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sanskrit

sanskrit

sanskrit Sentence Examples

  • The Benares college, including a firstgrade and a Sanskrit college, was opened in 1791, but its fine buildings date from 1852.

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  • Bhagalpur formed a part of the ancient Sanskrit kingdom of Anga.

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  • Tonmi introduced the modified Sanskritic " writing in thirty characters " (already detailed under Language and six of which do not exist in Sanskrit) in two styles - the " thick letters " or " letters with heads " (u-ch'en), now commonly used in printed books, and the half-cursive " cornered letters," so called from their less regular heads.

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  • The Gandharvas of Sanskrit poetry are also fairies.

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  • In 1902 was brought out at Calcutta Sarat Chandra Das's Tibetan English Dictionary with Sanskrit synonyms, a massive volume compiled with the aid of Tibetan lamas and edited by Graham Sandberg and the Moravian missionary A.

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  • The town is said to possess many Sanskrit libraries.

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  • thupa; Sanskrit, stupa), that is, memorial mounds, standing on the level top of a small sandstone hill about 300 ft.

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  • in 1881, was an instructor at Columbia in 188'- 1885, and professor at Bryn Mawr in 1885-1895, and became professor of Sanskrit and comparative philology in Yale University in 1895.

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  • Chandra Das also brought back from his journeys a large number of interesting books in Tibetan and Sanskrit, the most valuable of which have been edited and published by him, some with the assistance of Ugyen Gyatso and other lamas.

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  • Though now cultivated in India, and almost wild in some parts of the northwest, and, as we have seen, probably also in Afghanistan, it has no Sanskrit name; it is not mentioned in the Hebrew text of the Scriptures, nor in the earliest Greek times.

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  • The extensive Sanskrit literature, which has reached in translations China, Japan and Java, is chiefly theological and poetical, history being conspicuously absent.

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  • Some centuries before the Christian era, immigrants from the east coast of India began to exert a powerful influence over Cambodia, into which they introduced Brahmanism and the Sanskrit language.

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  • Kuhn, is the etymological equivalent of the Sanskrit Saranyu, who, having turned herself into a mare, is pursued by Vivasvat, and becomes the mother of the two Asvins, the Indian Dioscuri, the Indian and Greek myths being regarded as identical.

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  • These Tajiks (as they are usually called) form the underlying population of Persia, Baluchistan, Afghanistan and Badakshan, and their language (in the central districts of Asia) is found to contain words of Aryan or Sanskrit derivation which are not known in Persian.

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  • He became secretary of the American Oriental Society and editor of its Journal, to which he contributed many valuable papers, especially on numerical and temporal categories in early Sanskrit literature.

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  • The Greek word c'eiceavos is related to the Sanskrit arayanas, " the encompassing."

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  • DURGA, or Devi (Sanskrit for inaccessible), in Hindu mythology, the wife of Siva and daughter of Himavat (the Himalayas).

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  • In some foreign words like cicala the ch- (tsh) value is given to c. In the transliteration of foreign languages also it receives different values, having that of tsh in the transliteration of Sanskrit and of is in various Slavonic dialects.

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  • Very few of the frescoes have been identified, but two are illustrations of stories in Arya Sura's Jataka Maid, as appears from verses in Buddhist Sanskrit painted beneath them.

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  • The chief original literatures are Chinese, Sanskrit, Pali, Arabic and Persian.

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  • The Sanskrit dictionary was unfortunately destroyed by a fire which broke out in the printing establishment.

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  • de Candolle, arguing from its ancient cultivation and the antiquity of the Sanskrit and Hebrew names, regards it as a native of western Asia.

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  • de Candolle, arguing from its ancient cultivation and the antiquity of the Sanskrit and Hebrew names, regards it as a native of western Asia.

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  • often through the Syriac, and at the same time the influence of Sanskrit works made itself felt.

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  • In the effort to escape from the vulgar, words of Sanskrit origin have been freely adopted and many Cambodian words are also used.

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  • YAMA (Sanskrit "twin," in allusion to his being twin with his sister Yami, traditionally the first human pair), in Hindu mythology, judge of men and king of the unseen world.

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  • He also studied Arabic, Sanskrit and the old South French dialects.

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  • The vowels are a, i, u, e, o, which are not distinguished as long or short in writing, except in loan words transcribed from the Sanskrit, &c., though they are so in the vernaculars in the case of words altered by phonetic detrition.

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  • From this time to his death he devoted himself to the preparation of numerous philological works, consisting of grammars and dictionaries in the Mahratta, Sanskrit, Punjabi, Telinga, Bengali and Bhotanta dialects.

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  • VIKRAMADITYA, a legendary Hindu king of Uzjain, who is supposed to have given his name to the Vikram Samvat, the era which is used all over northern India, except in Bengal, and at whose court the "nine gems" of Sanskrit literature are also supposed to have flourished.

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  • TEµevos or Sanskrit tamas, darkness, shadow), and none that suggest a non-Indo-European origin.

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  • This epoch is marked by the renaissance of Sanskrit literature and the gradual revival of Hinduism at the expense of Buddhism.

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  • BIDPAI (or [[Pilpay), Fables Of]], the name given in the middle ages (from Sanskrit Vidya-pati, chief scholar) to a famous collection of Hindu stories.

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  • This epoch is marked by the renaissance of Sanskrit literature and the gradual revival of Hinduism at the expense of Buddhism.

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  • According to his view, the seeds of the peach, cultivated for ages in China, might have been carried by the Chinese into Kashmir, Bokhara, and Persia between the period of the Sanskrit emigration and the Graeco-Persian period.

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  • Franke, Geschichte and Kritik der einheimischen Pali-Grammatik and Lexicographic, and Pali and Sanskrit (Strassburg, 1902); D.

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  • The oldest tradition they possess refers to a time shortly after the overthrow of the Majapahit dynasty in Java, about the middle of the 15th century; but it has been supposed that there must have been Indian settlers here before the middle of the 1st century, by whom the present name, probably cognate with the Sanskrit balin, strong, was in all likelihood imposed.

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  • The spoken languages of northern India are very various, differing one from another in the sort of degree that English differs from German, though all are thoroughly Sanskritic in their vocables, but with an absence of Sanskrit grammar that has given rise to considerable discussion.

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  • Thus many of the words procured from foreign sources, not excluding Bali and Sanskrit, are more or less mutilated in pronunciation, though the entirely suppressed or altered letter is still retained in writing.

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  • 2 They do not, however, obtain full recognition in Sanskrit literature until the Brahmana period (7th or 8th century B.C.).

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  • The mosque known as Raja Bhoj's school was built out of Hindu remains in the 4 th or 15th century: its name is derived from the slabs, covered with inscriptions giving rules of Sanskrit grammar, with which it is paved.

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  • EDWARD WASHBURN HOPKINS (1857-), American Sanskrit scholar, was born in Northampton, Massachusetts, on the 8th of September 18J7.

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  • This name of Haroyu, as it is written in the Vendidad,or Hariwa,as it appears in the inscriptions of Darius, is a cognate form with the Sanskrit Sarayu, which signifies " a river," and its resemblance to the ethnic title of Aryan (Sans.

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  • The name of Aryan has been given to the races speaking languages derived from, or akin to, the ancient form of Sanskrit, who now occupy the temperate zone extending from the Mediterranean, across the highlands of Asia Minor, Persia and Afghanistan, to India.

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  • The letters, which are a form of the Indian Sanskrit characters of that period, follow the same arrangement as their Sanskritic prototype.

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  • The consonants, 30 in number, which are deemed to possess an inherent sound a, are the following: ka, k'a, ga, nga, ea, ca, ja, nya, ta, t'a, da, na, pa, p'a, ba, ma, tsa, ts'a, dza, wa, z'a, za, 'ha, ya, ra, la, s'a, sa, ha, a; the so-called Sanskrit cerebrals are represented by the letters ta, t'a, da, na, s'a, turned the other way.

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  • Farn; the Indo-European root, seen in the Sanskrit parna, a feather, shows the primary meaning; cf.

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  • Farn; the Indo-European root, seen in the Sanskrit parna, a feather, shows the primary meaning; cf.

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  • Names, more or less allied to one another, are in vogue among the peoples of the Caucasus, the Caspian Sea, Armenia and Persia, and there is a Sanskrit name and several others analogous or different in modern Indian languages.

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  • Fuchs; the ultimate origin is unknown, but a connexion has been suggested with Sanskrit puccha, tail.

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  • In scientific and astrological works, the numerals, as, in Sanskrit, are expressed by symbolical words.

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  • According to tradition - a tradition of which the, details are still open to criticism - the alphabet was introduced from India by Tonmi, a lay Tibetan minister who was sent to India in 632 by King Srong-btsan to study the Sanskrit language and Buddhist literature.

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  • All later Buddhist accounts, whether Pali or Sanskrit, repeat the same story.

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  • The Burmese alphabet is borrowed from the Aryan Sanskrit through the Pali of Upper India.

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  • BEE (Sanskrit bha, A.S.

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  • From a linguistic point of view, these treatises with their appendages, the more mystic and recondite Aranyakas and the speculative Upanishads, have to be considered as forming the connecting link between the Vedic and the classical Sanskrit.

