4 ff.) gives the duration of the national punishment in loose chronological reckoning: 40 years (a round number) for Judah, and 150 more (according to the corrected text) for Israel, the starting-point, probably, being the year 722, the date of the capture of Samaria; the procedure described in v.
is similar to that of xvi., except that in the latter Samaria is relatively treated with favour, while in the former it (Aholah) is involved in the same condemnation as that of Jerusalem.
The Idumaean Antipater was appointed by Julius Caesar procurator of Judaea, Samaria and Galilee, as a reward for services rendered against Pompey.
SAMARIA, an ancient city of Palestine.
24, Omri, king of Israel, bought Samaria from a certain Shemer (whose name is said to be the origin of that of the city), and transferred thither his capital from Tirzah.
had done in Samaria (r Kings xx.
in the time of Jehoahaz again besieged Samaria, and caused a famine in the city; but some panic led them to raise the siege (2 Kings vi., vii.).
The site of Samaria is an enormous mound of accumulation, one of the largest in Palestine.
The hill of Samaria is separated from the surrounding mountains (Amos iii.
To the same period belong the book of Micah, the earlier parts of the books of Samuel, of Isaiah and of Proverbs, and perhaps some Psalms. In 722 B.C. Samaria was taken and the Northern kingdom ceased to exist.
In the more important shrines, as at Jerusalem or Samaria, there would be an altar of stone or of bronze.
The strange contrast between the succession of dynasties and kings cut off by assassination in the northern kingdom, ending in the tragic overthrow of 721 B.C., and the persistent succession through three centuries of the seed of David on the throne of Jerusalem, as well as the marvellous escape of Jerusalem in 701 B.C. from the fate of Samaria, must have invested the seed of David in the eyes of all thoughtful observers with a mysterious and divine significance.
(a) The first, that of the two rival kingdoms: Israel (Ephraim or Samaria) in the northern half of Palestine, and Judah in the south.
Finally (c), in the so-called " post-exilic " period, religion and life were reorganized under the influence of a new spirit; relations with Samaria were broken off, and Judaism took its definite character, perhaps about the middle or close of the 5th century.
The famous city, within easy reach of the southern desert and central Palestine (to Hebron and to Samaria the distances are about 18 and 35 miles respectively), had already entered into Palestinian history in the " Amarna " age (§ 3).
The cult of the Baal of Tyre followed Jezebel to the royal city Samaria and even found its way into Jerusalem.
Elisha was apparently the champion, and posterity told of his exploits when Samaria was visited with the sword.
The result was the route of Judah, the capture of Amaziah, the destruction of the northern wall of Jerusalem, the sacking of the temple and palace, and the removal of hostages to Samaria (2 Kings xiv.
that of " Israel " and " Samaria ") is involved with the incorporation of non-Judaean elements.
Among those who paid tribute were Rasun (the biblical Rezin) of Damascus, Menahem of Samaria, the kings of Tyre, Byblos and Hamath and the queen of Aribi (Arabia, the Syrian desert).
In due course Samaria was besieged for three years by Shalmaneser IV.
Although no evidence is at hand, it is probable that Ahaz of Judah rendered service to Assyria by keeping the allies in check; possible, also, that the former enemies of Jerusalem had now been induced to turn against Samaria.
Another revolt was planned in 720 in which the province of Samaria joined with Hamath and Damascus, with the Phoenician Arpad and Simura, and with Gaza and " Egypt."
The fall of Samaria, Sennacherib's devastation of Judah, and the growth of Jerusalem as the capital, had tended to raise the position of the Temple, although Israel itself, as also Judah, had famous sanctuaries of its own.
Bethshean in Samaria has perhaps preserved in its later (though temporary) name Scythopolis an echo of the invasion.(Later, Necho, son of Psammetichus, proposed to add to Egypt some of the Assyrian provinces, and marched through Palestine.
But Israel after the fall of Samaria is artificially excluded from the Judaean horizon, and lies as a foreign land, although Judah itself had suffered from the intrusion of foreigners in the preceding centuries of war and turmoil, and strangers had settled in her midst, had formed part of the royal guard, or had even served as janissaries (§ 15, end).
