Two British plants may be added which both reach North Africa: Sanicule eurojbaea extends from Abyssinia to the Cameroons and southwards to Cape Colony and Madagascar; Sambucus Ebulus reaches Uganda.
and Sambucus, more rarely two-lipped as in Lonicera; the sepals and petals are usually five in number and placed above the ovary, the five stamens are attached to the corolla-tube, there are three to five carpels, and the fruit is a berry as in honeysuckle or snowberry (Symphoricarpus), or a stone fruit, with several, usually three, stones, as in Sambucus.
In Sambucus and Viburnum the small white flowers are massed in heads; honey is secreted at the base of the styles and, the tube of the flower being very short, is exposed to the visits of flies and insects with short probosces.
Foremost amongst the Italians was Antonio Bonfini, whose work, Rerum Hungaricarum Decades IV., comprising Hungarian history from the earliest times to the death of King Matthias, was published with a continuation by Sambucus (Basel, 1568).
Among the first wild shrubs and trees that are met with are the chilca (Baccharis Feuillei), with a pretty yellow flower, the Mutisia acuminata, with beautiful red and orange flowers, several species of Senecio, calceolarias, the Schinus molle, with its graceful branches and bunches of red berries, and at higher elevations the lambras (Alnus acuminata), the sauco (Sambucus peruviana), the quenuar (Buddleia incana), and the Polylepis racemosa.
cloudberry, cranberry, crowberry, red whortleberry), berried elder (Sambucus racemosa), wild raspberry and Spiraea.
The plants of which the floral organs or perfect fruits are preserved include the amber-bearing Pinus succinifera, Smilax, Phoenix, the spike of an aroid, i i species of oak, 2 of chestnut, a beech, Urticaceae, 2 cinnamons and Trianthera among the Lauraceae, representatives of the Cistaceae, Ternstroemiaceae, Dilleniaceae (3 species of Hibbertia), Geraniaceae (Geranium and Erodium), Oxalidaceae, Acer, Celastraceae, Olacaceae, Pittosporaceae, Ilex (2 species), Euphorbiaceae, Umbelliferae (Chaerophyllum), Saxifragaceae (3 genera), Hamamelidaceae, Rosaceae, Connaraceae, Ericaceae (Andromeda and Clethra), Myrsinaceae (3 species), Rubiaceae, Sambucus (2 species), Santalaceae, Loranthaceae (3 species).
The plants are mainly shrubs and trees; British representatives are Sambucus (elder), Viburnum (guelder-rose and wayfaring tree), Lonicera (honeysuckle) (see fig.); Adoxa (moschatel), a small herb with a creeping stem and small yellowish-green flowers, is occasionally found on damp hedge-banks; Linnaea, a slender creeping evergreen with a thread-like stem and pink bell-shaped flower, a northern plant, occurs in fir-forests and plantations in the north of England and Scotland.
The forests consist of several species of evergreen and deciduous oaks, " oyamel " (Abies religiosa), the arbutus or strawberry tree, the long-leaved Pinus liophylla and the short-leaved " ocote " or Pinus montezumae and the alder, with an undergrowth of elder (Sambucus mexicana), broom and shrubby heath.
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