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  • He shows that in the 3rd century B.C. the language used throughout northern India was practically one, and that it was derived directly from the speech of the Vedic Aryans, retaining many Vedic forms lost in the later classical Sanskrit.

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  • Here he remained a short time to master modern Persian, and then hastened to Chandernagore to acquire Sanskrit.

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  • It is a curious mixture of Latin, Greek, Persian, Arabic, and Sanskrit.

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  • Moreover, other letters are present only for use in certain words imported from Bali or Sanskrit.

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  • KARMA, sometimes written Karman, a Sanskrit noun (from the root kri, to do), meaning deed or action.

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  • s One other book, the stories of Kalilag and Damnag, in a Syriac version from the Pahlavi, the latter taken from the Sanskrit.

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  • As separate publications there are several vocabularies of Chinese and Tibetan; Mongol and Tibetan; Chinese, Manchu, Mongol, Oelot, Tibetan and Turkish; Tibetan, Sanskrit, Manchu, Mongol and Chinese.

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  • SOMA (Sanskrit for "pressed juice," from the root su, to press), in Hindu mythology the god who is a personification of the soma plant (Asclepias acida), from which an intoxicating milky juice is squeezed.

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  • He then entered Brasenose College, Oxford, where in 1841 he obtained the Boden Sanskrit scholarship, and graduated in 1844.

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  • He encouraged the study of Sanskrit, and furthered schemes for the enlightenment and amelioration of the Hindus.

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  • In 1862 he endowed the chair of Sanskrit in the university of Edinburgh, and was the main agent in founding the Shaw fellowship in moral philosophy.

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  • of his Original Sanskrit Texts (2nd ed., 1868); it was on the origin of caste, an inquiry intended to show that it did not exist in the Vedic age.

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  • Dr Muir was also the author of a volume of Metrical Translations from the Sanskrit, an anonymous work on Inspiration, several works in Sanskrit, and many essays in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society and elsewhere.

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  • At Pagar Rujung are several stones with inscriptions in Sanskrit and Menangkabo Malay.

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  • Sanskrit words occur in the various languages spoken in the island; and the Ficus religiose, the sacred tree of the Hindu, is also the sacred tree of the Battas.

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  • He is constantly quoted in the literature of the later schools of Buddhism, and a very large number of works in Sanskrit is attributed to him.

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  • BHIMA (Sanskrit, "The Terrible"), in Hindu mythology, a hero, one of the Pandava princes who figure in the Mahabharata.

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  • Macdonell, History of Sanskrit Literature (1900) p. 411 f., and the references on p. 452; V.

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  • indic.) is closely parallel to the inflection of the same person in Sanskrit and of quite unique linguistic interest.

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  • Shortly after the Buddha's time the Brahmins had their sutras in Sanskrit, already a dead language.

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  • Sanskrit was not used for any Buddhist works till long afterwards, and never used at all, so far as is known, for the canonical books.

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  • Two other works, the Lalita Vistara and the Buddha Carita, give us - but this, of course, is later - Sanskrit poems, epics, on the same subject.

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  • The latter, in Sanskrit, is the earliest exposition we have of the later Mahayana doctrine.

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  • The Pali Text Society is still publishing two volumes a year; and the Russian Academy has inaugurated a series to contain the most important of the Sanskrit works still buried in MS. We have also now accessible in Pali fourteen volumes of the commentaries of the great 5th- century scholars in south India and Ceylon, most of them the works either of Buddhaghosa of Budh Gaya, or of Dhammapala of Kancipura (the ancient name of Conjeeveram).

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  • He found that the Buddhism in his Pali MSS., which came from Ceylon, differed from that in his Sanskrit MSS., which came from Nepal.

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  • At Lafayette he introduced the first carefully scientific study of English in any American college, and in 1870 published A Comparative Grammar of the AngloSaxon Language, in which its Forms are Illustrated by Those of the Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Gothic, Old Saxon, Old Friesic, Old Norse and Old High German, and An Anglo-Saxon Reader; he was editor of the "Douglass Series of Christian Greek and Latin Classics," to which he contributed Latin Hymns (1874); he was chairman of the Commission of the State of Pennsylvania on Amended Orthography; and was consulting editor of the Standard Dictionary, and in 1879-1882 was director of the American readers for the Philological Society's (New Oxford) Dictionary.

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  • Sanskrit has nida.

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  • To the Greeks and Romans Sokotra was known as the isle of Dioscorides; this name, and that by which the island is now known, are usually traced back to a Sanskrit form, Dvipa-Sakhadhara, "the island abode of bliss," which again suggests an identification with the vrjvoc ei)Saiµoves of Agatharchides (§ 103).

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  • In Sanskrit, it would be called " Bharata-varsha," from Bharata, a legendary monarch of the Lunar line; but Sanskrit is no more the vernacular of India than Latin is of Europe.

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  • " India," the abstract form of a word derived through the Greeks from the Persicized form of the Sanskrit sindhu, a " river," preeminently the Indus, has become familiar since the British acquired the country, and is now officially recognized in the imperial title of the sovereign.

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  • On the one hand, the tols or seminaries for teaching Sanskrit philosophy at Benares and Nadiya recall the schools of Athens and Alexandria; on the other, the importance .attached to instruction in accounts reminds us of the picture which Horace has left of a Roman education.

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  • Of the Calcutta colleges, that of Sanskrit was founded in 1824, when Lord Amherst was governor-general, the medical college by Lord William Bentinck in 1835, the Hooghly madrasa by a wealthy native gentleman in 1836.

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  • The Sanskrit college at Benares had been established in 1791, the Agra college in 1823.

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  • The earliest written books are in Pali and Buddhist Sanskrit.

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  • The Kanishka commentaries were written in the Sanskrit language, perhaps because the Kashmir and northern priests who formed his council belonged to isolated Aryan colonies, which had been little influenced by the growth of the Indian vernacular dialects.

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  • Inscriptions, local legends, Sanskrit literature, and the drama disclose the survival of Brahman influence during the next six centuries (250 B.C. - A.D.

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  • Homer was acquainted with tin and other articles of Indian merchandise by their Sanskrit names; and a long list has been made of Indian products mentioned in the Bible.

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  • The Chola kingdom, like the Pandya, is mentioned by the Sanskrit grammarian Katyayana in the 4th century B.C., and was recognized by Asoka as independent.

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  • The name of the Pallavas appears to be identical with that of the Pahlavas, a foreign tribe, frequently mentioned in inscriptions and Sanskrit literature.

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  • AVADANA, the name given to a type of Buddhist romance literature represented by a large number of Sanskrit (Nepalese) collections, of which the chief are the Avadanasataka (Century of Legends), and the Divyavadana (The Heavenly Legend).

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  • The Greek is acrTip, and the Sanskrit Cara, for stara.

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  • and repeats the nuptial benediction first in Zend and then in Sanskrit.

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  • Sanskrit, such abbreviations are carried to an extreme; in most Greek MSS.

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  • Hence, in the later classical Sanskrit literature, the term dvija, or twice-born, is used simply as a synonym for a Brahman.

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  • The literary documents, both in Sanskrit and Pali, dating from about the time of Buddha onwards - particularly the two epic poems, the Mahabharata and Ramayana - still show us in the main the personnel of the old pantheon; but the character of the gods has changed; they have become anthropomorphized and almost purely mythological figures.

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  • Seeing that the epic poems, as repeated by professional reciters, either in their original Sanskrit text, or in their vernacular versions, as well as dramatic compositions based on them, form to this day the chief source of intellectual enjoyment for most Hindus, the legendary matter contained in these heroic poems, however marvellous and incredible it may appear, still enters largely into the religious convictions of the people."

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  • Madhva - who after his initiation assumed the name Anandatirtha - composed numerous Sanskrit works, including commentaries on the Brahma sutras (i.e.

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  • Ramananda's teaching was thus of a distinctly levelling and popular character; and, in accordance therewith, the Bhakta-mala and other authoritative writings of the sect are composed, not in Sanskrit, but in the popular dialects.

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  • Their principal doctrinal authority is the Bhagavata-purana, as commented upon by Vallabha himself, who was also the author of several other Sanskrit works highly esteemed by his followers.

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  • Chaitanya, the founder of the great Vaishnava sect of Bengal, was the son of a high-caste Brahman of Nadiya, the famous Bengal seat of Sanskrit learning, where he was born in 1485, two years after the birth of Martin Luther, the German reformer.

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  • Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts (2nd ed., 5 vols., London, 1873) Monier Williams, Religious Thought and Life in India (London, 1883); Modern India and the Indians (London, 1878, 3rd ed.

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  • Colebrooke, began to make known the treasures of Sanskrit literature, which the great scholars of Germany and France proceeded to develop. In Egypt the discovery of the Rosetta stone placed the key to the hieroglyphics within Western reach; and the decipherment of the cuneiform character enabled the patient scholars of Europe to recover the clues to the contents of the ancient libraries of Babylonia and Assyria.

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  • The identification of Erinyes with Sanskrit Saranyu, the swif tspeeding storm cloud, is rejected by modern etymologists; according to M.

