This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience. Learn more

salts

salts Sentence Examples

  • The existence of double salts, and the observations of L.

    21
    5
  • The insoluble salts are rose-red or violet in colour.

    15
    8
  • A large number of cobalt compounds are known, of which the empirical composition represents them as salts of cobalt to which one or more molecules of ammonia have been added.

    6
    1
  • A large number of cobalt compounds are known, of which the empirical composition represents them as salts of cobalt to which one or more molecules of ammonia have been added.

    6
    1
  • This acid cannot be isolated in the free condition, but many of its salts are known.

    6
    4
  • In addition, certain inorganic salts, particularly certain compounds of potassium, are apparently necessary, but they seem to take no part in the chemical changes which take place.

    4
    0
  • The independence of the two is suggested by the fact that fungi can live, thrive and grow in nutritive media which contain carbohydrates together with certain salts of ammonia, but which are free from proteids.

    4
    0
  • In addition, certain inorganic salts, particularly certain compounds of potassium, are apparently necessary, but they seem to take no part in the chemical changes which take place.

    4
    0
  • FULMINIC ACID, Hcno or H 2 C 2 N 2 0 2, an organic acid isomeric with cyanic and cyanuric acids; its salts, termed fulminates, are very explosive and are much employed as detonators.

    1
    0
  • For the phenazonium salts see Safranine.

    1
    1
  • Solutions of yttria salts in their behaviour to reagents are not unlike those of zirconia.

    1
    1
  • It is a basic oxide, dissolving readily in acids, with the formation of salts, somewhat analogous to those of zinc.

    1
    1
  • Habitats rich in mineral salts, especially calcium carbonate, poor in acidic humous compounds, and characterized by ash woods, beech woods, and calcareous pasture.

    1
    1
  • The pungent smelling salts snapped her out of the in-between place.

    0
    0
  • It is readily soluble in warm dilute mineral acids forming cobaltous salts.

    0
    0
  • It dissolves in acids forming cobaltous salts, and on exposure to air it rapidly absorbs oxygen, turning brown in colour.

    0
    0
  • This hydroxide is soluble in well cooled acids, forming solutions which contain cobaltic salts, one of the most stable of which is the acetate.

    0
    0
  • The barium and magnesium salts of this acid are formed when baryta and magnesia are fused with cobalt sesquioxide.

    0
    0
  • The cobaltous salts are formed when the metal, cobaltous oxide, hydroxide or carbonate, are dissolved in acids, or, in the case of the insoluble salts, by precipitation.

    0
    0
  • The soluble salts are, when in the hydrated condition, also red, but in the anhydrous condition are blue.

    0
    0
  • They are precipitated from their alkaline solutions as cobalt sulphide by sulphuretted hydrogen, but this precipitation is prevented by the presence of citric and tartaric acids; similarly the presence of ammonium salts hinders their precipitation by caustic alkalis.

    0
    0
  • Alkaline carbonates give precipitates of basic carbonates, the formation of which is also retarded by the presence of ammonium salts.

    0
    0
  • The hexammine salts are formed by the oxidizing action of air on dilute ammoniacal solutions of cobaltous salts, especially in presence of a large excess of ammonium chloride.

    0
    0
  • They are formed by the action of nitrous fumes on ammoniacal solutions of cobaltous salts, or purpureo-salts, or by the mutual reaction of chlorpurpureosalts and alkaline nitrites.

    0
    0
  • The pentammine roseo-salts can be obtained from the action of concentrated acids, in the cold, on airoxidized solutions of cobaltous salts.

    0
    0
  • On heating, they decompose, forming basic tetrammine salts.

    0
    0
  • Cobalt salts may be readily detected by the formation of the black sulphide, in alkaline solution, and by the blue colour they produce when fused with borax.

    0
    0
  • It is monobasic and yields salts which only crystallize with great difficulty; when liberated, from these salts by a mineral acid it forms a syrupy nonvolatile mass.

    0
    0
  • They may be prepared by the dry distillation of the ammonium salts.

    0
    0
  • After the vigorous reaction has ceased and all the sodium has been used up, the mass is thrown into dilute hydrochloric acid, when the soluble sodium salts go into solution, and the insoluble boron remains as a brown powder, which may by filtered off and dried.

    0
    0
  • They add on alkyl iodides readily, forming alkyl azonium salts.

    0
    0
  • They are yellowish-red solids, which behave as weak bases, their salts undergoing hydrolytic dissociation in aqueous solution.

    0
    0
  • The free acid, which is obtained by treating the salts with acids, is an oily liquid smelling like prussic acid; it is very explosive, and the vapour is poisonous to about the same degree as that of prussic acid.

    0
    0
  • The researches of Liebig (1823), Liebig and Gay-Lussac (1824), and of Liebig again in 1838 showed the acid to be isomeric with cyanic acid, and probably (Hcno) 2, since it gave mixed and acid salts.

    0
    0
  • Ratz (Monats., 1905, 26, p. 1241) obtained the value [a] D = - 16 9.54° at 20°; its salts are dextro-rotatory.

    0
    0
  • In 1826 he described the prismatically-coloured films of metal, known as Nobili's' rings, deposited electrolytically from solutions of lead and other salts when the anode is a polished iron plate and the cathode is a fine wire placed vertically above it.

    0
    0
  • The bark, very dark externally, is an excellent tanning substance; the inner layers form the quercitron of commerce, used by dyers for communicating to fabrics various tints of yellow, and, with iron salts, yielding a series of brown and drab hues; the colouring property depends on a crystalline principle called quercitrin, of which it should contain about 8%.

    0
    0
  • Some of them, like the Kreuzbrunnen and the Ferdinandsbrunnen, contain alkaline-saline waters which resemble those of Carlsbad, except that they are cold and contain nearly twice the quantity of purgative salts.

    0
    0
  • Davy on the decomposition of the solutions of salts by the voltaic current were turned to account in the water voltameter telegraph of Sdmmering and the modification of it proposed by Schweigger, and in a similar method proposed by Coxe, in which a solution of salts was substituted for water.

    0
    0
  • The metal is quite permanent in dry air, but in moist air it becomes coated with a superficial layer of the oxide; it burns on heating to redness, forming a brown coloured oxide; and is readily soluble in mineral acids with formation of the corresponding salts.

    0
    0
  • Ann., 1859, 106, 513), probably owing to the formation of complex ions; the abnormal behaviour apparently diminishing as the solution becomes more and more dilute, until, at very high dilutions the salts are ionized in the normal manner.

    0
    0
  • Cadmium sulphide, CdS, occurs naturally as greenockite (q.v.), and can be artificially prepared by passing sulphuretted hydrogen through acid solutions of soluble cadmium salts, when it is precipitated as a pale yellow amorphous solid.

    0
    0
  • Normal cadmium carbonates are unknown, a white precipitate of variable composition being obtained on the addition of solutions of the alkaline carbonates to soluble cadmium salts.

    0
    0
  • Cadmium salts can be recognized by the brown incrustation which is formed when they are heated on charcoal in the oxidizing flame of the blowpipe; and also by the yellow precipitate formed when sulphuretted hydrogen is passed though their acidified solutions.

    0
    0
  • Molybdenum trioxide, like chromium trioxide, is an acidic oxide, and forms salts known as molybdates.

    0
    0
  • The molybdates are also capable of combining with other oxides (such as phosphorus and arsenic pentoxides) yielding very complex salts.

    0
    0
  • chiefly, they provide a number of channels, penetrating every part of the leaf, along which water and dissolved salts are conveyed to, and elaborated food-substances from, the mesophyll cells.

    0
    0
  • They possess a delicate Laticiferous layer of protoplasm, with numerous small nuclei lining Tissue the walls, while the interior of the tube (corresponding with the cell-vacuole) contains a fluid called latex, consisting of an emulsion of fine granules and drops of very various substances suspended in a watery medium in which various other substances (salts, sugars, rubber-producers, tannins, alkaloids and various enzymes) are dissolved.

    0
    0
  • deficiency of nutritive salts, especially nitrates and phosphates; the presence of poisonous salts of iron, copper, &c., or (in the soil about the roots of trees in towns) of coal-gas and so forth.

    0
    0
  • the damping off of seedlingsand in saturated soils not only are the roots and root-hairs killed by asphyxiation, but the whole course of soil fermentation is altered, and it takes time to sweeten such by draining, because not only must the noxious bodies be gradually washed out and the lost salts restored, but the balance of suitable bacterial and fungal life must be restored.

    0
    0
  • mineral salts, especially calcium carbonate, often rich in acidic humous compounds, and characterized by oak and birch woods, siliceous pasture, and heaths with much acidic humus in the sandy soil.

    0
    0
  • Doubtless, the excess of any soluble mineral salt or salts interferes with the osmotic absorption of the roots; and although calcium carbonate is insoluble in pure water, it is slightly soluble in water containing carbon dioxide.

    0
    0
  • The cell sap contains various substances in solution such as sugars, inulin, alkaloids, glucosides, organic acids and various inorganic salts.

    0
    0
  • He formed a comprehensive theory of the variations of climate with latitude and season, and was convinced of the necessity of a circulation of water between the sea and rivers, though, like Plato, he held that this took place by water rising from the sea through crevices in the rocks, losing it .s dissolved salts in the process.

    0
    0
  • The oxides of type RO are soluble in water, the solution possessing a strongly alkaline reaction and rapidly absorbing carbon dioxide on exposure; they are basic in character and dissolve readily in acids with the formation of the corresponding salts.

    0
    0
  • The salts of all the metals of this group usually crystallize well, the chlorides and nitrates dissolve readily in water, whilst the carbonates, phosphates and sulphates are either very sparingly soluble or are insoluble in water.

    0
    0
  • Hantzsch (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3337) has shown that in the action of alcohols on diazonium salts an increase in the molecular weight of the alcohol and an accumulation of negative groups in the aromatic nucleus lead to a diminution in the yield of the ether produced and to the production of a secondary reaction, resulting in the formation of a certain amount of an aromatic hydrocarbon.

