Sandstone sentence example

sandstone
  • Much of the building material is a brown sandstone obtained from quarries only 3 m.
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  • Goethite, limonite and haematite are found in New South Wales, at the junction of the Hawkesbury sandstone formation and the Wianamatta shale, near Nattai, and are enhanced in their value by their proximity to coal-beds.
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  • In the neighbourhood are large deposits of sandstone and lignite.
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  • Good sandstone is quarried in the vicinity.
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  • An excellent glass sand is procured from crushed sandstone near Berkeley Springs, Morgan county.
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  • These older beds are overlaid, especially in the western part of the country, by a sandstone series which contains thin seams of coal and many remains of plants.
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  • Having crossed a table-land of sandstone which divides these streams from those running to the western shores of Arnheim Land, Mr Stuart, in the month of July, passed down what is called the Adelaide river of north Australia.
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  • In the sandstone Myophoria and other Triassic fossils have been found, and it appears to belong to the Rhaetic or Upper Trias.
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  • The church of St Mary and St Nicholas is a cruciform building in red sandstone, of the Decorated and Perpendicular periods, with a central octagonal tower.
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  • The Alleghany Plateau consists of nearly horizontal beds of limestone, sandstone and shales, including important seams of coal; inclines slightly toward the north-west, and is intricately dissected by extensively branching streams into a maze of narrow canyons and steep-sided hills.
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  • A fault divides the latter from the mass of red-brown Old Red Sandstone that spreads south nearly to Enniskillen.
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  • The city lies in a fertile valley shut in by vine-clad hills, and the picturesque red sandstone buildings of the old town are interspersed with orchards and gardens.
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  • The Cretaceous sea gradually receded and the plains of the Rolling Downs formation formed on its floor were covered by the sub-aerial and lacustrine deposits of the Desert Sandstone.
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  • The sedimentary deposits include slate, limestone and sandstone.
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  • Flanking the hills between Ashbourne and Quarndon are red beds of Bunter marl, sandstone and conglomerate; they also appear at Morley, east of the Derwent, and again round the small southern coalfield.
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  • Good sandstone is obtained from the Millstone Grit at Stancliffe, Tansley and Whatstandwell.
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  • Fontainebleau has quarries of sand and sandstone, saw-mills, and manufactories of porcelain and gloves.
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  • Nearly a quarter of this area is of a rocky nature, and the quarries of sandstone supplied a large part of the paving of Paris.
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  • The oldest larva known, Mormolucoides articulatus, is from the New Red Sandstone of Connecticut; it belongs to the Sialidae, one of the lowest forms of Holometabola.
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  • Some of the best sandstone in the United States is obtained from Cuyahoga and Lorain counties; it is exceptionally pure in texture (about 97% being pure silica), durable and evenly coloured light buff, grey or blue grey.
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  • From the Ohio sandstone known as Berea grit a very large portion of the country's grindstones and pulpstones has been obtained; in 1908 the value of Ohio's output of these stones was $482,128.
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  • Such a rock is typically exemplified by a coarse-grained sandstone or conglomerate, while a limestone may be naturally porous, or, like the Trenton limestone of Ohio and Indiana, rendered so by its conversion into dolomite and the consequent production of cavities due to shrinkage - a change occurring only in the purer limestones.
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  • In Palestine a limestone containing Carboniferous fossils is found in the midst of the sandstone series, and here the sandstone is immediately succeeded by limestones with Hippurites and other fossils belonging to the Upper Cretaceous.
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  • The most prominent building in the city is the cathedral or Munster, built of deep red sandstone, on a terrace high above the Rhine.
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  • The .great mass of the Gilead range is formed of Jura limestone, the base slopes being sandstone partly covered by white marls.
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  • Albion is the centre of the Medina sandstone industry, and lies in the midst of a good farming region, of which it is the principal shipping point, especially for apples, cabbages and beans.
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  • In this region the sandstone rocks are generally overlaid with heavy black soil formed from the decaying trap, which is principally devoted to the cultivation of the spring crops, wheat and grain, while rice and hill millets are sown in the lighter and more sandy soils.
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  • It is romantically situated in the part of the Haardt called the Pfalzer Schweiz (Palatinate Switzerland), and is surrounded by high hills which yield a famous red sandstone.
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  • Old Red Sandstone, red grits, sandstones and marls and conglomerate occur in a narrow belt on the east side of Mainland from Sumburgh Head to Rova Head, north of Lerwick; they also form the island of Bressay.
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  • The great sandstone temple is practically complete (see Architecture: Egypt).
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  • A well-preserved gateway of red sandstone and portions of two towers of the castle are included in the buildings of the present gaol, and the old parish church of St Peter contains some interesting monuments, amongst them being the altar tomb (of the 6th century) of Sir Rhys ap Thomas, K.G., and his wife, which was removed hither for safety at the Reformation from the desecrated church of the neighbouring Priory of St John.
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  • The table-topped hills of Almeyrin (or Almeirim) and Erere, which lie near the lower Amazon and rise to heights of 800 and 900 ft., are generally considered the southernmost margin of this plateau, though Agassiz and others describe them as remains of a great sandstone sheet which once covered the entire Amazon valley.
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  • A thick sandstone sheet once covered the greater part if not all of it, remains of which are found on the elevated chapadas of the interior and on isolated elevations extending across the republic toward its western frontier.
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  • These chapadas and elevations, which are usually described as mountain ranges, are capped by horizontal strata of sandstone and show the original surface, which has been worn away by the rivers, leaving here and there broad flat-topped ridges between river basins and narrower ranges of hills between river courses.
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  • A considerable part of it has been excavated by these rivers to a level which gives their valleys the elevation and character of lowlands, though isolated hills and ranges with the characteristic overlying horizontal sandstone strata of the ancient plateau show that it was once a highland region.
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  • There is a lower series consisting of sandstone and an upper series of limestone.
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  • It stands on undulating and easily drained ground, upon a bed of sandstone rock, on a peninsula jutting into one of the deepest, safest and most beautiful harbours in the world; and in addition it lies in the centre of a great carboniferous area.
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  • The post office is a handsome sandstone building in Renaissance style; it is colonnaded on two sides with polished granite columns and surmounted by a clock tower, containing a peal of bells.
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  • Like most of the buildings at Sydney, the university is built of the excellent sandstone from the quarries of Pyrmont; it is 15th-century Gothic in style and stands at the top of a gentle slope, surrounded by gardens.
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  • The Black Reef Series is composed of quartzites, sandstone, slates and conglomerate.
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  • The colour is usually red, forcibly recalling the Old Red Sandstone and Trias of England.
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  • Remnants have been found of their former existence in the neighbourhood of Pretoria; and portions of the Bushveld Sandstone have recently been relegated to the Karroo formation.
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  • Besides the alluvial deposits a little mining is carried on, gold being present in the thin veins of quartz which cross the sandstone.
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  • Shortly after crossing the Bohemian-Saxon frontier, and whilst still struggling through the sandstone defiles, the stream assumes a north-westerly direction, which on the whole it preserves right away to the North Sea.
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  • The upper Rhenish valley is evidently the bed of an ancient lake, the shores of which were formed by the gneiss and granite of the Black Forest on the one side and the granite and sandstone of the Vosges on the other.
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  • In this district, too, as has already been remarked, is the finest scenery of the Rhine, a fact due in great part to the grotesque shapes of the quartzose rocks, left denuded of the less durable slate and sandstone.
