How to use Samarkand in a sentence
In 1497 he attacked and gained possession of Samarkand, to which he always seems to have thought he had a natural and hereditary right.
After capturing Smyrna he returned to Samarkand (1405).
There is more than one meaning of Samarkand discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
There is a considerable trade in grain; but the commercial prosperity of Karshi is mainly due to its being a meeting-point for the roads from Samarkand, Bokhara, Hissar, Balkh and Maimana, and serves as the market where the Turkomans and Uzbegs dispose of their carpets, knives and firearms. Its coppersmiths turn out excellent work.
It excited the admiration of Gonzales Clavijo, the Spanish envoy, when he passed through it on his way to visit the court of Timur at Samarkand (Clavijo, Historia del gran Tamorlan, p. 84); and Cardinal Bessarion, who was a native of the place, in the latter part of his life, when the city had passed into the hands of the Mahommedans, and he was himself a dignitary of the Roman Church, so little forgot the impression it had made upon him that he wrote a work entitled "The Praise of Trebizond" ('E-yac c uLovTpaire oiivros), which exists in manuscript at Venice.Advertisement
He accomplished a successful campaign in 1868 against Bokhara, capturing Samarkand and gradually subjugating the whole country.
The cultivation of vines had also increased, and wine industries had been initiated, chiefly in Tashkent and Samarkand.
A branch runs from Karshi to Kitab, and the intention was to join Kitab to Samarkand.
He was treated with honour and hospitality, and returned by way of Samarkand and Tabriz, to his own territory.
In 1403 the Spanish king sent a knight of Madrid, Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo, to the distant court of Timur, at Samarkand.Advertisement
With the opening of the Russian railway from the Caspian to Merv, Bokhara and Samarkand in 1886-1887, Russian manufacturers were enabled to compete in Central Asia with their western rivals, and the value of European manufactures passing Meshed in transit was much reduced.
A rebellion among his nobles robbed him of his native kingdom, and while marching to recover it his troops deserted him, and he lost Samarkand also.
He received considerable aid from Shah Ismael of Persia, and in 1511 made a triumphal entry into Samarkand.
Livonia Minsk Mogilev Moscow Nizhniy-Novgorod Novgorod Olonets Orel Orenburg Penza Perm Podolia Poltava Pskov Ryazan St Petersburg Samara Piotrkow Plock Radom St Michel Tavastehus Uleaborg Stavropol Elizavetpol Erivan Kars Saratov Simbirsk Smolensk Tambov Taurida Tula Tver Ufa Vilna Vitebsk Vladimir Volhynia Vologda Voronezh Vyatka Yaroslavl Siedlce Suwalki Warsaw Viborg Vasa Terek Kutais Tiflis with Zakataly Akmolinsk Semipalatinsk The Steppes Turgai Uralsk Semiryechensk Samarkand Ferghana Syr-darya The effects of emigration and immigration cannot be estimated with accuracy, because only those who cross the frontier with passports are taken account of.
Here young Jalal-uddin grew up, and in 1226 married Jauhar Khatun, the daughter of Laid Sharaf-uddin of Samarkand.Advertisement
Meanwhile Timur (Tamerlane) had started from Samarkand on his victorious career.
Thus they make Mer y a sort of watch tower over the entrance into Afghanistan on the north-west and at the same time create a stepping-stone or etape between north-east Persia and the states of Bokhara and Samarkand.
During their dominion Merv, like Samarkand and Bokhara, was one of the great schools of learning, and the celebrated historian Yaqut studied in its libraries.
On the death of the grandson of Jenghiz Khan Mer y was included (1380) in the possessions of Timur-iLeng (Tamerlane), Mongol prince of Samarkand.
They showed a zeal for evangelization which resulted in the establishment of their influence throughout Asia, as is seen from the bishoprics founded not only in Syria, Armenia, Arabia and Persia, but at Halavan in Media, Mer y in Khorasan, Herat, Tashkent, Samarkand, Baluk, Kashgar, and even at Kambaluk (Pekin) and Singan fu Hsi`en fu in China, and Kaljana and Kranganore in India.Advertisement
The former palace of the khans, which recalls by its architecture the mosques of Samarkand, is the best building in the town.
For that purpose he travelled over the Moslem world, from Egypt to Samarkand, and learned (as the story goes) from over a thousand men three hundred thousand traditions, true and false.
A certain number, too, of Arabic Christians, believers living on the west coast of India, the so-called Christians of St Thomas, and finally those belonging to places nearer the middle of Asia (Merv, Herat, Samarkand), remained in communion with the Nestorian church.