    0
    0
  • The symptoms of nerve-poisoning are due to the carbolic acid (or its salts) which circulate in the blood after all the sulphates in the blood have been used up in the formation of sulpho-carbolates (hence, during administration of carbolic acid, the urine should frequently be tested for the presence of free sulphates; as long as these occur in the urine, they are present in the blood and there is no danger).

    0
    0
  • It is a yellow, microcrystalline powder, soluble in water, alcohol and chloroform, and forming readily decomposed salts with acids.

    0
    0
  • On examination of the metal and its salts it was shown to be identical with the hypothetical element ekasilicon, whose properties had been predicted by D.

    0
    0
  • Germanium compounds on fusion with alkaline carbonates and sulphur form salts known as thiogermanates.

    0
    0
  • The germanium salts are most readily recognized by the white precipitate of the disulphide, formed in acid solutions, on passing sulphuretted hydrogen.

    0
    0
  • Sjdgren to contain salts like those of sulphur-springs.

    0
    0
  • It combines with many metals to form sulphides, and also decomposes many metallic salts with consequent production of sulphides, a property which renders it extremely useful in chemical analysis.

    0
    0
  • It is frequently used as a reducing agent: in acid solutions it reduces ferric to ferrous salts, arsenates to arsenites, permanganates to manganous salts, &c., whilst in alkaline solution it converts many organic nitro compounds into the corresponding amino derivatives.

    0
    0
  • Walden (ibid.) has shown that certain salts dissolve in liquid sulphur dioxide forming additive compounds, two of which have been prepared in the case of potassium iodide: a yellow crystalline solid of composition, KI 14 S0 2, and a red solid of composition, KI 4S0 2.

    0
    0
  • In many cases it acts as a reducing agent (when used in the presence of acids); thus, permanganates are reduced to manganous salts, iodates are reduced with liberation of iodine, &c., 2KMnO 4 + 550 2 + 2H 2 0 = K 2 SO 4 + 2MnSO 4 + 2H 2 SO 4; 2K103+ 550 2 + 4H 2 O =1 3 + 2KHSO 4 + 3H2S04.

    0
    0
  • Numerous salts, termed sulphites, are known.

    0
    0
  • Since the free acid would be dibasic, two series of salts exist, namely, the neutral and acid salts.

    0
    0
  • The neutral alkaline salts are soluble in water and show an alkaline reaction, the other neutral salts being either insoluble or difficultly soluble in water.

    0
    0
  • The acid salts have a neutral or slightly acid reaction.

    0
    0
  • rend., 1902, 135, p. 647) has also obtained salts by the action of dry sulphur dioxide on various metallic hydrides.

    0
    0
  • Persulphuric acid, HS04, the acid corresponding to S207, has not been obtained in the free state, but its salts were first prepared in 1891 by H.

    0
    0
  • The salts of the acid, however, are stable, the sodium salt in particular being largely used for photographic purposes under the name of "hypo."

    0
    0
  • They form many double salts and give a dark violet coloration with ferric chloride solution, this colour, however, gradually disappearing on standing, sulphur being precipitated.

    0
    0
  • The salts are unstable; and a solution of the free acid (obtained by the addition of hydrofluosilicic acid to the potassium salt) on concentration in vacuo decomposes rapidly: H 2 S 3 0 6 = H 2 SO 4 -{- S S02.

    0
    0
  • of potassium acid tartrate; (d) potassa sulphurata (liver of sulphur), a mixture of salts of which the chief are sulphides of potassium; (e) sulphuris iodidum (U.S.P.), which has a preparation unguentum sulphuris iodidi, strength 1 in 25.

    0
    0
  • zinc with solutions of copper salts), the thermal effect is practically independent of the nature of the acid radical in the salt employed.

    0
    0
  • Hess now observed that in the process of mixing such neutral solutions no thermal effect was produced - that is, neutral salts in aqueous solution could apparently interchange their radicals without evolution or absorption of heat.

    0
    0
  • Of mineral constituents, whether used alone or in mixture with nitrogenous manures, phosphates are much more effective than mixtures of salts of potash, soda and magnesia.

    0
    0
  • Many salts of the acid are known and, with the exception of those of the alkali metals, they are difficultly soluble in water.

    0
    0
  • The roots are prevented from fulfilling their function of taking up water and salts from the soil; the leaves accordingly droop, and the whole plant wilts and in bad attacks dies.

    0
    0
  • The citrates are a numerous class of salts, the most soluble of which are those of the alkaline metals; the citrates of the alkaline earth metals are insoluble.

    0
    0
  • Citric acid, being tribasic, forms either acid monometallic, acid dimetallic or neutral trimetallic salts; thus, mono-, diand tri-potassium and sodium citrates are known.

    0
    0
  • The impurities occasionally present in commercial citric acid are salts of potassium and sodium, traces of iron, lead and copper derived from the vessels used for its evaporation and crystallization, and free sulphuric, tartaric and even oxalic acid.

    0
    0
  • Another mode of separating the two acids is to convert them into calcium salts, which are then treated with a perfectly neutral solution of cupric chloride, soluble cupric citrate and calcium chloride being formed, while cupric tartrate remains undissolved.

    0
    0
  • The extent to which a soap is hydrolysed depends upon the acid and on the concentration of the solution; it is also affected by the presence of metallic salts, e.g.

    0
    0
  • On settling the product forms three layers: the uppermost is a thin crust of soap which is worked up again in the pan; the second is the desired soap; next there is a dark-coloured weak soap termed nigre, which, because it contains some soap and alkali is saved for future use; underneath these is a solution of alkaline salts with a little free alkali.

    0
    0
  • It is of consequence that they should, as far as possible, be free from excess of alkali and all other salts and foreign ingredients which may have an injurious effect on the skin.

    0
    0
  • Among the principal varieties are those which contain carbolic acid and other ingredients of coal tar, salicylic acid, petroleum, borax, camphor, iodine, mercurial salts, sulphur and tannin.

    0
    0
  • Ru2C16.4KC1; Ru 2 C1 6.4NH 4 C1, &c. The pure tetrachloride, RuC1 4, has not been isolated, but is chiefly known in the form of its double salts, such as potassium ruthenium chloride, K 2 RuC1 6, which is obtained when finely divided ruthenium is fused with caustic potash and potassium chloride is gradually added to the fused mass (U.

    0
    0
  • Lastly, salts amount to 3.

    0
    0
  • Notwithstanding the false idea which prompted the researches of the alchemists, many advances were made in descriptive chemistry, the metals and their salts receiving much attention, and several of our important acids being discovered.

    0
    0
  • de la Boë Sylvius (1614-1672), who regarded medicine as applied chemistry, and Otto Tachenius, who elucidated the nature of salts.

    0
    0
  • elements received symbols composed of circles, arcs of circles, and lines, while certain class symbols, such as1W for metals, - - foracids, for alkalies, for salts, U for calces, &c., were used.

    0
    0
  • An acid (q.v.) is a compound of hydrogen, which element can be replaced by metals, the hydrogen being liberated, giving substances named salts.

    0
    0
  • An alkali or base is a substance which neutralizes an acid with the production of salts but with no evolution of hydrogen.

    0
    0
  • Thus the chlorine oxyacids enumerated above form salts named respectively hypochlorites, chlorites, chlorates and perchlorates.

    0
    0
  • Salts formed from hydracids terminate in -ide, following the rule for binary compounds.

    0
    0
  • Group VI.: 0, usually divalent, but tetravalent and possibly hexavalent in oxonium and other salts; S, Se, Te, di-, tetraand hexa-valent; Cr, di-, triand hexa-valent; Mo, W, di-, tri-, tetra-, pentaand hexa-valent.

    0
    0
  • Salts of ammonium were also known; while alum was used as a mordant in dyeing.

    0
    0
  • The scientific study of salts dates from this period, especial interest being taken in those compounds which possessed a medicinal or technical value.

    0
    0
  • In particular, the salts of potassium, sodium and ammonium were carefully investigated, but sodium and potassium salts were rarely differentiated.

    0
    0
  • few new fields were opened, and apart from a more complete knowledge of the nature of salts, no valuable generalizations were attained.

    0
    0
  • Berzelius's investigation of the action of the electric current on salts clearly demonstrated the invaluable assistance that electrolysis could render to the isolator of elements; and the adoption of this method by Sir Humphry Davy for the analysis of the hydrates of the metals of the alkalis and alkaline earths, and the results which he thus achieved, established its potency.

    0
    0
  • Gerland contributed to our knowledge of vanadyl salts and the vanadic acids.

    0
    0
  • Clarke, Gay Lussac and Stromeyer, published his masterly investigation of the various phosphoric acids and their salts, obtaining results subsequently employed by J.

    0
    0
  • Of recent years the introduction of various organic compounds as precipitants or reagents has reduced the labour of the process; and advantage has also been taken of the fairly complex double salts which these metals form with compounds.

    0
    0
  • This view was accepted in 1817 by Leopold Gmelin, who, in his Handbuch der Chemie, regarded inorganic compounds as being of binary composition (the simplest being oxides, both acid and basic, which by combination form salts also of binary form), and organic compounds as ternary, i.e.

    0
    0
  • NH 2; secondary, R2: NH; and tertiary, R3: N; the oxamines, R 3 N :0, are closely related to the tertiary ammonias, which also unite with a molecule of alkyl iodide to form salts of quaternary ammonium bases, e.g.

    0
    0
  • Moreover, while methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine increase in basicity corresponding to the introduction of successive methyl groups, phenylamine or aniline, diphenylamine, and triphenylamine are in decreasing order of basicity, the salts of diphenylamine being decomposed by water.

    0
    0
  • Richter contributed to the knowledge of the quantitative composition of salts.

    0
    0
  • Oxygen, recognized by its power of igniting a glowing splinter, results from the decomposition of oxides of the noble metals, peroxides, chlorates, nitrates and other highly oxygenized salts.

    0
    0
  • Ammonia, recognizable by its odour and alkaline reaction, indicates ammoniacal salts or cyanides containing water.

    0
    0
  • Gold and copper salts give a metallic bead without an incrustation.