In view of subsequent events it would be difficult to find a more interesting subject of inquiry than the internal religious and sociological conditions in Samaria at this age.
To the prophets the religious position was lower in Judah than in Samaria, whose iniquities were less grievous (Jer.
It is a gratuitous assumption that the history of (north) Israel ceased with the fall of Samaria or that Judah then took over Israelite literature and inherited the old Israelite spirit: the question of the preservation of earlier writings is of historical importance.
It is true that the situation in Israel or Samaria continues obscure, but a careful study of literary productions, evidently not earlier than the 7th century B.C., reveals a particular loftiness of conception and a tendency which finds its parallels in Hosea and approximates the peculiar characteristics of the Deuteronomic school of thought.
But the history which the Judaean writers have handed down is influenced by the later hostility between Judah and Samaria.
They look back from the age when half-suppressed hostility with Samaria had broken out, and when an exclusive Judaism had been formed.
When these refused the proffered help of the people of Samaria, men of the same faith as themselves (iv.
22), Bagohi (Bagoas), governor of Judah, and Delaiah and Shelemiah sons of Sanballat (408-407 B.C.) They ignore any strained relations between Samaria and Judah, and Delaiah and Bagohi unite in granting permission to the Jewish colony to rebuild their place of worship. If this fixes the date of Sanballat and Nehemiah in the time of the first Artaxerxes, the probability of confusion in the later written sources is enhanced by the recurrence of identical names of kings, priests, &c., in the history.
After the defeat of Scopas, Antiochus gained Batanaea and Samaria and Abila and Gadara, and a little later those of the Jews who live round the Temple called Jerusalem adhered to him."
Soon it came to his knowledge that Judas was in Samaria, whither he followed him on a sabbath with Jews pressed into his service.
Archelaus received the lion's share: for ten years he was ethnarch of Idumaea, Judaea and Samaria, with a yearly revenue of 600 talents.
Finally, the Samaritans attacked certain Galileans who were (as the custom was) travelling through Samaria to Jerusalem for the passover.
JUSTIN MARTYR, one of the earliest and ablest Christian apologists, was born about loo at Flavia Neapolis (anc. Sichem), now Nablus, in Palestinian Syria (Samaria).
Thereafter it broadens out and becomes the high table-land of Galilee, Samaria and Judaea, and gradually sinks into the plateau of north Sinai.
30 Another important excavation in Pales tine in the period preceding the World War was that of Dr. Reisner at Samaria, which is not yet fully published.
31 Continued work at Samaria should reveal some trace of the civilization of Israel, which we know was considerable, unless the devastation of the Assyrian sieges has destroyed it all.
For the text refers most probably to the destruction of Samaria, T.
Samaria thus lay within the grasp of Josiah, who may have entertained hopes of forming an independent power of his own.
1) calls the wealthy women of Samaria, who oppressed the poor, " kine of Bashan."
Throughout his life he paid great attention to the "rare earths" and the problem of separating and distinguishing them; in 1878 he extracted ytterbia from what was supposed to be pure erbia, and two years later found gadolinia and samaria in the samarskite earths.
lx., with its ideal description of Jehovah's kingdom as including Gilead, Samaria, Moab, Edom and Philistia, though the ideal was not realized till the days of John Hyrcanus, would be quite appropriate in the mouth of a Maccabaean patriot.
1 - a passage which on independent grounds has been assigned to the time of Simon Maccabaeus), while schismatic Samaria is completely ignored.
Such a district we may find in southern Galilee, " the land of Zebulon and the land of Naphtali," apparently the only portion of Palestine north of Samaria where the worshippers of Jehovah existed in any considerable numbers.
The dissenting inhabitants of Samaria are naturally absent from such a festival.
The fatal siege of Samaria (724-722 B.C.) seems to have given occasion to chap. xxviii.; but the following On the question of the Isaianic origin of the prophecy, ix.
Thus the temples required clothing not merely for the gods but also for the attendants (so at Samaria, 2 Kings x.
