Santiago (now Oriente) province is high and mountainous.
from its own port of Punta Santiago, with which it is connected by a good road; a railway was under construction in 1908, and some of the sugar factories of the department are now connected by rail with the port.
Santiago O'Higgins xo.
The provinces of Santa Fe, Cordoba and Santiago del Estero are only partially wooded; large areas of plains are intermingled with scrubby forests of algarrobo (Prosopis), quebracho-blanco (Aspido-sperma quebracho), tala (Celtis tala, Sellowiana, acuminata), acacias and other genera.
In 1553 an expedition from Peru made their way through the mountain region and founded the city of Santiago del Estero, that of Tucuman in 1565, and that of Cordoba in 1573.
Urquiza at this juncture resigned the presidency, and Doctor Santiago Derqui was elected president of the fourteen provinces with the seat of government at Parana; while Urquiza became once more governor of Entre Rios, and Mitre was appointed governor of Buenos Aires.
The attack on Hispaniola, however, was a disastrous failure, and though a landing at Jamaica and the capture of the capital, Santiago de la Vega, was effected, the expedition was almost annihilated by disease; and Penn and Venables returned to England, when Cromwell threw them into the Tower.
Development of these lines has been primarily an extension from the large cities in the East to the agricultural districts in the West, but a change of great importance was brought about in 1910 by the completion of the last tunnel on the Argentine Transandine Railway, which serves to connect Santiago, Valparaiso and the other great cities of the west coast with Buenos Ayres, Montevideo, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and the other great cities of the east coast.
The Rio Grande de Lerma, or Santiago, is the principal river, whose sources are to be found on the high plateau in the state of Mexico.
From Guantanamo to Santiago it rises in high escarpments, a.nd W.
of Santiago, where the Sierra Maestra runs close to the sea, there is a very high abrupt shore.
The Sierra de Cobre, a part of the system in the vicinity of Santiago, has a general elevation of about 3000 ft.
Fossiliferous Cretaceous limestones containing Rudistes have been found in several parts of the island (Santiago de los Banos, Santa Clara province, &c.).
Large copper deposits of peculiar richness occur here in the Sierra de Cobre, near the city of Santiago; and both iron and manganese are abundant.
The iron ores mined at Daiquiri near Santiago are mainly rich hematites running above 60% of iron, with very little sulphur or phosphorus admixture.
Manganese occurs especially along the coast between Santiago and Manzanillo; the best ores run above 50%.
There are extensive and valuable deposits of beautiful marbles in the Isle of Pines, and lesser ones near Santiago.
Those of 1776, 1842 and 1852 were particularly destructive, and of earlier ones those of 1551 and 1624 at Bayamo and of 1578 and 1678 at Santiago.
The southern littoral is also (except in sheltered points such as Santiago, which is one of the hottest cities of the island) somewhat cooler than the northern.
More than four-fifths of the total area sown to cane in the island is in the three provinces of Santa Clara, Matanzas and Oriente (formerly Santiago), the former two representing two-thirds of the area and three-fourths of the crop. The majority of the sugar estates are of an area less than 3000 acres, and the most common area is between 1500 and 2000 acres; but the extremes range from a very small size to 60,000 acres.
Some " caf e tales " were established by the newcomers near Havana, but the industry has always been almost exclusively one of Santiago province; with Santa Clara as a much smaller producer.
A central agricultural experiment station (founded 1904) is maintained by the government at Santiago de las Vegas; but there is no agricultural college, nor any special school for the scientific teaching and improvement of sugar and tobacco farming or manufacture.
The tobacco industries are very largely concentrated in Havana, and there are factories in Santiago de las Vegas and Bejucal.
The Cobre copper mines near Santiago were once the greatest producers of the world.
The shipments from Santiago province from 1884 to 1901 aggregated 5, 0 53, 8 47 long tons, almost all going to the United States (which is true of other mineral products also).
After the first American occupation a private company built a line from Santa Clara to Santiago, more than half the length of the island, finally connecting its two ends (1902).
Havana, Santiago and Cienfuegos are cable ports.
The only good highways of any considerable length in 1908 were in the two western provinces and in the vicinity of Santiago.
In Guantanamo, in Santiago de Cuba, and in seven other towns they exceeded the whites in number.
Originally - P Y g Y residents at Santiago de Cuba, the captains-general resided after 1589 at Havana.
Because of the isolation of the eastern part of the island, the dangers from pirates, and the important considerations which had caused Santiago de Cuba (q.v.) to be the first capital of the island, Cuba was divided in 1607 into two departments, and a governor, subordinate in military matters to the captain-general at Havana, was appointed to rule the territory east of Puerto Principe.
In 1801, when the audiencia - of which the captain-general was ex officio president - began its functions at that point, the governor of Santiago became subordinated in political matters as much as in military.
In Havana, also, there is a school of painting and sculpture, a school of arts and trades, and a national library, all of which are supported or subventioned by the national government, as are also a public library in Matanzas, and the Agricultural Experiment Station at Santiago de las Vegas.