    0
    0
  • For this purpose the cold solution is treated with hydrochloric acid, which precipitates lead, silver and mercurous salts as chlorides.

    0
    0
  • The precipitate formed by sulphuretted hydrogen may contain the black mercuric, lead, and copper sulphides, dark-brown bismuth sulphide, yellow cadmium and arsenious sulphides, orange-red antimony sulphide, brown stannous sulphide, dull-yellow stannic sulphide, and whitish sulphur, the last resulting from the oxidation of sulphuretted hydrogen by ferric salts, chromates, &c. Warming with ammonium sulphide dissolves out the arsenic, antimony and tin salts, which are reprecipitated by the addition of hydrochloric acid to the ammonium sulphide solution.

    0
    0
  • In the above account we have indicated the procedure adopted in the analysis of a complex mixture of salts.

    0
    0
  • The washing is continued until the filtrate is free from salts or acids.

    0
    0
  • A blue coloration indicates nitrogen, and is due to the formation of potassium (or sodium) cyanide during the fusion, and subsequent interaction with the iron salts.

    0
    0
  • Schroeder the silver salts of the fatty acids exhibit additive relations; an increase in the molecule of CH2 causes an increase in the molecular volume of about 15'3.

    0
    0
  • The chromophoric groups are rarely strongly acid or basic; on the other hand, the auxochromes are strongly acid or basic and form salts very readily.

    0
    0
  • Examples of the first case are found among the colourless acridines and quinoxalines which give coloured salts; of the second case we may notice the colourless hydrochloride and sulphate of the deep yellow o-aminobenzophenone.

    0
    0
  • metals producing colourless salts with acids, is attended by colour changes contrary to those given above, auxochromic combination being accompanied by a deepening, and chromophoric by a lessening of the tint.

    0
    0
  • On the chromophoreauxochrome theory (the nitro group being the chromophore, and the hydroxyl the auxochrome) it is necessary in order to explain the high colour of the metallic salts and the colourless alkyl and aryl derivatives to assume that the auxochromic action of the hydroxyl group is only brought strongly into evidence by salt formation.

    0
    0
  • Hantzsch explains the transformation of the colourless acid into red salts, which on standing yield more stable, colourless salts, by the following scheme: N R.0N O H R CA O R'CC NO 2Na 2 O?

    0
    0
  • He has also shown that the nitrophenols yield, in addition to the colourless true nitrophenol ethers, an isomeric series of coloured unstable quinonoid aci-ethers, which have practically the same colour and yield the same absorption spectra as the coloured metallic salts.

    0
    0
  • von Hauer has investigated a number of cases in which salts exhibiting episomorphism have different colours, thereby clearly demonstrating this property of isomorphism.

    0
    0
  • For example, episomorphs of white potash alum and violet chrome alum, of white magnesium sulphate and green nickel sulphate, and of many other pairs of salts, have been obtained.

    0
    0
  • It may happen that the crystals do not form double salts, and are only miscible in certain proportions.

    0
    0
  • By plotting the specific volumes of these mixed crystals as ordinates, it is found that they fall on two lines, the upper corresponding to the orthorhombic crystals, the lower to the monoclinic. From this we may conclude that these salts are isodimorphous: the upper line represents isomorphous crystals of stable orthorhombic magnesium sulphate and unstable orthorhombic ferrous sulphate, the lower line isomor phous crystals of stable monoclinic ferrous sulphate and unstable monoclinic magnesium sulphate.

    0
    0
  • An important distinction separates true mixed crystals and crystallized double salts, for in the latter the properties are not linear functions of the properties of the components; generally there is a contraction in /10.591 volume, while the re fractive indices and other physical properties do not, in general, obey the additive law.

    0
    0
  • S, Se; Te (in tellurides); Cr, Mn, Te (in the acids H 2 RO 4); As, Sb (in the glances MR2) As, Sb, Bi; Te (as an element); P, Vd (in salts); N, P (in organic bases).

    0
    0
  • In the absence of water, it forms salts of the type (CH 2: NOH)3 HC1 with acids.

    0
    0
  • In the combined state nitrogen is fairly widely distributed, being found in nitre, Chile saltpetre, ammonium salts and in various animal and vegetable tissues and liquids.

    0
    0
  • If the gas be mixed with the vapour of carbon disulphide, the mixture burns with a vivid lavender-coloured flame Nitric oxide is soluble in solutions of ferrous salts, a dark brown solution being formed, which is readily decomposed by heat, with evolution of nitric oxide.

    0
    0
  • Nitrogen combines with hydrogen to form ammonia, NH 3, hydrazine, N 2 H 4, and azoimide, N 3 H (qq.v.); the other known hydrides, N 4 H 4 and N5H5, are salts of azoimide, viz.

    0
    0
  • Hyponitrous acid, H2N202, was first obtained in the form of its salts by E.

    0
    0
  • Nitrous acid, HN02, is found to some extent in the form of its salts in the atmosphere and in rain water.

    0
    0
  • Its salts may be obtained in some cases by heating the corresponding nitrates, but the method does not give good results.

    0
    0
  • The salts of the acid are colourless or faintly yellow.

    0
    0
  • Erbium forms rose-coloured salts and a rose-coloured oxide.

    0
    0
  • The salts show a characteristic absorption spectrum.

    0
    0
  • It consists largely of a dark brown or black sandy loam, finely comminuted, the richness of which in organic matter and mineral salts induces rapidity of growth, and the strength and durability of which render it capable of a long succession of crops.

    0
    0
  • Water and carbonic acid are synthesized, under the action of sunlight, to form sugar, starch or some other carboh y drate and this is then combined with simple nitrogenous salts to form proteid.

    0
    0
  • Now dead animal substance and the excreta of animals decompose in the long run into carbonic acid, water and mineral salts, and so there is a continual destruction of animal substance both on the land and in the sea.

    0
    0
  • - These are the materials which are utilized by the vegetable plankton in the synthesis of living material: they are water, carbonic acid, nitrates and nitrites of calcium, magnesium and other earthy and alkaline metals, phosphates, silica, traces of salts containing iron, sulphur, potassium and a few other elements.

    0
    0
  • The source of the carbon of organic tissues is carbonic acid; that of the nitrogen in the proteids is the nitrates, nitrites and salts of ammonia dissolved in sea-water; the material of the shells or other skeletons is the silica, phosphate and calcium of the salts of sea-water (and, in rare cases, the salts of strontium).

    0
    0
  • The low temperature of the winter allows (indirectly) an accumulation of the essential nitrogenous mineral salts, but as the minimal temperature is passed (in Feb.

    0
    0
  • In the end much inorganic nitrogen salts must be added to the sea both in the above way and as the result of the putrefaction of the dead substance of terrestrial animals and plants.

    0
    0
  • Lime is transported in solution as sulphate and bicarbonate, both of which salts are soluble to some extent in water.

    0
    0
  • The water of the ocean is usually nearly saturated with calcium salts, which must continually be removed since they are always being added in the water brought down from the land.

    0
    0
  • They are usually insoluble in water, alcohol and ether; and their presence as solutes in vegetable and animal fluids is not yet perfectly understood, but it is probably to be connected with the presence of salts or other substances.

    0
    0
  • It is insoluble in water, while its salts are readily soluble.

    0
    0
  • " Eucasein " is the ammonium salt; " nutrose " and " plasmon " are sodium salts.

    0
    0
  • The primary products of the dissociation of albumins are the albumoses, characterized by not being coagulable by heat, more soluble than the albumins, having a far less complex composition, and capable of being " salted (7) out " by certain salts, and the peptones, similar to albumoses but not capable of being " salted out "; moreover, peptones are less complex than albumoses.

    0
    0
  • They give the biuret and xanthoproteic reactions, and form salts with both acids and bases.

    0
    0
  • Chemically they resemble the albumins, being split up by acids or ferments into albumoses, peptones and amino-acids, forming salts, and giving N =C6 1 The pyrimidin ring is numbered 2C "C5.

    0
    0
  • The decomposition products are generally the same as with the general albumin; it gives the biuret reaction; forms salts with acids and alkalies, but is essentially acid in nature.

    0
    0
  • Faraday examined also the electrolysis of certain fused salts such as lead chloride and silver chloride.

    0
    0
  • It is possible to distinguish between double salts and salts of compound acids.

    0
    0
  • If two solutions containing the salts AB and CD be mixed, double decomposition is found to occur, the salts AD and CB being formed till a certain part of the first pair of substances is transformed into an equivalent amount of the second pair.

    0
    0
  • The proportions between the four salts AB, CD, AD and CB, which exist finally in solution, are found to be the same whether we begin with the pair AB and CD or with the pair AD and CB.

    0
    0
  • A freedom of interchange is thus indicated between the opposite parts of the molecules of salts in solution, and it follows reasonably that with the solution of a single salt, say sodium chloride, continual interchanges go on between the sodium and chlorine parts of the different molecules.

    0
    0
  • In such salts as potassium chloride the ions seem to be simple throughout" a wide range of concentration since the transport numbers for the same series of concentrations as those used above run Potassium chloride 0.5 1 5, 0.515, 0.514, 0.513, 0.509, 0.508, 0.507, 0.507, 0.506.

    0
    0
  • Now Hittorf's transport number, in the case of simple salts in moderately dilute solution, gives us the ratio between the two ionic velocities.

    0
    0
  • But when we pass to solutions of mineral salts and acids - to solutions of electrolytes in fact - we find that the observed values of the osmotic pressures and of the allied phenomena are greater than the normal values.

    0
    0
  • The theoretical value for the depression of the freezing point of a dilute solution per gramme-equivalent of solute per litre is 1857° C. Completely ionized solutions of salts with two ions should give double this number or 3.714°, while electrolytes with three ions should have a value of 5.57°.

    0
    0
  • The salts tabulated are those of which the equivalent conductivity reaches a limiting value indicating that complete ionization is reached as dilution is increased.

    0
    0
  • With such salts alone is a valid comparison possible.

    0
    0
  • 5.08 At the concentration used by Loomis the electrical conductivity indicates that the ionization is not complete, particularly in the case of the salts with divalent ions in the second list.