In 804 B.C. Damascus was captured by his successor Hadad-nirari IV., to whom tribute was paid by Samaria.
Shalmaneser died suddenly in Tebet 722 B.C., while pressing the siege of Samaria, and the seizure of the throne by another general, Sargon, on the 12th of the month, gave the Babylonians an opportunity to revolt.
According to tradition he was buried at Samaria (Theodoret, H.E.
1-6); but, as this prophecy speaks only of Judah and Jerusalem, it was dated after the fall of Samaria, and assigned to the last days of the Judaean kingdom on the strength of xii.
of Samaria, which first appears in history as the place where Jacob and his family settled for a while (Gen.
During the latter part of the Hebrew monarchy we hear nothing of Shechem, no doubt on account of the commanding importance of the neighbouring city of Samaria.
It no doubt owed its subsequent development to the destruction of Samaria and the rise in the district surrounding of the Samaritan nation founded on the colonists settled by Sargon and Assurbani-pal.
Nothing in the book itself can claim to belong to the reign of Jotham, but the prophecy against Samaria (i.
5-8) may have been uttered originally before the fall of Samaria in 722, i.e.
But, while Samaria is summarily dismissed, the sin of Judah is analysed at length in chs.
Micah unquestionably looked for the destruction of Jerusalem as well as of Samaria in the near future and by the Assyrians (i.
Judaea, Samaria and Idumea.
contains explicit reference to the tribute of Jehu of Samaria, and graphically depicts the Hebrew captives.
Tiglath-Pileser III., a usurper who came to the throne of Assyria in 745 B.C., and whose earlier name of Pul proved a source of confusion to the later Hebrew writers, left records that have served to clear up the puzzling chronology of a considerable period of the history of Samaria.
6) find their sequel in the alliance of Samaria and Damascus against Ahaz, when Edom recovered its independence (so read for " Syria " in 2 Kings xvi.
But the disturbances continued, and although desert tribes were removed and settled in Samaria in 715, Musri and Philistia were soon in arms again.
(e) Three scenes in Judea, Samaria, Galilee respectively (iii.
io) is the only long one; whilst over two-thirds of each Synoptist deal with Galilee or Samaria.
Rezon, defeated in battle, fled to his capital which was at once invested by the Assyrians, while with another portion of his army Tiglath-Pileser ravaged Syria and overran the kingdom of Samaria.
After the death of Herod the Great (4 B.C.) his realm was shared among his three sons: the chief part, including Judaea, Samaria and Idumaea, fell to Archelaus (Matt.
The territory of Damascus was devastated, and Jehu of Samaria (whose ambassadors are represented on the Black Obelisk now in the British Museum) sent tribute along with the Phoenician cities.
The two earliest of the Minor Prophets, Amos and Hosea, prophesied in the northern kingdom, at about 760 and 740 B.C. respectively; both foresaw the approaching ruin of northern Israel at the hands of the Assyrians, which took place in fact when Sargon took Samaria in 722 B.C.; and both did their best to stir their people to better things.
10 (which places the fall of Samaria in Hezekiah's 6th year) is correct; but some scholars (as Wellhausen, Kamphausen, and Stade) suppose that the date in ver.
But when we proceed to add up similarly the regnal years in the two kingdoms from the division after Solomon's death to the fall of Samaria in the sixth year of Hezekiah (2 Kings xviii.
Here, in Judah, from the accession of Athaliah to the accession of Ahaz, tradition gives 143 years, whereas, in fact, there were but 196 years (842-736); and in Israel, from the death of Menahem to the fall of Samaria, it gives 31 years, whereas from 738 (assuming that Menahem died in that year) to 722 there are actually only 16 years.
But in the following period, from the fall of Samaria in 722 to the capture of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans in 586, the Biblical dates, so far as we can judge, are substantially correct.
54); he certainly supposes Felix to have been already governor of Samaria, and apparently of Judaea too, and only recognizes Cumanus as governor of Galilee; and Josephus, though he says nothing of this, and treats Cumanus as the sole procurator down to A.D.
