from its own port of Punta Santiago, with which it is connected by a good road; a railway was under construction in 1908, and some of the sugar factories of the department are now connected by rail with the port.
Santiago O'Higgins xo.
The provinces of Santa Fe, Cordoba and Santiago del Estero are only partially wooded; large areas of plains are intermingled with scrubby forests of algarrobo (Prosopis), quebracho-blanco (Aspido-sperma quebracho), tala (Celtis tala, Sellowiana, acuminata), acacias and other genera.
In 1553 an expedition from Peru made their way through the mountain region and founded the city of Santiago del Estero, that of Tucuman in 1565, and that of Cordoba in 1573.
Urquiza at this juncture resigned the presidency, and Doctor Santiago Derqui was elected president of the fourteen provinces with the seat of government at Parana; while Urquiza became once more governor of Entre Rios, and Mitre was appointed governor of Buenos Aires.
The attack on Hispaniola, however, was a disastrous failure, and though a landing at Jamaica and the capture of the capital, Santiago de la Vega, was effected, the expedition was almost annihilated by disease; and Penn and Venables returned to England, when Cromwell threw them into the Tower.
Development of these lines has been primarily an extension from the large cities in the East to the agricultural districts in the West, but a change of great importance was brought about in 1910 by the completion of the last tunnel on the Argentine Transandine Railway, which serves to connect Santiago, Valparaiso and the other great cities of the west coast with Buenos Ayres, Montevideo, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and the other great cities of the east coast.
The Rio Grande de Lerma, or Santiago, is the principal river, whose sources are to be found on the high plateau in the state of Mexico.
From Guantanamo to Santiago it rises in high escarpments, a.nd W.
of Santiago, where the Sierra Maestra runs close to the sea, there is a very high abrupt shore.
shore running westward Guantanamo, Santiago and Cienfuegos, are harbours of the first class, several of them among the best of the world.
Santiago (now Oriente) province is high and mountainous.
The Sierra de Cobre, a part of the system in the vicinity of Santiago, has a general elevation of about 3000 ft.
Fossiliferous Cretaceous limestones containing Rudistes have been found in several parts of the island (Santiago de los Banos, Santa Clara province, &c.).
Large copper deposits of peculiar richness occur here in the Sierra de Cobre, near the city of Santiago; and both iron and manganese are abundant.
The iron ores mined at Daiquiri near Santiago are mainly rich hematites running above 60% of iron, with very little sulphur or phosphorus admixture.
Manganese occurs especially along the coast between Santiago and Manzanillo; the best ores run above 50%.
There are extensive and valuable deposits of beautiful marbles in the Isle of Pines, and lesser ones near Santiago.
Those of 1776, 1842 and 1852 were particularly destructive, and of earlier ones those of 1551 and 1624 at Bayamo and of 1578 and 1678 at Santiago.
The southern littoral is also (except in sheltered points such as Santiago, which is one of the hottest cities of the island) somewhat cooler than the northern.
More than four-fifths of the total area sown to cane in the island is in the three provinces of Santa Clara, Matanzas and Oriente (formerly Santiago), the former two representing two-thirds of the area and three-fourths of the crop. The majority of the sugar estates are of an area less than 3000 acres, and the most common area is between 1500 and 2000 acres; but the extremes range from a very small size to 60,000 acres.
Some " caf e tales " were established by the newcomers near Havana, but the industry has always been almost exclusively one of Santiago province; with Santa Clara as a much smaller producer.
A central agricultural experiment station (founded 1904) is maintained by the government at Santiago de las Vegas; but there is no agricultural college, nor any special school for the scientific teaching and improvement of sugar and tobacco farming or manufacture.
The tobacco industries are very largely concentrated in Havana, and there are factories in Santiago de las Vegas and Bejucal.
The Cobre copper mines near Santiago were once the greatest producers of the world.
The shipments from Santiago province from 1884 to 1901 aggregated 5, 0 53, 8 47 long tons, almost all going to the United States (which is true of other mineral products also).
After the first American occupation a private company built a line from Santa Clara to Santiago, more than half the length of the island, finally connecting its two ends (1902).
Havana, Santiago and Cienfuegos are cable ports.
The only good highways of any considerable length in 1908 were in the two western provinces and in the vicinity of Santiago.
In Guantanamo, in Santiago de Cuba, and in seven other towns they exceeded the whites in number.
Originally - P Y g Y residents at Santiago de Cuba, the captains-general resided after 1589 at Havana.
Because of the isolation of the eastern part of the island, the dangers from pirates, and the important considerations which had caused Santiago de Cuba (q.v.) to be the first capital of the island, Cuba was divided in 1607 into two departments, and a governor, subordinate in military matters to the captain-general at Havana, was appointed to rule the territory east of Puerto Principe.
In 1801, when the audiencia - of which the captain-general was ex officio president - began its functions at that point, the governor of Santiago became subordinated in political matters as much as in military.