Baracoa (the landing point), Bayamo, Santiago de Cuba, Puerto Principe, Sancti Spiritus, Trinidad and the original Havana were all founded by 1515.
Politically his rule was marked by the proclamation at Santiago in 1836, without his consent, of the Spanish constitution of 1834; he repressed the movement, and in 1837 the deputies of Cuba to the Cortes of Spain (to which they were admitted in the two earlier constitutional periods) were excluded from that body, and it was declared in the national constitution that Cuba (and Porto Rico) should be governed by " special laws."
A fine Spanish squadron seeking to escape from Santiago harbour was utterly destroyed by the American blockading force on the 3rd of July; Santiago was invested by land forces, and on the 15th of July the city surrendered.
The largest town in Galicia is Corunna (pop. 1900, 43,971) Santiago de Compostela is the ancient capital and an archiepiscopal see; Lugo, Tuy, Mondonedo and Orense are bishoprics.
slope of the Sierra Maestra in Santiago province, Cuba.
Its inland situation gave it relative security against the pirates who then infested West Indian seas, and the misfortunes of Santiago were the fortunes of Bayamo.
by Santiago and O'Higgins, E.
The state central railway from Santiago to Puerto Montt crosses the province and has two branches within its borders, one from Rengo to Peumo, and one from San Fernando via Palmilla to Pichilemu on the coast.
Cuba, in Santiago province.
Both honours were taken from it to be given to Santiago de Cuba; and for two centuries after this Baracoa remained an obscure village, with little commerce.
Until the middle of the 1 8th century Baracoa was almost without connexion with Havana and Santiago.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the master of the Order of Santiago had a country seat here, which passed, along with the mastership, into the possession of the crown of Spain in 1522.
The other tobacco-producing provinces in order of importance are Havana, Santa Clara and Santiago de Cuba.
The state railway from Santiago to the southern provinces passes through Nuble, from N.N.E.
At one time a captain of the coast-guard, at another the protege of Benavente, viceroy of Naples, who appointed him governor of Scigliano, patronized by Osuna and Olivares, Castro was nominated a knight of the order of Santiago in 1623.
In addition to the axis-railway of the island, which connects it with Havana and Santiago, the city has connexion by a branch line with Nuevitas.
Three men, during that period of probation, won a prominent place in their country's history, Generals Agustin Gamarra, Felipe Santiago Salaverry, and Andres Santa Cruz.
2 The succession of presidents and supreme chiefs of Peru from 1829 to 1844 was as follows: 1829-1833, Agustin Gamarra; 1834-1835, Luis Jose Orbegoso; 1835-1836, Felipe Santiago Salaverry; 1836-1839, Andres Santa Cruz; 1839-1841, Agustin Gamarra; 1841-1844, Manuel Menendez.
Rene-Moreno, Ultimos dias coloniales en el Alto Peru 1807-1808 (Santiago de Chile, 1896-1898); F.
The railway connexions are with Ovalle to the S., and Vicuña (or Elqui) to the E., but the proposed extension northward of Chile's longitudinal system would bring Coquimbo into direct communication with Santiago.
of the capital; Cadereyta Jiminez, Garcia, Santiago and Doctor Arroyo, the last in the extreme southern part of the state.
MANZANILLO, an important commercial city of Cuba, in Santiago province, on the gulf of Guacanabo, about 17 m.
Manzanillo is the only coast town of importance between Trinidad and Santiago.
In 1833 it received an ayuntamienlo (council) and in 1837, for its "loyalty" in not following the lead of Santiago in proclaiming the Spanish Constitution, received from the crown the title of Fiel.
by Santiago and Valparaiso and W.
The state central railway from Santiago to Puerto Montt crosses the province from north to south, and the Cautin, or Imperial, and Tolten rivers (the latter forming its southern boundary) cross from east to west, both affording excellent transportation facilities.
SANTIAGO DEL ESTERO, a province of Argentina, bounded N.
The provincial capital, Santiago Del Estero, is on the left bank of the Rio Dulce, 745 m.
In 1820 Santiago del Estero became a separate province.
of Santiago de Cuba.
ATITLAN, or Santiago De Atitlan, a town in the department of Solola, Guatemala, on the southern shore of Lake Atitlan.
The first recorded case of the formation of an hermandad occurred in the 12th century when the towns and the peasantry of the north united to police the pilgrim road to Santiago in Galicia, and protect the pilgrims against robber knights.
The church of Santiago is noteworthy for its fine paintings and frescoes, some of which have been attributed, though on doubtful authority, to Peter Paul Rubens and other illustrious artists.
In South America there are mints at Lima, Santiago, Buenos Ayres and Tegucigalpa.
He was minister to Spain from 1869 to 1873, and took part in the negotiations growing out of the "Virginius Affair" (see Santiago, Cuba).
This charge, in which many of the "Rough Riders" were killed or wounded, drove the Spaniards from the trenches and opened the way to the surrender of Santiago.