JACOB'S WELL, the scene of the conversation between Jesus and the "woman of Samaria" narrated in the Fourth Gospel, is described as being in the neighbourhood of an otherwise unmentioned "city called Sychar."
After a long period of rest he directed his arms against the town of Samaria, which, in spite of the intervention of Antiochus, his sons Antigonus and Aristobulus ultimately took, and by his orders razed to the ground (c. 109 B.C.).
or Salampsas (Jos.); this was probably the expedition against Hoshea of Samaria in 725; " the king of Assyria ...
After the death of Herod, Archelaus became ethnarch of Samaria, Idumea and Judaea, and when he was deposed Judaea was merged in Syria, being governed by a procurator whose headquarters were in Caesarea.
ANGLO-ISRAELITE THEORY, the contention that the British people in the United Kingdom, its colonies, and the United States, are the racial descendants of the "ten tribes" forming the kingdom of Israel, large numbers of whom were deported by Sargon king of Assyria on the fall of Samaria in 721 B.C. The theory (which is fully set forth in a book called Philo-Israel) rests on premises which are deemed by scholars - both theological and anthropological - to be utterly unsound.
At Rome he was opposed by Antipas and by many of the Jews, who feared his cruelty; but Augustus allotted to him the greater part of the kingdom (Judaea, Samaria, Ituraea) with the title of ethnarch.
5 seq.), his wife was firmly attached to the worship of the Tyrian Baal, Melkart, and led by her he gave a great impulse to this cult by building a temple in honour of Baal in Samaria.
According to the Old Testament narratives, however, Ahab with 7000 troops had previously overthrown Ben-hadad and his thirty-two kings, who had come to lay siege to Samaria, and in the following year obtained a remarkable victory over him at Aphek, probably in the plain of Sharon (1 Kings xx.).
25), and trading facilities between Damascus and Samaria were granted.
After this Peter's attention was directed to the growth of Christianity in Samaria, and he and John made a journey of inspection through that district, laying hands on those who had been baptized in order that they might receive the Holy Spirit.
The Acts, in describing the visits of Peter to Samaria, Joppa, Lydda and Caesarea, justify the view that his missionary activity began quite early.
Besides a valuable account of the principal sacred sites of Judaea, Samaria and Galilee as they existed in the 7th century, he also gives important information as to Alexandria and Constantinople, briefly describes Damascus and Tyre, the Nile and the Lipari volcanoes, and refers to the caliph Moawiya I .
Thyatira, Damascus and Samaria.
Alexandretta), Samaria, Pella (the later Apamea), Carrhae, &c. Antigonus founded Antigonia, which was absorbed a few years later by Antioch, and after the fall of Antigonus in 301, the work of planting Syria with Greek cities was pursued effectively north of the Lebanon by the house of Seleucus, and, less energetically, south of the Lebanon by the house of Ptolemy.
Sebaste (the old Samaria), Caesarea, Antipatris were built by Herod the Great, Tiberias by Herod Antipas (4 B.C. - A.D.
At a second prayer the invaders were struck blind, and in this state they were led by Elisha to Samaria, where their sight was restored.
This is immediately followed by the siege of Samaria by Benhadad which caused a famine of the severest kind.
This is divisible into the districts of Samaria and Judaea.
The highest mountains in the Samaria district are, however, in the neighbourhood of Nablus (Shechem).
The next definite stage is the dynasty of the Israelite Omri, to whom is ascribed the founding of the city of Samaria.
(745-728): proand anti-Assyrian parties now make themselves felt, and when north Syria was taken in 738, Tyre, Sidon, nance of Damascus (under Rezin), " Samaria " (under Menahem) and a queen of Aribi were among the tributaries.
In 722 Samaria, though under an Assyrian vassal (Hoshea the last king), joined with Philistia in revolt; in 720 it was allied with Gaza and Damascus, and the persistence of unrest is evident when Sargon in 715 found it necessary to transport into Samaria various peoples of the desert.