    0
    0
  • All copper salts in dilute solution are blue, which is therefore the colour of the copper ion.

    0
    0
  • The ratios of the coagulative powers can thus be calculated to be i: x: x 2, and putting x =32 we get I: 32: 1024, a satisfactory agreement with the numbers observed.4 The question of the application of the dissociation theory to the case of fused salts remains.

    0
    0
  • The evidence in favour of dissociation in the case of solutions does not apply to fused salts, and it is possible that, in their case, a series of molecular interchanges, somewhat like Grotthus's chain, may represent the mechanism of conduction.

    0
    0
  • For acids its value is usually rather less than for salts at equivalent concentrations.

    0
    0
  • Since the salts, both before and after mixture, exist mainly as dissociated ions, it is obvious that large thermal effects can only appear when the state of dissociation of the products is very different from that of the reagents.

    0
    0
  • The watery fluid in which the globules are suspended holds certain proteids, carbohydrates and a small proportion of salts in solution.

    0
    0
  • The watery liquid known as rubber milk or latex is an emulsion consisting chiefly of a weak watery solution of proteids, carbohydrates and salts holding the liquid globules in suspension.

    0
    0
  • The dissolved salts (potassium, sodium, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, &c.) of the latex are generally nearly entirely absent from the wellprepared rubber.

    0
    0
  • 0.36 Ash (salts).

    0
    0
  • The species lepidolite is largely used for the manufacture of lithium and rubidium salts.

    0
    0
  • The outer surfaces of the mantle secrete' the shell, which is of the nature of a cuticle impregnated by calcareous salts.

    0
    0
  • From 1827 to 1833 he was occupied mainly with chemical researches, which resulted in the discovery of the first of the platino-ammonium compounds ("Magnus's green salt" is Pt11 2j 2NH 3), of sulphovinic, ethionic and isethionic acids and their salts, and, in conjunction with C. F.

    0
    0
  • Lead generally functions as a divalent element of distinctly metallic character, yielding a definite series of salts derived from the oxide PbO.

    0
    0
  • Litharge is much used for the preparation of lead salts, for the manufacture of oil varnishes, of certain cements, and of lead plaster, and for other purposes.

    0
    0
  • It forms crystallizable salts with potassium and calcium hydrates, and functions as a weak acid forming salts named plumbates.

    0
    0
  • These salts are like those of tin; and the resemblance to this metal is clearly enhanced by the study of the alkyl compounds.

    0
    0
  • Lead sulphate, PbSO 4, occurs in nature as the mineral anglesite (q.v.), and may be prepared by the addition of sulphuric acid to solutions of lead salts, as a white precipitate almost insoluble in water (1 in 21,739), less soluble still in dilute sulphuric acid (1 in 36,504) and insoluble in alcohol.

    0
    0
  • When mixed with sodium carbonate and heated on charcoal in the reducing flame lead salts yield malleable globules of metal and a yellow oxide-ring.

    0
    0
  • Solutions of lead salts (colourless in the absence of coloured acids) are characterized by their behaviour to hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid and potassium chromate.

    0
    0
  • The chief pharmacopoeial salts are: (1) Plumbi oxidum (lead oxide), litharge.

    0
    0
  • Applied externally lead salts have practically no action upon the unbroken skin, but applied to sores, ulcers or any exposed mucous membranes they coagulate the albumen in the tissues themselves and contract the small vessels.

    0
    0
  • Lead salts usually produce constipation, and lead is an active ecbolic. Lead is said to enter the blood as an albuminate in which form it is deposited in the tissues.

    0
    0
  • As a rule the soluble salts if taken in sufficient quantities produce acute poisoning, and the insoluble salts chronic plumbism.

    0
    0
  • Aconitine (C33H45N013, according to Dunstan; C34H47NOH, according to Freund) is a crystalline base, soluble in alcohol, but very sparingly in water; its alcoholic solution is dextrorotatory, but its salts are laevorotatory.

    0
    0
  • Manganese, though belonging (with chromium) to the iron group of metals, is commonly classed as a paramagnetic, its susceptibility being very small in comparison with that of the recognized ferromagnetics; but it is remarkable that its atomic susceptibility in solutions of its salts is even greater than that of iron.

    0
    0
  • Trans., 1896, 187, 533) show that the susceptibility of solutions of salts of iron is independent of the magnetizing force, and depends only on the quantity of iron contained in unit volume of the liquid.

    0
    0
  • If W is the weight of iron present per c.c. at about io° C., then for ferric salts Io 6 K =266W-0'77 and for ferrous salts 10 6 K =206W - 077, the quantity - 0.77 arising from the diamagnetism of the water of solution.

    0
    0
  • Annexed are values of Io 6 K for the different salts examined, w being the weight of the salt per c.c. of the solution.

    0
    0
  • Sitz., 1897, 106, II.a, p. 623, and 1898, 107, II.a, p. 5) the atomic susceptibilities k of the metals nickel, chromium, iron, cobalt and manganese in solutions of their salts are as follows: - Fe(i) is iron contained in FeC1 2 and Fe(2) iron contained in Fe2(NOs)s.

    0
    0
  • The aldehydes may be prepared by the careful oxidation of primary alcohols with a mixture of potassium dichromate and sulphuric acid,-3R�CH OH+K Cr 07+4H SO = K2S04+ Cr (SO) +7H O+3R�CHO; by distilling the calcium salts of the fatty acids with calcium formate; and by hydrolysis of the acetals.

    0
    0
  • These salts are employed in dyeing and various other industrial processes.

    0
    0
  • As alum and green vitriol were applied to a variety of substances in common, and as both are distinguished by a sweetish and astringent taste, writers, even after the discovery of alum, do not seem to have discriminated the two salts accurately from each other.

    0
    0
  • Several hydrated forms are known, yielding salts known as columbates.

    0
    0
  • Salts of the acid H 3 Cb0 3 have been described by C. W.

    0
    0
  • It forms many double salts with other metallic fluorides.

    0
    0
  • those containing the groupings CH 2 NO 2 and >CH NO 2) form metallic derivatives; for example, sodium salts, which according to A.

    0
    0
  • These sodium salts are crystalline solids which are readily soluble in water and are very explosive.

    0
    0
  • Nitro compounds have also been prepared by the action of cuprous oxide on diazonium salts (T.

    0
    0
  • 1898, 31, p. 2854) described several series of salts of the nitrolic acids, with particular reference to ethylnitrolic acid.

    0
    0
  • They discriminate between the red or erythro-salts, which are well crystallized, very explosive and unstable compounds, and which regenerate the colourless nitrolic acid on the addition of dilute mineral acids, and the leuco-salts, which are colourless salts obtained by warming the erythro-salts or by exposing them to direct sunlight.

    0
    0
  • These salts cannot be converted either into the red salts or into the free acid.

    0
    0
  • The acid salts are obtained by the addition of one molecule of alkali to two molecules of the acid in concentrated alcoholic solution at a low temperature.

    0
    0
  • During the formation of the Schlier the plain was covered by an inland sea or series of salt lakes, in which evaporation led to the concentration and finally to the deposition of the salts contained in the water.

    0
    0
  • Besides the rock-salt, which is excavated by blasting, the saline deposits of Stassfurt yield a considerable quantity of deliquescent salts and other saline products, which have encouraged the foundation of numerous chemical factories in the town and in the neighbouring village of Leopoldshall, which lies in Anhalt territory.

    0
    0
  • The sulphates are treated with water, which dissolves the uranium and other soluble salts, while silica, lead sulphate, &c., remain; these are removed by filtration.

    0
    0
  • If forms two series of salts, one, the uranous compounds, are derived from the oxide U02, the other, the uranyl compounds, contain the divalent group U02.

    0
    0
  • It fires when heated in air, and dissolves in acids to form uranous salts.

    0
    0
  • With hydroflouric acid it yields uranous fluoride, UF 4, which forms double salts of the type MF UF 4.

    0
    0
  • O, is obtained by heating uranyl nitrate to 250° as a yellow solid, insoluble in water, but soluble in acids with the formation of uranyl salts.

    0
    0
  • Various hydrates have been described, but they cannot be formed by precipitating a uranyl salt with an alkali, this reagent giving rise to salts termed uranates.

    0
    0
  • These salts generally resemble the bichromates; they are yellow in colour, insoluble in water, soluble in acids, and decomposed by heat.

    0
    0
  • The latter gives rise to salts, the peruranates, e.g.

    0
    0
  • It forms double salts with metallic chlorides and with the hydrochlorides of organic bases.

    0
    0
  • Solutions of uranyl salts (nitrate, &c.) behave to reagents as follows: sulphuretted hydrogen produces green uranous salt with precipitation of sulphur; sulphide of ammonium in neutral solutions gives a black precipitate of UO 2 S, which settles slowly and, while being washed in the filter, breaks up partially into hydrated UO 2 an sulphur; ammonia gives a yellow precipitate of uranate of ammonia, characteristically soluble in hot carbonate of ammonia solution; prussiate of potash gives a brown precipitate which in appearance is not unlike the precipitate produced by the same reagent in cupric salts.

    0
    0
  • It is a very weak base, salts being only formed with mineral acids, and these are dissociated by water.

    0
    0
  • Tin forms two well-marked series of salts, in one of which it is divalent, these salts being derived from stannous oxide, SnO, in the other it is tetravalent, this series being derived from stannic oxide, Sn02.

    0
    0
  • The salts are obtained by the action of alkalies on the acid.

    0
    0
  • This acid, H 2 Sn0 3, is readily soluble in acids forming stannic salts, and in caustic potash and soda, with the formation of orthostannates.

    0
    0
  • It combines readily with alkaline and other chlorides to form double salts, e.g.

    0
    0
  • Stannic Fluoride, SnF 4, is obtained in solution by dissolving hydrated stannic oxide in hydrofluoric acid; it forms a characteristic series of salts, the stannofluorides, M 2 SnF 6, isomorphous with the silico-, titano-, germanoand zirconofluorides.

    0
    0
  • Only stannous salts (not stannic) give a precipitate of calomel in mercuric chloride solution.

    0
    0
  • It forms crystalline compounds with bromine and with many metallic salts.