The parish church was begun by Wallenstein after the model of the pilgrims' church of Santiago de Compostela in Spain, but not completed till 1655.
The largest rivers of Mexico are: the Rio Grande de Santiago, called the Lerma above Lake Chapala, rising in the state of Mexico and flowing westward across Guanajuato, Jalisco and Tepic to the Pacific coast, with a total length of 540 m., celebrated for its deep canyons and waterfalls; the Rio de las Balsas, or Mescala, which rises in Tlaxcala and flows south and west to the Pacific with a course of 426 m.; the Yaqui, which rises in western Chihuahua and, after breaking through the northern ranges of the Sierra Madre Occidental, flows south-westerly across Sonora to the Gulf of California, with a length of 390 m.; the Grijalva, also called the Chiapas on its upper course, which has its sources in the state of Chiapas and flows north-west and north across Tabasco to the Gulf of Mexico, with a total length of 350 m.; the Fuerte, which rises in southern Chihuahua and, after breaking through the sierras, flows south-west across Sinaloa to the Gulf of California, with a course of 340 m.; the Usumacinta, which is formed by the confluence of the Chixoy and Pasion on the east frontier of Chiapas, and flows north-west across Tabasco to the Grijalva, with a course of 330 m.; and the Panuco, which has its source in the north-west of the state of Mexico and flows north-eastward to the Gulf of Mexico.
wide, which receives the waters of the Lerma and discharges into the Pacific through the Santiago.
Noll, A Short History of Mexico (Chicago, 1903); Santiago Ramirez, Noticia historica de la riqueza mineira de Mexico (Mexico, 1884); Friedrich Ratzel, Aus Mexico: Reiseskizzen aus den Jahren 1874-1876 (Breslau, 1878); Matias Romero, Geographical and Statistical Notes on Mexico (New York, 1898); idem, Mexico and the United States (New York, 1898); E.
Santiago Nonohualco, San Juan Nonohualco and San Pedro Nonohualco.
They established a War with depot at Point Ysabel (behind the opening of Brazos United Santiago), and erected a fort in Texan territory, corn States, manding Matamoros, on the Mexican side of the Rio 1846-48.
of Santiago and about 56 m.
It has the best harbour on the Pacific coast of South America, and is one of the most important ports of southern Chile, being connected by rail with Concepcion, Santiago and southern Chile.
The city is in the Antemarac valley near the Rio Grande de Santiago, 5092 ft.
He acted as coadjutor to the archbishops of Santiago de Compostella and Paris, and to the bishop of Ghent, and died at Ghent on the 23rd of August 1678.
Quillota is situated on a railway between Valparaiso and Santiago, which passes through a mountainous, semi-barren country.
14J3), Constable of Castile, Grand Master of Santiago, and favourite of King John II.
In 1445 the faction of the nobles allied with Alvaro's main enemies, the Infantes de Aragon, were beaten at Olmedo, and the favourite, who had been constable of Castile and count of Santesteban since 1423, became Grand Master of the military order of Santiago by election of the Knights.
Cienfuegos is served by the United railways and by steamers connecting with Santiago, Batabano, Trinidad and the Isle of Pines.
The greater part of the state is drained by the Rio Grande de Lerma (called the Santiago on its lower course) and its tributaries, chief of which is the Rio Verde.
of Santiago by the Chilean Central railway, which crosses the province.
P. Hobson had tried to block Santiago in 1898.
The great trunk railway from Santiago S.
See Domeyko, Araucania y sus habitantes (Santiago, 1846); de Ginoux, "Le Chili et les Araucans," in Bull.
Medina, Los aborjenes de Chile (Santiago, 1882); A.
In the north-west angle of the walled enclosure stands Fort Santiago, which was built at the same time as the walls to defend the entrance to the river; the remaining space is occupied largely by a fine cathedral, churches, convents, schools, and government buildings.
of Santiago de Compostela.
Vicuña Machenna, Vida de O'Higgins (Santiago, 1882), and M.
Armunategni, La Dictadura de O'Higgins (Santiago, 1853) both containing good accounts of O'Higgins's career.
Figueroa, Diccionario biogrdfico de Chile, 1550-1887 (Santiago, 1888), and J.
SANTIAGO DE CUBA, a city and seaport of Cuba, on the S.
Santiago is situated about 6 m.
Santiago is the hottest city of Cuba (mean temperature in winter about 82° F., in summer about 88°), owing mainly to the mountains that shut off the breezes from the E.
of Santiago, have an interesting history.
Santiago is less important politically under the Republic than it was when Cuba was a Spanish dependency.
From Santiago in1518-1519departed the historic expeditions of Juan de Grijalva, Hernan Cortes and Pamfilo de Narvaez - the last of 18 vessels and 110o men of arms, excluding sailors.
Santiago was occupied and plundered by French corsairs in 1553, and again by a British military force from Jamaica in 1662.
The capture of that island had caused an immigration of Spanish refugees to Santiago that greatly increased its importance; and the illicit trade to the same island - mainly in hides and cattle - that flourished from this time onward was a main prop of prosperity.
