides possessing Spain, Gaul, Italy and the British Isles, " Iberian " peoples penetrated into the Balkan peninsula, and occupied a part of northern Africa, Corsica and Sardinia; and it is now generally accepted that a race with fairly uniform characteristics was at one time in possession of the south of France (or at least of Aquitania), the whole of Spain from the Pyrenees to the straits, the Canary Islands (the Guanches) a part of northern Africa and Corsica.
It is first mentioned in history as the place at which a Roman army from Sardinia landed in 225 B.C., its harbour being at the mouth of the south branch of the Arno, north of Livorno.
This Moslem chief had made himself master of Sardinia, and was driven thence by the allied fleets in rot 5.
Sardinia continued to be governed by native "judges" who were like petty sovereigns, but were now subject to the sway of Pisa.
The two republics contested the dominion of the sea, and both claimed supreme power over the islands of Corsica and Sardinia.
transferred the supremacy over part of Corsica to the Genoese church, and compensated Pisa by grants in Sardinia and elsewhere.
But in fact the chief authority was still vested in the nobles, who, both in Pisa and in Sardinia, exercised almost sovereign power.
Shortly after this they renewed hostilities with the Genoese on account of Sardinia.
The judges who governed the island were always at strife, and, as some of them applied to Pisa and some to Genoa for assistance against one another, the Italian seas were once more stained with blood, and the war burst out again and again, down to 1259, when it terminated in the decisive victory of the Pisans and the consolidation of their supremacy in Sardinia.
The pope hurled an edict against the Pisans and tried to deprive them of Sardinia, while their merchants were driven from Sicily by the Angevins.
In addition to these privileges the Genoese also held Corsica and part of Sardinia; and throughout the island of Elba they were exempted from every tax.
New lords, or petty tyrants, rose to power in turn during this period of civil discord, but the military valour of the Pisans was not yet extinguished By sea they were almost impotent - Corsica and Sardinia were lost to them for ever; but they were still formidable by land.
In the peace of Utrecht he was ignored; Sardinia and Sicily, Parma and Piacenza, were disposed of without regard to papal claims. When he quarrelled with the duke of Savoy, and revoked his investiture rights in Sicily (1715), his interdict was treated with contempt.
CARLOFORTE, a town of Sardinia, in the province of Cagliari, the capital of the small island (6 by 5 m.) of San Pietro (anc. Accipitrum or `IEpaKovvf7vos) off the west coast of Sardinia.
TEMPIO PAUSANIA, a town of Sardinia, in the province of Sassari, from which town it is 52 m.
He became professor of architecture at Turin, and his most important works were the excavation of Tusculum in 1829 and of the Appian Way in 1848, the results of which he embodied in a number of works published in a costly form by his patroness, the queen of Sardinia.
Corsica and Sardinia belonged to the exarchate of Africa.
By the treaty of Utrecht (1713) Victor received the long-coveted Montferrat and was made king of Sicily; but in 1718 the powers obliged him to exchange that kingdom for Sardinia, which conferred on the rulers of Savoy and Piedmont the title subsequently borne by them until they assumed that of kings of Italy.
Realizing his folly he abdicated on the 6th of December 1796, and retired to Sardinia, That princess, in spite of her French origin, resisted the attempts of France, then dominated by Cardinal Richelieu, to govern Savoy, but her quarrels with her brothers-in-law led to civil war, in which the latter obtained the help of Spain, and Christina that of France.
Charles l Felix King of Sardinia; abdi (d.
(1802-1820) remained in Sardinia until by the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna (June 9, 1815) his dominions were restored to him, with the addition of Genoa.
The series appears to be in line with Geology similar formations at Tripoli in Africa, Cagliari in and Water Sardinia, and to the east of Marseilles.
(1666-1732), duke of Savoy and first king of Sardinia, was the son of Duke Charles Emmanuel II.
But after a brief stay in the island he returned to Piedmont and left his new possessions to a viceroy, which caused much discontent among the Sicilians; and when the Quadruple Alliance decreed in 1718 that Sicily should be restored to Spain, Victor was unable to offer any opposition, and had to content himself with receiving Sardinia in exchange.
The plenipotentiaries of Great Britain, France, Austria, Russia, Sardinia and Turkey recorded in a protocol, at the instance of Lord Clarendon, their joint wish that "states between which any misunderstanding might arise should, before appealing to arms, have recourse so far as circumstances might allow (en tant que les circonstances l'admettraient) to the good offices of a friendly power."
The species is semi-domesticated in British parks, and occurs wild in western Asia, North Africa, the south of Europe and Sardinia.