    0
    0
  • The diketotetrahydrotriazoles, or urazoles, are formed by condensing urea derivatives with hydrazine salts, urazole itself resulting by the action of urea or biuret on hydrazine or its salts.

    0
    0
  • The nitrate of this base (known as nitron) is so insoluble that nitrates may be gravimetrically estimated with its help. These bases combine with the alkyl iodides to yield quaternary ammonium salts.

    0
    0
  • The old idea of the circulating blood being supersaturated with lime salts which in some way had first become liberated from atrophying bones, and then deposited, to form calcified areas in different tissues will have to be given up, as there is no evidence that this " metastatic " calcification ever takes place.

    0
    0
  • In all probability no excess of soluble lime salts in the blood or lymph can ever be deposited in healthy living tissues.

    0
    0
  • If silver nitrate salts be administered for a long period as a medication, the skin that is exposed to light becomes of a bluish-grey colour, which is extremely persistent.

    0
    0
  • These soluble salts combine with the albumins in the body, and are deposited as minute granules of silver albuminate in the connective tissue of the skin papillae, serous membranes, the intima of arteries and the kidney.

    0
    0
  • It gives mono-metallic salts of the type NC NHM when treated with aqueous or alcoholic solutions of alkalis.

    0
    0
  • Di-metallic salts are obtained by heating cyanates alone, e.g.

    0
    0
  • Acridine crystallizes in needles which melt at 110° C. It is characterized by its irritating action on the skin, and by the blue fluorescence shown by solutions of its salts.

    0
    0
  • Chrysaniline (diamino-phenylacridinei) forms red-coloured salts, which dye silk and wool a fine yellow; and the solutions of the salts are characterized by their fine yellowish-green fluorescence.

    0
    0
  • The materials are generally used in the form either of oxides (lead, zinc, silica, &c.) or of salts readily decomposed by heat, such as the nitrates or carbonates.

    0
    0
  • (1) The metallic carbonates are the salts of carbonic acid, H 2 CO 3.

    0
    0
  • The acid carbonates of the alkali metals can be prepared by saturating an aqueous solution of the alkaline hydroxide with carbon dioxide, M OH+ C02= Mhco 3, and from these acid salts the normal salts may be obtained by gentle heating, carbon dioxide and water being produced at the same time, 2Mhco 3 = M2C03+H02+C02.

    0
    0
  • Most other carbonates are formed by precipitation of salts of the metals by means of alkaline carbonates.

    0
    0
  • This disease has been successfully treated with a spray of copper sulphate and lime, or sulphate of iron; solutions of these salts prevent the conidia from germinating.

    0
    0
  • Also (d +1) mannonic acid can be split into the d and 1 acids by fractional crystallization of the strychnine or brucine salts.

    0
    0
  • The movement of water into the root-hairs is brought about by the osmotic action of certain salts in their cell-sap. Crops are, however, unable to absorb all the water present in the soil, for when the films become very thin they are held more firmly or cling with more force to the soil particles and resist the osmotic action of the root-hairs.

    0
    0
  • On the light, poor sands of Saxony Herr Schultz, of Lupitz, made use of serradella, yellow lupins and vetches as green manures for enriching the land in humus and nitrogen, and found the addition of potash salts and phosphates very profitable for the subsequent growth of potatoes and wheat.

    0
    0
  • The caliche is worked up in loco for crude nitrate by extracting the salts with hot water, allowing the suspended earth to settle, and then transferring the clarified liquor, first to a cistern where it deposits part of its sodium chloride at a high temperature, and then to another where, on cooling, it yields a crop of crystals of purified nitrate.

    0
    0
  • Another defect arising during curing and fermentation is the efflorescence of salts on the surface, a phenomenon known as " saltpetre "; light brushing and spraying with a weak solution of acetic acid are effective remedies.

    0
    0
  • Zinc forms only one oxide, ZnO, from which is derived a wellcharacterized series of salts.

    0
    0
  • By heating the nitrate it is obtained as hemimorphous pyramids belonging to the hexagonal system; and by heating the chloride in a current of steam as hexagonal prisms. It is insoluble in water; it dissolves readily in all aqueous acids, with formation of salts.

    0
    0
  • With ammonia and alkaline bromides and iodides double salts are formed.

    0
    0
  • Zinc sulphate, like magnesium sulphate, unites with the sulphates of the potassium metals and of ammonium into crystalline double salts, ZnS04 R2S04-+-6H20, isomorphous with one another and the magnesium salts.

    0
    0
  • - From neutral solutions of its salts zinc is precipitated by sulphuretted hydrogen as sulphide, ZnS - a white precipitate, soluble, but by no means readily, in dilute mineral acids, but insoluble in acetic acid.

    0
    0
  • In the case of acetate the precipitation is quite complete; from a sulphate or chloride solution the greater part of the metal goes into the precipitate; in the presence of a sufficiency of free HC1 the metal remains dissolved; sulphide of ammonium precipitates the metal completely, even in the presence of ammonium salts and free ammonia.

    0
    0
  • Numerous other salts of zinc, used in medicine, are of value as containing this metal.

    0
    0
  • All these salts are mild astringents when applied externally, as they coagulate the albumen of the tissues and of any discharge which may be present.

    0
    0
  • These salts have been extensively employed internally, and indeed they are still largely employed in the treatment of the more severe and difficult cases of nervous disease.

    0
    0
  • On this theory he prepared artificial manures containing the essential mineral substances together with a small quantity of ammoniacal salts, because he held that the air does not supply ammonia fast enough in certain cases, and carried out systematic experiments on ten acres of poor sandy land which he obtained from thr town of Giessen in 1845.

    0
    0
  • J.C.S., 1902, 1, p. 555), who made the free base an aldehyde, but the salts of an iso-quinolinium type.

    0
    0
  • the potassium salts are K2T103.4H20, K2T1307.3H20 and K2T16013.2H20.

    0
    0
  • The salts of this acid are well known; they are isomorphous with the silico-, stannoand zircono-fluorides.

    0
    0
  • The tertiary amines possess the power of combining with one molecular proportion of an alkyl iodide to form quaternary ammonium salts.

    0
    0
  • They are all strong bases, readily forming salts with the mineral acids and double salts with the chlorides of gold, platinum and mercury.

    0
    0
  • It forms many crystalline salts and absorbs carbon dioxide.

    0
    0
  • If the nitrogen atom in the quaternary ammonium salts be in combination with four different groups, then the molecule is asymmetrical, and the salt can be resolved into optically active enantiamorphous isomerides.

    0
    0
  • It combines directly with many metallic salts.

    0
    0
  • Aromatic Amines.-The aromatic amines in some respects resemble the aliphatic amines, since they form salts with acids, and double salts with platinum chloride, and they also distil without decomposition.

    0
    0
  • On the other hand, they are much weaker bases than the aliphatic amines, their salts undergoing hydrolytic dissociation in aqueous solution.

    0
    0
  • The mixed secondary amines are prepared by the action of alkyl iodides on the primary amines, or by heating salts of the primary amine with alcohols under pressure.

    0
    0
  • water free from salts and to some extent of the dissolved gases which are always present in natural waters, is of indispensable value in many operations both of scientific and industrial chemistry.

    0
    0
  • Strontium salts may be recognized by the characteristic crimson colour they impart to the flame of the Bunsen burner and by the precipitation of the insoluble sulphate.

    0
    0
  • On the preparation of pure strontium salts, see Adrian and Bougarel, Journ.

    0
    0
  • CYANIDE, in chemistry, a salt of prussic or hydrocyanic acid, the name being more usually restricted to inorganic salts, i.e.

    0
    0
  • the salts of the metals, the organic salts (or esters) being termed nitriles.

    0
    0
  • root ac-, sharp; acere, to be sour), the name loosely applied to any sour substance; in chemistry it has a more precise meaning,denoting a substance containing hydrogen which may be replaced by metals with the formation of salts.

    0
    0
  • At about the same time Boyle investigated several acids; he established their general reddening of litmus, their solvent power of metals and basic substances, and the production of neutral bodies, or salts, with alkalies.

    0
    0
  • Theoretical conceptions were revived by Stahl, who held that acids were the fundamentals of all salts, and the erroneous idea that sulphuric acid was the principle of all acids.

    0
    0
  • Graham's work was developed by Liebig, who called into service many organic acids - citric, tartaric, cyanuric, comenic and meconic - and showed that these resembled phosphoric acid; and he established as the criterion of polybasicity the existence of compound salts with different metallic oxides.

    0
    0
  • In formulating these facts Liebig at first retained the dualistic conception of the structure of acids; but he shortly afterwards perceived that this view lacked generality since the halogen acids, which contained no oxygen but yet formed salts exactly similar in properties to those containing oxygen, could not be so regarded.

    0
    0
  • This and other reasons led to his rejection of the dualistic hypothesis and the adoption, on the ground of probability, and much more from convenience, of the tenet that " acids are particular compounds of hydrogen, in which the latter can be replaced by metals "; while, on the constitution of salts, he held that " neutral salts are those compounds of the same class in which the hydrogen is replaced by its equivalent in metal.

    0
    0
  • The substances which we at present term anhydrous acids (acid oxides) only become, for the most part, capable of forming salts with metallic oxides after the addition of water, or they are compounds which decompose these oxides at somewhat high temperatures."

    0
    0
  • Acid salts.

    0
    0
  • Compound salts.

    0
    0
  • OH, termed the carboxyl group, in which the hydrogen atom is replaceable by metals with the formation of salts, and by alkyl radicals with the formation of esters.

    0
    0
  • It is apparent that metallic salts of organic acids would, in aqueous solution, be ionized, the positive ion being the metal, and the negative ion the acid residue.

    0
    0
  • The ammonium salts when heated lose one molecule of water and are converted into acid-amides, R.

    0
    0
  • The calcium salts distilled with calcium formate yield aldehydes r distilled with soda-lime, ketones result.

    0
    0
  • Oxalic acid is very poisonous, and by reason of its great similarity in appearance to Epsom salts, it has been very frequently mistaken for this substance with, in many cases, fatal results.