From 1607 to 1826 the island was divided into two departments, with Santiago as the capital of the E.
After 1826 Santiago was simply the capital of a province.
In July 1741 a British squadron from Jamaica under Admiral Edward Vernon and General Thomas Wentworth landed at Guantanamo (which they named Cumberland Bay) and during four months operated unsuccessfully against Santiago.
After the cession of Santo Domingo to France, and after the French evacuation of that island, thousands of refugees settled in and about Santiago.
Dr Francesco Antommarchi (1780-1838), the physician who attended Napoleon in his last illness, died in Santiago, and a monument in the cemetery commemorates his benefactions to the poor.
In the 19th century some striking historical events are associated with Santiago.
On the 31st of October, then commanded by Joseph Fry, a former officer of the Federal and Confederate navies, and having a crew of fifty-two (chiefly Americans and Englishmen) and 103 passengers (mostly Cubans), she was captured off Morant Bay, Jamaica, by the Spanish vessel "Tornado," and was taken to Santiago, where, after a summary XXIV.
Relations between Spain and the United States became strained, and war seemed imminent; but on the 8th of December the Spanish government agreed to surrender the "Virginius" on the 16th, to deliver the survivors of the crew and passengers to an American war-ship at Santiago, and to salute the American flag at Santiago on the 25th if it should not be proved before that date that the "Virginius" was not entitled to sail under American colours.
The most notable military and naval events (in Cuba) of the Spanish-American War (q.v.) of 1898 took place at and near Santiago.
Santiago De Las Vegas >>
Talca has railway connexion with Santiago on the N., with Concepcion on the S., and with Constitucion at the mouth of the Maule.
Priority of mention is due to St James of Compostella (Santiago, in the Spanish province of Galicia).
73° 20' W.) to a point on the Santiago river in about lat.
From the Santiago river, a western affluent of the Maranon, the boundary line runs south-west and west across the Andes to the head waters of the Macara, down that stream to the Chira, or Achira,whose channel marks the frontier down to about 80° 17' W., where a small stream (the Rio Alamo) enters from the north.
The other rivers which flow through the Oriente territory of Ecuador into the Maranon are the Tigre, Pastaza, Morona and Santiago.
The Santiago, which enters the Maranon near the Pongo de Manseriche, is formed by the confluence of the Paute, which rises in the province of Azuay, and the Zamora, which has its source among the mountains of Loja.
The head of the bay is fringed with islands and reefs, behind which is the mouth of the Santiago river, Poza Harbour, San Lorenzo Bay, Pailon basin and a network of navigable channels, all of which are difficult of access.
GUAYAQUIL, Or Santiago De Guayaquil, a city and port of Ecuador, capital of the province of Guayas, on the right bank of the Guayas river, 33 m.
Santiago de Guayaquil was founded on St James's day, the 25th of July 1535, by Sebastian de Benalcazar, but was twice abandoned before its permanent settlement in 1537 by Francesco de Oreliana.
It is the starting-point of a railway system which reaches the six provincial capitals between Pinar del Rio and Santiago, Cardenas, Cienfuegos and other ports.
In the same year the residence of the governor of the island was moved from Santiago de Cuba to Havana.
In 1789 a bishopric was created at Havana suffragan to the archbishopric at Santiago.
MONTEVIDEO, SAN FELIPE Y SANTIAGO DE, capital and chief port of Uruguay, and capital of the department of Montevideo, on the northern shore of the Rio de la Plata estuary, 120 m.
The command of the fleet off Santiago de Cuba was taken from Schley by Acting Rear-Admiral W.
In the battle of Santiago on the 3rd of July Schley, in Sampson's absence, was the senior officer and the "Brooklyn" did especial service, with the "Oregon," in overhauling and disabling the "Cristobal Colon."
Maclay's History of the Navy, a court of inquiry investigated Schley's conduct before and during the battle of Santiago; on the 13th of December 1901 the court pronounced Schley guilty of delay in locating Cervera's squadron, of carelessness in endangering the "Texas" by a peculiar "loop" movement or turn of the "Brooklyn" which blanketed the fire of other American vessels, and of disobedience to a departmental order of the 25th of May, but it recommended that no action be taken.
The coast range of central Chile has no noteworthy elevations, the culminating point in the province of Santiago being 7316 ft.
The most famous of these is the " Vale of Quillota " between Valparaiso and Santiago.
The best-known of these is the Uspallata pass between Santiago and the Argentine city of Mendoza, 12,870 ft.
Philippi, Die terti¢ren and quartdren Versteinerungen Chiles (Leipzig, 1887), (includes also descriptions of some Cretaceous fossils), and Los Fo'siles secondarios de Chile (Santiago, 1899); Karl Burckhardt, " Profils geologiques transversaux de la Cordillere argentino-chilienne.
At Santiago, in 33° 27' S., 1755 ft.
above sea-level, the mean annual temperature is nearly one degree above that of Santiago, but the rainfall has increased to 19.7 in.