The Balearic Basin, between Spain and the rise bearing Corsica and Sardinia, has a maximum depth of 1742 fathoms, and the Tyrrhenian Basin between that rise, Italy and Sicily deepens to 2040 fathoms. The larger Eastern Mediterranean Basin stretches eastward from Sicily with large tracts more than 2000 fathoms below the surface, and the greatest depth ascertained during the detailed researches of the Austrian expedition on board the " Pola " was 2046 fathoms in 35° 44' 8' N., 21° 46.8' E.
Pius, wishing to counteract the effect of this policy, sent Farini to Charles Albert, king of Sardinia, to hand over the command of the papal contingent to him.
CHARLES ALBERT [CARLO ALBERTO] (1798-1849), king of Sardinia (Piedmont), son of Prince Charles of Savoy-Carignano and Princess Albertine of Saxe-Courland, was born on the 2nd of October 1798, a few days before the French occupied Piedmont and forced his cousin King Charles Emmanuel to take refuge in Sardinia.
The long rivalry of that city and of Genoa had broken out for the last time in 1282, the immediate cause being the incompatible claims of the two cities to sovereignty over the islands of Sardinia and Corsica.
Among the celebrities of Saluzzo are Silvio Pellico, Bodoni, the famous printer of Parma of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, and Casalis the historian of Sardinia.
Hippolytus and Pontius, who was then bishop, were transported in 235 to Sardinia, where it would seem that both of them died.
JEAN PAUL MARAT (1743-1793), French revolutionary leader, eldest child of Jean Paul Marat, a native of Cagliari in Sardinia, and Louise Cabrol of Geneva, was born at Boudry, in the principality of Neuchatel, on the 24th of May 1743.
In 1796 he accompanied his brother Napoleon in the early part of the Italian campaign, and had some part in the negotiations with Sardinia which led to the armistice of Cherasco (April 28), the news of which he bore to the French government.
December 1798 appointed him ambassador to the court of Sardinia.
As one of the democratic leaders there he was obliged in 1782 to take refuge in England, upon the armed interference of France, Sardinia and Berne in favour of the aristocratic party.
In 1814 it was assigned to the kingdom of Sardinia, the frontier between Liguria and Tuscany being now made to run between it and Carrara.
In 57 he was praetor, in 56 propraetor in Sardinia, and in 54 consul with L.
In Italy Austria retained her hold on Lombardy and Venetia, Genoa was assigned to the kingdom of Sardinia, while Parma went to Marie Louise, the legitimate heir, Carlo Ludivico, having to be content with the reversion after her death, the congress meanwhile assigning Lucca to him as a duchy; the claims of the young Napoleon to succeed his mother in Parma were only destroyed by the efforts of France and England.
824) Phorcys was a king of Corsica and Sardinia, who, having been defeated by King Atlas in a naval engagement in the course of which he was drowned, was subsequently worshipped as a marine divinity.
- Another unit not far different, but yet distinct, is found apparently in Punic remains at Carthage (25), about 11.16 (22.32), and probably also in Sardinia as 11.07 (22.14), where it would naturally be of Punic origin.
The transformation was complete in 174 B.C., when Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, after the conquest of Sardinia, placed in the temple of Matuta a map commemorative of the campaign, containing a plan of the island and the various engagements.
ceased to protect the Jesuits, there remained only the petty kingdom of Sardinia in their favour, though the fall of Choiseul in France raised the hopes of the Society for a time.
His advice to its inhabitants, at the time of the Persian invasion, to migrate to Sardinia and there found a single pan-Ionic city (Herodotus i.
As he states himself: " Westward I have journeyed to the parts of Etruria opposite Sardinia; towards the south from the Euxine to the borders of Ethiopia; and perhaps not one of those who have written geographies has visited more places than I have between those limits."
coast of Sardinia, in the province of Cagliari, 30 m.
TURIN, a city of Piedmont, Italy, capital of the province of Turin, formerly of the kingdom of Sardinia until 1860, and of Italy till the removal of the seat of government to Florence in 1865.
The museum of antiquities and the picture gallery, of which it has the custody, are both of high interest - the former for the local antiquities of Piedmont and Sardinia (notably from Industria) and for the Egyptian treasures collected by Donati and Drovetti, and the latter for its Van Dycks and pictures by north Italian masters.
He left his conquest of Naples to his bastard son Ferdinand; his inherited lands, Sicily and Sardinia, going to his brother John who survived him.]
In this line there is a tendency 'to lose the last upper molar, but in Prolagus, which ranges in the Pliocene from Sardinia and Corsica to Spain, and forms a side-branch, the corresponding lower tooth has likewise disappeared.