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  • Still more instructive for Schopenhauer was the imperfect and obscure Latin translation of the Upanishads which in 1801-1802 Anquetil Duperron had published from a Persian version of the Sanskrit original.

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  • The common characteristics of all Iranian languages, whicF distinguish them especially from Sanskrit, are as follows:

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  • Changes of the original s into the spirant ii, Thus Sanskrit.

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  • Change of the original aspirates gh, dh, bh (=x, 9, ~) into th corresponding medials Sanskrit.

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  • k, t, p before a consonant are changed into the spirants kh Sanskrit.

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  • The development of soft sibilants Sanskrit.

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  • In age it almost rivals Sanskrit; in primitiveness it surpasses that language in many points; it is inferior only in respect of its less extensive literature, and because it has not been made the subject of systematic grammatical treatment.

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  • The clearest evidence of the extreme age of the language of the pi ithas is its striking resemblance to the oldest Sanskrit, the language P the Vedic poems. The gatha language (much more than the k1 ter Zend) and the language of the Vedas have a close resemblance, Ai :ceeding that of any two Romanic languages; they seem hardly th ore than two dialects of one tongue.

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  • Whole strophes of the m Lths can be turned into good old Sanskrit by the application of Ia rtain phonetic laws; for example as mat vo padaish y frasrfltk izhayao F pairijasai mazda ustnazast, as at vo ash aredrahyaca nemangha at vo vangehush mananghO hunarett, ~comes in Sanskrit mana vah padaih y pracruta ihayh it parigachai medha uttanahastah at va rtena radhrasyaca namasg m at v vasor manasah sun~-tayA.

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  • A logical system of comparative exegesis, Ze led by constant reference to Sanskrit, its nearest ally, and to the her Iranian dialects, is the best means of recovering the lost of rise of the Zend texts.

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  • In the vowel-system a notable feature is the presence th the short vowels e and o, which are not found in Sanskrit and cu d Persian; thus the Sanskrit sanhi, Old Persian hantiy, becomes un, 11i in Zend.

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  • Sanskrit bharahi, Zend wi raiti (he carries); Old Persian margu, Zend murva (Merv); en nskrit rinaktl, Zend irinakhhi.

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  • Triphthongs are not uncommon, th Sanskrit avebhyas (dative plural of acva, a horse) is in Zend in paeibyo; Sanskrit krnoti (he does), Zend kerenaoiti.

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  • Zend asha for Sanskrit tha, Old Persian aria (in dy taxerxes); fravashi for Pahlavi fravardln, New Persian ferrer tn ie spirits of the dead).

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  • The verb displays a like abundance of trf mary forms with Sanskrit, but the conjugation by periphrasis lit only slightly developed.

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  • on ened to us a knowredge of the oldest Sanskrit.

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  • The short vowels e, ire wanting; in their place the old a sound still appears as Sanskrit, e.g.

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  • Zend bagem, Old Persiah bagam, Sanskrit bhagam; I Persian hamarana, Zenci hamerena, Sanskrit samarana.

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  • As ~ards consonants, it is noticeable that the older I (soft s) still mserved in Zend passes into da rule that still holds in New rsian; compare Sanskrit.

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  • Old Persian abara, Sanskrit abharat, rid abarat, f4~ps: nominative baga, root-form baga-s, Sanskrit rgas.

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  • There he again spent nearly two years in mastering Sanskrit and the depths of Buddhist philosophy.

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  • The name Brahui is (according to Bellew) but a corruption of Ba-rohi (or " hillmen ") in a language derived from Sanskrit which would represent the same term by Parva-ka.

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  • Bellew finds in the Gadara the Garuda (eagles) of Sanskrit, who were ever in opposition to the Naga (snakes) of Scythic origin.

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  • The word is Sanskrit and literally signifies " snow-abode," from him, snow, and dlaya, abode, and might be translated " snowy-range," although that expression is perhaps more nearly the equivalent of Himachal, another Sanskrit word derived from him, snow, and dchal, mountain, which is practically synonymous with Himalaya and is often used by natives of northern India.

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  • Some of the correspondences in the two stories are most minute, and even the phraseology, in which some of the details of Josaphat's history are described, almost literally renders the Sanskrit of the Lalita Vistara.

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  • Buddhism arose in countries where Sanskrit was never more than a learned tongue, and where the exclusive claims of the Brahmins had never been universally admitted.

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  • The new literature therefore, which the new movement called forth, was written, and has been preserved, in Sanskrit - its principal books of Dharma, or doctrine, being the following nine: (I) Prajna-paramita; (2) Ganda-vyuha; (3) Dasa-bhumis-vara; (4) Samadhi-raja; (5) Lankavatara; (6) Saddharma-pundarika; ('7) Tathagata-guhyaka; (8) Lalita-vistara; (9) Suvarna-prabhasa.

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  • But the great bulk of the collection consists of Mahayana books, belonging to all the previously existing varieties of that widely extended Buddhist sect; and, as the Sanskrit originals of many of these writings are now lost, the Tibetan translations will be of great value, not only for the history of Lamaism, but also for the history of the later forms of Indian Buddhism.

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  • His name is formed from a root div, meaning " bright," which appears in other Aryan languages as a formative part of divine names, such as the Sanskrit Dydus, " sky "; Latin Diovis, Jovis, Diespiter, divus; Old English Tiw; Norse Tyr.

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  • The chief educational institutions are the Government Presidency College; three aided missionary colleges, and four unaided native colleges; the Sanskrit College and the Mahommedan Madrasah; the government medical college, the government engineering college at Sibpur, on the opposite bank of the Hugh, the government school of art, high schools for boys, the Bethune College and high schools for girls.

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  • They were at one time Hinduized, as is evident from their traditions, the many Sanskrit words in their language, and their general appearance, which suggests Hindu as well as Arab blood.

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  • AVATAR, a Sanskrit word meaning "descent," specially used in Hindu mythology (and so in English) to express the incarnation of a deity visiting the earth for any purpose.

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  • The Parsee priest, Neryosangh, subsequently translated a portion of the Pahlavi version into Sanskrit.

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  • For all that known dialects prove to the contrary, on the one hand, there may have been one primitive language, from which the descendant languages have varied so widely, that neither their words nor their formation now indicate their unity in long past ages, while, on the other hand, the primitive tongues of mankind may have been numerous, and the extreme unlikeness of such languages as Basque, Chinese, Peruvian, Hottentot and Sanskrit may arise from absolute independence of origin.

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  • The name Bengal is derived from Sanskrit geography, and applies strictly to the country stretching southwards from Bhagalpur to the sea.

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  • The word Bangala was first used by the Mussulmans; and under their rule, like the Banga of old Sanskrit times, it applied specifically to the Gangetic delta, although the later conquests to the east of the Brahmaputra were eventually included within it.

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  • The Delta or southern part of Bengal lay beyond the ancient Sanskrit polity, and was governed by a number of local kings belonging to a pre-Aryan stock.

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  • Khotan, known in Sanskrit as Kustana and in Chinese as Yu-than, Yu-tien, Kiu-sa-tan-na, and Khio-tan, is mentioned in Chinese chronicles in the 2nd century B.C. In A.D.

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  • This is the circumstance which has given its name to a Sanskrit work, the Mahabhinishkramana Stara, or Sutra of the Great Renunciation.

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  • Buddhist Sanskrit Texts: (1) Mahavastu (probably 2nd century B.C.); edited by Senart (3 vols., Paris, 1882-1897), summary in French prefixed to each volume; down to the end of first year of the teaching.

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  • Among these, besides the classical and the modern European languages, were included Persian, Arabic, Hindustani, Sanskrit and even Malay.

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  • VEDDAHS, or Weddahs (from Sanskrit veddha, " hunter"), a primitive people of Ceylon, probably representing the Yakkos or "demons" of Sanskrit writers, the true aborigines of the island.

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  • 1000 and Imo that the Jains adopted Sanskrit as their literary language.

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  • Professor Weber gave a fairly full and carefully-drawn-up analysis of the whole of the more ancient books in the second part of the second volume of his Catalogue of the Sanskrit MSS.

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  • Professor Bhandarkar gave an account of the contents of many later works in his Report on the Search for Sanskrit MSS., Bombay, 1883.

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  • The Sanskrit usage of the word is fully illustrated by him from the early Sanskrit writings in the article "Aryan" in the ninth edition of this encyclopaedia.

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  • From the earliest occurrences of the word it is clear that it was used as a national name not only in India but also in Bactria and Persia (in Sanskrit drya- and drya-, in Zend airya-, in Old Persian ariya-).

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  • That it is in any way connected with a Sanskrit word for earth, ira, as Max Muller asserts, is far from certain.

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  • Within Sanskrit itself probably two words have to be distinguished: (1) drya, the origin of Aryan, from which the usual term arya is a derivative; (2) arya, which frequently appears in the Rig Veda as an epithet of deities.

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  • In both Sanskrit and Zend it means something like "comrade" or "bosom friend," but in Zend is used of the priestly or highest class.

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  • In Sanskrit, besides this use in which it is contrasted with the Dasa or Dasyu, the enemies, the earlier inhabitants, the word is of ten used for the bridegroom's spokesman, and in both languages is also employed as the name of a divine being.