A large species of barnacle, Balanus psittacus, is found in great abundance from Concepcion to Puerto Montt, and is not only eaten by the natives, by whom it is called Pico, but is also esteemed a great delicacy in the markets of Valparaiso and Santiago.
In Santiago and Valparaiso the death-rate sometimes rises to 42 and 60 per 1000, and infant mortality is very high, being 73% of the births in some of the provincial towns.
The first railway to be constructed in central Chile was the government line from Valparaiso to Santiago, 115 m.
About the same time the government began the construction of a longitudinal trunk line running southward from Santiago midway between the Andes and the Coast range, and connecting with all the provincial capitals and prominent ports.
A branch of the Valparaiso and Santiago line runs to Los Andes, and its extension across the Andes connects with the Argentine lines from Buenos Aires to Mendoza and the Chilean frontier-all sections together forming a transcontinental route about 850 m.
Telegraphic communication between all the important towns of the republic, initiated in 1855 with a line between Santiago and Valparaiso, is maintained by the state, which in 1903 owned 93 06 m.
The Chilean post-office is administered by a director-general at Santiago, and has a high degree of efficiency and liberality, compared with those of other South American states.
The development of the coal deposits in the provinces of Concepcion and Arauco has made possible other industries besides those of smelting mineral ores, and numerous small manufacturing establishments have resulted, especially in Santiago, Valparaiso, Copiapo and other places where no permanent water power exists.
The breweries are generally worked by Germans and are situated chiefly in the south, though there are large establishments in Santiago and Valparaiso.
The manufacture of textiles is carried on at Santiago and El Tome, and numerous small factories are devoted to clothing of various descriptions.
The second most important mining industry in Chile, however, is that of copper, which is found in the provinces of Antofagasta, Atacama, Coquimbo, Aconcagua, Valparaiso, Santiago, O'Higgins, Colchagua, Curico and Talca, but the richest deposits are in the three desert provinces.
The judicial power consists of a Supreme Court of Justice of seven members located in the national capital, which exercises supervisory and disciplinary authority over all the law courts of the republic; six courts of appeal, in Tacna, Serena, Valparaiso, Santiago, Talca and Concepcion; tribunals of first instance in the department capitals; and minor courts, or justices of the peace, in the subdelegacies and districts.
Military instruction is given in a wellorganized military school at Santiago, a war academy and a school of military engineering.
The system includes the University of Chile and National Institute at Santiago, lyceums or high schools in all the provincial capitals and larger towns, normal schools at central points for the training of public school teachers, professional and industrial schools, military schools and primary schools.
The National Institute at Santiago is the principal high school of the secondary grade in Chile.
The normal schools for males are located at Santiago, Chinn and Valdivia; and for females at La Serena, Santiago and Concepcion.
The mining schools at Copiap6, La Serena and Santiago had an aggregate attendance of 180 students in 1903, and the commercial schools at Iquique and Santiago an attendance of 214.
The more important agricultural schools are located at Santiago, Chillán, Concepcion and Ancud, the Quinta Normal de Agricultura in the national capital having a large attendance.
The School of Mechanic Arts and Trades (Escuela de Artes y Oficios) of Santiago has a high reputation for the practical character of its instruction, in which it is admirably seconded bya normal handicraft school (Sloyd system) and a night school of industrial drawing in the same city, and professional schools for girls in Santiago and Valparaiso, where the pupils are taught millinery, dress-making, knitting, embroidery and fancy needlework.
In addition to the public schools there are a Roman Catholic university at Santiago, which includes law and civil engineering among its regular courses of study; numerous private schools and seminaries of the secondary grade, with a total of 11,184 students of both sexes in 1903; and 506 private primary schools, with an attendance of 29,684.
There are schools of music and fine arts in Santiago.
The ecclesiastical organization includes one archbishop, who resides at Santiago, three bishops residing at La Serena, Concepcion and Ancud, and two vicars residing in Antofagasta and Tarapaca.
Valdivia founded Santiago, the present capital of Chile, in February 1541, and proceeded to build the towns of La Serena, Concepcion, Villarica, Imperial, Valdivia and Angol, in order to secure his hold on the country.
Up to 1800 the peace was broken by three wars, in 1655, in 1723 and in 1766, the last ended by a treaty which actually gave the Araucanians the right to have a minister at Santiago.
At the end of the 17th century Santiago was a town of poor one-storeyed houses and had only 8000 inhabitants; the other towns, Valparaiso, Concepcion, La Serena, were only large villages.
Freed from the preoccupation of the Indian wars, the governors gave more attention to the general welfare of the country: a university was started in Santiago in 1747, many towns were built about the same time, agriculture and industries were promoted and a coasting trade grew up. In 1778 Charles III.
In 1809 risings took place in Venezuela, in Ecuador, in Upper Peru and in the Argentine; the revolutionary fever spread to Chile, and on the 18th of September 1810 the cabildo of Santiago secured the resignation of the governor and vested his powers in an elected Junta (board) of seven members.