By the former, through their daughter, the queen of Sardinia, he was ancestor, among others, of the princess Maria Theresa of Bavaria, who in 1 9 10 was "heir of line" of the house of Stuart, her eldest son, Prince Rupert, being heir to the throne of Bavaria; and from his second marriage descends the house of Orleans.
He was more or less effectively the supreme temporal chief of the kingdom of Sicily and Naples, Sardinia, the states of the Iberian peninsula (Castile, Leon, Navarre and Portugal), Aragon (which, under Peter II., was the type of vassal and tributary kingdom of the Roman power), the Scandinavian states, the kingdom of Hungary, the Slav states of Bohemia, Poland, Servia, Bosnia and Bulgaria, and the Christian states founded in Syria by the crusaders of the 12th century.
Besides the government of the pope there were three kingdoms: Sardinia, Lombardo-Venetia and Naples; and three duchies: Parma, Modena, Tuscany.
Under him Sardinia had adopted the Siccardi Laws of 1850, Rome.
This influence was exerted altogether in support of the policy of Alberoni, one chief aim of which was to recover the ancient Italian possessions of Spain, and which actually resulted in the seizure of Sardinia and Sicily.
12); and a beginning was made with the colonization of Sardinia and Corsica; but farther west still, and on the Atlantic coasts to the right and left of the straits, more permanent colonies were established.
An island merchant's son, he looked naturally first to the sea for a profession; but a voyage at the age of fifteen to Sardinia, Sicily and Egypt did not prove satisfactory.
The military Order of Savoy was founded in 1815 by Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia; badge modified 1855 and 1857.
The Civil Order of Savoy, founded in 1831 by Charles Albert of Sardinia, is of one class, and in statutes of 1868 is limited to 60 members.
Mose important was the two-fold mission to Britain - of St Augustine in 596, of Mellitus, Paulinus and others in 601; but Gregory also made strenuous efforts to uproot paganism in Gaul, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, Arianism in Spain, Donatism in Africa, Manichaeism in Sicily, the heresy of the Three Chapters in Istria and northern Italy.
It met in the Lateran church, was attended by one hundred and five bishops (chiefly from Italy, Sicily and Sardinia, a few being from Africa and other quarters), held five sessions or "secretarii" from the 5th to the 31st of October 649, and in twenty canons condemned the Monothelite heresy, its authors, and the writings by which it had been promulgated.
He was king of Spain, of Sicily, of Naples and of Sardinia; he was lord of the Netherlands, of the free county of Burgundy and of the Austrian archduchies; he had at his command the immense resources of the New World; and he had been chosen king of Germany, thus gaining a title to the imperial crown.
that he was obliged to resign the claims of Austria to the Spanish throne, and to content himself with the Spanish Netherlands, Milan, Naples and Sardinia.
Bonifacio, which overlooks the straits of that name separating Corsica from Sardinia, occupies a remarkable situation on the summit of a peninsula of white calcareous rock, extending parallel to the coast and enclosing a narrow and secure harbour.
The trade of Bonifacio, which is carried on chiefly with Sardinia, is in cereals, wine, cork and olive-oil of fine quality.
It is found also in Persia, Palestine, Crete and Greece, the Italian Alps, Sicily, Sardinia and Mauritania.
King Charles Albert sent him in 1848 on diplomatic missions to secure the adhesion of Modena and Parma to Sardinia.
From the necessity of leaguing together against the common Saracen foe, Genoa united with Pisa early in the 11th century in expelling the Moslems from the island of Sardinia, but the Sardinian territory thus acquired soon furnished occasions of jealousy to the conquering allies, and there commenced between the two republics the long naval wars destined to terminate so fatally for Pisa.
It had, however, been determined by a secret clause of the treaty of Paris that Genoa should be incorporated with the dominions of the king of Sardinia.
Even the material benefits accruing from the union with Sardinia and the constitutional liberty accorded to all his subjects by King Charles Albert were unable to prevent the republican outbreak of 1848, when, after a short and sharp struggle, the city, momentarily seized by the republican party, was recovered by General Alfonzo La Marmora.
By the treaty of Utrecht, accordingly, Spain was left to the House of Bourbon, while that of Austria received the Spanish Netherlands, Sardinia and Naples.
But Charles was anxious about Italy, then in danger from Spain, which under Alberoni's guidance had occupied Sardinia and Sicily.
The coercion of Spain resulted in a peace by which Charles obtained Sicily in exchange for Sardinia.
The Prussian victory at Mollwitz (April 10, 1741) brought into the field against Austria all the powers which were ambitious of expansion at her expense: France, Bavaria, Spain, Saxony and Sardinia.