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  • The distinctions between Sanskrit and Iranian are also clear.

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  • Dr Grierson has shown in his monograph on "The Pisaca Languages of North-Western India" (Royal Asiatic Society, 1906) that there is good reason for regarding various dialects of the north-western frontier (Kafiristan, Chitral, Gilgit, Dardistan) as a separate group descended from Aryan but independent of either Sanskrit or Iranian.

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  • The ultimate origin of this word is the Sanskrit root man-, meaning to "think," seen in "man," "mind," &c. The term "mandarin" is not, in its western usage, applied indiscriminately to all civil and military officials, but only to those who are entitled to wear a "button," which is.

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  • written in Sanskrit, Brahmi and Chinese characters, wooden tablets in the Kharoshti script, furniture and various cereals.

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  • and wooden tablets were discovered, inscribed in Sanskrit, Chinese, Tibetan and the Brahmi script of Khotan, the arid conditions, here as elsewhere, having caused these and other perishable objects to remain remarkably well preserved.

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  • The absence of any special name for it in the Semitic, Chinese and Sanskrit languages is also adduced as an indication of its comparatively recent culture.

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  • VISHNU (Sanskrit, "the worker," from root vish, "to work"), a solar deity, in later Hindu mythology a god of the first importance, one of the supreme trinity with Brahma and Siva, but in the Rig Veda only a minor deity.

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  • Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, iv.

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  • Only recently have Sanskrit and the Egyptian and Babylonian languages become books not absolutely sealed.

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  • Celts, Germans, speakers of Sanskrit and Zend, Ldtins and Greeks, all prove by their languages that their tongues may be traced to one family of speech.

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  • The word may have no intelligible meaning in Greek, but its counterpart in the allied tongues, especially in Sanskrit or Zend, may reveal the original significance of the terms. " To understand the origin and meaning of the names of the Greek gods, and to enter into the original intention of the fables told of each, we must take into account the collateral evidence supplied by Latin, German, Sanskrit and Zend philology " (Lect.

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  • A name may be intelligible in Sanskrit which has no sense in Greek.

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  • Thus Athene is a divine name without meaning in Greek, but Max Muller advances reasons for supposing that it is identical with ahana, " the dawn," in Sanskrit.

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  • It is admitted that Greeks, Romans, Aryans of India in the age of the Sanskrit commentators, Egyptians of the Ptolemaic and earlier ages, were as much puzzled as we are by the mythical adventures of their gods.

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  • 72, 1, 8; Muir, Sanskrit Texts, iv.

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  • 93 seq.; Muir, Sanskrit Texts, v.

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  • 2 On the whole subject, Dr Muir's Ancient Sanskrit Texts, with translations, Ludwig's translation of the Rig Veda, the version of the Satapatha-Brahmana already referred to, and the translation of the Aitareva-Brahmana by Haug, are the sources most open to English readers.

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  • The Sanskrit word is krimi, which has given kermes, the cochineal insect, whence "crimson."

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  • The date of their immigration has been the subject of a good deal of dispute, but it may be argued that their arrival must have taken place in early times, since Malagasy speech, which is the language of the island, is principally MalayoPolynesian in origin, and contains no traces of Sanskrit.

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  • A tragedy, Anne Boleyn, followed in 1826; and Milman also wrote "When our heads are bowed with woe," and other hymns; an admirable version of the Sanskrit episode of Nala and Damayanti; and translations of the Agamemnon of Aeschylus and the Bacchae of Euripides.

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  • Fritzsche showed that by treating indigo with caustic potash it yielded an oil, which he named aniline, from the specific name of one of the indigo-yielding plants, Indigofera anil, anil being derived from the Sanskrit nila, dark-blue, and nila, the indigo plant.

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  • The poem is a rehandling of the great theme of Valmiki, but is in no sense a translation of the Sanskrit epic. The succession of events is of course generally the same, but the treatment is entirely different.

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  • Macdonell, Vedic Mythology (Strassburg, 1897); Sir William Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, iv.

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  • Sanskrit Kunda.

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  • It has adopted a certain number of vocables from Sanskrit, Malay, Javanese and Portuguese, but on the whole is remarkably pure, and has undergone comparatively few recent changes.

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  • Neither bears any trace of derivation from the Sanskrit alphabet.

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  • To recapitulate the doctrine more succinctly, men originally said, in Sanskrit (or some Aryan speech more ancient still), "fire is got by rubbing or boring;" nothing could have been more scientific and straightforward.

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  • Most of his writings were gibberish to me; Sanskrit or Mayan glyphs came to mind.

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  • The old Sanskrit universities are mainly composed of boys.

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  • ergative pattern is based on was inherited by all the modern languages from the parent language, Sanskrit.

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  • Now one might reasonably ask what Sanskrit grammar has to do with mathematics.

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  • Sanskrit has a perfect grammar which has been explained to us by the world's greatest grammarian Panini.

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  • Sanskrit literature, both sacred and secular, is immensely rich and varied.

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  • Nowhere is this idea more true than for Sanskrit mantra.

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  • Corpus Christi College For deposited Islamic and Sanskrit manuscripts, see the Oriental manuscripts page.

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  • The sacred Sanskrit syllable om is said to contain the seed or essence of universal consciousness.

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  • It was developed from the 1930s onward by yoga guru and Sanskrit scholar, Sri T. Krishnamacharya.

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  • He also studied ancient sutras (Buddhist teachings written in Sanskrit ).

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  • It gives the Sanskrit text transliterated into the Roman alphabet, a translation and a detailed commentary.

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  • All 18 chapters are included in the original Sanskrit text, with English transliteration.

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  • The basis of ashtanga yoga is the Yoga sutras (Sanskrit Verses) of Patanjali.

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  • It was he who persuaded the pundits of Bengal to disclose the treasures of Sanskrit to European scholars.

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  • BRAHMAN, a Sanskrit noun-stem which, differently accented, yields in the two nominatives Brahma (neut.) and Brahma (masc.), the names of two deities which occupy prominent places in the orthodox system of Hindu belief.

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  • E.) Brahmana, the Sanskrit term applied to a body of prose writings appended to the collections (samhita) of Vedic texts, the meaning and ritual application of which they are intended to elucidate, and like them regarded as divinely revealed.

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  • From a linguistic point of view, these treatises with their appendages, the more mystic and recondite Aranyakas and the speculative Upanishads, have to be considered as forming the connecting link between the Vedic and the classical Sanskrit.

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  • brahmanas), the ordinary Sanskrit designation of a man of the Brahmanical caste, is clearly a derivative of brahman (nom.

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  • The inscriptions have now been subjected to a very full critical and philological analysis in Professor Otto Franke's Pali and Sanskrit (Strassburg, 1902).

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  • He shows that in the 3rd century B.C. the language used throughout northern India was practically one, and that it was derived directly from the speech of the Vedic Aryans, retaining many Vedic forms lost in the later classical Sanskrit.

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  • Franke, Geschichte and Kritik der einheimischen Pali-Grammatik and Lexicographic, and Pali and Sanskrit (Strassburg, 1902); D.

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  • The oldest tradition they possess refers to a time shortly after the overthrow of the Majapahit dynasty in Java, about the middle of the 15th century; but it has been supposed that there must have been Indian settlers here before the middle of the 1st century, by whom the present name, probably cognate with the Sanskrit balin, strong, was in all likelihood imposed.

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  • The word is Celtic, appearing in Welsh (very frequently) as afon, in Manx as aon, and in Gaelic as abhuinn (pronounced avain), and is radically identical with the Sanskrit ap, water, and the Lat.

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  • Kuhn, is the etymological equivalent of the Sanskrit Saranyu, who, having turned herself into a mare, is pursued by Vivasvat, and becomes the mother of the two Asvins, the Indian Dioscuri, the Indian and Greek myths being regarded as identical.

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  • TEµevos or Sanskrit tamas, darkness, shadow), and none that suggest a non-Indo-European origin.

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  • The name of Aryan has been given to the races speaking languages derived from, or akin to, the ancient form of Sanskrit, who now occupy the temperate zone extending from the Mediterranean, across the highlands of Asia Minor, Persia and Afghanistan, to India.

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  • The spoken languages of northern India are very various, differing one from another in the sort of degree that English differs from German, though all are thoroughly Sanskritic in their vocables, but with an absence of Sanskrit grammar that has given rise to considerable discussion.

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  • These Tajiks (as they are usually called) form the underlying population of Persia, Baluchistan, Afghanistan and Badakshan, and their language (in the central districts of Asia) is found to contain words of Aryan or Sanskrit derivation which are not known in Persian.

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  • The chief original literatures are Chinese, Sanskrit, Pali, Arabic and Persian.

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  • The extensive Sanskrit literature, which has reached in translations China, Japan and Java, is chiefly theological and poetical, history being conspicuously absent.

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  • These received from them into their language a very large number of Sanskrit terms, from which we can infer the nature of the civilizing influence imparted by the Hindu rulers.

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  • This Sanskrit element forms such an integral part of the Malay vocabulary that in spite of the subsequent infusion of Arabic and Persian words adopted in the usual course of Mahommedan conquest it has retained its ancient citizenship in the language.