Judah itself was next involved in an anti-Assyrian league (with Edom, Moab and Philistia), but apparently submitted in time; nevertheless a decade later (70r), after the change of dynasty in Assyria, it participated in a great but unsuccessful effort from Phoenicia to Philistia to shake off the yoke, and suffered disastrously.3 With the crushing blows upon Syria and Samaria the centre of interest moves southwards and the history is influenced by Assyria's rival Babylonia (under Marduk-baladan and his successors), by north Arabia and by Egypt.
As the flood poured over Syria and flowed south, Israel (Samaria) suffered grievously, and the gaps caused by war and deportation were filled up by the introduction of new settlers by Sargon, and by his successors in the 7th century.
Unfortunately, there is very little evidence in the biblical history for the subsequent career of Samaria, but it is clear that the old Israel of the dynasties of Omri and Jehu received crushing blows.
But Samaria was not the only land to suffer.
l i ke the new occupants of Samaria, gradually assimilated themselves to the new soil; but the circumstances can hardly be recovered, and even the relations between Judah and Samaria can only be inferred.
The ruling classes are related partly to the southern groups already mentioned and partly to Samaria; but the kingship of old is replaced by a high-priest, and, under the influence of Babylonian Jews of the strictest principles, a breach was made between Judah and Samaria which has never been healed (JEws: § 21 seq.).
Its appearance has been associated with the invasion of the Israelites or with the establishment of the independent monarchy, but on very inadequate grounds; and since it has been independently placed at the latter part of the monarchy, its historical explanation may presumably be found in that break in the career of Palestine when peoples were changed and new organizations slowly grew up. 5 The great significance of these vicissitudes for the course of internal conditions in Palestine is evident when it is observed that the subsequent cleavage between Judah and Samaria, not earlier than the 5th century, presupposes an antecedent common foundation which, in view of the history of the monarchies, can hardly be earlier than the 7th century.
These centuries represent an age which the Jewish historians have partly ignored (as regards Samaria) and partly obscured (as regards the return from exile and the reconstruction of Judah); but since this age stands at the head of an historical development which leads on to Christianity and Rabbinical Judaism, it is necessary to turn from Palestine as a land in order to notice more particularly certain features of the Old Testament upon which the foregoing evidence directly bears.
During the changes from the 8th century onwards a nonmonarchical constitution naturally prevailed, first in the north and then in the south, and while in the north the mingled peoples of Samaria came to regard themselves as Israelite, the southern portion, the tribe of Judah, proves in I Chron.
iii.);"(b) the gaps in the history between the fall of Samaria (722) and Jerusalem (586) to the rise of the hierocracy, and (c) the relation between the hints of renewed political activity in Zerubbabel's time, when the Temple was rebuilt (c. 520-516), and the mysterious catastrophe (with perhaps another disaster to the Temple), probably due to Edom, which is implied in the book of Nehemiah (c. 444).
The oldest nucleus of historical tradition appears to belong to Samaria, but it has been adjusted to other standpoints or interests, which are apparently connected partly with the half-Edomite and partly with the old indigenous Judaean stock.'
The history of the past is viewed from rather different positions which, on the whole, are subsequent to the relatively recent changes that gave birth to new organizations in Samaria and Judah.
Lincke, Samaria u.
The history of these centuries is of fundamental importance in any attempt to " reconstruct " biblical history., The fall of Samaria and Judah was a literary as well as a political catastrophe, and precisely how much earlier material has been 6 Cf.
(7th century), and not only are they in touch with Judah and Samaria, but in Psamtek's time an effort was made by the Asiatic and other mercenaries to escape into Ethiopia (J.
Among the developments in Greek thought of this period, especially interesting for the Old Testament is the teaching associated with Phocylides of Miletus; see Lincke, Samaria, pp. 47 seq.
In any case Joseph borrowed money from his friends in Samaria; and this point in the story proves that the Jews were supposed to have dealings with the Samaritans at the time and could require of them the last proof of friendship. Armed with his borrowed money, Joseph betook himself to Egypt; and there outbid the magnates of Syria when the taxes of the province were put up to auction.