Although, then, as the result of the war, Silesia was by the treaty of Dresden transferred from Austria to Prussia, while in Italy by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 cessions were made at the expense of the house of Habsburg to the Spanish Don Philip and to Sardinia, the Austrian monarchy as a whole had displayed a vitality that had astonished the world, and was in some respects stronger than at the beginning of the struggle, notably in the great improvement in the army and in the possession of generals schooled by the experience of active service.
It was emphasized during the campaign of 1859, when Sardinia, in alliance with France, laid the foundations of united Italy.
Along with Africa, Raetia and western Illyricum, it became part of the Italian praefecture; along with the islands of Sardinia and Corsica, it became part of the Italian diocese.
Along with Sardinia, Corsica and the Balearic Isles, Sicily was again a possession of a naval power at Carthage.
Herein is a contrast between Sicily and Sardinia, where, according to a letter from Gregory to the empress Constantina, wife of the emperor Maurice (594-595), praying for a lightening of taxation in both islands, paganism still lingered (C. D.
The Phoenician colonists in Sardinia purchased or imitated the work of Greek artists (Furtwangler, Antike Gemmen, iii.
Of his early years nothing is directly known, and we first hear of him in middle life as serving during the Second Punic War, with the rank of centurion, in Sardinia, in the year 204, where he attracted the attention of Cato the elder, and was taken by him to Rome in the same year.
The ease with which so important a conquest had been effected encouraged Justinian to attack the Ostrogoths of Italy, whose kingdom, though vast in extent, for it included part of south-eastern Gaul, Raetia, Dalmatia and part of Pannonia, as Well as Italy, Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, had been grievously weakened by the death first of the great Theodoric, and some years later of his grandson Athalaric, so that the Gothic nation was practically without a head.
Spain has salt works at the Bay of Cadiz, the Balearic Islands, &c.; Italy at Sicily, Naples, Tuscany and Sardinia.
The council of Capua, inspired by the pope, deferred to the council of Macedonia the affair of Bonosus, bishop of Sardinia, who had been accused of heresy.
The Romans made two attempts to avenge themselves, one by the Western emperor, Majorianus, in 460, and the other by the Eastern emperor, Leo I., eight years later; but both enterprises failed, owing principally to the genius of Gaiseric. Continuing his course on the sea the king brought Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica and the Balearic Islands under his rule, and even extended his conquests into Thrace, Egypt and Asia Minor.
In 1746 it was captured by the king of Sardinia, but it was restored to Genoa by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
Perrot and C. Chipiez, History of Art in Sardinia, Judaea, &c. (1890); I.
by renouncing Sicily (in exchange for Sardinia and Corsica and the hand of Charles's daughter) and promising to help the Angevins to reconquer the island.
and Sicily, Sardinia and Aragon to his brother John.
1718 he had to hand back his new possession to Spain, who, in 1720, surrendered it to Austria and gave Sardinia to Victor Amadeus.
Victor Emmanuel, king of Sardinia, wrote to the new king proposing an alliance for the division of Italy, but Francis refused.
In April 1860 Victor Emmanuel again proposed an alliance whereby Naples, in return for help in expelling the Austrians from Venetia, was to receive the Marche, while Sardinia would annex.
Cavour's attempt to bring about the annexation of Sicily to Sardinia failed, for Garibaldi wished to use the island as a basis for an invasion of the mainland.
Cavour now decided that Sardinia must take part in the liberation of southern Italy, for he feared that Garibaldi's followers might induce him to proclaim the republic and attack Rome, which would have: provoked French hostility; consequently a Piedmontese army occupied the Marche and Umbria, and entered Neapolitan.
On the 3rd of November a plebiscite was taken, which resulted in an overwhelming majority in favour of union with Sardinia under Victor Emmanuel.
By the treaty of Worms in 1743 an offensive alliance was formed between Great Britain, Austria and Sardinia.
The principal treaties affecting the distribution of territory between the various states of Central Europe are those of Westphalia (Osnabruck and Miinster), 1648; Utrecht, 1713;1713; Paris and Hubertusburg, 1763; for the partition of Poland, 1772, 1793; Vienna, 1815; London, for the separation of Belgium from the Netherlands, 1831, 1839; Zurich, for the cession of a portion of Lombardy to Sardinia, 1859; Vienna, as to SchleswigHolstein, 1864; Prague, whereby the German Confederation was dissolved, Austria recognizing the new North German Confederation, transferring to Prussia her rights over SchleswigHolstein, and ceding the remainder of Lombardy to Italy, 1866; Frankfort, between France and the new German Empire, 1871.