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  • The Benares college, including a firstgrade and a Sanskrit college, was opened in 1791, but its fine buildings date from 1852.

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  • All later Buddhist accounts, whether Pali or Sanskrit, repeat the same story.

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  • Some centuries before the Christian era, immigrants from the east coast of India began to exert a powerful influence over Cambodia, into which they introduced Brahmanism and the Sanskrit language.

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  • Though now cultivated in India, and almost wild in some parts of the northwest, and, as we have seen, probably also in Afghanistan, it has no Sanskrit name; it is not mentioned in the Hebrew text of the Scriptures, nor in the earliest Greek times.

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  • According to his view, the seeds of the peach, cultivated for ages in China, might have been carried by the Chinese into Kashmir, Bokhara, and Persia between the period of the Sanskrit emigration and the Graeco-Persian period.

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  • Fuchs; the ultimate origin is unknown, but a connexion has been suggested with Sanskrit puccha, tail.

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  • Here he remained a short time to master modern Persian, and then hastened to Chandernagore to acquire Sanskrit.

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  • It is a curious mixture of Latin, Greek, Persian, Arabic, and Sanskrit.

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  • The Burmese alphabet is borrowed from the Aryan Sanskrit through the Pali of Upper India.

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  • The town is said to possess many Sanskrit libraries.

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  • often through the Syriac, and at the same time the influence of Sanskrit works made itself felt.

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  • DURGA, or Devi (Sanskrit for inaccessible), in Hindu mythology, the wife of Siva and daughter of Himavat (the Himalayas).

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  • In some foreign words like cicala the ch- (tsh) value is given to c. In the transliteration of foreign languages also it receives different values, having that of tsh in the transliteration of Sanskrit and of is in various Slavonic dialects.

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  • Bhagalpur formed a part of the ancient Sanskrit kingdom of Anga.

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  • YAMA (Sanskrit "twin," in allusion to his being twin with his sister Yami, traditionally the first human pair), in Hindu mythology, judge of men and king of the unseen world.

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  • That the Sanskrit root sthag (Pali, thak), to cover, to conceal, was mainly applied to fraudulent concealment, appears from the noun sthaga, cheat, which has retained this signification in the modern vernaculars, in all of which it has assumed the form thag (commonly written thug), with a specific meaning.

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  • The mosque known as Raja Bhoj's school was built out of Hindu remains in the 4 th or 15th century: its name is derived from the slabs, covered with inscriptions giving rules of Sanskrit grammar, with which it is paved.

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  • This name of Haroyu, as it is written in the Vendidad,or Hariwa,as it appears in the inscriptions of Darius, is a cognate form with the Sanskrit Sarayu, which signifies " a river," and its resemblance to the ethnic title of Aryan (Sans.

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  • The Greek word c'eiceavos is related to the Sanskrit arayanas, " the encompassing."

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  • BIDPAI (or [[Pilpay), Fables Of]], the name given in the middle ages (from Sanskrit Vidya-pati, chief scholar) to a famous collection of Hindu stories.

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  • Sanskrit babhrus, brown, the great ichneumon, Lat.

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  • He also studied Arabic, Sanskrit and the old South French dialects.

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  • thupa; Sanskrit, stupa), that is, memorial mounds, standing on the level top of a small sandstone hill about 300 ft.

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  • 2 They do not, however, obtain full recognition in Sanskrit literature until the Brahmana period (7th or 8th century B.C.).

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  • Moreover, other letters are present only for use in certain words imported from Bali or Sanskrit.

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  • Thus many of the words procured from foreign sources, not excluding Bali and Sanskrit, are more or less mutilated in pronunciation, though the entirely suppressed or altered letter is still retained in writing.

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  • In the effort to escape from the vulgar, words of Sanskrit origin have been freely adopted and many Cambodian words are also used.

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  • KARMA, sometimes written Karman, a Sanskrit noun (from the root kri, to do), meaning deed or action.

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  • EDWARD WASHBURN HOPKINS (1857-), American Sanskrit scholar, was born in Northampton, Massachusetts, on the 8th of September 18J7.

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  • in 1881, was an instructor at Columbia in 188'- 1885, and professor at Bryn Mawr in 1885-1895, and became professor of Sanskrit and comparative philology in Yale University in 1895.

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  • He became secretary of the American Oriental Society and editor of its Journal, to which he contributed many valuable papers, especially on numerical and temporal categories in early Sanskrit literature.

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  • The Gandharvas of Sanskrit poetry are also fairies.

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  • From this time to his death he devoted himself to the preparation of numerous philological works, consisting of grammars and dictionaries in the Mahratta, Sanskrit, Punjabi, Telinga, Bengali and Bhotanta dialects.

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  • The Sanskrit dictionary was unfortunately destroyed by a fire which broke out in the printing establishment.

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  • s One other book, the stories of Kalilag and Damnag, in a Syriac version from the Pahlavi, the latter taken from the Sanskrit.

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  • Names, more or less allied to one another, are in vogue among the peoples of the Caucasus, the Caspian Sea, Armenia and Persia, and there is a Sanskrit name and several others analogous or different in modern Indian languages.

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  • Very few of the frescoes have been identified, but two are illustrations of stories in Arya Sura's Jataka Maid, as appears from verses in Buddhist Sanskrit painted beneath them.

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  • VIKRAMADITYA, a legendary Hindu king of Uzjain, who is supposed to have given his name to the Vikram Samvat, the era which is used all over northern India, except in Bengal, and at whose court the "nine gems" of Sanskrit literature are also supposed to have flourished.

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  • The letters, which are a form of the Indian Sanskrit characters of that period, follow the same arrangement as their Sanskritic prototype.

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  • The consonants, 30 in number, which are deemed to possess an inherent sound a, are the following: ka, k'a, ga, nga, ea, ca, ja, nya, ta, t'a, da, na, pa, p'a, ba, ma, tsa, ts'a, dza, wa, z'a, za, 'ha, ya, ra, la, s'a, sa, ha, a; the so-called Sanskrit cerebrals are represented by the letters ta, t'a, da, na, s'a, turned the other way.

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  • The vowels are a, i, u, e, o, which are not distinguished as long or short in writing, except in loan words transcribed from the Sanskrit, &c., though they are so in the vernaculars in the case of words altered by phonetic detrition.

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  • In 1902 was brought out at Calcutta Sarat Chandra Das's Tibetan English Dictionary with Sanskrit synonyms, a massive volume compiled with the aid of Tibetan lamas and edited by Graham Sandberg and the Moravian missionary A.

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  • This collection also contains other works of the same kind, dictionaries by later writers, translations of many Sanskrit works on grammar, vocabulary, &c., and bilingual dictionaries, Sanskrit and Tibetan.

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  • As separate publications there are several vocabularies of Chinese and Tibetan; Mongol and Tibetan; Chinese, Manchu, Mongol, Oelot, Tibetan and Turkish; Tibetan, Sanskrit, Manchu, Mongol and Chinese.

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  • In scientific and astrological works, the numerals, as, in Sanskrit, are expressed by symbolical words.

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  • the Persian tadjik was transcribed staggzig or " tiger-leopard," because the foreign term left untouched would have been meaningless for Tibetan readers); (b) the addition for the sake of uniformity of prefixed letters to words etymologically deprived of them; (c) the probable addition of letters by the Buddhist teachers from India to Tibetan words in order to make them more similar to Sanskrit expressions (for instance rje- for " king," written in imitation of raja, though the original word was je or she, as is shown by cognate languages).

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  • According to tradition - a tradition of which the, details are still open to criticism - the alphabet was introduced from India by Tonmi, a lay Tibetan minister who was sent to India in 632 by King Srong-btsan to study the Sanskrit language and Buddhist literature.

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  • Tonmi introduced the modified Sanskritic " writing in thirty characters " (already detailed under Language and six of which do not exist in Sanskrit) in two styles - the " thick letters " or " letters with heads " (u-ch'en), now commonly used in printed books, and the half-cursive " cornered letters," so called from their less regular heads.

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  • Chandra Das also brought back from his journeys a large number of interesting books in Tibetan and Sanskrit, the most valuable of which have been edited and published by him, some with the assistance of Ugyen Gyatso and other lamas.

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  • SOMA (Sanskrit for "pressed juice," from the root su, to press), in Hindu mythology the god who is a personification of the soma plant (Asclepias acida), from which an intoxicating milky juice is squeezed.

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  • He then entered Brasenose College, Oxford, where in 1841 he obtained the Boden Sanskrit scholarship, and graduated in 1844.

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  • He encouraged the study of Sanskrit, and furthered schemes for the enlightenment and amelioration of the Hindus.

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  • In 1862 he endowed the chair of Sanskrit in the university of Edinburgh, and was the main agent in founding the Shaw fellowship in moral philosophy.

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  • of his Original Sanskrit Texts (2nd ed., 1868); it was on the origin of caste, an inquiry intended to show that it did not exist in the Vedic age.

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  • Dr Muir was also the author of a volume of Metrical Translations from the Sanskrit, an anonymous work on Inspiration, several works in Sanskrit, and many essays in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society and elsewhere.

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  • At Pagar Rujung are several stones with inscriptions in Sanskrit and Menangkabo Malay.