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  • Only the chancel of the old church remains, but its red sandstone arch is a remarkably fine example of Norman work; it dates from the middle of the 12th century.
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  • Wheels of fine sandstone fed with water are used for making slighter cuts and for smoothing the rough surface left by the iron wheels.
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  • The Arakhtu, or " river of Babylon," flowed past the southern side of the city, and to the south-west of it on the Arabian bank lay the great inland freshwater sea of Nejef, surrounded by red sandstone cliffs of considerable height, 40 m.
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  • The prime object of interest is the cathedral of St Magnus, a stately cruciform red sandstone structure in the severest Norman, with touches of Gothic. It was founded by Jarl Rognvald (Earl Ronald) in 1137 in memory of his uncle Jarl Magnus who was assassinated in the island of Egilshay in 1115, and afterwards canonized and adopted as the patron saint of the Orkneys.
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  • The sandstone has not resisted the effects of weather, and much of the external decorative work has perished.
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  • The soils overlying red sandstone rocks would be reddish and of a sandy nature, while those overlying chalk would be whitish and contain considerable amounts of lime.
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  • Sandstone, and clays suitable for brick-making, are found in the district of Scotland, so called from a fancied resemblance to the Highlands of North Britain.
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  • Powis Castle, being of red sandstone, is usually called in Welsh Castell Coch (red castle).
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  • The oldest rocks consist of granite and schist, penetrated by intrusive dykes, and upon this foundation rest the flat-lying sedimentary deposits, beginning with a sandstone like the Nubian sandstone of Egypt.
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  • Towards the north the crystalline floor is overlaid by the great sandstone series which covers nearly the whole of the country north of Hail.
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  • Upon the sandstone rest a few scattered outliers of limestone, probably of Cretaceous age, the largest of which occur near Jauf and east of Bureda.
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  • Over both sandstone and granite great sheets of lava have been poured, and these, protecting the softer beds beneath from further denudation, now stand up as the high plateaus and hills called harra.
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  • At Marbat the granite is overlaid by sandstone, presumably the Nubian sandstone: this is followed by marls containing Cenomanian fossils; and these are overlaid by Upper Cretaceous limestones, upon which rest isolated patches of Alveolina limestone.
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  • Hence, between hills crowned by frequent feudal castles, it runs by Wimpfen and by Hornberg, where Gdtz von Berlichingen lived, to Eberbach, where it enters the sandstone formation of the Odenwald.
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  • In 1846 he began experiments on the temperature of the earth at different depths and in different soils near Edinburgh, which yielded determinations of the thermal conductivity of trap-tufa, sandstone and pure loose sand.
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  • The carbonaceous sandstone contains Gault fossils.
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  • Like the similar sandstone in Bolivia, it includes seams of coal and is frequently impregnated with cinnabar.
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  • It is in this sandstone that the rich mercury mines of Huancavelica are worked.
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  • On the hills to the north of the town, across the Unstrut, lies Schenkelburg, once the residence of the poet Gellert, and noticeable for the grotesque carvings in the sandstone rocks.
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  • The old electoral palace (1627-1678), a large building of red sandstone, now contains a valuable collection of Roman and Germanic antiquities, a picture gallery, a natural history museum, the Gutenberg Museum, and a library of 220,000 volumes.
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  • Built of red sandstone, with a massive tower terminating in a richly ornamented cupola and 300 ft.
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  • The Paulskirche, the principal Evangelical (Lutheran) church, built between 1786 and 1833, is a red sandstone edifice of no architectural pretensions, but interesting as the seat of the national parliament of 1848-1849.
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  • Of the five synagogues, the chief (or Hauptsynagoge), lying in the Bornestrasse, is an attractive building of red sandstone in the Moorish-Byzantine style.
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  • The most interesting of these is the Alte Mainbriicke, a red sandstone structure of fourteen arches, 815 ft.
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  • On the other hand, limestone and sandstone, especially of the Mesozoic strata, are strikingly deficient.
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  • They are a monotonous sandstone range, covered with extensive forests, which up to the sources of the rivers Ung and San are also called the eastern Beskids, and are formed of small parallel ranges.
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  • It is formed almost entirely of a succession of sandstones and shales of Cretaceous and Tertiary age - the so-called Carpathian Sandstone - and these are thrown into a series of isoclinal folds dipping constantly to the south.
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  • The Klippen are isolated hills, chiefly of Jurassic limestone, rising up in the midst of the later and softer deposits on the inner border of the sandstone zone.
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  • On a small hill to the north of the town stands the fort, a conspicuous pile of red sandstone, said to have been built by Mahommed ben Tughlak of Delhi in the 1 4 th century.
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  • The hills west of the town consist of horizontal strata of sandstone covered with irregular pieces of basalt and the top of the hill on which the observatory stood was made level by taking away the basalt.
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  • The Maltese Islands consist largely of Tertiary Limestone, with somewhat variable beds of Crystalline Sandstone, Greensand and Marl or Blue Clay.
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  • Moore that the sandstone ridges which here bound the trough have been recently elevated, and have been cut through by the Lukuga during the process.
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  • To the south the rivulet of the Mance soon forms a formidable obstacle as its bed cuts its way through the sandstone.
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  • This northern line of barren, broken sandstone hills is geographically no part of the Paropamisus range, from which it is separated by a stretch of sandy upland about 20 m.
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  • The direct passes across it from Herat (the Baba and the Ardewan) wind amongst masses of disintegrating sandstone for some miles on each side of the dividing watershed, but farther west the rounded knolls of the rain-washed downs may be crossed almost at any point without difficulty.
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  • About a mile and a half distant are the Spiegelsberge, from which a fine view of the surrounding country is obtained, and the Klusberge, with prehistoric cave-dwellings cut out in the sandstone rocks.
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  • Its roof is a single flat stratum of limestone; its walls are well marked by lines of stratification; dripstone also partly covers the walls, fills a deep fissure at the end of the cave, and spreads over the floor, where it mingles with an ancient bed of ashes, forming an ash-breccia (mostly firm and solid) that encloses fragments of sandstone, flint spalls, flint implements, charcoal and bones.
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  • The uppermost portion of the Coal Measures consists of red sandstone so closely resembling that of the Permian group, which are next in geological sequence, that it is often difficult to decide upon the true line of demarcation between the two formations.
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  • These are not, however, always found together, the Coal Measures being often covered by strata belonging to the Trias or Upper New Red Sandstone series.
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  • A level is driven in a sandstone forming the floor, along the course of the coal, into which communications are made by cross cuts at intervals of 16 yds., which are driven across to the roof, dividing up the area to be worked into panels.
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  • The building, which is of sandstone, measures about 300 ft.
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  • Limestones and sandstone are also profitably quarried, the value of the product in 1908 being $530,945 for limestone and $2337 for sandstone.
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  • The northern part of the district forms an irregular plain of the sandstone formation.
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  • In Ankole and Koki rocks consisting of granular quartzite, schistose sandstone, red and brown sandstone, and shales with cleaved killas rest on the Archean platform and possibly represent the Lower Witwatersrand beds of the Transvaal.
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  • In the Eastern province the rocks are mainly quartz, gneiss and granite, with sandstone in Busoga, basalt round Mt Elgon, slate (Busoga) and iron- g stone (Busoga and Bukedi).
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  • Gneiss, granite and quartz - the decomposed granite giving the red " African " clay - are the leading features in the formations of the Northern province, of Buganda, and of the Western province, with some sandstone in the littoral districts of Buganda and in Ankole, and eruptive rocks.