For twentytwo years he held his office and was to all intents and purposes governor of Syria, Phoenicia and Samaria - " A good man " (Josephus calls him) " and a man of mind, who rescued the people of the Jews from poverty and weakness, and set them on the way to comparative splendour " (Ant.
After his victory he took formal possession of Batanaea, Samaria, Abila and Gadara; " and after a little the Jews who dwelt round about the shrine called Jerusalem came over to him " (Polyb.
The king for whom he fought was defeated; but his successor acceded to the demands of Jonathan, added three districts of Samaria to Judaea and freed the whole from tribute.
Soon after his death his sons stormed Samaria, which Alexander the Great had colonized with Macedonian soldiers, and razed it to the ground.
The coast towns and the Decapolis, together with Samaria and Scythopolis, were incorporated in the new Roman province of Syria.
A year later Octavian restored to the Jewish kingdom Jericho, Gadara, Hippos, Samaria, Gaza Anthedon, Joppa and Straton's Tower (Caesarea).
Other towns fell in turn, such as Caesarea, Sebusteh (Samaria), Nablus.
(who began to reign in 727 B.C.) at once laid siege to Samaria, which fell at the end of three years (722-721 B.C.).
Leaving the government of the capital in the hands of his son Harun al-Wathiq, he established himself at Samaria.
a history of the Hellenistic Christians in Jerusalem and of the Seven Men, which from the first tends towards the Gentile Mission and the founding of the Antiochene community; (3) he pursues the activity of Philip in Samaria and on the coast ...; (4) lastly, he relates the history of Paul up to his entrance on the service of the young Antiochene church.
Whether he came to the throne before or after the fall of Samaria (722721 B.C.) is disputed,' nor is it clear what share Judah took in the Assyrian conflicts down to 701.2 Shortly before this date the whole of western Asia was in a ferment; Sargon had died and Sennacherib had come to the throne (in 705); vassal kings plotted to recover their independence and Assyrian puppets were removed by their opponents.
Not the fall of Samaria, but the crisis of 701, is the earliest date that could safely be chosen, and the extent of these reforms must not be overestimated.
15-28), and records briefly his purchase of Samaria, which became the capital of his dynasty (see SAMARIA).
5-24 he is portrayed as a famous sorcerer in Samaria who had been converted to Christianity by Philip. His personality has been the subject of considerable discussion.
The first missionary enterprise Ads of the nascent Church brought it into contact with a magician who had for a long time amazed the people of Samaria with his sorceries (v.
Such a voice of the people cannot be imagined in Judaea, but Samaria was more open than Judaea to the influence of Greek ideas.
Which of them - if it is lawful at all to argue from Alexandria to Samaria - is to be identified with the one called " great " we have no means of deciding.
He was glorified by many as God, and he taught that it was he who appeared among the Jews as the Son, in Samaria as the Father and among other nations as the Holy Spirit.
Indeed, the Clementine romance may most fitly be regarded as an answer to the Great Declaration, the answer of Jewish Gnosticism to the more Hellenized Gnosticism of Samaria.
A parallel case is the much quoted example of Demetrius, who placed the fall of Samaria (722 B.C.) 573 years before the succession of Ptolemy IV.
A vivid description is given of the destruction of the prophets of Baal at the temple in Samaria (2 Kings x.
Singularly enough, the Babylonian colonists in the cities of Samaria are said to have made idols, not of Marduk, but of a deity called Succoth-benoth 2 (2 Kings xvii.
FaXtXata), a Roman province of Palestine north of Samaria, bounded S.
by Samaria and the Carmel range, E.
3 The same obscure period witnessed the advent of southern families, 4 the revival of the Davidic dynasty and its mysterious disappearance, the outbreak of fierce hatred of Edom, the return of exiles from Babylonia, the separation of Judah from Samaria and the rise of bitter anti-Samaritan feeling.
From Omri the king of Syria took cities and the right to establish a quarter for his merchants in Samaria (r Kings xx.
cede for ceding full sovereignty over Judea, Samaria and Gaza, this is doubly wrong.
foreteller forecast the failure of the siege levied on Samaria by Ben-hadad, whose death at the hands of Hazael Elisha also foretold.