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  • Sanskrit words occur in the various languages spoken in the island; and the Ficus religiose, the sacred tree of the Hindu, is also the sacred tree of the Battas.

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  • He is constantly quoted in the literature of the later schools of Buddhism, and a very large number of works in Sanskrit is attributed to him.

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  • BHIMA (Sanskrit, "The Terrible"), in Hindu mythology, a hero, one of the Pandava princes who figure in the Mahabharata.

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  • Macdonell, History of Sanskrit Literature (1900) p. 411 f., and the references on p. 452; V.

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  • indic.) is closely parallel to the inflection of the same person in Sanskrit and of quite unique linguistic interest.

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  • Shortly after the Buddha's time the Brahmins had their sutras in Sanskrit, already a dead language.

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  • Sanskrit was not used for any Buddhist works till long afterwards, and never used at all, so far as is known, for the canonical books.

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  • More important historically, though greatly inferior in style and ability, is the Mahavastu or Sublime Story, in Sanskrit.

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  • Two other works, the Lalita Vistara and the Buddha Carita, give us - but this, of course, is later - Sanskrit poems, epics, on the same subject.

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  • The latter, in Sanskrit, is the earliest exposition we have of the later Mahayana doctrine.

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  • The Pali Text Society is still publishing two volumes a year; and the Russian Academy has inaugurated a series to contain the most important of the Sanskrit works still buried in MS. We have also now accessible in Pali fourteen volumes of the commentaries of the great 5th- century scholars in south India and Ceylon, most of them the works either of Buddhaghosa of Budh Gaya, or of Dhammapala of Kancipura (the ancient name of Conjeeveram).

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  • He found that the Buddhism in his Pali MSS., which came from Ceylon, differed from that in his Sanskrit MSS., which came from Nepal.

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  • At Lafayette he introduced the first carefully scientific study of English in any American college, and in 1870 published A Comparative Grammar of the AngloSaxon Language, in which its Forms are Illustrated by Those of the Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Gothic, Old Saxon, Old Friesic, Old Norse and Old High German, and An Anglo-Saxon Reader; he was editor of the "Douglass Series of Christian Greek and Latin Classics," to which he contributed Latin Hymns (1874); he was chairman of the Commission of the State of Pennsylvania on Amended Orthography; and was consulting editor of the Standard Dictionary, and in 1879-1882 was director of the American readers for the Philological Society's (New Oxford) Dictionary.

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  • Sanskrit has nida.

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  • BEE (Sanskrit bha, A.S.

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  • To the Greeks and Romans Sokotra was known as the isle of Dioscorides; this name, and that by which the island is now known, are usually traced back to a Sanskrit form, Dvipa-Sakhadhara, "the island abode of bliss," which again suggests an identification with the vrjvoc ei)Saiµoves of Agatharchides (§ 103).

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  • In Sanskrit, it would be called " Bharata-varsha," from Bharata, a legendary monarch of the Lunar line; but Sanskrit is no more the vernacular of India than Latin is of Europe.

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  • " India," the abstract form of a word derived through the Greeks from the Persicized form of the Sanskrit sindhu, a " river," preeminently the Indus, has become familiar since the British acquired the country, and is now officially recognized in the imperial title of the sovereign.

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  • On the one hand, the tols or seminaries for teaching Sanskrit philosophy at Benares and Nadiya recall the schools of Athens and Alexandria; on the other, the importance .attached to instruction in accounts reminds us of the picture which Horace has left of a Roman education.

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  • Of the Calcutta colleges, that of Sanskrit was founded in 1824, when Lord Amherst was governor-general, the medical college by Lord William Bentinck in 1835, the Hooghly madrasa by a wealthy native gentleman in 1836.

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  • The Sanskrit college at Benares had been established in 1791, the Agra college in 1823.

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  • The earliest written books are in Pali and Buddhist Sanskrit.

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  • The Kanishka commentaries were written in the Sanskrit language, perhaps because the Kashmir and northern priests who formed his council belonged to isolated Aryan colonies, which had been little influenced by the growth of the Indian vernacular dialects.

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  • Inscriptions, local legends, Sanskrit literature, and the drama disclose the survival of Brahman influence during the next six centuries (250 B.C. - A.D.

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  • Homer was acquainted with tin and other articles of Indian merchandise by their Sanskrit names; and a long list has been made of Indian products mentioned in the Bible.

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  • The Chola kingdom, like the Pandya, is mentioned by the Sanskrit grammarian Katyayana in the 4th century B.C., and was recognized by Asoka as independent.

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  • The name of the Pallavas appears to be identical with that of the Pahlavas, a foreign tribe, frequently mentioned in inscriptions and Sanskrit literature.

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  • AVADANA, the name given to a type of Buddhist romance literature represented by a large number of Sanskrit (Nepalese) collections, of which the chief are the Avadanasataka (Century of Legends), and the Divyavadana (The Heavenly Legend).

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  • The Greek is acrTip, and the Sanskrit Cara, for stara.

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  • and repeats the nuptial benediction first in Zend and then in Sanskrit.

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  • (See Ireland: Notices of Ireland in Greek and Roman writers.) Nothing is known as to the meaning of the word in any of its forms, and Whitley Stokes's suggestion that it may have been connected with the Sanskrit avara, meaning "western, " is admittedly no more than conjecture.

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  • Sanskrit, such abbreviations are carried to an extreme; in most Greek MSS.

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  • The Homeric dialect has passed into New Ionic and Attic by gradual but ceaseless development of the same kind as that which brought about the change from Vedic to classical Sanskrit, or from old high German to the present dialects of Germany.

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  • Hence, in the later classical Sanskrit literature, the term dvija, or twice-born, is used simply as a synonym for a Brahman.

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  • The literary documents, both in Sanskrit and Pali, dating from about the time of Buddha onwards - particularly the two epic poems, the Mahabharata and Ramayana - still show us in the main the personnel of the old pantheon; but the character of the gods has changed; they have become anthropomorphized and almost purely mythological figures.

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  • Seeing that the epic poems, as repeated by professional reciters, either in their original Sanskrit text, or in their vernacular versions, as well as dramatic compositions based on them, form to this day the chief source of intellectual enjoyment for most Hindus, the legendary matter contained in these heroic poems, however marvellous and incredible it may appear, still enters largely into the religious convictions of the people."

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  • Madhva - who after his initiation assumed the name Anandatirtha - composed numerous Sanskrit works, including commentaries on the Brahma sutras (i.e.

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  • Ramananda's teaching was thus of a distinctly levelling and popular character; and, in accordance therewith, the Bhakta-mala and other authoritative writings of the sect are composed, not in Sanskrit, but in the popular dialects.

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  • A follower of this creed was the distinguished poet Tulsidas, the composer of the beautiful Hindi version of the Ramayana and other works which" exercise more influence upon the great body of Hindu population than the whole voluminous series of Sanskrit composition "(H.

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  • Their principal doctrinal authority is the Bhagavata-purana, as commented upon by Vallabha himself, who was also the author of several other Sanskrit works highly esteemed by his followers.

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  • Chaitanya, the founder of the great Vaishnava sect of Bengal, was the son of a high-caste Brahman of Nadiya, the famous Bengal seat of Sanskrit learning, where he was born in 1485, two years after the birth of Martin Luther, the German reformer.

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  • Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts (2nd ed., 5 vols., London, 1873) Monier Williams, Religious Thought and Life in India (London, 1883); Modern India and the Indians (London, 1878, 3rd ed.

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  • The former was commissioned by Akbar to translate a number of Sanskrit scientific works into Persian; and the latter (see Abul Fail) has left, in the Akbar-Nameh, an enduring record of the emperor's reign.

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  • Colebrooke, began to make known the treasures of Sanskrit literature, which the great scholars of Germany and France proceeded to develop. In Egypt the discovery of the Rosetta stone placed the key to the hieroglyphics within Western reach; and the decipherment of the cuneiform character enabled the patient scholars of Europe to recover the clues to the contents of the ancient libraries of Babylonia and Assyria.

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  • The identification of Erinyes with Sanskrit Saranyu, the swif tspeeding storm cloud, is rejected by modern etymologists; according to M.

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  • Still more instructive for Schopenhauer was the imperfect and obscure Latin translation of the Upanishads which in 1801-1802 Anquetil Duperron had published from a Persian version of the Sanskrit original.

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  • The common characteristics of all Iranian languages, whicF distinguish them especially from Sanskrit, are as follows:

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  • Changes of the original s into the spirant ii, Thus Sanskrit.

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  • Change of the original aspirates gh, dh, bh (=x, 9, ~) into th corresponding medials Sanskrit.

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  • k, t, p before a consonant are changed into the spirants kh Sanskrit.

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  • The development of soft sibilants Sanskrit.

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  • In age it almost rivals Sanskrit; in primitiveness it surpasses that language in many points; it is inferior only in respect of its less extensive literature, and because it has not been made the subject of systematic grammatical treatment.

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  • The clearest evidence of the extreme age of the language of the pi ithas is its striking resemblance to the oldest Sanskrit, the language P the Vedic poems. The gatha language (much more than the k1 ter Zend) and the language of the Vedas have a close resemblance, Ai :ceeding that of any two Romanic languages; they seem hardly th ore than two dialects of one tongue.