    0
    0
  • Only the salts of the alkali metals are soluble in water.

    0
    0
  • Beside the ordinary acid and neutral salts, a series of salts called quadroxalates is known, these being salts containing one molecule of acid salt, in combination with one molecule of acid, one of the most common being "salt of sorrel," KHC 2 0 4.

    0
    0
  • It reduces silver salts rapidly.

    0
    0
  • The food is alike in both cases; it consists of water, certain inorganic salts, carbohydrates and proteins.

    0
    0
  • Both animals and plants take their water and inorganic salts directly as such.

    0
    0
  • The phenomena which succeed each other are then very similar, whether A and B are two metals, such as lead and tin or silver and copper, or are a pair of fused salts, or are water and common salt.

    0
    0
  • Dahms in the case of salts, could be measured in the lead-tin alloys.

    0
    0
  • It dissolves most organic compounds, resins, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and many metallic salts, sometimes forming, in the latter case, crystalline compounds in which the ethyl alcohol plays a role similar to that of water of crystallization.

    0
    0
  • It dissolves in alkalis to form well-defined crystalline salts; potassium aurate, KAu0 2.3H 2 O, is very soluble in water, and is used in electrogilding.

    0
    0
  • Corresponding to this acid, a series of salts, named chloraurates or aurichlorides, are known.

    0
    0
  • Auric cyanide, Au(CN) 3, is not certainly known; its double salts, however, have been frequently described.

    0
    0
  • Oxy-salts of gold are almost unknown, but the sulphite and thiosulphate form double salts.

    0
    0
  • At the same time any lead, calcium, barium and strontium present are precipitated as sulphates; it is therefore advantageous to remove these metals by the preliminary addition of sulphuric acid, which also serves to keep any basic iron salts in solution.

    0
    0
  • The precipitated gold is washed, treated with salt and sulphuric acid to remove iron salts, roughly dried by pressing in cloths or on filter paper, and then melted with salt, borax and nitre in graphite crucibles.

    0
    0
  • Oxidizing agents (ferric chloride, &c.) give a blue precipitate with solutions of its salts.

    0
    0
  • The wet refining process is more tedious and expensive, and is only exceptionally employed, as in the case of preparing the pure metal or its salts for pharmaceutical or chemical purposes.

    0
    0
  • It is precipitated as the metal from solutions of its salts by the metals of the alkalis and alkaline earths, zinc, iron, copper, &c. In its chemical affinities it resembles arsenic and antimony; an important distinction is that it forms no hydrogen compound analogous to arsine and stibine.

    0
    0
  • Thus obtained it is a yellow powder, soluble in the mineral acids to form soluble salts, which are readily precipitated as basic salts when the solution is diluted.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth pentoxide, B12C,, is obtained by heating bismuthic acid, HBiO 3, to 130° C.; this acid (in the form of its salts) being the product of the continued oxidation of an alkaline solution of bismuth trioxide.

    0
    0
  • Other basic salts are known.

    0
    0
  • The blackish brown sulphide precipitated from bismuth salts by sulphuretted hydrogen is insoluble in ammonium sulphide, but is readily dissolved by nitric acid.

    0
    0
  • His work also included observations on putrefaction and fermentation, which he spoke of as sisters, on the nature of salts, and on the preparation of pure metals.

    0
    0
  • It burns, and also, like sulphuretted hydrogen, precipitates many metals from solutions of their salts.

    0
    0
  • It also gives rise to super-acid salts, such as KHTe03 H2Te03; K 2 TeO 3.3TeO 2.

    0
    0
  • Telluric acid, H2Te04, is obtained in the form of its salts when tellurium is fused with potassium carbonate and nitre, or by the oxidizing action of chlorine on a tellurite in alkaline solution.

    0
    0
  • It gives rise to salts, termed the tantalates.

    0
    0
  • The normal salts are all insoluble in water; the complex acid, hexatantalic acid, H $ Ta 6 0, 9 (which does not exist in the free state), forms soluble salts with the alkaline metals.

    0
    0
  • Its double salts with the alkaline fluorides are very important, and serve for the separation of the metal from columbium and titanium.

    0
    0
  • But the two substances were generally confounded as "fixed alkali" (carbonate of ammonia being "volatile alkali"), till Duhamel du Monceau in 1736 established the fact that common salt and the ashes of seaplants contain the same base as is found in natural deposits of soda salts ("mineral alkali"), and that this body is different from the "vegetable alkali" obtained by incinerating land plants or wood (pot-ashes).

    0
    0
  • Salts of Sea-water.

    0
    0
  • common salt, Epsom salts, gypsum and magnesium chloride were recognized amongst its constituents.

    0
    0
  • Since the earliest quantitative analyses of sea-water were made by Lavoisier in 1772, Bergman in 177 4, Vogel in 1813 and Marcet in 1819 the view has been held that the salts are present in sea-water in the form in which they are deposited when the water is evaporated.

    0
    0
  • Dittmar showed that the average proportion of the salts in ocean water of 35 parts salts per thousand was as follows (calculated as parts per 'thousand of the sea-water, as percentage of the total"salts and per hundred molecules of magnesium bromide) :- The Salts in Ocean Water.

    0
    0
  • As Marcet had foreshadowed from the analysis of 14 samples in 1819, the larger series of exact analyses proved that the variations in the proportion of individual salts to the total salts are very small, and all analyses since Dittmar's have confirmed this result.

    0
    0
  • Although the salts have been grouped in the above 1 Comptes rendus, Acad.

    0
    0
  • There must be considerable dissociation of molecules, and as a first approximation it may be taken that of io molecules of most of the components about 9 (or in the case of magnesium sulphate 5) have been separated into their ions, and that it is only during slow concentration as in a natural saline that the ions combine to produce the various salts in the proportions set out in the above table.

    0
    0
  • One can look on sea-water as a mixture of very dilute solutions of particular salts, each one of which after the lapse of sufficient time fills the whole space as if the other constituents did not exist, and this interdiffusion accounts easily for the uniformity of composition in the sea-water throughout the whole ocean, the only appreciable difference from point to point being the salinity or degree of concentration of the mixed solutions.

    0
    0
  • The great similarity between the salts of the ocean and the gaseous products of volcanic eruptions at the present time, rich in chlorides and sulphates of all kinds, is a strong argument for the ocean having been salt from the beginning.

    0
    0
  • The proportions of the salts of river and sea-water are quite different, as Julius Roth shows thus: - The salts of salt lakes which have been formed in the areas of internal drainage in the hearts of the continents by the evaporation of river water are entirely different in composition from those of the sea, as the existence of the numerous natron and bitter lakes shows.

    0
    0
  • Magnesium sulphate amounts to 4.7% of the total salts of sea-water according to Dittmar, but to 23.6% of the salts of the Caspian according to Lebedinzeff; in the ocean magnesium chloride amounts to 10.9% of the total salts, in the Caspian only to 4.5%; on the other hand calcium sulphate in the ocean amounts to 3.6%, in the Caspian to 6.9 This disparity makes it extremely difficult to view ocean water as merely a watery extract of the salts existing in the rocks of the land.

    0
    0
  • Such a simple formula is only possible because the salts of sea-water are of such uniform composition throughout the whole ocean that the chlorine bears a constant ratio to the total salinity as newly defined whatever the degree of concentration.

    0
    0
  • It is only the water that freezes; the dissolved salts are excluded in the process in a regular order according to temperature.

    0
    0
  • sodium sulphate is the first ingredient of the salts to separate out, potassium chloride follows at 12° F., sodium chloride at - 7.4° F., magnesium chloride at - 28.5°.

    0
    0
  • After long continued frost the last of the included brine may be frozen and the salts driven out in crystals on the surface; these crystals are known to polar explorers by the Siberian name of rassol.

    0
    0
  • Bunsen, the best source of rubidium and caesium salts is the residue left after extraction of lithium salts from lepidolite.

    0
    0
  • In order to separate caesium from rubidium, use is made of the different solubilities of their various salts.

    0
    0
  • The bromide, CsBr, and iodide, CsI, resemble the corresponding potassium salts.

    0
    0
  • Many trihaloid salts of caesium are also known, such as CsBr 3, CsC1Br 2, Cs13, CsBrI 2, CsBr 2 I, &c. (H.

    0
    0
  • There are three substances which can be relied on more or less to remove this compound, and the gas to be purified may be passed either through acid copper salts, through bleaching powder or through chromic acid.

    0
    0
  • The salts are mostly of a yellowish colour.

    0
    0
  • It forms double salts with the alkaline sulphates.

    0
    0
  • They are strong bases and form stable monacid salts.

    0
    0
  • Kehrmann showed that aposafranine could be diazotized in the presence of cold concentrated sulphuric acid, and the diazonium salt on boiling with alcohol yielded phenylphenazonium salts.

    0
    0
  • It is insoluble in acids and exists in several hydrated forms. The osmiates, corresponding to the unknown trioxide 0503, are red or green coloured salts; the solutions are only stable in the presence of excess of caustic alkali; on boiling an aqueous solution of the potassium salt it decomposes readily, forming a black precipitate of osmic acid, H20s04.

    0
    0
  • It combines with the chlorides of the alkali metals to form characteristic double salts of the type OsC1 4.2MC1 (osmichlorides).

    0
    0
  • In its chemical affinities zirconium resembles titanium, cerium and thorium; it occurs in company with these elements, and is tetravalent in its more important salts.

    0
    0
  • Zirconium hydroxide, Zr(OH) 4, as thus obtained, is quite appreciably soluble in water and easily in mineral acids, with formation of zirconium salts, e.g.

    0
    0
  • It forms double salts, named zircono-fluorides, which are isomorphous with the stanniand titani-fluorides.

    0
    0
  • PHOSPHATES, in chemistry, the name given to salts of phosphoric acid.

    0
    0
  • It gives origin to three classes of salts: M'H 2 PO 4 or M"H 4 P 2 0 8; M' 2 HPO 4 or M"HP04, M'3P04, M" 3 P 2 0 8 or M"'PO 4, wherein ll',M",M"' denote a mono-, di-, and tri-valent metal.