Samaria was also overrun by the Assyrian monarch, and the country heavily taxed.
Shalmaneser accordingly invaded Syria, and in 724 began a three-years' siege of Samaria (2 Kings xvii.
Sargon's statement is significant for the internal history; but unfortunately the biblical historians take no further interest in the fortunes of the northern kingdom after the fall of Samaria, and see in Judah the sole survivor of the Israelite tribes (see 2 Kings xvii.
xxxiii.), also of the settling of foreign colonists in Samaria by Esar-haddon (Ezra iv.
Samaria had experienced several changes in its original population, 2 and an instructive story tells how the colonists, in their ignorance of the religion of their new home, incurred the divine wrath.
The absence of direct testimony can be partially supplied by later events which presuppose the break-up of no inconsiderable state, and imply relations with Samaria which had been by no means so unfriendly as the historians represent.
3 At all events, there is now a complete rupture with Samaria, and thus, in the concluding chapter of the last of the historical books of the Old Testament, Judah maintains its claim to the heritage of Israel and rejects the right of the Samaritans to the title' (see § 5).
ii, 7-9), it is very difficult not to conclude that the royal permits, as now detailed, have been coloured by Jewish patriotism and the history by enmity to Samaria.
3, where the building of the Temple is concerned) and refused a compromise (vi.2), it is extremely unlikely that Samaria had hitherto been seriously hostile; see also C. C. Torrey, Ezra Studies, pp. 321-333.
Apropos of hostility towards Samaria, it is singular that the term of reproach, " Cutheans," applied to the Samaritans is derived from Cutha, the famous seat of the god Nergal, only some 25 m.
The revolt of Samaria took place during his reign (see Jews § 15), and while he was besieging the rebel city he died on the 12th of Tebet 722 B.C. and the crown was seized by Sargon.
In the west the confederacy of Syrian princes headed by Benhadad of Damascus and including Ahab of Israel (see Jews, § io) was shattered in 853 B.C., and twelve years later the forces of Hazael were annihilated and the ambassadors of Jehu of Samaria brought tribute to " the great king."
Samaria is sentenced to destruction for idolatry; and the blow extends to Judah also, which participates in the same guilt (ch.
Ephraim's strength lay in the possession of famous sites: Shechem, with the tomb of the tribal ancestor, also one of the capitals; Shiloh, at one period the home of the ark; TimnathSerah (or Heres), the burial-place of Joshua; and Samaria, whose name was afterwards extended to the whole district (see Samaria) .
Musri was entrusted to the care of the Arabian Idibi'il (of the desert district), but continued to support antiAssyrian leagues (see Hoshea), and again in 720 (two years after the fall of Samaria) was in alliance with Gaza and north Palestine.
Reducing now both the Assyrian and Biblical dates to a common standard, 2 and adopting for the latter the computations of Ussher, we obtain the following singular series of discrepancies: Manifestly all the Biblical dates earlier than 733-732 B.C. are too high, and must be considerably reduced: the two events, also, in Hezekiah's reign-the fall of Samaria and the invasion of Sennacherib-which the compiler of the book of Kings treats as separated by an interval of eight years, were separated in reality by an interval of twenty-one years.4 1 See George Smith, The Assyrian Eponym Canon (1875), pp. 2 9 ff., 57 ff.; Schrader, Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek (transcriptions and translations of Assyrian and Babylonian inscriptions), i.
to overrun Samaria, and also to invade Idumaea, which he completely subdued, compelling its inhabitants to receive circumcision and accept the Jewish faith.
Not only are the standpoints of local interest (Samaria, Benjamin, Judah and the half-Edomite Judah being involved), but there are remarkable developments in the ecclesiastical bodies (Zadokites of Jerusalem, country and half-Edomite priests, Aaronites) which have influenced both the writing and the revision of the sources (see Levites).
On the depopulation of Samaria and the introduction of colonists, see Winckler's objections, Alttest.
The name Samaria is derived through the Gr.
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