Further, there were divisions between the patriots of Santiago and those of Concepcion, and bitter jealousies between the leaders, the chief of whom were Juan Martinez de Rozas, Jose Miguel Carrera and Bernardo O'Higgins.
The government of Bolivia also attempted to negotiate a treaty of peace with Chile in 1884, and for this purpose sent representatives to Santiago.
A force of io,000 men was now raised by the junta of the revolution, and preparations were rapidly pushed forward for a move to the south with the object of attacking Valparaiso and Santiago.
Three days later the victorious insurgents entered Santiago and assumed the government of the republic.
The town of Valparaiso was almost entirely destroyed, while Santiago and earth- quake.
Up to 1870 the government was in the hands of a small oligarchy of Santiago families, but the president enjoyed large powers of initiative.
The completion of the Trans-Andean railway between Valparaiso and Buenos Aires was bound to be of immense commercial and industrial value; and eventually the making of a longitudinal railway route uniting the nitrate province of the north with Santiago, and Santiago with Puerto Montt in the distant south, opened up further important prospects.
Barros Arana's Historia jeneral de Chile (15 vols., Santiago, 1884), from the earliest days up to 1830.
Hancock, a History of Chile (Chicago, 1893), the only general history in English, and containing a bibliography; Gaspar Toro, Compendio de la historia de Chile (Santiago, 1879), a good clear abstract of Chilean history; and F.
Amunatequi, Descubri miento y conquista de Chile (Santiago, 1885), a valuable detailed account of the Spanish conquest; by same author, Los Precursores de la independencia de Chile (Santiago, 1870), a clear useful description of the evils of the Spanish colonial system; Horacio Lara, Cronica de la Araucania (Santiago, 1889), a history of the Araucanian Indians right up to recent dates; Abbe Eyzaguirre, Histoire du Chili (Lille, 1855), mainly dealing with the position of the Church during the colonial period.
Perez Garcia's Historia del reino de Chile (Santiago, 1900), an old history by a Spanish officer written about 1780, and Molina's History of Chili in the English translation (London, 1809), will also be found useful.
Medina's Coleccion de documentos Para la historia de Chile (Santiago, 1888), a collection of despatches and official documents; his Cosas de la colonia (Santiago, 1889), an accumulation of undigested information about life in the colonial period; and Historiadores de Chile (21 vols., Santiago, 1861), a collection of ancient chronicles and official documents up to the early part of the 17th century.
Roldan, Las Primeras Asambleas nacionales (Santiago, 1890), an account of the struggles in the first national assemblies; A.
Valdes, Revolution Chilena y campanas de la independencia (Santiago, 1888), an account of the early fighting and rivalry of the revolutionary leaders; W.
Vicuna Machenna, Vida de O'Higgins (Santiago, 1882), giving a useful account of the revolutionary struggle and the main actors; and the same author's Historia jeneral de la republics de Chile, a collection of essays on the early republican history by various writers.
Sotomayor Valdes, Historia de Chili, 1831-1871, a detailed account of the period (Sanitago, 1875); the same author's Campana del ejercito Chileno 1837 (Santiago, 1896), describing the fighting of the first Peruvian War; B.
Figueroa, Historia de la revolution constituyente 1858-59 (Santiago, 1889), an account of the revolution at the end of Montt's presidency; F.
SANTIAGO DE LAS VEGAS, an inland city of Havana province, Cuba, about 12 m.
Santiago Del Estero >>
In 1290 the Portuguese knights of Sao Thiago (Santiago) were definitely separated from the parent Spanish order.
The close relations that prevailed between the reigning houses of Portugal, Provence and Aragon, cemented by intermarriages, introduced a knowledge of the gay science, but it reached Portugal by many other ways - by the crusaders who came to help in fighting the Moors, by the foreign prelates who occupied Peninsular sees, by the monastic and military orders who founded establishments in Portugal, by the visits of individual singers to court and baronial houses, but chiefly perhaps by the pilgrims who streamed from every country along the Frankish way to the far-famed shrine of Santiago de Compostela.
On the 18th of May 1895 a treaty was signed at Santiago between Chile and Bolivia, " with a view to strengthening the bonds of friendship which unite the two countries," and, " in accord with the higher necessity that the future development and commercial prosperity of Bolivia require her free access to the sea."
Collecion de documentes relativos a la historia de Bolivia (Paris, 1872); Ramon Sotomayor Valdes, Estudio historico de Bolivia bajo la administracion del General don Jose Maria Achd con una introducion que contiene el compendio de la Guerra de la independencies i de los gobiernos de dicha Republica hasta 1861 (Santiago de Chile, 1874).
The last years of his life were spent in vain endeavours, first to force his half-sister Isabella, afterwards queen, to marry his favourite, the Master of Santiago, and then to exclude her from the throne.
Santiago de Compostela in Spain furnishes a considerable supply of haematite burnishers.