Sardinia contains both middle and upper Cambrian.
It was pointed out by Barrande that early in Palaeozoic Europe there appeared two marine provinces - a northern one extending from Russia to the British Isles through Scandinavia and northern Germany, and a southern one comprising France, Bohemia, the Iberian peninsula and Sardinia.
2 About 227 two more praetors were added to administer the recently acquired provinces of Sicily and Sardinia.
Revisiting Jerusalem and Cairo he made the haj a fourth time, and finally reappeared at Fez (visiting Sardinia en route) on the 8th of November 1349, after twenty-four years' absence.
Augustine of Hippo brought hither by Liutprand from Sardinia.
THARROS, an ancient town of Sardinia, situated on the west coast, on the narrow sandy isthmus of a peninsula at the north extremity of the Gulf of Oristano, now marked by the tower of S.
The objects, like those found at Sulcis, show considerable traces of Egyptian influence, but are probably all of Phoenician importation - the theory of the existence of Egyptian colonies in Sardinia being quite inadmissible.
For the public history of his times - the disturbances and insurrections in different parts of his dominions throughout his reign, and the great war successfully carried on against Russia by Turkey, and by England, France and Sardinia, in the interest of Turkey (1853-1856) - see Turkey, and Crimean War.
The islands of Sardinia and Elba produce considerable quantities of wine, some of which is of fair quality.
Gaul was to belong to Antony, Spain to Lepidus, and Africa, Sardinia and Sicily to Octavian.
Cyprus is the largest island in the Mediterranean after Sicily and Sardinia.
He was exiled by the emperor Maximinus to Sardinia, and in consequence of this sentence resigned (Sept.
coast of Sardinia, about I m.
Gelimer, who was strangely ignorant of the plans of Justinian, had sent his brother Tzazo with some of his best troops to quell a rebellion in Sardinia (that island as well as the Balearic Isles forming part of the Vandal dominions), and the landing of Belisarius was entirely unopposed.
On the return of Tzazo from Sardinia a force was collected considerably larger than the imperial army, and Gelimer met Belisarius in battle at a place about 20 m.
In foreign politics he made important concessions to Portugal, Naples, Sardinia, Spain, and was the first pope expressly to recognize the king of Prussia as such.
coast of Sardinia.
It also grows in the islands of Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia.
TERRANOVA PAUSANIA, a seaport of Sardinia, in the province of Sassari, situated on the E.
The name Pausania is the consequence of an error; it is a corruption of Fausiana, a town and episcopal see of Sardinia mentioned by Gregory the Great, the site of which is in reality uncertain.
As a consequence of the second Punic War, Roman agriculture was at a standstill; accordingly, recourse was had to Sicily and Sardinia (the first two Roman provinces) in order to keep up the supply of corn; a tax of one-tenth was imposed on it, and its export to any country except Italy forbidden.
SASSARI, a town and archiepiscopal see of Sardinia, capital of the province of Sassari, situated in the N.W.
He supported the Sicilians against the king of Naples, and even allowed arms to be sent them from the arsenal at Woolwich; and, although he had endeavoured to restrain the king of Sardinia from his rash attack on the superior forces of Austria, he obtained for him a reduction of the penalty of defeat.
ORISTANO, a town and archiepiscopal see of Sardinia, situated 23 ft.
The inhabitants of Milis manufacture reed baskets and mats, which they sell throughout Sardinia.
His maiden speech, on the subvention to the king of Sardinia, was made on the 3rst of January 1794.
In his pontificate the Saracens began to attack the southern coasts of Europe, and effected a settlement in Sardinia.
The claims of Stanislaus were supported by France, Spain and Sardinia, those of the Saxon prince by Russia and the empire, the local quarrel being made the pretext for the settlement of minor outstanding claims of the great powers amongst themselves.
Rome was threatened with a famine, as the corn supplies from Egypt and Africa were cut off by his ships, and it was thought prudent to negotiate a peace with him at Misenum (39), which was to leave him in possession of Sicily, Sardinia and Achaea, provided he would allow Italy to be freely supplied with corn.
To Burlingame's appointment as minister to Austria (March 22, 1861) the Austrian authorities objected because in Congress he had advocated the recognition of Sardinia as a first-class power and had championed Hungarian independence.
This old land mass has been called Tyrrhenis, and probably extended from Sicily into Latium and as far west as Sardinia.
The most important fisheries extend along the coasts of Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco; but red coral is also obtained in the vicinity of Naples, near Leghorn and Genoa, and on the coasts of Sardinia, Corsica, Catalonia and Provence.