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  • Geologically the region is made up of Carboniferous limestones, clay slates and sandstones, containing anthracite and coal; of Cretaceous marls, chalk, sandstone and greensands - chalk cliffs, in fact, accompany the Don for 200 m.; and of Miocene limestones and clays.
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  • But in the derivant valley peneplains developed in the present cycle of denudation, and there are residual summits also; in the Connecticut Valley trap ridges, of which Mt Tom and Mt Holyoke are the best examples; at Mt Holyoke, lava necks; occasionally in the lowlands, ridges of resistant sandstone, like Deerfield Mountain near Northampton; in the Berkshire Valley, summits of resistant schists, like Greylock, the highest summit in the state.
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  • In 1907 Massachusetts ranked sixth among the states in the value of its trap rock product ($432,604), and eighth in sandstone ($243,328).
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  • The rocks in the Arakan range and its spurs are metamorphic, and comprise clay, slates, ironstone and indurated sandstone; towards the S., ironstone, trap and rocks of basaltic character are common; veins of steatite and white fibrous quartz are also found.
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  • Three distinct varieties of sandstone are quarried extensively.
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  • A more durable and more beautiful stone for building is the reddish or reddish-brown Potsdam sandstone of which there are extensive formations on the N.W.
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  • Sandstone is found especially in the N.W.
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  • These hills are either of sandstone or ironstone and in altitude vary from about 4800 ft.
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  • Granite, sandstone and limestone are abundant in the state, but have been little developed.
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  • Limestone quarried in the same year was worth $124,690; and sandstone was valued at $39,216.
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  • Some light grey sandstone found in Rocky Canon, Gallatin county, looks much like the Berea (Ohio) sandstone; and a sandstone quarried at Columbus, Yellowstone county, was manufactured into grindstones equal to those made from the Berea stone.
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  • The action of water and ice upon the soft sandstone of which the hills here are chiefly composed has produced deep gorges and isolated fantastic peaks, which, however, though both beautiful and interesting, by no means recall the characteristics of Swiss scenery.
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  • Excellent sandstone for building is found on the hills of the Elbe.
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  • The ruins, in which Taylor conducted brief excavations, consist of a platform of fine sand enclosed by a sandstone wall, 20 ft.
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  • The plains, except in the south-east corner, are underlaid by sheets of water-bearing sandstone, which carry a volume of water under such pressure that in the valleys of the James river and the Missouri river and its western tributaries a strong surface flow may be obtained from artesian wells.
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  • The marshes extend along the Swale to Whitstable, whence stretches a low line of clay and sandstone cliffs towards the Isle of Thanet, when they become lofty and grand, extending round the Foreland southward to Pegwell Bay, The coast from Sheppey round to the South Foreland is skirted by numerous flats and sands, the most extensive of which are the Goodwin Sands off Deal.
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  • Farther south, at VienTiane, the Mekong passes through a gorge cut in sandstone, arkose and schists with a similar strike; while at Lakhon there are steeply inclined limestones which strike north-west.
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  • Many of the older buildings are of a brown sandstone, quarried in or near the city.
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  • Hard rock (mostly granite and crystalline schists, with red sandstone in places) appears only in the transverse glens, which are often choked with their debris in the form either of gravel-and-shingle or loose blocks of stone or both.
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  • Besides building materials, such as sandstone, slate, &c., the only mineral to be found within the canton is bituminous shale, the products of which can be used for petroleum and asphalt.
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  • The country generally is of sandstone or granite formation, with occasional trachyte and basaltic ranges.
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  • A short distance south of Maastricht are the great sandstone quarries of Pietersberg, which were worked from the time of the Romans to near the end of the 19th century; the result is one of the most extraordinary subterranean labyrinths in the world, estimated to cover an area 15 m.
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  • West of Parr's Ridge in the Piedmont, the principal soils are those the character of which is determined either by decomposed red sandstone or by decomposed limestone.
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  • In the east portion of the mountainous region the soil so well adapted to peach culture contains much clay, together with particles of Cambrian sandstone.
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  • The Allegheny ridges have only a thin stony soil; but good limestone, sandstone, shale and alluvial soils, occur in the valleys and in some of the plateaus of the extreme west.
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  • The Maryland building stone, of which there is an abundance of good quality, consists chiefly of granites, limestones, slate, marble and sandstones, the greater part of which is quarried in the east section of the Piedmont Plateau especially in Cecil county, though some limestones, including those from which hydraulic cement is manufactured, and some sandstones are obtained from the western part of the Piedmont Plateau and the east section of the Appalachian region; the value of stone quarried in the state in 1907 was $1,439,355, of which $1,183,753 was the value of granite, $142,825 that of limestone, $98,918 that of marble, and $13,859 that of sandstone.
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  • There are ancient rocks, however, in New Caledonia, which .has a geological affinity with New Zealand; old sedimentary rocks are known in New Pomerania, besides granite and porphyry, and slates, sandstone and chalk occur in Fiji, as well as young volcanic rocks.
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  • As small concretionary nodules, it occurs disseminated through sandstone at Kommern in the Eifel.
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  • A sandstone found in the neighbourhood of Palapye is considered to be the equivalent of the Waterberg formation of the Transvaal.
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  • A deposit of sinter and a calcareous sandstone, known as the Kalahari Kalk, considered by Dr Passarge to be of Miocene age, overlies a sandstone and curious breccia (Botletle Schnichten).
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  • Again, in Kentucky and Tennessee, there is a double alternation of sandstone and limestone in the plateau-making strata; and as the skyline of the plateau bevels across these formations, there are west-facing escarpments, made ragged by mature dissection, as one passes from the topographically strong sandstone to the topographically weak limestone.
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  • Another consequence of revived erosion is seen in the occurrence of great landslides, where the removal of weak (Permian) clays has sapped the face of the Vermilion Cliffs (Triassic sandstone), so that huge slices of the cliff face have slid down and forward a mile or two, all shattered into a confused tumult of forms for a score or more of miles along the cliff base.
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  • The lower part of the Keweenawan system consists of a great succession of lava flows, of prodigious thickness.- This portion of the system is overlain by thick beds of sedimentary rock, mostly conglomerate and sandstone, derived from the igneous rocks beneath.
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  • In the interior, the upper part of the system, the Potsdam sandstone, is generally arenaceous.
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  • The Catskill sandstone, found chiefly in.
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  • It has some similarity to the Old Red Sandstone of Great Britain.
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  • The Mauch Chunk series (shale and sandstone) is now believed to be largely of terrestrial origin.
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  • In this part of the country the Permian beds are largely red sandstone, often saliferous and gypsiferous.
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  • These sediments are now mostly in the form of red sandstone and shale, with conglomerate, black shale and coal in some places.
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  • The Dakota formation is largely sandstone, which gives rise to hogbacks where it has been tilted, indurated and exposed to erosion along the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains.
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  • Upshur sandstone 300 500
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  • Pickens sandstone 400 500,,
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  • Pocono sandstone 70 90,,
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  • Monterey sandstone 50 200 ft.
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  • Cacapon sandstone 100 630,,
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  • St Peters sandstone 100,, Oneota formation (includes Shakopee, New Richmond and Oneota proper).
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  • Calvin sandstone 145 240
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  • Thurman sandstone 80 260,,
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  • Hartshorne sandstone 150 200,,
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  • Parkman sandstone 350,,
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  • Tensleep sandstone 30 150 ft.