There, too, are the banks, the town hall, the theatre, the principal clubs, and the principal churches, including that of Santiago, which dates from the 14th century.
It is served by railway to the S.S.W., to Holguin and Cacocum (where it connects with the main line between Santiago and Havana), and is a port of call for the American Munson Line.
above sea-level - the Magdalena in the Laguna del Buey (Ox Lake) on the Las Papas plateau, and the Cauca a short distance westward in the Laguna de Santiago on the Paramo de Guanacas - and flow northward in parallel courses with the great Central Cordillera, forming the waterparting between their drainage basins.
Manuel Murillo Toro (1872-1874) and Santiago Perez (1874-1876) saw the country apparently acquiring constitutional equilibrium, and turning its energies to the development of its matchless resources.
Requesens was only "a gentleman of cloak and sword" (caballero de capa y espada), though by the king's favour he was "grand commander" of the military order of Santiago in Castile.
long, just below the mouth of the Rio Santiago, and between it and the old abandoned missionary station of Borja, in 38° 30' S.
The Pongo de Manseriche was first named Maranon, then Santiago, and later Manseric, afterwards Mansariche and Manseriche, owing to the great numbers of parrakeets found on the rocks there.
He fitted out an expedition at Loxa in Ecuador, descended the Rio Santiago to the Maranon, passed through the perilous Pongo in 1557 and invaded the country of the Maynas Indians.
Swollen by their many affluents, they reach the lowlands and unite their waters to form the Santiago, which flows into the Maranon at the head of the Pongo de Manseriche.
The rough country between contains the following so-called " ` Sierras," which are not really ranges: in Veragua province, Sierra de Veragua, with Santiago (9275 ft.) near the Chiriqui range, and Santa Maria (4600 ft.), immediately north of the city of Santa Fe; in Los Santos province (Azuero Peninsula), bold hills rising 3000 ft., and in Panama province, the much-broken Sierra de Panama, which has a maximum height of 1700 ft.
east of the Costa Rican boundary, with a trade in cattle; Los Santos (pop. about 7200), the capital of Los Santos province; Santiago de Veragua (pop. about 7000), 300 ft.
Santiago de Compostela, for example.
There are ten archbishoprics (Toledo, Madrid, Burgos, Granada, Santiago, Saragossa, Seville, Tarragona, Valencia and Valladolid) and fortyfive bishoprics.
Spain has nine universities: Madrid, the most numerotisly attended; Salamanca, the most ancient; Granada, Seville, Barcelona, Valencia, Santiago, Saragossa and Valladolid.
No attempt was made, during the decade which followed the Spanish-American War, to replace the squadrons destroyed at Manila and Santiago de Cuba.
The shrine at Santiago in Gallicia was accepted in an age when evidence and criticism were words of no meaning, and it attracted pilgrims, who brought trade.
To this age also taiy Orders, belongs the formation of the great monastic military orders of Calatrava, Santiago and Alcflntara.
In about eighteen months they managed to drive the rebels into the eastern districts of the island, Puerto Principe and Santiago de Cuba, and induced all but a few irreconcilable chiefs to accept a convention that became famous under the name of the peace treaty of Zanjon.
Before it could be promulgated, the tidings came of a separatist rising in the old haunts of Creole disaffection near Santiago de Cuba.
Admiral Cerveras squadron was destroyed outside the Bay of Santiago de Cuba by the American fleet under Admirals Sampson and Schley.
An American expedition landed near Santiago, and the Spanish garrison surrendered after a fortnights show of resistance.
Rodriguez San Pedro, for making concessions to the teaching orders, while the archbishops of Burgos and Santiago de Compos~ella fulminated against the government for daring to tax the congregations.
He served in Cuba through the Santiago campaign, was appointed chief of ordnance with the rank of major of volunteers, and in June 1899 assistant adjutant-general.
Patron, Cordillera de los Andes (Republica de Chile, Oficina des Limites) Santiago (Chile), 1903 et seq.); Sir T.
ANIBAL PINTO (1825-1884), Chilean president, was born at Santiago, Chile.
Chagual gum, a variety brought from Santiago, Chile, resembles gum senegal.
Having become assistant to Carlos Guillelmo Moesta (1825-1884), director of the observatory at Santiago, in 1859, he was associated with the Chilean geodetic survey in 1864.
Santiago de Compostela, Galicia 5 bedroom casa and 3 bedroom casita (all bedrooms en-suite ).
In Puerto de Santiago there is a rocky cove with three pools full of marine life.
Ales himself contributes a frequent Boletin de Noticias sobre elf contributes a frequent Boletin de Noticias sobre el Camino de Santiago.
The first is Saint James in his pilgrim's garb, as if about to set out for Santiago de Compostella.
leisure for further exploration of Santiago.
But for any poem to have the majesty of Black Orpheus's original it needs a figure as grand as Santiago.
The action and charm of the story is the epic battle between Santiago and a giant marlin and his rigorous journey back home.
mediaevalis Santiago de Compostela, the goal of the medieval pilgrim, which calls us.
driven by piety and PR, medieval notables from St Francis of Assisi to El Cid walked to Santiago and most made conspicuous donations.