    0
    0
  • The first set may be called monometallic, the second dimetallic, and the third trimetallic salts.

    0
    0
  • Per-acid salts of the alkalis, e.g.

    0
    0
  • The monometallic salts are strongly acid, the dimetallic are neutral or faintly alkaline, whilst the soluble trimetallic salts are strongly alkaline.

    0
    0
  • The monometallic salts of the alkalis and alkaline earths may be obtained in crystal form, but those of the heavy metals are only stable when in solution.

    0
    0
  • The soluble trimetallic salts are decomposed by carbonic acid into a dimetallic salt and an acid carbonate.

    0
    0
  • Since the reaction with the acid salts is attended by liberation of nitric acid: NaH 2 PO 4 +3AgNO 3 = Ag3P04+NaN03 +2HN03, Na 2 HPO 4 +3AgNO 3 =Ag 3 PO 4 + 2NaN03+HNO 3, it is necessary to neutralize the nitric acid if the complete precipitation of the phosphoric acid.

    0
    0
  • The three series also differ when heated: the trimetallic salts, containing fixed bases are unaltered, whilst the monoand dimetallic salts yield metaand pyrophosphates respectively.

    0
    0
  • If the heating be with charcoal, the trimetallic salts of the alkalis and alkaline earths are unaltered, whilst the monoand di-salts give free phosphorus and a trimetallic salt.

    0
    0
  • Other precipitants of phosphoric acid or its salts in solution are: ammonium molybdate in nitric acid, which gives on heating a canary-yellow precipitate of ammonium phosphomolybdate, 12[M00 3] (NH 4) 3 PO 4, insoluble in acids but readily soluble in ammonia; magnesium chloride, ammonium chloride and ammonia, which give on standing in a warm place a white crystalline precipitate of magnesium ammonium phosphate, Mg(NH 4)PO 4.6H 2 0, which is soluble in acids but highly insoluble in ammonia solutions, and on heating to redness gives magnesium pyrophosphate, Mg 2 P 2 0 7; uranic nitrate and ferric chloride, which give a yellowish-white precipitate, soluble in hydrochloric acid and ammonia, but insoluble in acetic acid; mercurous nitrate which gives a white precipitate, soluble in nitric acid, and bismuth nitrate which gives a white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid.

    0
    0
  • Being a tetrabasic acid it can form four classes of salts; for example, the four solium salts Na 4 P 2 0 7, Na3HP207, Na 2 H 2 P 2 0 7, NaH 3 P 2 0 7 are known.

    0
    0
  • Although the acid is monobasic, salts of polymeric forms exist of the types (MP0 3) n, where n may be 1, 2, 3, 4, 6.

    0
    0
  • The salts are usually non-crystalline and fusible.

    0
    0
  • Owing, however, to its poverty in that form of nitrogenous compound called gluten, so abundant in wheat, barley-flour cannot be baked into vesiculated bread; still it is a highlynutritious substance, the salts it contains having a high proportion of phosphoric acid.

    0
    0
  • The following is the composition of barley-meal according to Von Bibra, omitting the salts:

    0
    0
  • Salts of ammonia have been known from very early times; thus the term Hammoniacus sal appears in the writings of Pliny (Nat.

    0
    0
  • Ammonia is found in small quantities as the carbonate in the atmosphere, being produced from the putrefaction of nitrogenous animal and vegetable matter; ammonium salts are also found in small quantities in rain-water, whilst ammonium chloride (sal-ammoniac) and ammonium sulphate are found in volcanic districts; and crystals of ammonium bicarbonate have been found in Patagonian guano.

    0
    0
  • Ammonium salts too are found distributed through all fertile soil, in sea-water, and in most plant and animal liquids, and also in urine.

    0
    0
  • It is obtained by the dry distillation of nitrogenous vegetable and animal products; by the reduction of nitrous acid and nitrites with nascent hydrogen; and also by the decomposition of ammonium salts by alkaline hydroxides or by slaked lime, the salt most generally used being the chloride (sal-ammoniac, q.v.) thus 2NH 4 C1+Ca(OH) 2 =CaC1 2 +2H 2 O+2NH 3.

    0
    0
  • Large quantities of ammonia and ammonium salts are now obtained from the ammoniacal liquor of gas-works.

    0
    0
  • One of the most characteristic properties of ammonia is its power of combining directly with acids to form salts; thus with hydrochloric acid it forms ammonium chloride (sal-ammoniac); with nitric acid, ammonium nitrate, &c. It is to be noted that H.

    0
    0
  • Liquid ammonia possesses strong ionizing powers, and solutions of salts in liquid ammonia have been much studied.

    0
    0
  • The salts produced by the action of ammonia on acids are known as the ammonium salts and all contain the compound radical ammonium (NH 4).

    0
    0
  • By the addition of sodium amalgam to a concentrated solution of ammonium chloride, the so-called ammonium amalgam is obtained as a spongy mass which floats on the surface of the liquid; it decomposes readily at ordinary temperatures into ammonia and hydrogen; it does not reduce silver and gold salts, a behaviour which distinguishes it from the amalgams of the alkali metals, and for this reason it is regarded by some chemists as being merely mercury inflated by gaseous ammonia and hydrogen.

    0
    0
  • Many of the ammonium salts are made from the ammoniacal liquor of gas-works, by heating it with milk of lime and then absorbing the gas so liberated in a suitable acid.

    0
    0
  • It is used largely as an artificial manure, and also for the preparation of other ammonium salts.

    0
    0
  • Ammonia and ammonium salts can be readily detected, in very minute traces, by the addition of Nessler's solution, which gives a distinct yellow coloration in the presence of the least trace of ammonia or ammonium salts.

    0
    0
  • Larger quantities can be detected by warming the salts with a caustic alkali or with quicklime, when the characteristic smell of ammonia will be at once apparent.

    0
    0
  • The amount of ammonia in ammonium salts can be estimated quantitatively by distillation of the salts with sodium or potassium hydroxide, the ammonia evolved being absorbed in a known volume of standard sulphuric acid and the excess of acid then determined volumetrically; or the ammonia may be absorbed in hydrochloric acid and the ammonium chloride so formed precipitated as ammonium chlorplatinate, (NH4)2PtC16.

    0
    0
  • The salts of hydrofluoric acid are known as fluorides and are easily obtained by the action of the acid on metals or their oxides, hydroxides or carbonates.

    0
    0
  • Ammonium chloride has a different action and therapeutic use from the rest of the ammonium salts.

    0
    0
  • Their salts are easily dissociated.

    0
    0
  • From this source all soils contain small proportions of sodium in soluble forms, hence the ashes of plants, although they preferably imbibe potassium salts, contain traces and sometimes notable quantities of sodium salts.

    0
    0
  • Sodium salts also form essential ingredients in all animal juices.

    0
    0
  • In its chemical combinations sodium is usually monovalent; its salts are generally soluble in water, the least soluble being the metantimonate.

    0
    0
  • Generally speaking, sodium salts closely resemble the corresponding potassium salts, and their methods of preparation are usually the same.

    0
    0
  • For sodium salts not mentioned below reference should be made to articles wherein the acid is treated, unless otherwise indicated.

    0
    0
  • Sodium combines directly with the halogens to form salts which are soluble in water and crystallize in the cubic system.

    0
    0
  • Soc., 1905, 27, p. 1019) the iodide differs from the other haloid salts in separating from solution in alcohols with "alcohol of crystallization."

    0
    0
  • The acid salts Na 3 H (S04)2 and Na 3 H (S04) 2 4120 are obtained from the normal sulphate and sulphuric acid (J.

    0
    0
  • Sodium is most distinctly recognized by the yellow coloration which volatile salts impart to a Bunsen flame, or, better, by its emission spectrum which has a line (double), the Fraunhofer D, line, in the yellow (the wave-lengths are 5896 and 5890).

    0
    0
  • - The metal sodium is not used in medicine, but many of its salts are employed.

    0
    0
  • Besides liquor sodii ethylatis the following salts and preparations are used in the British Pharmacopoeia.

    0
    0
  • The salts of sodium resemble potassium in their action on the alimentary tract, but they are much more slowly absorbed, and much less diffusible; therefore considerable amounts may reach the small intestine and there act as saline purgatives.

    0
    0
  • Large doses of these salts are used to remove fluid in dropsy.

    0
    0
  • These purgative sodium salts are most useful in the treatment of chronic constipation, and of the constipation associated with gout and hepatic dyspepsia.

    0
    0
  • Sodium salts have not the depressant effect so marked in those of potassium.

    0
    0
  • These consist of galactin and lactochrome, substances peculiar to milk, discovered by Winter Blyth, with certain animal principles such as leucin, pepton, kreatin, tyrosin, &c. The salts in milk consist, according to the average of numerous analyses by Fleischmann, of the following Milk thus is not to be regarded as a definite chemical compound nor even as a mixture of bodies in fixed and invariable proportions.

    0
    0
  • Meyer, Ber., 1876, 9, P. 543), C3H7NH 2 +HNO 2 =N 2 +2H 2 O+C 3 H 6; by the electrolysis of the alkali salts of saturated dicarboxylic acids; by the decomposition of 0-haloid fatty acids with sodium carbonate, CH 3 CHBr CH(CH 3) CO 2 H =CO 2 -1-HBr+CH 3 CH :CH CH 3; by distilling the barium salts of acids Cn,H 2, ,,- 2 0 2 with sodium methylate in vacuo (I.

    0
    0
  • Sand, Ber., 1900, 33, pp. 1 34 0 et seq.), and those with a tertiary carbon atom yield double salts with zinc chloride.

    0
    0
  • Two spatial modifications of pseudobutylene, CH 3 CH: CH CH 3, are known, the cis and the trans; they are prepared by heating the sodium salts of hydro-iodo-tiglic and hydro-iodo-angelic acids respectively (J.

    0
    0
  • It may also be prepared by heating formic and oxalic acids (or their salts) with concentrated sulphuric acid (in the case of oxalic acid, an equal volume of carbon dioxide is produced); and by heating potassium ferrocyanide with a large excess of concentrated sulphuric acid, K 4 Fe(CN) 6 -i-6H2S04+6H20=2K2S04+FeS04+3(NH4)2S04+6C0.