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  • Vaquero sandstone 0 500
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  • A large part of the fortification is excavated in the red sandstone rock, and rendered bomb-proof; a supply of water is secured to the garrison by a deep well in the interior.
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  • The industries include distilling and brewing, nursery gardening, tanning, saw and flour mills, iron-foundries and manufactures of woollens, tweeds and plaiding, and the quarrying of sandstone.
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  • The configuration of the hills is mainly conical and the geological formation consists of gneiss, granite (in the south) and red sandstone.
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  • All the islands of this group are built up entirely of Old Red Sandstone.
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  • The upper division of the Old Red Sandstone is found only in Hoy, where it forms the Old Man and neighbouring cliffs on the N.W.
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  • The Lower Old Red Sandstone is represented by well-bedded flagstones over most of the islands; in the south of Pomona these are faulted against an overlying series of massive red sandstones, but a gradual passage from the flagstones to the sandstones may be followed from Westray S.E.
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  • Sandstone is quarried on several islands, and distilleries are found in Pomona (near Kirkwall and Stromness).
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  • It affords good pasturage and has sandstone quarries.
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  • North of the mineral region is the "Cereal Belt," embracing the Tennessee Valley and the counties beyond, whose richest soils are the red clays and dark loams of the river valley; north of which are less fertile soils, produced by siliceous and sandstone formations.
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  • The surface soil is clay in which are embedded fragments of siliceous sandstone, used for millstones and constructional purposes; the subsoil is limestone.
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  • These hills consist of a broken range of sandstone and conglomerate dividing the Bannu plain from the cultivated flats of Dera Ismail Khan.
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  • Massillon is built among hills in a part of the state noted for its large production of coal and wheat and abounding in white sandstone, iron ore and potter's clay.
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  • Silurian rocks, with Old Red Sandstone over them, come out at the west end of the Curlew range at Ballaghaderreen.
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  • Clew Bay, with its islets capped by glacial drift, is a submerged part of a synclinal of Carboniferous strata, and Old Red Sandstone comes out on the north side of this, from near Achill to Lough Conn.
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  • With the exception of the coral and a small amount of calcareous sandstone, the rocks are entirely volcanic and range from basalt to trachyte, but are mainly basalt.
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  • The islands have large (unworked) supplies of pumice, sandstone, sulphur, gypsum, alum and mineral-paint ochres, and some salt, kaolin and sal-ammoniac, but otherwise they are without mineral wealth other than lava rocks for building purposes.
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  • They were closed when the property was bought in 1896 by the Louisville & Nashville railway and a new approach made as indicated on the accompanying map. From the surface to the floor is 240 ft.; under Chester Sandstone and in the St Louis Limestone.
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  • In Bucks and Montgomery counties is a large sandstone area; traversing Chester county is the narrow Chester Valley with a limestone bottom, and in Lancaster county is the most extensive limestone plain.
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  • There is some of the same formation as well as that derived from red shales on the sandstone hills in the south-east province and in many of the middle and western valleys, but often a belt of inferior slate soil adjoins a limestone belt, and many of the ridges are covered with a still more sterile soil derived from white and grey sandstones.
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  • In Dauphin county is a quarry of bluish-brown Triassic sandstone that has been used extensively especially in Philadelphia, for the erection of the so-called brown stone fronts.
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  • In 1908 the value of Pennsylvania sandstone and bluestone was $1,368,784.
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  • In the valley between Ward Hill and the ridge of the Hamars to the south-east is situated the famous Dwarfie Stone, an enormous block of sandstone measuring 28 ft.
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  • Others, like Ford's silicate of limestone, are practically lime mortars of excellent quality, which can be carved and cut like a sandstone of fine quality.
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  • A yellow colour with caustic potash solution is produced not only by atranoric acid but also by evernic acid, thamnolic acid, &c. Again in the case of Xanthoria parietina vulpinic acid is only to be found in young thalli growing on sandstone; in older forms or in those growing on another substratum it is not to be detected.
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  • The principal church, among many, is the cathedral of St Michael, a large, ungainly building of grey sandstone.
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  • It consists of a marble statue of Austria erected on a pedestal of green Carpathian sandstone.
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  • The best of all subsoils is a dry bed of clay overlying sandstone.
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  • Edgings may also be formed of narrow slips of sandstone flag, slate, tiles or bricks.
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  • The spores should be sown in well-drained pots or seed pans on the surface of a mixture of fibrous sifted peat and small broken crocks or sandstone; this soil should be firmly pressed and well-watered, and the spores scattered over it, and at once covered with propagating glasses or pieces of sheet glass, to prevent water or dry air getting to the surface.
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  • In Pennsylvania the sandstone and shale, at its maximum, reaches 4400 ft., but even within the limits of the state this formation has thinned out to no more than 300 ft.
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  • Thus western Europe in early Carboniferous time was occupied by a series of constricted, gulf-like seas; and on account of the steady progress of intermittent warping movements of the crust, we find that the areas of clearer water, in which the limestone-building organisms could exist, were repeatedly able to spread, thus forming those thin limestones found interbedded with shale and sandstone which occur typically in the Yoredale district of Yorkshire and in the region to the north, and also in the culm deposits of central Europe.
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  • The plateau type was most extensively developed during the formation of the Calciferous Sandstone; the puy type was of somewhat later date.
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  • Oil and gas are of importance in the Lower Carboniferous Pocono sandstone of West Virginia and in the Berea grit of Ohio, where brine also occurs.
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  • The Ombilin, issuing out of the lake on the east side and flowing through a plateau of Eocene sandstone, has on its banks the coalfields of Sungei Durian, &c., but is not serviceable as a waterway for that part of Sumatra.
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  • Unlike the northern, the southern affluents of the Ombilin do not follow longitudinal valleys hemmed in by the Barisan range and ranges of slate, limestone and sandstone.
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  • Since the opening of the new port the traffic has considerably increased, and it exports oil, pig-lead, silver, flour, wine, marble and sandstone for paving purposes, while it imports quantities of coal, iron, cereals, phosphates, timber, pitch, petroleum, and mineral oils.
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  • It contains bathing-stairs, tanks and wells, and a great number of handsome temples, of which the finest is that of Govind Deva, a cruciform vaulted building of red sandstone, dating from 1590.
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  • It is an Early English and Decorated cruciform building of red sandstone, with a tower surmounted by a beautiful open-work crown.
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  • They are particularly fond of salt, and in the Alps sandstone rocks containing a saline impregnation are often met with hollowed by the constant licking of these creatures.
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  • Among the prominent buildings are the Capitol, which is constructed of native sandstone and stands in a park of considerable beauty, the county court-house, St Peter's hospital, the governor's mansion and the city hall.
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  • The hills and plateaus appear to be composed chiefly of the same sandstone series which in the Brazilian province of Rio Grande do Sul contains seams of coal, with plant remains similar to those of the Karharbari series of India (Permian or Upper Carboniferous).
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  • St Kilda is probably the core of a Tertiary volcano, but, besides volcanic rocks, contains hills of sandstone in which the stratification is distinct.
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  • The mountains consist here of an ancient laminated micaceous quartzite, which is in parts a flexible sandstone known as itacolumite, and in parts a conglomerate; it is interbedded with clay-slate, mica-schist, hornblende-schist and haematite-schist, and intersected by veins of quartz.