But it is Santiago de Compostela, the goal of the medieval pilgrim, which calls us.
pilgrim journey to Santiago de Compostela.
It was in the colonial port city of Santiago de Cuba where in 1862 he began production of his light and aged rums.
standby for the next flight to Santiago.
At the critical moment the British government, urged to move in the matter by the British residents in both countries, who feared that war would mean the financial ruin of both Chile and Argentina, used its utmost influence both at Santiago and Buenos Aires to allay the misunderstandings; and negotiations were set on foot which ended in a treaty for the cessation of further armaments being signed, June 1902.
Caracas was founded in 1567 by Diego de Losada under the pious title of Santiago de Leon de Caracas, and has been successively capital of the province of Caracas, of the captaincygeneral of Caracas and Venezuela, and of the republic of Venezuela.
After his return to the coast of Cuba he conducted the blockade of Santiago, and the ships under his command destroyed the Spanish vessels when they issued from the harbor of Santiago and attempted to escape (see Spanish-American War).
Every year there are seismic disturbances, and though Santiago is the point of most frequent visitation, they occur in all parts of the island, in 1880 affecting the entire western end.
There were five cities having populations above 25,000 - Havana, 297,159; Santiago, 45,470; Matanzas, 36,009; Cienfuegos, 30,100; Puerto Principe (or Camaguey), 29,616; and fourteen more above 8000 - Cardenas, Manzanillo, Guanabacoa, Santa Clara, Sagua la Grande, Sancti Spiritus, Guantanamo, Trinidad, Pinar del Rio, San Antonio de los Banos, Jovellanos, Marianao, Caibarien and Gaines.
C. Schroeder-van der Kolk (1797-1862), Albert von K0111ker, Santiago Ramon y Cajal, C. Golgi (b.
The railway connexions are with Ovalle to the S., and VicuÃ±a (or Elqui) to the E., but the proposed extension northward of Chile's longitudinal system would bring Coquimbo into direct communication with Santiago.
The "Vale of Quillota," through which the railway passes between Valparaiso and Santiago, is celebrated for its gardens.
VicuÃ±a Machenna, Vida de O'Higgins (Santiago, 1882), and M.
Santiago is the hottest city of Cuba (mean temperature in winter about 82Ã‚° F., in summer about 88Ã‚°), owing mainly to the mountains that shut off the breezes from the E.
73Ã‚° 20' W.) to a point on the Santiago river in about lat.
From the Santiago river, a western affluent of the Maranon, the boundary line runs south-west and west across the Andes to the head waters of the Macara, down that stream to the Chira, or Achira,whose channel marks the frontier down to about 80Ã‚° 17' W., where a small stream (the Rio Alamo) enters from the north.
These are the Santiago, which drains several fertile valleys in northern Esmeraldas and western Carchi, and whose outlet is connected with some navigable tide-water channels, including the Pailon basin and the Caraquez, or Caracas, on which is located the village of Bahia de Caraquez (lat.
Some of the larger tributaries of these rivers, whose economic value has been equally great, are the Mapocho, which flows through Santiago and enters the Maipo from the north; the turbulent Cachapoal, which joins the Rapel from the north; the Claro, which waters an extensive part of the province of Talca and enters the Maule from the north; the Nuble, which rises in the higher Andes north of the peaks of Chillan and flows entirely across the province of Nuble to join the Itata on its western frontier; the Laja, which rises in a lake of the same name near the Argentine frontier in about lat.
At Santiago, in 33Ã‚° 27' S., 1755 ft.
The more important agricultural schools are located at Santiago, ChillÃ¡n, Concepcion and Ancud, the Quinta Normal de Agricultura in the national capital having a large attendance.
The national library at Santiago, with 116,300 volumes in 1906, and the national observatory, are both efficiently administered.
Chile was divided into the two bishoprics of Santiago and Concepcion, and the Church managed to accumulate most of the wealth of the country.
But a peace was negotiated by the archbishops Diogo p g Y o P g Gelmires of Santiago de Compostela and Burdino of Braga, rival churchmen whose wealth and military resources enabled them to dictate terms. Bitter jealousy existed between the two prelates, each claiming to be primate of " all the Spains," and their antagonism had some historical importance in so far as it fostered the growth of separatist tendencies among the Portuguese.
long, just below the mouth of the Rio Santiago, and between it and the old abandoned missionary station of Borja, in 38Ã‚° 30' S.
A stone gateway, Porta de Santiago, is all that remains of the Portuguese fort.
So I was put on standby for the next flight to Santiago.
A unique component of Thunderbird's curriculum is that 25 percent of its program consists of on-site business environment seminars at locations all over the world, including Geneva, Beijing, and Santiago.
Xavier Santiago is an expert dog handler and groomer.
shore running westward Guantanamo, Santiago and Cienfuegos, are harbours of the first class, several of them among the best of the world.
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