Situated at the junction of routes from the valley of the Oxus, from Khokand and Samarkand, Almati, Aksu, and Khotan, the last two leading from China and India, Kashgar has been noted from very early times as a political and commercial centre.
The Buddhist religion, then beginning to decay in India, was working its way to a new growth in China, and contemporaneously the Nestorian Christians were establishing bishoprics at Herat, Mer y and Samarkand, whence they subsequently proceeded to Kashgar, and finally to China itself.Advertisement
The Chinese had thoughts of pushing their conquests towards western Turkestan and Samarkand, the chiefs of which sent to ask assistance of the Afghan king Ahmed Shah.
Many colonial Roman coins of the 3rd and 4th centuries, and silver dirhems, stamped at Samarkand, Balkh, Merv, &c., were also found in 1869.
But towards the end of 1868 Shere Ali's return, and a general rising in his favour, resulting in their defeat at Tinah Khan on the 3rd of January 1869, forced them both to seek refuge in Persia, whence Abdur Rahman proceeded afterwards to place himself under Russian protection at Samarkand.
His eldest son Habibullah Khan, with his brother Nasrullah Khan, was born at Samarkand.
The district, however, was reconquered by Persia under the Sassanian dynasty, and we hear of Nestorian Christians at Samarkand, at any rate in the 6th century.
It was called Sughd, and contained the two great cities of Samarkand and Bokhara, of which the former was generally the seat of government, while the latter had a high reputation as a seat of religion and learning.
His posterity kept possession till 1369, when Timur or Tamerlane bore down everything before him, and established his capital at Samarkand, which with Bokhara regained for a time its former splendour.
Babar, the fifth in descent from Timur, was originally prince of Ferghana, but conquered Samarkand and northern India, where he founded the Mogul (Mughal) empire.
In 1868 the Russians entered Samarkand (May 14), and the emir was constrained to submit to the terms of the conqueror, becoming henceforward only a Russian puppet.
At the close of 1369 Hosain was assassinated and Timur, having been formally proclaimed sovereign at Balkh, mounted the throne at Samarkand, the capital of his dominions.
According to Clavijo, ninety captured elephants were employed merely to carry stones from certain quarries to enable the conqueror to erect a mosque at Samarkand.
Markham, in his introduction to the narrative of Clavijo's embassy, states that his body "was embalmed with musk and rose water, wrapped in linen, laid in an ebony coffin and sent to Samarkand, where it was buried."
The seat of the Manichaean pope was for centuries in Babylon, at a later period in Samarkand.
Though victorious in this war, Sinjar could not hinder Atsiz from afterwards joining the gurkhan (great khan) of the then rapidly rising empire of the Karakitai, at whose hands the Seljuk suffered a terrible defeat at Samarkand in 1141.
Their language is the language of Bokhara and Samarkand.
A Russian branch railway is said to have been recently built from Samarkand to Termez.
The Kilif ferry is on the direct high-road between Samarkand and Akcha.
Christianity penetrated to Khorasan and Bactria at an early date; episcopal sees are said to have existed at Mer y and Samarkand in the 4th and 5th centuries, and Cosmas (c. 545) testifies to the spread of Christianity among the Bactrians and Huns.
In 711-712 Mahommedan troops were conducted by Kotaiba, the governor of Khorasan, into the province of Khwarizm (Khiva), after subjugating which they advanced on Bokhara and Samarkand, the ancient Sogdiana, and are said to have even reached Ferghana and Kashgar, but no occupation then ensued.
In 1867 an army assembled by the amir of Bokhara was attacked and dispersed by the Russians, who in 1868 entered Samarkand, and became virtually rulers of Bokhara.
Demetrius (c. 190 B.C.) is supposed to have reigned in Arachosia after being expelled from Bactria, much as, at a later date, Baber reigned in Kabul after his expulsion from Samarkand.
Timur marched back to Samarkand as he had come, by way of Kabul, and Mahmud Tughlak ventured to return to his desolate capital.
Sa`id, son of the caliph Othman, whom Moawiya made governor of Khorasan, in 674 marched against Samarkand.
Balkh and Tokharistan, Bokhara, Samarkand and Khwarizm (modern Khiva), even Kabul and Kandahar had been subdued; but in the time of the civil war a great deal had been lost again.
Sayyar, raised the standard of revolt in Samarkand, and, at the head of a numerous army, defeated the son of Ali b.
Sayyar, revolted in Samarkand, and Harun on his way to attack him died at Tus (809).
The former of these subdued Khorasan, Rai and Isfahan, while the latter brought practically all Persia under his sway, conquered Bokhara, Samarkand and Otrar, capital of the Karakitai, and had even made himself master of Ghazni when his career was stopped by the hordes of the Mongol Jenghiz Khan.