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  • Whole strophes of the m Lths can be turned into good old Sanskrit by the application of Ia rtain phonetic laws; for example as mat vo padaish y frasrfltk izhayao F pairijasai mazda ustnazast, as at vo ash aredrahyaca nemangha at vo vangehush mananghO hunarett, ~comes in Sanskrit mana vah padaih y pracruta ihayh it parigachai medha uttanahastah at va rtena radhrasyaca namasg m at v vasor manasah sun~-tayA.

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  • A logical system of comparative exegesis, Ze led by constant reference to Sanskrit, its nearest ally, and to the her Iranian dialects, is the best means of recovering the lost of rise of the Zend texts.

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  • In the vowel-system a notable feature is the presence th the short vowels e and o, which are not found in Sanskrit and cu d Persian; thus the Sanskrit sanhi, Old Persian hantiy, becomes un, 11i in Zend.

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  • Sanskrit bharahi, Zend wi raiti (he carries); Old Persian margu, Zend murva (Merv); en nskrit rinaktl, Zend irinakhhi.

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  • Triphthongs are not uncommon, th Sanskrit avebhyas (dative plural of acva, a horse) is in Zend in paeibyo; Sanskrit krnoti (he does), Zend kerenaoiti.

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  • Zend asha for Sanskrit tha, Old Persian aria (in dy taxerxes); fravashi for Pahlavi fravardln, New Persian ferrer tn ie spirits of the dead).

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  • The verb displays a like abundance of trf mary forms with Sanskrit, but the conjugation by periphrasis lit only slightly developed.

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  • In the gthgs there is a special ablative, limited, as Pa Sanskrit, to the a stems, whilst in later Zend the ablative is PA tended to all the stems indifferently.

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  • on ened to us a knowredge of the oldest Sanskrit.

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  • The short vowels e, ire wanting; in their place the old a sound still appears as Sanskrit, e.g.

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  • Zend bagem, Old Persiah bagam, Sanskrit bhagam; I Persian hamarana, Zenci hamerena, Sanskrit samarana.

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  • As ~ards consonants, it is noticeable that the older I (soft s) still mserved in Zend passes into da rule that still holds in New rsian; compare Sanskrit.

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  • Old Persian abara, Sanskrit abharat, rid abarat, f4~ps: nominative baga, root-form baga-s, Sanskrit rgas.

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  • We pass over the wellstocked sections of philosophy, ethics and politics, of theology, law and SufIsm, of mathematics and astronomy, of medicine (the oldest thesaurus of which is the Treasure of the sMh of Khwarizam, i ~ Io), of Arabic, Persian and Turkish grammar and lexicography, and only cast a parting glance at the rich collection of old Indian folk-lore and fables preserved in the Persian version of Kalilah u Dimnak (see RUDAG!), of the Sindbdndma, the Tiltinama, or Tales of a Parrot, and others, and at the translations of standard works of Sanskrit literature, the epopees of the Ramdyana and Mahbhdrala, the B/ia gavad-Gita, the Yoga- Vasishtha, and numerous Purdnas and Upanishads, for which we are mostly indebted to the emperor Akbars indefatigable zeal.

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  • There he again spent nearly two years in mastering Sanskrit and the depths of Buddhist philosophy.

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  • The name Brahui is (according to Bellew) but a corruption of Ba-rohi (or " hillmen ") in a language derived from Sanskrit which would represent the same term by Parva-ka.

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  • Bellew finds in the Gadara the Garuda (eagles) of Sanskrit, who were ever in opposition to the Naga (snakes) of Scythic origin.

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  • The word is Sanskrit and literally signifies " snow-abode," from him, snow, and dlaya, abode, and might be translated " snowy-range," although that expression is perhaps more nearly the equivalent of Himachal, another Sanskrit word derived from him, snow, and dchal, mountain, which is practically synonymous with Himalaya and is often used by natives of northern India.

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  • Some of the correspondences in the two stories are most minute, and even the phraseology, in which some of the details of Josaphat's history are described, almost literally renders the Sanskrit of the Lalita Vistara.

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  • Buddhism arose in countries where Sanskrit was never more than a learned tongue, and where the exclusive claims of the Brahmins had never been universally admitted.

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  • The Great Vehicle arose in the very stronghold of Brahminism, and among a people to whom Sanskrit, like Latin in the middle ages in Europe, was the literary lingua franca.

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  • The new literature therefore, which the new movement called forth, was written, and has been preserved, in Sanskrit - its principal books of Dharma, or doctrine, being the following nine: (I) Prajna-paramita; (2) Ganda-vyuha; (3) Dasa-bhumis-vara; (4) Samadhi-raja; (5) Lankavatara; (6) Saddharma-pundarika; ('7) Tathagata-guhyaka; (8) Lalita-vistara; (9) Suvarna-prabhasa.

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  • But the great bulk of the collection consists of Mahayana books, belonging to all the previously existing varieties of that widely extended Buddhist sect; and, as the Sanskrit originals of many of these writings are now lost, the Tibetan translations will be of great value, not only for the history of Lamaism, but also for the history of the later forms of Indian Buddhism.

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  • His name is formed from a root div, meaning " bright," which appears in other Aryan languages as a formative part of divine names, such as the Sanskrit Dydus, " sky "; Latin Diovis, Jovis, Diespiter, divus; Old English Tiw; Norse Tyr.

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  • The chief educational institutions are the Government Presidency College; three aided missionary colleges, and four unaided native colleges; the Sanskrit College and the Mahommedan Madrasah; the government medical college, the government engineering college at Sibpur, on the opposite bank of the Hugh, the government school of art, high schools for boys, the Bethune College and high schools for girls.

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  • They were at one time Hinduized, as is evident from their traditions, the many Sanskrit words in their language, and their general appearance, which suggests Hindu as well as Arab blood.

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  • AVATAR, a Sanskrit word meaning "descent," specially used in Hindu mythology (and so in English) to express the incarnation of a deity visiting the earth for any purpose.

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  • The Parsee priest, Neryosangh, subsequently translated a portion of the Pahlavi version into Sanskrit.

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  • For all that known dialects prove to the contrary, on the one hand, there may have been one primitive language, from which the descendant languages have varied so widely, that neither their words nor their formation now indicate their unity in long past ages, while, on the other hand, the primitive tongues of mankind may have been numerous, and the extreme unlikeness of such languages as Basque, Chinese, Peruvian, Hottentot and Sanskrit may arise from absolute independence of origin.

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  • The name Bengal is derived from Sanskrit geography, and applies strictly to the country stretching southwards from Bhagalpur to the sea.

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  • The word Bangala was first used by the Mussulmans; and under their rule, like the Banga of old Sanskrit times, it applied specifically to the Gangetic delta, although the later conquests to the east of the Brahmaputra were eventually included within it.

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  • The Delta or southern part of Bengal lay beyond the ancient Sanskrit polity, and was governed by a number of local kings belonging to a pre-Aryan stock.

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  • Khotan, known in Sanskrit as Kustana and in Chinese as Yu-than, Yu-tien, Kiu-sa-tan-na, and Khio-tan, is mentioned in Chinese chronicles in the 2nd century B.C. In A.D.

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  • This is the circumstance which has given its name to a Sanskrit work, the Mahabhinishkramana Stara, or Sutra of the Great Renunciation.

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  • Buddhist Sanskrit Texts: (1) Mahavastu (probably 2nd century B.C.); edited by Senart (3 vols., Paris, 1882-1897), summary in French prefixed to each volume; down to the end of first year of the teaching.

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  • Thus he explains the Yajna (sacrificial cult) as " the entertainment of the learned in proportion to their worth, the business of manufacture, the experiment and application of chemistry, physics and the arts of peace; the instruction of the people, the purification of the air, the nourishment of vegetables by the employment of the principles of meteorology, called Agni-Notri in Sanskrit."

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  • Among these, besides the classical and the modern European languages, were included Persian, Arabic, Hindustani, Sanskrit and even Malay.

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  • VEDDAHS, or Weddahs (from Sanskrit veddha, " hunter"), a primitive people of Ceylon, probably representing the Yakkos or "demons" of Sanskrit writers, the true aborigines of the island.

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  • 1000 and Imo that the Jains adopted Sanskrit as their literary language.

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  • Professor Weber gave a fairly full and carefully-drawn-up analysis of the whole of the more ancient books in the second part of the second volume of his Catalogue of the Sanskrit MSS.

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  • Professor Bhandarkar gave an account of the contents of many later works in his Report on the Search for Sanskrit MSS., Bombay, 1883.

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  • The Sanskrit usage of the word is fully illustrated by him from the early Sanskrit writings in the article "Aryan" in the ninth edition of this encyclopaedia.

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  • From the earliest occurrences of the word it is clear that it was used as a national name not only in India but also in Bactria and Persia (in Sanskrit drya- and drya-, in Zend airya-, in Old Persian ariya-).

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  • That it is in any way connected with a Sanskrit word for earth, ira, as Max Muller asserts, is far from certain.

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  • Within Sanskrit itself probably two words have to be distinguished: (1) drya, the origin of Aryan, from which the usual term arya is a derivative; (2) arya, which frequently appears in the Rig Veda as an epithet of deities.