The king of Sardinia having shown a hostile temper, Montesquiou made an easy conquest of Savoy.
Against the king of Sardinia alone they accomplished little.
The king of Sardinia made peace in May, ceding Nice and Savoy to the Republic and consenting to receive French garrisons in his Piedmontese fortresses.
of the treaty of Paris (1856), and in November of that year a commission was constituted in which Austria, France, Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, Sardinia and Turkey were each represented by one delegate "to designate and cause to be executed the works necessary below Isaktcha' to clear the mouths of the Danube as well as the neighbouring parts of the sea, from Isakcea was 66 nautical m.
Unable to agree, the delegates referred the question to their respective governments, and a technical commission appointed by France, England, Prussia and Sardinia met at Paris and decided unanimously in favour of St George's; but recommended, instead of the embankment of the natural channel, the formation of an artificial canal 17 ft.
He is his turn tried to stem the tumultuous current which had borne him along, and to prevent discord; but the check to his policy of an understanding with Prussia and with Sardinia, to whom, like Richelieu and DArgenson, he offered the realization of her transalpine ambition in exchange for Nice and Savoy, was added to the failure of his temporizing methods in regard to the federalist insurgents, and of his military operations against La Vend~e.
This was an international coup de force, which presupposed that all these nations in whose eyes independence was flaunted would make no claim to enjoy it; that though they had been beaten and pillaged they would not learn to conquer in their turn; and that the king of Sardinia, dispossessed of Milan, the grand-duke of Tuscany who Md given refuge to the pope when driven from Rome, and the king of Naples, ~iho had opened his ports to Nelsons fleet, would not find allies to make a stand against this hypocritical system.
Victor Emmanuel was obliged to recall the royal commissioners, but together with Cavour he secretly encouraged the provisional governments to resist the return of the despots, and the constituent assemblies of Tuscany, Romagna and the duchies voted for annexation to Sardinia.
OZIERI, a town of Sardinia in the province of Sassari, from which it is 34 m.
The National Convention annexed the principality to France in 1793; restored to the Goyon Grimaldis by the Treaty of Paris in 1814, it was placed by that of Vienna under the protection of Sardinia.
It should perhaps be mentioned that there was a town Feronia in Sardinia, named probably after their native goddess by Faliscan settlers, from some of whom we have a votive inscription found at S.
The expansion is attributed chiefly to the second half of the 3rd century B.C., and to the genius of the Carthaginian statesman, Hamilcar Barca, who, seeing his country deprived by Rome of her trading dominion in Sicily and Sardinia, used Spain, not only~ as a source of commercial wealth, but as an inexhaustible supply of warlike troops to serve in.
Catalan, which by the reunion of Aragon and the countship of Barcelona in 1137 became the official language of the Aragonese monarchyalthough the kingdom of Aragon, consisting of the present provinces of Saragossa, Huesca and Teruel, has always been Castilian in speechestablished a footing in Italy also, in all parts where the domination of the kings of Aragon extended, viz, in Sicily, Naples, Corsica and Sardinia, but it has not maintained itself here except in a single district of the last-named island (Aighero); everywhere else in Italy, where it was not spoken except by the conquerors, nor written except in the royal chancery, it has disappeared without leaving a trace.
Cabalan Dialect of Aighero (Sardinia).As compared with that of the mainland, the Catalan of Alghero, introduced into this portion of Sardinia by the Aragonese conquerors and colonists, does not present any very important differences; some of them, such as they are, are explicable by the influence of the indigenous dialects of Sassari and Logudoro.
For the Catalan dialect of Sardinia see G.
v.), the most important ancient city of Sardinia, situated on the south coast of the island.
It was also the chief point of the road system of Sardinia.
On the 5th of August 1848 he liberated Charles Albert, king of Sardinia, from the Milan revolutionaries, and in October was promoted general and appointed minister of war.
The pope had become alarmed when the emperor brought about a marriage between the heiress of Sardinia, Adelasia, and his natural son Enzio, who afterwards assumed the title of king of Sardinia.
The insolence of a Tunisian squadron which sacked Palma in the island of Sardinia and carried off 158 of its inhabitants, roused widespread indignation.
He endeavours to hold the balance evenly between Rome and Carthage; he strongly condemns the Roman occupation of Sardinia as a breach of faith (iii.
(1820-1878), king of Sardinia and first king of Italy, was born at Turin on the 14th of March 1820, and was the son of Charles Albert, prince of SavoyCarignano, who became king of Sardinia in 1831.
The years from 1850 to 1859 were devoted to restoring the shattered finances of Sardinia, reorganizing the army and modernizing the antiquated institutions of the kingdom.
