The French were now taking a share in the work of discovery, and in 1768 Louis Antoine de Bougainville sailed by way of the central Paumotus, the Society Islands, Samoa, the northern New Hebrides, the south coast of New Guinea and the Louisiade and Bismarck archipelagoes.
Thus it would seem certain that the Maoris, starting from "further Hawaiki," or Samoa, first touched at Rarotonga, "nearer Hawaiki," whence, after forming a settlement, they journeyed on to New Zealand.
Maori tradition is explicit as to the cause of the exodus from Samoa, gives the names of the canoes in which the journey was made and the time of year at which the coast of New Zealand was sighted.
If earlier immigrants from Samoa or other eastern Pacific islands arrived they must have become absorbed into the native Papuan population - arguing from the absence of any distinct tradition earlier than that "of the six canoes."
They have an ancient spear which they believe was brought from Samoa, and they actually name the valley from which their ancestors started.
A conference between the three powers was thereupon held at Berlin, and a treaty was executed by those powers and by Samoa, on the 14th of June 1889, by virtue of which the independence and autonomy of the islands were guaranteed, Malietoa was restored as king, and the three powers constituted themselves practically a protectorate over Samoa, and provided a chief justice and a president of the municipality of Apia, to be appointed by them, to aid in carrying out the provisions of the treaty.
The three powers thereupon sent a commission to Samoa to investigate and adjust the difficulties.
Turner, Samoa a Hundred Years Ago and Long Before (London, 1884); W.
Churchward, My Consulate in Samoa (London, 1887); J.
Stair, Old Samoa (London, 1897); Mary S.
P. Churchill, Samoa '0 - ma (London, 1902); Journal des museums Godeffroy (Hamburg, 1871-1874); G.
Kurze, Samoa, das Land, die Leute and die Mission (Berlin, 1899); 0.
Ehlers, Samoa, die Perle der Siidsee (Berlin, 1900); F.
Reinecke, Samoa (Berlin, 1901); A.
Kramer, Die Samoa Inseln (Stuttgart, 1902 seq.); parliamentary papers, Correspondence respecting the Affairs of Samoa (London, 1899, &c.), and 1902 (Samoa, Cd.
Of Samoa and 250 m.
The climate is healthy for Europeans, being dry and cool as compared with that of Samoa and Fiji.
In Captain Cook's time Poulaho, the principal chief, considered Samoa to be within his dominions.
In 1889, "on a certain bright June day," the Stevensons sailed for the Gilbert Islands, and after six months' cruising found themselves at Samoa, where he landed for the first time about Christmas Day 1889.
The last four years of his unquiet life were spent at Samoa, in circumstances of such health and vigour as he had never previously enjoyed, and in surroundings singularly picturesque.
He took up the cause of the deposed king Mataafa with extreme ardour, and he wrote a book, A Footnote to History: Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa (1892), in the endeavour to win over British sympathy to his native friends.
But in 1893 the uniform good fortune which had attended the Stevensons since their settlement in Samoa began to be disturbed.
With Mahommedan peoples it is sufficient for a woman to cover her face; the Chinese women would think it extremely indecent to show their artificially compressed feet, and it is even improper to mention them to a woman; in Sumatra and Celebes the wild tribes consider the exposure of the knee immodest; in central Asia the finger-tips, and in Samoa the navel are similarly regarded.
In Samoa he is even called Tangaloa-Langi (Tangaloa = heaven).
The Tonga and Kermadec trenches, both deeper than 4000 fathoms, stretch from the Samoa Islands southwards toward New Zealand for a distance of 1600 nautical miles.
It does not occur in the Atlantic Ocean at all, and in the Indian Ocean it is only known round Cocos and Christmas Islands; but it is abundant in the Pacific, where it covers a large area between 5° and 15° N., westward from the coast of Central America to 165° W., and it is also found in patches north of the Samoa Islands, in the Marianne Trench and west of the Galapagos Islands.
A small group consists of instances of condominium or arrangements similar thereto; for example, the arrangements as to the Samoa Islands from 1889 to 1899.
Round the volcanic Marquesas Islands, again, coral is scanty, but the Society Islands, Samoa and Tonga have extensive reefs.
Megapodes are found in the Solomon Islands, the New Hebrides, Samoa, Tonga, the Carolines and the Marianas.
The remarkable didunculus occurs in Samoa, and after the introduction of cats and rats, which preyed upon it, was compelled to change its habits, dwelling in trees instead of on the ground.
In 1786 Jean Francois Galoup de La Perouse, in the course of the famous voyage from which he never returned, visited Easter Island, Samoa and Tonga.
The partition of Polynesia was completed in 1899, when Samoa was divided between Germany and the United States.