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  • In both Sanskrit and Zend it means something like "comrade" or "bosom friend," but in Zend is used of the priestly or highest class.

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  • In Sanskrit, besides this use in which it is contrasted with the Dasa or Dasyu, the enemies, the earlier inhabitants, the word is of ten used for the bridegroom's spokesman, and in both languages is also employed as the name of a divine being.

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  • The distinctions between Sanskrit and Iranian are also clear.

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  • (1) The Aryan voiced aspirates gh, dh, bh, which survive in Sanskrit, are confused in Iranian with original g, d, b, and further changes take place in the language of the later parts of the Avesta; (2) the Aryan breathed aspirates kh, Hz, ph, except in combination with certain consonants, become spirants in Iranian; (3) Aryan s becomes h initially before vowels in Iranian and also in certain cases medially, Iranian in these respects resembling Greek (cf.

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  • Dr Grierson has shown in his monograph on "The Pisaca Languages of North-Western India" (Royal Asiatic Society, 1906) that there is good reason for regarding various dialects of the north-western frontier (Kafiristan, Chitral, Gilgit, Dardistan) as a separate group descended from Aryan but independent of either Sanskrit or Iranian.

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  • The ultimate origin of this word is the Sanskrit root man-, meaning to "think," seen in "man," "mind," &c. The term "mandarin" is not, in its western usage, applied indiscriminately to all civil and military officials, but only to those who are entitled to wear a "button," which is.

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  • written in Sanskrit, Brahmi and Chinese characters, wooden tablets in the Kharoshti script, furniture and various cereals.

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  • and wooden tablets were discovered, inscribed in Sanskrit, Chinese, Tibetan and the Brahmi script of Khotan, the arid conditions, here as elsewhere, having caused these and other perishable objects to remain remarkably well preserved.

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  • The absence of any special name for it in the Semitic, Chinese and Sanskrit languages is also adduced as an indication of its comparatively recent culture.

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  • VISHNU (Sanskrit, "the worker," from root vish, "to work"), a solar deity, in later Hindu mythology a god of the first importance, one of the supreme trinity with Brahma and Siva, but in the Rig Veda only a minor deity.

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  • Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, iv.

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  • Only recently have Sanskrit and the Egyptian and Babylonian languages become books not absolutely sealed.

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  • Celts, Germans, speakers of Sanskrit and Zend, Ldtins and Greeks, all prove by their languages that their tongues may be traced to one family of speech.

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  • The word may have no intelligible meaning in Greek, but its counterpart in the allied tongues, especially in Sanskrit or Zend, may reveal the original significance of the terms. " To understand the origin and meaning of the names of the Greek gods, and to enter into the original intention of the fables told of each, we must take into account the collateral evidence supplied by Latin, German, Sanskrit and Zend philology " (Lect.

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  • A name may be intelligible in Sanskrit which has no sense in Greek.

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  • Thus Athene is a divine name without meaning in Greek, but Max Muller advances reasons for supposing that it is identical with ahana, " the dawn," in Sanskrit.

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  • It is admitted that Greeks, Romans, Aryans of India in the age of the Sanskrit commentators, Egyptians of the Ptolemaic and earlier ages, were as much puzzled as we are by the mythical adventures of their gods.

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  • 72, 1, 8; Muir, Sanskrit Texts, iv.

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  • 93 seq.; Muir, Sanskrit Texts, v.

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  • 2 On the whole subject, Dr Muir's Ancient Sanskrit Texts, with translations, Ludwig's translation of the Rig Veda, the version of the Satapatha-Brahmana already referred to, and the translation of the Aitareva-Brahmana by Haug, are the sources most open to English readers.

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  • The Sanskrit word is krimi, which has given kermes, the cochineal insect, whence "crimson."

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  • The date of their immigration has been the subject of a good deal of dispute, but it may be argued that their arrival must have taken place in early times, since Malagasy speech, which is the language of the island, is principally MalayoPolynesian in origin, and contains no traces of Sanskrit.

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  • A tragedy, Anne Boleyn, followed in 1826; and Milman also wrote "When our heads are bowed with woe," and other hymns; an admirable version of the Sanskrit episode of Nala and Damayanti; and translations of the Agamemnon of Aeschylus and the Bacchae of Euripides.

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  • Fritzsche showed that by treating indigo with caustic potash it yielded an oil, which he named aniline, from the specific name of one of the indigo-yielding plants, Indigofera anil, anil being derived from the Sanskrit nila, dark-blue, and nila, the indigo plant.

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  • The poem is a rehandling of the great theme of Valmiki, but is in no sense a translation of the Sanskrit epic. The succession of events is of course generally the same, but the treatment is entirely different.

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  • Macdonell, Vedic Mythology (Strassburg, 1897); Sir William Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, iv.

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  • Sanskrit Kunda.

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  • It has adopted a certain number of vocables from Sanskrit, Malay, Javanese and Portuguese, but on the whole is remarkably pure, and has undergone comparatively few recent changes.

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  • Neither bears any trace of derivation from the Sanskrit alphabet.

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  • To recapitulate the doctrine more succinctly, men originally said, in Sanskrit (or some Aryan speech more ancient still), "fire is got by rubbing or boring;" nothing could have been more scientific and straightforward.

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  • It was developed from the 1930s onward by yoga guru and Sanskrit scholar, Sri T. Krishnamacharya.

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  • Sanskrit epic similes differ greatly from the similes of Homer in this aspect.

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  • He also studied ancient sutras (Buddhist teachings written in Sanskrit).

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  • Many scriptures are now directly downloadable in both original Sanskrit and transliterated form with many different translations and commentaries.

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  • It gives the Sanskrit text transliterated into the Roman alphabet, a translation and a detailed commentary.

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  • All 18 chapters are included in the original Sanskrit text, with English transliteration.

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  • The basis of ashtanga yoga is the Yoga sutras (Sanskrit Verses) of Patanjali.

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  • Jessica Alba has three tattoos - the Sanskrit word for "lotus" on her wrist, a bow on her lower back, and a daisy and ladybird on the back her neck.

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  • He designed their wedding rings - The rings bear the Sanskrit inscription translated to "We dedicate our union to a greater source."

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  • The word opal is a combination of the Sanskrit word "upala" and the Latin word "opallios," which means "precious stone change color."

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  • The term "yoga" comes from a Sanskrit word meaning "union."

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  • The name chaturanga means "having four limbs" in Sanskrit, and it refers to the four-level division of the ancient Indian army.

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  • In fact, the word "topaz" is derived from the Sanskrit word for fire.

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  • The name comes from Sanskrit - "su" (good) and "asti" (to be), which was mean to translate to "well-being."

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  • Website employees translate names into Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Hindi, Gujarati and Sanskrit.

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  • In Sanskrit, the term yoga means "to unite or yoke."

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  • This essential reference book/CD set contains over 200 asanas and 300 Sanskrit definitions and pronunciations.

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  • The author has studied at the American Sanskrit Institute and received his master's in Eastern philosophy from St. John's College.

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  • The root of balasana is bala, which is Sanskrit for "child."

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  • After studying the ancient technique for two years, Maharishi, whose name in Sanskrit means "great seer," set out to teach the masses TM.

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  • The Vedas, which are ancient Sanskrit literary texts, featured drawings of people in meditation poses.

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  • For example, most yoga for kids teachers recommending changing the Sanskrit words and terms into more neutral terms, and focusing on physical and mental development.

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  • The Sanskrit root of Jivamukti is Jivanmukti, which translates to "God realization".

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  • Each class focuses on a particular theme, and may also include Sanskrit readings, chanting, spiritual references, and pranayama exercises.

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  • The root of Vinyasa in Sanskrit is vi, which means, "in a special way", and nyasa, which means, "to place".

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  • In Sanskrit, prana is usually defined as breath, vitality of the spirit, or pure energy.

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  • This replaces the Sanskrit chants and "ohms" with chants that glorify Jesus.

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  • In Sanskrit, the word hatha is a combination of ha, which means sun, and tha, which means moon.

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  • If you want to instruct a child or group on the classical aspects of yoga, you'll have to decide on whether or not to call postures by the common names, use Sanskrit terminology, or both.

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  • They emphasize that the Sanskrit greeting Namaste (na-ma-stay) means, "I honor the divine in you" and shows the highest form of humble respect and admiration for another human being.

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  • The Sanskrit name for Yoga Crow position, Bakasana, is sometimes translated as Crow, and sometimes as Crane.

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  • Child pose, known in Sanskrit as Balasana, is a basic relaxation asana used to stretch and rest the lower body between vigorous poses such as the dog or cat asana.

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  • In Sanskrit, Nama means "bow", as means "I", and te means "you."

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  • This studio provides teacher training in basic poses as well as Sanskrit, Bhakti and restorative yoga.

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  • The acronym "ISHTA" comes from a Sanskrit word meaning "customized" or "personalized."

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  • Masters of Sanskrit, the ancient language used in yoga, offer instruction at the festival.

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  • His name is said to come from the Sanskrit word yoddha which means warrior or the Hebrew word yodea which means one who knows.

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  • Halasana is from the Sanskrit word hala, meaning "plow."

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