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  • The carbonado and the diamond have been traced to an extensive hard conglomerate which occurs in the middle of the sandstone formation.
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  • And it is indeed the fact that large portions of the vast region comprised between the lower Volga, the AralIrtysh water-divide, the Dzungarian Ala-tau, and the outliers of the Tian-shan and Hindu-kush systems are actually covered with Aralo-Caspian deposits, nearly always a yellowish-grey clay, though occasionally they assume the character of a more or less compact sandstone of the same colour.
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  • Water from moors and peatbogs or from gravel or ferruginous sandstone is generally of small utility so far as plant food is concerned.
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  • On the northern side the Vosges are connected with the Hardt sandstone plateau (Kalmit, 2241 ft.), which rises abruptly from the plain of the Rhine.
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  • In the east a tableland of sandstone, called Saxon Switzerland, from the picturesque outlines into which it has been eroded, adjoins the Erzgebirge; one of its most notable features is the deep ravine by which the Elbe escapes from it.
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  • This forms part of the plain of the St Lawrence, underlain by Palaeozoic limestones and shales, with some sandstone, all furnishing useful building material and working up into a good soil.
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  • The surface is generally undulating, with isolated " table mountains " of granite and sandstone often rising abruptly from the plain.
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  • Their fertility is due to a plentiful supply of water furnished by a sandstone bed 300 to 500 ft.
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  • Between Thebes and Khartum the western banks of the Nile are composed of Nubian Sandstone, which extends westward from the river to the edge of the great Libyan Desert, where it forms the bed rock.
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  • The age of this sandstone has given rise to much dispute.
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  • In the Kharga Oasis the upper portion consists of variously colored unfossiliferous clays with intercalated bands of sandstone containing fossil silicified woods (Nicolia Aegyptiaca and A raucarioxylon Aegypticum).
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  • The superficial sands of the desert region, derived in large part from the disintegration of the Nubian Sandstone, occupy the most extensive areas in the Libyan Desert.
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  • The cliffs bordering the Nile are largely quarried for limestone and sandstone.
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  • Yet even the buried portions of limestone buildings have seldom been permitted to survive on the cultivated land; the Nubian sandstone of Upper Egypt was of comparatively little value, and, generally speaking, buildings in that material have fallen into decay rather than been destroyed by quarrying.
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  • From El Kb southward its place was taken by Libyan sandstone, soft and easily worked, but unsuitable for fine sculpture.
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  • A hard and fine-grained quartzite sandstone was quarried at Jebel Ahmar behind Heliopolis, and basalt was found thence along the eastern edge of the Delta to near the Wadi Tumilat.
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  • And the lowest of all was the sandstone school of Silsila, which is always the worst.
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  • Ferrules first appear in the Assyrian iron of the 7th century B.C. The rise of stone work led to great importance of heavy chisels (36) for trimming limestone and Nubian sandstone; such chisels ate usually round rods about 3/4 in.
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  • The flint vase-grinders were used in the early dynasties (110), and also sandstone grinders for hollowing larger vases (III).
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  • Of the prehistoric age there are many rock carvings, associated with others of later periods: they principally remain on the sandstone rocks about Silsila, and their age is shown by the figures of ostriches which were extinct in later times.
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  • At Cardona, near Barcelona, Tertiary salt forms hill-masses, while the Carpathian sandstone in Galicia and Transylvania is rich in salt.
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  • Almost all the buildings are built of the limestone of the district, but the Anglican cathedral is of red sandstone.
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  • To the south-east of this region a narrow outcrop of Upper Llandovery, Wenlock and Ludlow sandstones and mudstones follows, uncomformably overlying the Llandeilo and Bala rocks, and dipping conformably under the Old Red Sandstone; they extend from Newbridge-on-Wye and Builth through Llangammarch (where there are mineral springs) towards Llandovery, while a tongue of Ludlow rocks brought up by faulting extends from Erwood on the Wye for 8 m.
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  • The remainder and greater part of the county is occupied chiefly by the gently inclined Old Red Sandstone; in the dissected plateau of the Black Mountains north of Crickhowell the lower marls and cornstones are laid open, while south of Brecon the conglomeratic upper beds form the escarpment and plateaus of the Beacons.
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  • The lowest of these younger rocks are the various sedimentary and volcanic members of the Old Red Sandstone.
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  • In other words, the Old Red Sandstone and Carboniferous rocks, though chiefly accumulated in the broad lowland valley, crept also over some part of the hills on either side, where a few outliers tell of their former extension.
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  • In the Old Red Sandstone they are particularly prominent where River- that formation has lain in the pathway of the streams. sweeping down from the Highlands.
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  • Towards the south margin of the Highlands notable instances of true canyons in the Old Red Sandstone are to be seen where the Isla and North Esk enter that formation.
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  • The most impressive form of solitary cone is that wherein after vast denudation a thick overlying formation has been reduced to a single outlier, such as Morven in Caithness, the two Bens Griam in Sutherland, and still more strikingly, the pyramids of red sandstone on the western margin of the shires of Sutherland and Ross and Cromarty.
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  • Here it projects in irregular bastions and buttresses, there retires into deep recesses and tunnels, but shows everywhere a ruggedness of aspect eminently characteristic. In striking contrast to these precipices are those of the Cambrian red sandstone a few miles to the east.
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  • Caithness is one wide moor, terminating almost everywhere seaward in a range of precipices of Old Red Sandstone.
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  • These remnants attain their most colossal size and height on the cliffs of Old Red Sandstone.
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  • Thus the Old Man of Hoy in Orkney is a huge column of yellow sandstone between 400 and 500 ft.
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  • Archean gneiss, Cambrian sandstone, Silurian quartzite, limestone and schist, Jurassic sandstone and limestone, Cretaceous sandstone, and Tertiary basalts, gabbros, and granitic rocks all enter into the composition of the islands.
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  • Eastward of the Archean gneiss in the west of Sutherland the effect of enormous underground pressure has been to upraise masses of the ancient gneiss and Torridonian sandstone and thrust them westward over the younger rocks.
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  • Above the Archean gneiss lies a series of red and chocolate-coloured sandstone (Torridon sandstone), which form a number of detached areas from Cape Wrath down the seaboard of the shires of Sutherland and Ross and Cromarty, across Skye, and as far as the island of Rum.
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  • In descending order they embrace the following subdivisions, whose thickness in the district of Durness is estimated at about 2000 ft.: (e) limestones, dolomites and cherts, with numerous organic remains; (d) grit and quartzite, with Saltarella and Olenellus (Serpulite Grit); (c) calcareous shales and dolomites, with many annelid casts and sometimes Olenellus (Fucoid Beds); (b) Upper Quartzite, often crowded with annelid pipes (Pipe Rock Quartzite); (a) Lower Quartzite - their original upper limit can nowhere be seen, for they have been overridden by the Eastern Schists in those gigantic underground disturbances already referred to, by which these rocks, the Archean gneiss and Torridonian sandstone, were crumpled, inverted, dislocated and thrust over each other.
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  • Scotland is the typical European region for the deposits classed as Old Red Sandstone.
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  • The Upper Old Red Sandstone covers a more restricted space in most of the areas just mentioned, its chief development being on the flanks of the north-eastern part of the Southern Uplands, where it spreads out over the Lammermuir Hills and the valleys of Berwickshire and Roxburghshire.
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  • The Lower Old Red Sandstone is rich in remains of plants and fishes, notably in the flagstones of Caithness, Orkney and Forfarshire.