In Havana, also, there is a school of painting and sculpture, a school of arts and trades, and a national library, all of which are supported or subventioned by the national government, as are also a public library in Matanzas, and the Agricultural Experiment Station at Santiago de las Vegas.
Baracoa (the landing point), Bayamo, Santiago de Cuba, Puerto Principe, Sancti Spiritus, Trinidad and the original Havana were all founded by 1515.
Politically his rule was marked by the proclamation at Santiago in 1836, without his consent, of the Spanish constitution of 1834; he repressed the movement, and in 1837 the deputies of Cuba to the Cortes of Spain (to which they were admitted in the two earlier constitutional periods) were excluded from that body, and it was declared in the national constitution that Cuba (and Porto Rico) should be governed by " special laws."
A fine Spanish squadron seeking to escape from Santiago harbour was utterly destroyed by the American blockading force on the 3rd of July; Santiago was invested by land forces, and on the 15th of July the city surrendered.
The largest town in Galicia is Corunna (pop. 1900, 43,971) Santiago de Compostela is the ancient capital and an archiepiscopal see; Lugo, Tuy, Mondonedo and Orense are bishoprics.
slope of the Sierra Maestra in Santiago province, Cuba.
Its inland situation gave it relative security against the pirates who then infested West Indian seas, and the misfortunes of Santiago were the fortunes of Bayamo.
by Santiago and O'Higgins, E.
The state central railway from Santiago to Puerto Montt crosses the province and has two branches within its borders, one from Rengo to Peumo, and one from San Fernando via Palmilla to Pichilemu on the coast.
Cuba, in Santiago province.
Both honours were taken from it to be given to Santiago de Cuba; and for two centuries after this Baracoa remained an obscure village, with little commerce.
Until the middle of the 1 8th century Baracoa was almost without connexion with Havana and Santiago.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the master of the Order of Santiago had a country seat here, which passed, along with the mastership, into the possession of the crown of Spain in 1522.
The other tobacco-producing provinces in order of importance are Havana, Santa Clara and Santiago de Cuba.
The state railway from Santiago to the southern provinces passes through Nuble, from N.N.E.
At one time a captain of the coast-guard, at another the protege of Benavente, viceroy of Naples, who appointed him governor of Scigliano, patronized by Osuna and Olivares, Castro was nominated a knight of the order of Santiago in 1623.
In addition to the axis-railway of the island, which connects it with Havana and Santiago, the city has connexion by a branch line with Nuevitas.
Three men, during that period of probation, won a prominent place in their country's history, Generals Agustin Gamarra, Felipe Santiago Salaverry, and Andres Santa Cruz.
2 The succession of presidents and supreme chiefs of Peru from 1829 to 1844 was as follows: 1829-1833, Agustin Gamarra; 1834-1835, Luis Jose Orbegoso; 1835-1836, Felipe Santiago Salaverry; 1836-1839, Andres Santa Cruz; 1839-1841, Agustin Gamarra; 1841-1844, Manuel Menendez.
Rene-Moreno, Ultimos dias coloniales en el Alto Peru 1807-1808 (Santiago de Chile, 1896-1898); F.
The railway connexions are with Ovalle to the S., and Vicuña (or Elqui) to the E., but the proposed extension northward of Chile's longitudinal system would bring Coquimbo into direct communication with Santiago.
of the capital; Cadereyta Jiminez, Garcia, Santiago and Doctor Arroyo, the last in the extreme southern part of the state.
MANZANILLO, an important commercial city of Cuba, in Santiago province, on the gulf of Guacanabo, about 17 m.
Manzanillo is the only coast town of importance between Trinidad and Santiago.
In 1833 it received an ayuntamienlo (council) and in 1837, for its "loyalty" in not following the lead of Santiago in proclaiming the Spanish Constitution, received from the crown the title of Fiel.
by Santiago and Valparaiso and W.
The state central railway from Santiago to Puerto Montt crosses the province from north to south, and the Cautin, or Imperial, and Tolten rivers (the latter forming its southern boundary) cross from east to west, both affording excellent transportation facilities.
SANTIAGO DEL ESTERO, a province of Argentina, bounded N.
The provincial capital, Santiago Del Estero, is on the left bank of the Rio Dulce, 745 m.
In 1820 Santiago del Estero became a separate province.
of Santiago de Cuba.
ATITLAN, or Santiago De Atitlan, a town in the department of Solola, Guatemala, on the southern shore of Lake Atitlan.
The first recorded case of the formation of an hermandad occurred in the 12th century when the towns and the peasantry of the north united to police the pilgrim road to Santiago in Galicia, and protect the pilgrims against robber knights.
The church of Santiago is noteworthy for its fine paintings and frescoes, some of which have been attributed, though on doubtful authority, to Peter Paul Rubens and other illustrious artists.
In South America there are mints at Lima, Santiago, Buenos Ayres and Tegucigalpa.