He was in communication with some of the conspirators, especially with La Farina, the leader of the Societd Nazionale, an association the object of which was to unite Italy under the king of Sardinia, and he even communicated with Mazzini and the republicans, both in Italy and abroad, whenever he thought that they could help in the expulsion of the Austrians from Italy.
andante travels (01722 713800; www.andantetravels.co.uk ), for example, is offering two trips to Sardinia this year.
Off the west coast of Sardinia a heavy north-westerly gale was encountered, against which was impossible to make headway.
prices from 100 euros per week Italy Sardinia South Coast Ref.
Pilgrims from all over Sardinia gather to venerate the saint, whose effigy is paraded around on an ox-drawn carriage.
The isothermal of 65Ã‚° runs from Gibraltar to the north of Sardinia, and thence by the Strait of Messina to the Gulf of Corinth.
Sardinia lies between 8Ã‚° 7' and 9Ã‚° 49' E., and extends from 38Ã‚° 52' to 41Ã‚° 15' N.
- The climate of Sardinia is more extreme than that of Italy, but varies considerably in different districts.
The population of Sardinia appears (though further investigation is desirable) to have belonged in ancient times, and to belong at present, to the so-called Mediterranean race (see G.
The state, which had already sold not only a considerable part of the domain land, but a large part of the beni ademprivili, continued the process, and the forests of Sardinia were sacrificed; and, as has been said, the necessity of reafforestation, of the regulation of streams, and of irrigation' is urgent.
Whereas in 1881 Sardinia was estimated to possess only 157,000 head of cattle, 478,000 sheep and 165,000 goats, the numbers in 1896 had increased to 1,159,000 head of cattle, 4,960,000 sheep and 1,780,000 goats.
The salt-pans at Cagliari and of Carloforte are of considerable importance; they are let by the government to contractors, who have the sole right of manufacture, but are bound to sell the salt necessary for Sardinian consumption at 35 centesimi (3d.) per cwt.; the government does not exercise the salt monopoly in Sardinia any more than in Sicily, but in the latter island the right of manufacture is unrestricted.
Dolmens (probably to be regarded as a simpler form of the tomba dei giganti, inasmuch as specimens with chambers elongated after their first construction have been found) and menhirs are also present in Sardinia, though the former are very rare - that known as Sa Perda e S'altare, near the railway to the south of Macomer is illustrated by A.
1 Augustus, Sardinia and Corsica fell to the share of the senate, but in A.D.
Carales was the only city with Roman civic rights in Sardinia in Pliny's time (when it received the privilege is unknown) and by far the most important place in the island; a Roman colony had been founded at Turris Libisonis (Porto Torres) and others, later on, at Usellis and Cornus.
4 Some authorities attribute to 774, others to 817, a donation of Sardinia to the papacy; we hear of Pope Nicholas I.
In 815 Sardinia submitted to Louis the Pious, begging for his protection; 5 but the Saracens were not entirely driven out, and about A.D.
invested James II., the king of Aragon, with Sardinia; but it was not until 1323 that he attempted its conquest, nor until 1326 that the Pisans were finally driven out of Cagliari, which they had fortified in 1305-1307 by the construction of the Torre di S.
The carta de logo (del luogo) or code of laws issued by her was in 1421 extended to the whole island by the cortes under the presidency of Alphonso V., who visited Sardinia in that year.
de La Marmora, Voyage en Sardaigne (Paris and Turin, 1826-1857) Valery, Viaggi alle isole di Corsica e di Sardegna (Milan, 1842); Tyndal, The Island of Sardinia (London, 1849); G.
James concluded a shameful treaty, by which, in exchange for being left undisturbed in Aragon and promised possession of Sardinia and Corsica, he gave up Sicily to the Church, for whom it was to be held by the Angevins (1295).
(who had in 1820 married Theresa, daughter of Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia) abdicated in favour of his son Charles III., on the 14th of March, 1849.
This oak abounds all over the Turkish peninsula, and forms a large portion of the vast forests that clothe the slopes of the Taurus ranges and the south shores of the Black Sea; it is likewise common in Italy and Sardinia, and occurs in the south of France and also in Hungary.
Birth and marriage rates vary considerably, being highest in the centre and south (Umbnia, the Marches, Apulia, Abruzzi and Molise, and Calabria) and lowest in the north (Piedmont, Liguria and Venetia), and in Sardinia.
The death-rate is highest in Apulia, in the Abruzzi and Molise, and in Sardinia, and lowest in the north, especially in Venetia and Piedmont.
In Liguria and Sardinia the habit of thrift is less developed.