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  • Fossils are less common in the Upper Old Red Sandstone, though they are found - particularly fishes - in large numbers in certain spots, as at Dura Den, near Cupar-Fife.
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  • In the basins of the Forth and Clyde the following subdivisions are well marked: (5) Upper Red Sandstone series (red and grey sandstones, fireclays, shales, marls); (4) Coal Measures (white and grey sandstones, dark shales, fireclays, coal seams, ironstones); (3) Millstone Grit (massive sandstones and grits, with fireclays, thin limestones and coal); (2) Carboniferous Limestone series - (c) sandstones and shales, with three or more seams of limestone; (b) sandstones, shales, coals and ironstones, but with no limestone bands; (a) sandstones, shales, fireclays, coals and iron XXIV.
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  • The thin seams of the Calciferous Sandstone are not workable, but the bituminous shales in the Firth of Forth basin are largely worked for the manufacture of mineral oil.
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  • There was great volcanic activity during the deposition of the Calciferous Sandstone, Carboniferous Limestone and Millstone Grit series.
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  • Throughout these separate basins the prevailing rock is a red sandstone, varied in the narrow valleys with intercalated masses of breccia.
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  • To this division are assigned the yellow sandstones of Elgin, which have yielded crocodilian and other reptilian remains, the discovery of which led to the rocks being separated from the Upper Old Red Sandstone, to which they had previously been thought to belong.
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  • The mineral is chiefly obtained from seams in the Calciferous Sandstone at the base of the Carboniferous rocks.
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  • Sandstone, of which the total production in 1905 was 1,142,135 tons valued at £320,761, is quarried in nearly every county, but the industry flourishes particularly in the shires of Lanark, Dumfries, Ayr and Forfar.
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  • In the intra-andine depression, between the East and West Cordilleras, recent deposits with plant remains occur near Loja, and to the north-east of Cuenca is a sandstone containing mercury ores, somewhat similar to that of Peru.
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  • Sandstone, quarried in 10 counties, was valued in 1905 at $29,115 and in 1906 at $19,125.
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  • The Federal government completed in October 1907 the construction of a 1 According to the report of the State Geological Survey, the value of the total mineral product in the state for 1907 was $152,122,648, the values of the different minerals being as follows: coal, $54,687,382; pig iron, about $52,228,000; petroleum, $ 16, 43 2, 947; clay and clay products, $13,351,362; zinc, $6,614,608; limestone, $4,333,651; Portland cement, $2,632,576; sand and gravel, $1,367,653; natural slag, $174,282; fluorspar, $141,971; mineral waters, $91,700; lead ore, $45,760; sandstone, $14,996; and pyrite, $5700.
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  • Geologically, its northern half is composed of Torridonian sandstone, with basalt at points between the West coast and the centre, of gabbro in the south-east, with a belt of gneissose rocks on its east seaboard and of quartz-porphyry in the south-west.
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  • It is formed of raised beaches and sea-beds, ranging from the Pliocene period downwards, and resting on Upper Eocene sandstone.
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  • These ancient rocks, which form the foundation of the country, are overlaid unconformably by a series of conglomerates and sandstones, generally unfossiliferous and often red or purple in colour, very similar in character to the Nubian sandstone of Upper Egypt.
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  • The sandstone which lies below the limestone is also, no doubt, of Carboniferous age; but the sandstone above is conformably overlaid by Upper Cretaceous beds and is generally referred to the Lower Cretaceous.
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  • No unconformity, however, has yet been detected anywhere in the sandstone series, and in the absence of fossils the upper sandstone may represent any period from the Carboniferous to the Cretaceous.
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  • It is overlaid towards the west by similar limestones, which contain nummulites and belong to the Eocene period; and these are followed near the coast by the calcareous sandstone of Philistia, which is referred by Hull to the Upper Eocene.
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  • Among the chief edifices are the old church of St Martin; the town hall, with a Gothic facade; the law courts and the government offices, constructed, like many of the other buildings, of a peculiar veined brown sandstone found in the district.
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  • There are, however, numerous wells, water being obtained freely from the porous sandstone which underlies a great part of the Libyan desert.
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  • The principal ruin, a temple of Ammon, built under Darius, is of sandstone, 142 ft.
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  • All along the bank of the river Chambal the country is deeply intersected by ravines; low ranges of hills in the western portion of the state supply inexhaustible quarries of fine-grained and easily-worked red sandstone.
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  • The Vindhyans are well-stratified beds of sandstone and shale, with some limestones.
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  • It is believed that the far-famed diamonds of Golconda actually came from the sandstone formation which extends across the south-east borders of the nizam's dominions into the Madras districts of Ganjam and Godavari.
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  • The coast is for the most part flat, with occasional low cliffs and bluffs of red sandstone.
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  • These are of Tertiary and Cretaceous ages, the latter rocks resting on a reddish sandstone of older date.
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  • This magnificent basilica, with four round towers, two large domes, and a choir at each end, has a specially imposing exterior, though the impression produced by the interior, is also one of great dignity and simplicity, heightened by the natural colour of the red sandstone of which it is built.
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  • The southernmost portion of Bundelkhand is much cut up by spurs of sandstone and granite hills, running down from the Vindhyan system; but the northern half near the Jumna has a somewhat richer soil, and comes nearer in character to the plain of Doab.
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  • Sandstone of various colours was the chief material employed by the Khmers; limonite was also used.
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  • The town occupies a ridge of sandstone, washed on three sides by the river, and commanding fine views of the lofty peak of San Cristobal, on the east, and the fertile Guadalete valley, celebrated in ancient Spanish ballads for its horses.
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  • It is situated at the junction of the sandstone and slate, where the water, having worn away the former, has accumulated on the latter.
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  • The chief geological formations of Buru are crystalline slate near the north coast, and more to the south Mesozoic sandstone and chalk, deposits of rare occurrence in the archipelago.
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  • The Lower Old Red Sandstone strata are separated from the foregoing series by a fault and form a curving belt extending from Corloch on the east coast south by Brodick Castle to Dougrie on the west shore.
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  • The Upper Old Red Sandstone, composed of red sandstone and conglomerates, is only sparingly developed.
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  • The Carboniferous rocks of Arran include representatives of the Calciferous Sandstone, the three subdivisions of the Carboniferous Limestone series, and to a small extent the Coal Measures, and are confined to the north part of the island.
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  • Here there is an ascending sequence from the Calciferous Sandstone, through the Carboniferous Limestone with thin coals formerly worked, to the Coal Measures, the strata being inclined at high angles to the north.
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  • On the south side of a well-marked anticline in the Upper Old Red Sandstone at North Sannox, the Carboniferous strata reappear on the coast with a south dip showing a similar ascending sequence for about half a mile.
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  • The lowest group is on the horizon of the Calciferous Sandstone series, being visible at Corrie where it underlies the Corrie limestone, and is traceable southwards beyond Brodick.
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  • At Corrie and the Cock of Arran they rest on Upper Carboniferous strata; in Ben Lister Glen, on the lower limestone group of the Carboniferous Limestone series; and on the west coast they repose on the Old Red Sandstone.
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  • There are sandstone deposits in Carbon county, which supplied the stone for the Capitol at Cheyenne and the state penitentiary; and from the Iron mountain quarries in Laramie county was taken the white variety used in building the Carnegie library and the Federal building in Cheyenne.