He was minister to Spain from 1869 to 1873, and took part in the negotiations growing out of the "Virginius Affair" (see Santiago, Cuba).
This charge, in which many of the "Rough Riders" were killed or wounded, drove the Spaniards from the trenches and opened the way to the surrender of Santiago.
The parish church was begun by Wallenstein after the model of the pilgrims' church of Santiago de Compostela in Spain, but not completed till 1655.
The largest rivers of Mexico are: the Rio Grande de Santiago, called the Lerma above Lake Chapala, rising in the state of Mexico and flowing westward across Guanajuato, Jalisco and Tepic to the Pacific coast, with a total length of 540 m., celebrated for its deep canyons and waterfalls; the Rio de las Balsas, or Mescala, which rises in Tlaxcala and flows south and west to the Pacific with a course of 426 m.; the Yaqui, which rises in western Chihuahua and, after breaking through the northern ranges of the Sierra Madre Occidental, flows south-westerly across Sonora to the Gulf of California, with a length of 390 m.; the Grijalva, also called the Chiapas on its upper course, which has its sources in the state of Chiapas and flows north-west and north across Tabasco to the Gulf of Mexico, with a total length of 350 m.; the Fuerte, which rises in southern Chihuahua and, after breaking through the sierras, flows south-west across Sinaloa to the Gulf of California, with a course of 340 m.; the Usumacinta, which is formed by the confluence of the Chixoy and Pasion on the east frontier of Chiapas, and flows north-west across Tabasco to the Grijalva, with a course of 330 m.; and the Panuco, which has its source in the north-west of the state of Mexico and flows north-eastward to the Gulf of Mexico.
wide, which receives the waters of the Lerma and discharges into the Pacific through the Santiago.
Noll, A Short History of Mexico (Chicago, 1903); Santiago Ramirez, Noticia historica de la riqueza mineira de Mexico (Mexico, 1884); Friedrich Ratzel, Aus Mexico: Reiseskizzen aus den Jahren 1874-1876 (Breslau, 1878); Matias Romero, Geographical and Statistical Notes on Mexico (New York, 1898); idem, Mexico and the United States (New York, 1898); E.
Santiago Nonohualco, San Juan Nonohualco and San Pedro Nonohualco.
They established a War with depot at Point Ysabel (behind the opening of Brazos United Santiago), and erected a fort in Texan territory, corn States, manding Matamoros, on the Mexican side of the Rio 1846-48.
of Santiago and about 56 m.
It has the best harbour on the Pacific coast of South America, and is one of the most important ports of southern Chile, being connected by rail with Concepcion, Santiago and southern Chile.
The city is in the Antemarac valley near the Rio Grande de Santiago, 5092 ft.
He acted as coadjutor to the archbishops of Santiago de Compostella and Paris, and to the bishop of Ghent, and died at Ghent on the 23rd of August 1678.
Quillota is situated on a railway between Valparaiso and Santiago, which passes through a mountainous, semi-barren country.
14J3), Constable of Castile, Grand Master of Santiago, and favourite of King John II.
In 1445 the faction of the nobles allied with Alvaro's main enemies, the Infantes de Aragon, were beaten at Olmedo, and the favourite, who had been constable of Castile and count of Santesteban since 1423, became Grand Master of the military order of Santiago by election of the Knights.
Cienfuegos is served by the United railways and by steamers connecting with Santiago, Batabano, Trinidad and the Isle of Pines.
The greater part of the state is drained by the Rio Grande de Lerma (called the Santiago on its lower course) and its tributaries, chief of which is the Rio Verde.
of Santiago by the Chilean Central railway, which crosses the province.
P. Hobson had tried to block Santiago in 1898.
The great trunk railway from Santiago S.
See Domeyko, Araucania y sus habitantes (Santiago, 1846); de Ginoux, "Le Chili et les Araucans," in Bull.
Medina, Los aborjenes de Chile (Santiago, 1882); A.
In the north-west angle of the walled enclosure stands Fort Santiago, which was built at the same time as the walls to defend the entrance to the river; the remaining space is occupied largely by a fine cathedral, churches, convents, schools, and government buildings.
of Santiago de Compostela.
Vicuña Machenna, Vida de O'Higgins (Santiago, 1882), and M.
Armunategni, La Dictadura de O'Higgins (Santiago, 1853) both containing good accounts of O'Higgins's career.
Figueroa, Diccionario biogrdfico de Chile, 1550-1887 (Santiago, 1888), and J.
SANTIAGO DE CUBA, a city and seaport of Cuba, on the S.
Santiago is situated about 6 m.
Santiago is the hottest city of Cuba (mean temperature in winter about 82° F., in summer about 88°), owing mainly to the mountains that shut off the breezes from the E.
of Santiago, have an interesting history.
Santiago is less important politically under the Republic than it was when Cuba was a Spanish dependency.
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