The districts of Italy which show between 1881 and 1903 the greatest increase of new institutions, or of gifts to old ones, are Lombardy, Piedmont, Liguria, while Sardinia, Calabria and Basilicata stand lowest, Latium standing comparatively low.
In Lombardy French rule had ended by making itself unpopular, and even before the fall of Napoleon a national party, called the Italici p-un, had begun to advocate the independence of Lombardy, or even its union with Sardinia.
Candia), after Sicily and Sardinia the largest island in the Mediterranean, situated between 34Ã‚° 50' and 35Ã‚° 40' N.
Save for the benevolent neutrality of Prussia, therefore, which enabled her to obtain supplies from the north, Russia was pitted singlehanded against a coalition of Turkey, Great Britain and France, to which Sardinia was added later.
Henrietta's daughter, Anne Marie (1669-1728), became the wife of Victor Amadeus II., duke of Savoy, afterwards king of Sardinia; her son was King Charles Emmanuel III., and her grandson Victor Amadeus III.
The telegraph system penetrates to the farthest French post in the Sahara, is connected with the Turkish system on the Tripolitan frontier and with Algeria, and by cable with Sicily, Malta, Sardinia and Marseilles.
To the south-east, in the district known as the Cunelie, are a large number of tombs, known as sesi, similar in character to the nuraghi of Sardinia, though of smaller size, consisting of round or elliptical towers with sepulchral chambers in them, built of rough blocks of lava.
The Balearic Basin, between Spain and the rise bearing Corsica and Sardinia, has a maximum depth of 1742 fathoms, and the Tyrrhenian Basin between that rise, Italy and Sicily deepens to 2040 fathoms. The larger Eastern Mediterranean Basin stretches eastward from Sicily with large tracts more than 2000 fathoms below the surface, and the greatest depth ascertained during the detailed researches of the Austrian expedition on board the " Pola " was 2046 fathoms in 35Ã‚° 44' 8' N., 21Ã‚° 46.8' E.
At the same time Spain and Sardinia adhered to the Pragmatic Sanction.
Neumann and de Plasson from 1855, and of the commission for modern history from 1903, for Austria; Beutner for the German Empire, 1883; C. Calvo for " l'Amerique latine, " 1862-1869; de Clercq for France, 1864-1908; De Garcia de la Vega for Belgium, 1850, &c., Lagemans and Breukelman for the Netherlands, 1858, &c.; Soutzo for Greece, 1858; Count Solar de la Marguerite for Sardinia, 1836-1861; Olivart for Spain, 1890, &c.; Da Castro for Portugal, 1856-1879; Rydberg for Sweden, 1877; Kaiser, 1861, and Eichmann, 1885, for Switzerland; Baron de Testa, 1864, &c., Aristarchi Bey 1873-1874, and Effendi Noradounghian, 1897-1903, for Turkey; F.
principal writings are: Germania Antiqua (1616), Siciliae Antiquae libri duo, Sardinia et Corsica Antiqua (1619), and the posthumous Italia Antiqua (1624) and Introductio in Universam Geographiam (1629).
He was successively quaestor in Sardinia (103 B.C.), praetor (94), propraetor in Sicily (93) and consul (89).
The dream of Cardinal Alberoni, Philip V.s minister, was to set fire to all this inflammable material in order to snatch therefrom a crown of som~ sort to satisfy the maternal greed of Elizabeth Farnese; and this he might have attained by the occupation of Sardinia and the expedition to Sicily (1717-1718), if Dubois, a priest without a religion, a greedy parvenu and a diplomatist of second rank, though tenacious and full of resources as a minister, had not placed his common sense at the disposal of the regents interests and those of European peace.
Alberoni could not, and perhaps did not, sincerely wish to prevent the queen and king from plunging into an attempt to recover Sardinia and Sicily, which provoked the armed intervention of France and England and led to the destruction of the rising Spanish navy off Cape Pflssaro (see TORRINGT0N, GEORGE BYNG, VISCOUNT).
The museum contains an interesting collection of objects from many of the sites mentioned, and also from other parts of the island; it is in fact the most important in Sardinia, and is especially strong in prehistoric bronzes (see Sardinia).
With ports such as Rome, Barcelona, Capri, Sardinia, Gibraltar, Cannes, Florence, Lisbon, and Marseille, the western sailings are typically more popular than similar eastern Mediterranean cruises.
M. hypogaea (Morisia) - A pretty alpine plant from the mountains of Sardinia.
Luckily, while on the beautiful island of Sardinia, they decided to blend this concept with swimwear.
Sardinia lies between 8° 7' and 9° 49' E., and extends from 38° 52' to 41° 15' N.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.