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  • Nevertheless, from 1851 to 1855, Sedgwick, in his writings on the British palaeozoic deposits, insisted on the independence of the Cambrian system, and though Murchison had pushed his Silurian system downward in the series of rocks, Sedgwick adhered to the original grouping of his Cambrian system, and even proposed to limit the Silurian to the Ludlow and Wenlock beds with the May Hill Sandstone at the base.
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  • At the base is the so-called "blue clay" (really greenish) with ferruginous sandstones and with a fucoidal sandstone at its summit.
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  • Above the fucoidal sandstone an important break appears in the system, for the Paradoxides and Olenus divisions are absent.
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  • The lower part of the façade is adorned with three fine portals and with reliefs of a fantastic kind in sandstone, arranged in horizontal bands, and has arcading under the gable.
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  • It consists of a central building of Virginia sandstone, painted white, and two wings of white Massachusetts marble.
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  • Minerals produced in small quantities include gypsum, millstones, salt and sandstone, and among those found but not produced (in 1902) in commercial quantities may be mentioned allanite, alum, arsenic, bismuth, carbonite, felspar, kaolin, marble, plumbago, quartz, serpentine and tin.
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  • Near the town is a curious ancient hermitage cave, in the sandstone.
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  • Considerable remains of its town walls, of large irregular, roughly rectangular blocks (the form is that of the natural splitting of the schistose sandstone), still exist, enclosing a circuit of about 11 m.
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  • The foundation of this plateau is a bed of sandstone and shales belonging to the Vindhyan series.
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  • On the plateau itself the sandstone is generally overlaid by the Deccan trap, a blackish-coloured basaltic rock of volcanic origin, the high level tableland having been formed by a succession of lava flows, the valleys of Central India being merely "denudation hollows" carved out by the action of rain and rivers.
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  • The sandstone bed on which it rests is visible at a point just north of Goona, and in a small area round Bhilsa and Bhopal, as it is in those places freed from the layer of trap. The low-lying land includes roughly that part of the agency which lies to the east of the plateau and comprises the greater part of the political divisions of Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand and the country round Gwalior.
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  • The formation save in north Bundelkhand is sandstone of the Vindhyan series, free as a rule from "trap."
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  • Iron ores are widely distributed, but have not been developed; graphite is mined in Colfax county; mica in Taos county, and to a small extent in Rio Arriba county; marble is quarried in Otero county and sandstone in Bernalillo, Colfax and San Miguel counties.
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  • Among the public buildings much the handsomest are the court house, built of Warrensburg blue sandstone (1884), and the Public Library (1900), given by Andrew Carnegie.
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  • Pseudomorphs after calcite are known; and it is notable that native copper occurs pseudomorphous after aragonite at Corocoro, in Bolivia, where the copper is disseminated through sandstone.
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  • The town has sandstone and gypsum quarries, breweries and woollen mills, and cultivates fruit and vegetables.
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  • The abbey was built of Old Red sandstone, and belongs mostly to the end of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th centuries.
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  • The most important of these are the Dala Sandstone (chiefly developed in Dalarne), the Almasakra and Visingso series (around Lake Vetter) and the Dalsland formation (near Lake Vener).
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  • The oldest is a sandstone, in which are found traces of worms, impressions of Medusae, and shells of Mickwitzia.
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  • The deposits are marine, consisting mainly of sandstone and limestone, together with tuffs and conglomerates of porphyry and porphyrite.
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  • Its surface is a succession of great terraces, facing north and north-east, formed by the denudation of the ancient sandstone plateau which once covered this part of the continent; the terraces are seamed by watercourses, and their valleys are broken by hills and ranges of highlands.
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  • The latter are usually described as mountain ranges, but they are, in fact, only the remains of the ancient plateau, capped with horizontal strata of sandstone, and having a remarkably uniform altitude of 2000 to 2400 ft.
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  • The hills consist of a kind of granite and of beds of red sandstone, the disintegration of which has given a darkcoloured ferruginous soil of moderate fertility.
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  • Where this intervening band is not covered by recent gravel deposits, it exhibits beds of limestone, clays and sandstone with fossils, which, in age, range from the Lower Eocene to the Miocene.
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  • The Spiti shales are succeeded conformably by Cretaceous beds (Gieumal sandstone below and Chikkim limestone above), and these are followed without a break by Nummulitic beds of Eocene age, much disturbed and altered by intrusions of gabbro and syenite.
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  • The next succeeding deposit is a sandstone, often highly inclined, which rests unconformably upon the Nummulitic beds and resembles the Lower Siwaliks of the SubHimalaya (Pliocene) but which as yet has yielded no fossils of any kind.
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  • It was, therefore, during the Miocene period that the elevation of this part of the chain began, while the disturbance of the Siwalik-like sandstone indicates that the folding continued into the Pliocene period.
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  • Within the area of the transIndus mountains we have beds of hard limestone or sandstone alternating with soft shales, which leads to the scooping out by erosion of long narrow valleys where the tion.
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  • The new castle occupies the same site, and is built of the same coloured sandstone as the old.
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  • It was Baber's grandson Akbar that built the present fort, whose strong and lofty walls of red sandstone are a mile and a half in circumference.
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  • The copper belongs mostly to the red sandstone series.
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  • The town obtains its chief supply of water from moorlands situated on the Old Red Sandstone formation in the valley of the Cray, a tributary of the Usk in Breconshire where a reservoir of 1,000,000,000 gallons capacity has been constructed at a cost of £547,759, under parliamentary powers obtained in 1892, 1902 and 1905.
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  • The town hall and the university buildings, dating from 1712 and restored in 1886, are commonplace erections; but to the south of the Ludwigsplatz, upon which most of the academical buildings lie, stands the new university library, a handsome structure of pink sandstone in German Renaissance style.
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  • It is a clumsy, though somewhat imposing edifice of sandstone in Italian Renaissance style, and has a dome rising, with the lantern, to a height of 380 ft.
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  • The famous Pictured Rocks in Alger county on the lake shore, east of Munising, form the west portion of this north range; they are of sandstone formation, extend for several miles along the coast, rise almost perpendicularly from the water's edge, and display an interesting diversity of shapes as well as a great variety of tints and hues, especially of gray, blue, green and yellow.
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  • Besides limestones and dolomites, the only building stone of much commercial importance is the Potsdam sandstone, extensive beds of which lie in the north part of the upper peninsula.
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  • That of Humayun, the second of the Mogul dynasty, is a noble building of rose-coloured sandstone inlaid with white marble.
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  • It consists of five storeys of red sandstone and white marble.
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  • The purplish red of the sandstone at the base is finely modulated, through a pale pink in the second storey, to a dark orange at the summit, which harmonizes with the blue of an Indian sky.
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  • Dark bands of Arabic writing round the three lower storeys contrast with the red sandstone.
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  • Then rises a plain storey, and above it soars a partially fluted storey, the shaft of which is adorned with bands of marble and red sandstone.
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  • The Mutiny Memorial, which was erected by the army before Delhi, is a rather poor specimen of a Gothic spire in red sandstone, while the memorial tablets are of inferior marble.
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  • Granite is found in Morris and Sussex counties, but is not extensively quarried; there are extensive quarries of sandstone in the Piedmont section; and limestone and trap rock are important mineral resources.
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  • In 1907 the total value of stone quarried in the state was $1,523,312, of which $995,436 was the value of trap rock, $ 2 74,45 2 of limestone, $177,667 of sandstone and $75,757 of granite.