Barkuk, who had already excited the enmity of Timur by slaying one of his envoys, espoused Ahmads cause, and restored him to Bagdad after Timurs return to his normal capital Samarkand.
From Isfahan he passed on to Shiraz, and thence returned in triumph to his own capital of Samarkand.
He removed his capital from Samarkand to Herat, of which place he rebuilt the citadel, restoring and improving the town.
He was, moreover, himself a poet and patron of literature, and built a college as well as an observatory at Samarkand.
The ten mosques and madrasas of Yarkand, although poorer than those of Bokhara or Samarkand, enjoy wide renown in the Moslem world.
Passing by the present Tashkend, and by Samarkand, then inhabited by fire worshippers, he reached the basin of the Upper Oxus, which had recently been the seat of the powerful dominion of the Haiathelah, Ephthalites or White Huns, known in earlier days to the Greeks as Tochari, and to Honan Tsang (by the same name) as Tuholo or Tukhara.
Of the highly developed civilizations which grew up and flourished in Bactria, Bokhara and Samarkand the last survivals are now undergoing rapid obliteration with the simultaneous desiccation of the rivers and lakes.
The inhabitants of the neighbourhood of Tashkent and Samarkand, as well as those of the much more northern but better sheltered Kulja oasis, add the cultivation of the almond, pomegranate and fig.
The vast coal-beds of Kulja and some inferior ones in Samarkand are not seriously worked.
But there is a great variety of artisan work, such as copper and brass, paper, knives (at Bokhara), silver filigree, shoes, caps (at Samarkand and Andijan) and carpets; but most of these have been for some time declining and now stand at a rather low level.
When settled they are mostly designated Sarts - a name which has reference more to manner of life than to anthropological classification, although a much stronger admixture of Iranian blood is evident in the Sarts, who also speak Persian at Khojent and Samarkand.
Its capital, Tashkent, in the Syr-darya province, had 156,414 inhabitants in 1897, and other cities of importance are Samarkand (58,194), Marghilan (42,855 in Old Marghilan, and 8977 in New Marghilan) in Ferghana, Khojent (31,881) in Syr-clarya, Khokand (86,704), Namangan (61,388) and Andijan (49,682) in Ferghana.
Then it turns northeast via Mer y to Bokhara and Samarkand, the total distance being 94 0 m.
From Samarkand it is continued east-north-east via Khojent to Andijan (330 m.), sending off on the way a branch to Tashkent (94 m.).
His son reigned at Samarkand, but was overthrown by Timur (Tamerlane), the Mongol sovereign of Samarkand, who, to put an end to the attacks of the wild Tianshan tribes, undertook in 1389 his renowned march to Dzungaria, which was devastated, East Turkestan also suffering severely.
In the 14th and 15th centuries Bokhara and Samarkand became centres of Moslem scholarship, and sent great numbers of their learned doctors to Kashgaria.
He founded about 1420 a splendid observatory at Samarkand, in which he re-determined nearly all Ptolemy's stars, while the Tables published by him held the primacy for two centuries.'
After a relaxed walk around the oriental style bazaar we were taken to Samarkand School No 45.
And meanwhile the rift between Alexander and his European followers continued to show itself in dark incidents - the murder of Clitus at Maracanda (Samarkand), when Alexander struck down an old friend, both being hot with wine; the claim that Alexander should be approached with prostration (proskynesis), urged in the spring of 327, and opposed boldly by the philosopher Callisthenes, Aristotle's nephew, who had come in the king's train; the conspiracy of the pages at Bactria, which was made an occasion for putting Callisthenes to death.
After some reverses he regained both these places, but in 1501 his most formidable enemy, Shaibani (Sheibani) Khan, ruler of the Uzbegs, defeated him in a great engagement and drove him from Samarkand.
Passing Bokhara, they reached Samarkand, where the emir, whose suspicions were aroused, kept him in audience for a full half-hour; but he stood the test so well that the emir was not only pleased with "Resid Effendi" (Vambery's assumed name), but gave him handsome presents.
He was waited on by 7 kings at a time, by 60 dukes and 365 counts; 12 archbishops sat on his right hand, and 20 bishops on his left, besides the patriarch of St Thomas's, the protopope of the Sarmagantians (Samarkand?), and the archprotopope of Susa, where the royal residence was.
Thus it includes (1) the governor-generalship of Turkestan, embracing the provinces of Ferghana, Samarkand, Semiryechensk, and Syr-darya; the provinces of Akmolinsk and Semipalatinsk, and sometimes that of Turgai belonging to the governor-generalship of the Steppes; the Transcaspian region; and the semi-independent states of Bokhara and Khiva.