The partition of the Pacific islands never led to any serious friction between the powers, though the acquisition of Hawaii was attempted by Britain, France and Japan before the United States annexed the group, and the negotiations as to Samoa threatened trouble for a while.
There were occasional native risings, as in Samoa (where, however, the fighting was rather in the nature of civil warfare), the French possessions in eastern Polynesia, and the New Hebrides, apart from attacks on individual settlers or visitors, which have occurred here and there from the earliest period of exploration.
Kramer, Hawaii, Ostmikronesien, and Samoa (Stuttgart, 1906) J.
At the census of 1910, while the continental United States population (excluding Alaska) was 91,972,266, the total, including Alaska, Hawaii and Porto Rico, but excluding the Philippine Islands, Guam, Samoa and the Canal Zone, was 93,402,151.
The aboriginal Hawaiians (sometimes called Kanakas, from a Hawaiian word kanaka, meaning " man ") belong to the Malayo-Polynesian race; they probably settled in Native Hawaii in the 10th century, having formerly lived in popula- Samoa, and possibly before that in Tahiti and the Marquesas.
Bush was commissioned as minister plenipotentiary to the king of Samoa, the king of Tonga and the other independent chiefs of Polynesia.
He arrived in Samoa on the 3rd of January 1887, and remained there six months, during which time he concluded a treaty of alliance with Malietoa, which was ratified by his government.
She was renamed the " Kaimiloa," and was despatched to Samoa on the 17th of May 1887 to strengthen the hands of the embassy.
Hitchcock, Hawaii and its Volcanoes (Honolulu, 1909); Augustin Kramer, Hawaii, Ostmikronesien and Samoa (Stuttgart, 1906); Sharp, Fauna (London, 1899); Walter Maxwell, Lavas and Soils of the Hawaiian Islands (Honolulu, 1898); W.
John Williams himself removed in 1827 to Rarotonga and from there influenced Samoa, the Society Islands and Fiji.
He also arranged the settlement of difficulties with Germany over Samoa in December 1899, and the settlement, by joint commission, of the question concerning the disputed Alaskan boundary in 1903.
And men active and a reserve of ex-soldier settlers; the Kiao-Chau garrison (chiefly marines), numbering 2687 officers and men; and various small police forces in Togo, New Guinea, Samoa, &c.
The acquisition of Samoa, where German interests were most extensive, was prevented (for the time being) by the arrangement made in 1879 with Great Britain and the United States.
It thus comprises all the insular groups which extend almost continuously from the south-eastern extremity of Asia to more than half-way across the Pacific. Its chief divisions are Malaysia with the Philippines; Australia with Tasmania and New Zealand; Melanesia, that is, New Guinea, New Britain, New Ireland, Admiralty, the Solomons, New Hebrides, Santa Cruz, Fiji, Loyalties and New Caledonia; Micronesia, that is, the Ladrones, Pelew and Carolines, with the Marshal] and Gilbert groups; lastly, Polynesia, that is, Samoa, Tonga, Cook, Tahiti, the Marquesas, Ellice, Hawaii and all intervening clusters.
The chief groups thus included are Hawaii, the Ellice, Phoenix, Union, Manihiki and Marquesas groups, Samoa and Tonga, the Cook, Society, Tubuai and Tuamotu groups, and many other lesser islands.
Support the theory that the first Polynesian settlement in the East Pacific was in Samoa, and that thence the various branches of the race made their way in all directions.
Most likely Samoa was the first group permanently occupied by them.
If the first resting-place of the Polynesians was in that group, there is good reason to believe that Samoa was the first permanent home of the race.
De Quatrefages, in a table giving the stature of different races of men,' puts the natives of Samoa and Tonga as the tallest people in the world.
Perhaps of all the groups Samoa stood highest in this respect.
Gill's Myths and Songs from the South Pacific; Dr Turner's Samoa; and Mr Shortland's Maori Religion and Mythology; Sir George Grey, Polynesian Mythology.
4 Samoa, p. 52.
Most of these abuses have been checked or removed, and the results may perhaps be detected in a less accelerated rate of decline, which no longer proceeds in geometric proportion, and seems even almost arrested in some places, as in Samoa and New Zealand.
5 Turner, Samoa, 1884, p. 21.
He upheld American rights in Samoa, pursued a vigorous diplomacy with Italy over the lynching of eleven Italians, all except three of them American naturalized citizens, in New Orleans on the 14th of May 1891, held a firm attitude during the strained relations between the United States and Chile (growing largely out of the killing and wounding of American sailors of the U.S. ship "Baltimore" by Chileans in Valparaiso on the 16th of October 1891), and carried on with Great Britain a resolute controversy over the seal fisheries of Bering Sea, - a difference afterwards settled by arbitration.
Of Samoa, belonging to Britain.
Their traditions point to Samoa as the colonizing centre from which they sprang.