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  • The Triassic age of the Hawkesbury Sandstone is supported by the evidence of the fossil fish; though, according to Dr Smith Woodward, they may perhaps be Rhaetic, .'But the fossil plants of which the chief are Taeniopteris daintreei and Thinnfeldia odontopteroides are regarded by Seward as Lower Jurassic. At Talbragar there is a bed containing Jurassic fish, which rests in an erosion hollow in the Hawkesbury Sandstone.
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  • The Talbragar beds, then, may be representative of the Jurassic; and the underlying Hawkesbury Sandstone may be Upper Triassic. The Cretaceous system is widely developed in the western part of the state, where it is represented by two divisions.
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  • It is covered in places by tablelands and ridges of the Desert Sandstone, the remnants of a sheet which doubtless once covered the whole of the Western Plains.
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  • The chief economic product of the Desert Sandstone is opal, which occurs in it at White Cliffs and Wilcannia.
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  • The parliament buildings are situated in Queen's Park, almost in the centre of the city, and are an imposing structure of red sandstone in the neo-Greek style built at great cost.
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  • The hills and uplands of ancient rocks do not form regular ranges, but rise like islands in four distinct groups from a plain of New Red Sandstone (Permian and Triassic), which separates them from each other and from the newer rocks of the Eastern Division.
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  • The Eastern Division, lying to the east of the zone of New Red Sandstone, may be defined on the west by a slightly curved line drawn from the estuary of the Tees through Leicester and Stratford-on-Avon to the estuary of the Severn, and thence through Glastonbury to Sidmouth.
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  • It is built up of nearly uniform sheets of Mesozoic rock, the various beds of the Jurassic lying above the New Red Sandstone (Triassic), and dipping south-eastward under the successive beds of the Cretaceous system.
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  • Round these central masses of early Palaeozoic rocks there is a broken ring of Carboniferous Limestone, and several patches of Coal Measures, while the New Red Sandstone appears as a boundary belt outside the greater part of the district.
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  • In the north the Pennine region is joined to the Southern Uplands of Scotland by the Cheviot Hills, a mass of granite and Old Red Sandstone; and the northern part is largely traversed by dykes of contemporary volcanic or intrusive rock.
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  • To the west and south the Coal Measures dip gently under the New Red Sandstone, to reappear at several points through the Triassic plain.
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  • The group of heights of South Wales, running on the whole from west to east, marks the outcrops of the Old Red Sandstone and Carboniferous strata which lie within a vast syncline of the Silurian rocks.
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  • The Brecon Beacons of Old Red Sandstone are the highest (2907 ft.), but the Black Mountain bears a number of picturesque summits carved out of Millstone Grit and Carboniferous Limestone, which rise frequently over 2000 ft.
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  • Throughout Hereford, and in part of Monmouthshire, the Old Red Sandstone sinks to a great undulating plain, traversed by the exquisite windings of the Wye, and forming some of the richest pasture and fruit lands of England.
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  • Around the western and northern edge of the Old Red Sandstone plain the underlying Silurian rocks (and even the Cambrian and Archaean in places) have been bent up so that their edges form hills of singular abruptness and beauty.
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  • The outer rim of the Welsh area contains a broken series of coal-fields, where patches of Carboniferous strata come to the surface on the edge of the New Red Sandstone plain.
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  • As for the boundaries of these ancient seas, we can say nothing with certainty, but it is of interest to note the evidence we possess of still older land conditions, such as we have in the old rocks of Shropshire, &c. In the Devonian period it is clear that an elevatory movement had set in towards the north, which gave rise to the formation of inland lakes and narrow estuaries in which the Old Red Sandstone rocks were formed, while in the south of England lay the sea with a vigorous coral fauna.
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  • The chief minerals raised in England, as stated in the annual home office report on mines and quarries, appear in order of value, thus: coal, iron ore, clay and shale, sandstone, limestone, igneous rocks, salt, tin ore.
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  • Quarrying for limestone, clay and sandstone is general in most parts.
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  • At Redstone, the site of a former important ferry over the Severn, is a curious hermitage, excavated out of the red sandstone bank.
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  • The granite and marble of Serdobol, and the sandstone of Putilovo, are much used for buildings at St Petersburg; copper and tin from the Pitkaranta mine are exported.
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  • Geologically, Banka resembles the Malay Peninsula, its formations being mainly granite, Silurian and Devonian slate, frequently covered with sandstone, laterite (red ironstone clay) of small fertility, and alluvium.
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  • The Adigrat Sandstone possibly represents some portion of the Karroo formation of South Africa.
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  • The terraces represent the out-cropping edges of hard sandstone layers included in the series of plateau sediments, and are named according to the colour of the rock exposed in the south-facing escarpments, the Pink Cliffs (highest), White Cliffs and Vermilion Cliffs.
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  • There are valuable manganese deposits in the sandstone of the eastern plateau.
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  • On the south coast, opposite the broadest part of the lake, are precipitous walls of red sandstone, extending about 14 m., famous as the Pictured Rocks, so called from the effect of wave action on them.
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  • The gentle declivity of the surface and the porous character of the prevailing sandstone formation render the drainage excellent.
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  • Annan is a wellbuilt town, red sandstone being the material mainly used.
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  • The principal industries include cotton and rope manufactures, bacon-curing, distilling, tanning, shipbuilding, sandstone quarrying, nursery-gardening and salmon-fishing.
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  • The blue-grey Chuckanut sandstone is quarried on the shore of Chuckanut Bay, south of Bellingham; and a coarse, dark-brown sandstone is quarried on Sucia Island, west of the city.
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  • The periodic process depends on the interaction between manganese dioxide (pyrolusite), sulphuric acid, and a bromide, and the operation is carried out in sandstone stills heated to 60° C., the product being condensed as in the continuous process.
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  • Until 1896 building materials were chiefly imported; but, after that year, many quarries were opened to develop the native resources of limestone, sandstone, serpentine, red, yellow and green granite, and marbles of all colours, including the white marble from Dorna in Suceava, said by Rumans to rival that of Carrara in Italy.
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  • The ore occurs in two forms, haematites and limonites; the specular hematites often being grouped, for practical purposes, into two classes - those occurring in porphyry and those occurring in sandstone.
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  • The haematites are found not only in the archean porphyries but in Cambrian limestone and sandstone, and in the sub-Carboniferous formations; while the limonites are confined almost exclusively to the Cambrian.
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  • The lowest member (Table Mountain Sandstone) consists of sandstones with subordinate bands of shale.
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  • The Table Mountain Sandstone passes up conformably into a sequence of sandstones and shales (Bokkeveld Beds), well exposed in the Cold and Warm Bokkevelds.
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  • A true crocodile, Notochampsa, has been discovered in the Red Beds and Cave Sandstone.
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  • Three genera of fossil fishes, Cleithrolepis, Semionotus and Ceratodus, ascend from the Beaufort series into the Cave Sandstone.
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  • In the New Red Sandstone, the Greensand and the upper Chalk, we find the opposite extremes; while the igneous rocks are for the most part only permeable in virtue of the open fissures they contain.
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  • The principal water-bearing formations, utilized in Great Britain by means of deep wells, are the Chalk and the New Red Sandstone.
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  • Next in importance to the Chalk formations as a source of underground water supply comes the Trias or New Red Sandstone, consisting in Great Britain of two main divisions, the Keuper above and the Bunter below.
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