    0
    0
  • There are a number of warm mineral springs, containing principally salts of lime, used with success by both Arabs and Europeans in several kinds of disease.

    0
    0
  • Such potassiferous silicates are found in almost all rocks, both as normal and as accessory components; and their disintegration furnishes the soluble potassium salts which are found in all fertile soils.

    0
    0
  • These salts are sucked up by the roots of plants, and by taking part in the process of nutrition are partly converted into oxalate, tartrate, and other organic salts, which, when the plants are burned, are converted into the carbonate, K 2 CO 3.

    0
    0
  • It is a remarkable fact that, although in a given soil the soda-content may predominate largely over the potash salts, the plants growing in the soil take up the latter: in the ashes of most land plants the potash (calculated as K20) forms upwards of 90% of the total alkali.

    0
    0
  • Other salts of composition KF 2HF and KF 3HF, have been described by Moissan (Comet.

    0
    0
  • It is extensively employed for the preparation of other potassium salts, but the largest quantity (especially of the impure product) is used in the production of artificial manures.

    0
    0
  • For the oxyhalogen salts see Chlorate, Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine.

    0
    0
  • The solution is strongly caustic. It turns yellow on exposure to air, absorbing oxygen and carbon dioxide and forming thiosulphate and potassium carbonate and liberating sulphuretted hydrogen, which decomposes into water and sulphur, the latter combining with the monosulphide to form higher salts.

    0
    0
  • For the salts of other sulphur acids, see Sulphur.

    0
    0
  • For the nitrite, see Nitrogen, for the nitrate see Saltpetre and for the cyanide see Prussic Acid; for other salts see the articles wherein the corresponding acid receives treatment.

    0
    0
  • The chief insoluble salts are the perchlorate, acid-tartrate and platinochloride.

    0
    0
  • - Numerous salts and preparations of potassium are used in medicine; viz.

    0
    0
  • In the stomach potassium salts neutralize the gastric acid, and hence small doses are useful in hyperchloridia.

    0
    0
  • Potassium salts are strongly diuretic, acting directly on the renal epithelium.

    0
    0
  • All potassium salts if taken in large doses are cardiac depressants, they also depress the nervous system, especially the brain and spinal cord.

    0
    0
  • Vauquelin in 1798 published in the Annales de chimie an account of a new earth obtained by him from beryl he refrained from giving the substance a name, but in a note to his paper the editors suggested glucine, from -yXvrcus, sweet, in reference to the taste of its salts, whence the name Glucinum or Glucinium (symbo G1.

    0
    0
  • Its salts are reddish violet in colour, and give a characteristic absorption spectrum.

    0
    0
  • The salts of praseodymium are green in colour, and give a characteristic spark spectrum.

    0
    0
  • The analysis of manganese dioxide in 1774 led him to the discovery of chlorine and baryta; to the description of various salts of manganese itself, including the manganates and permanganates, and to the explanation of its action in colouring and decolourizing glass.

    0
    0
  • The kelp obtained by any of these methods is then lixiviated with water, which extracts the soluble salts, and the liquid is concentrated, when the less soluble salts, which are chiefly alkaline chlorides, sulphates and carbonates, crystallize out and are removed.

    0
    0
  • It has all the characteristics of an acid, dissolving many metals with evolution of hydrogen and formation of salts, called iodides.

    0
    0
  • The salts, known as the iodates, can be prepared by the action of the acid on a base, or sometimes by the oxidation of iodine in the presence of a base.

    0
    0
  • In the form of certain salts iodine is very widely used, for internal administration in medicine and in the treatment of many conditions usually classed as surgical, such as the bone manifestations of tertiary syphilis.

    0
    0
  • The usual doses of these salts are from five to thirty grains or more.

    0
    0
  • In its tertiary stages - and also earlier - this disease yields in the most rapid and unmistakable fashion to iodides; so much so that the administration of these salts is at present the best means of determining whether, for instance, a cranial tumour be syphilitic or not.

    0
    0
  • In the former process it is obtained in the form of a dilute aqueous solution, in which also the colouring matters of the wine, salts, &c., are dissolved; and this impure acetic acid is what we ordinarily term vinegar.

    0
    0
  • It is a monobasic acid, forming one normal and two acid potassium salts, and basic salts with iron, aluminium, lead and copper.

    0
    0
  • The salts of this acid, known as cyanides, may be prepared by the action of cyanogen or of gaseous hydrocyanic acid on a metal; by heating the carbonates or hydrooxides of the alkali metals in a current of hydrocyanic acid; by heating alkaline carbonates with carbon in the presence of free nitrogen: BaCO 3 + 4 C + N2 = Ba(NC) 2 + 3C0; by ignition of nitrogenous organic substances in the presence of alkaline carbonates or hydroxides; or by processes of double decomposition.

    0
    0
  • Those of the heavy metals are mostly insoluble in water, but are soluble in a solution of potassium cyanide, forming more or less stable double salts, for example KAg(NC)2, KAu(NC) 2.

    0
    0
  • Potassium cyanide, KNC, and sodium cyanide, NaNC, are two of the most important of the salts of hydrocyanic acid, the former being manufactured in large quantities for consumption in the extraction of gold.

    0
    0
  • 9474 (1892)] passes the gas (after freeing it from ammonia) through a solution of potassium carbonate containing ferric oxide or ferrous carbonate (actually ferrous sulphate and potassium carbonate) in suspension; the sulphuretted hydrogen in the gas probably converts the iron salts into ferrous sulphide which then, in the presence of the hydrocyanic acid in the gas, and the alkaline carbonate, forms the ferrocyanide, thus: FeS+6HCN+ 2K 2 CO 3 = K 4 Fe(NC) 6 + H 2 S + 2CO 2 + 2H 2 0.

    0
    0
  • The soluble salts are removed by lixiviation, and the residue is boiled with lime to form the soluble calcium ferrocyanide, which is finally converted into the potassium salt by potassium chloride or carbonate.

    0
    0
  • The nitroprussides are salts of the type M2Fe(NC)5.

    0
    0
  • - Considerable discussion has taken place as to the structure of the metallic cyanides, since potassium cyanide and silver cyanide react with alkyl iodides to form nitriles and isonitriles respectively, thus apparently pointing to the fact that these two compounds possess the formulae KCN and AgNC. The metallic cyanides are analogous to the alkyl isocyanides, since they form soluble double silver salts, and the fact that ethyl ferrocyanide on distillation yields ethyl isocyanide also points to their isocyanide structure.

    0
    0
  • The use of chemical antidotes, such as iron salts, is futile, as the drug has escaped into the blood from the stomach long before they can be administered.

    0
    0
  • It is distinguished from the other members of the series by certain characteristic properties; for example, it shows an aldehydic character in reducing silver salts to metallic silver, and it does not form an acid chloride or an acid anhydride.

    0
    0
  • Many other synthetical processes for the production of the acid or its salts are known.

    0
    0
  • The sodium and potassium salts, when heated to 400° C., give oxalates and carbonates of the alkali metals, but the magnesium, calcium and barium salts yield carbonates only.

    0
    0
  • The salts of the acid are known as formates, and are mostly soluble in water, those of silver and lead being the least soluble.

    0
    0
  • The calcium salt, when heated with the calcium salts of higher homologues, gives aldehydes.

    0
    0
  • The silver and mercury salts, when heated, yield the metal, with liberation of carbon dioxide and formation of free formic acid; and the ammonium salt, when distilled, gives some formamide, Hconh 2.

    0
    0
  • The esters of the acid may be obtained by distilling a mixture of the sodium or potassium salts and the corresponding alcohol with hydrochloric or sulphuric acids.

    0
    0
  • a nitrogenous substance which forms salts with acids; now, however, it is usual to restrict the term to bases of vegetable origin and characterized by remarkable toxicological effects.

    0
    0
  • In such cases the waters are alkaline, and contain various salts in solution which are deposited as a white rim round the basin towards the end of the summer when the amount of water has been greatly reduced by evaporation.

    0
    0
  • The instrument thus adapted to the determination of densities exceeding that of water was called the hydrometer for salts.

    0
    0
  • Baume's Hydrometer for Salts.

    0
    0
  • Epsom salts crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, being isomorphous with the corresponding zinc and nickel sulphates, and also with magnesium chromate.

    0
    0
  • For the manufacture of Epsom salts and for other hydrated magnesium sulphates see Magnesium.

    0
    0
  • Chromium and its salts may be detected by the fact that they give a deep green bead when heated with borax, or that on fusion with sodium carbonate and nitre, a yellow mass of an alkaline chromate is obtained, which, on solution in water and acidification with acetic acid, gives a bright yellow precipitate on the addition of soluble lead salts.

    0
    0
  • Sodium and potassium hydroxide solutions precipitate green chromium hydroxide from solutions of chromic salts; the precipitate is soluble in excess of the cold alkali, but is completely thrown down on boiling the solution.

    0
    0
  • Chromic acid and its salts, the chromates and bichromates, can be detected by the violet coloration which they give on addition of hydrogen peroxide to their dilute acid solution, or by the fact that on distillation with concentrated sulphuric acid and an alkaline chloride, the red vapours of chromium oxychloride are produced.

    0
    0
  • Reducing agents, such as sulphurous acid and sulphuretted hydrogen, convert the chromates into chromic salts.

    0
    0
  • Chromium in the form of its salts may be estimated quantitatively by precipitation from boiling solutions with a slight excess of ammonia, and boiling until the free ammonia is nearly all expelled.

    0
    0
  • Chromium forms three series of compounds, namely the chromous salts corresponding to CrO, chromous oxide, chromic salts, corresponding to Cr203, chromium sesquioxide, and the chromates corresponding to Cr0,, chromium trioxide or chromic anhydride.

    0
    0
  • Chromium sesquioxide is a basic oxide, although like alumina it acts as an acid-forming oxide towards strong bases, forming salts called chromites.

    0
    0
  • For salts of this acid-forming oxide and for perchromic acid see Bichromates.

    0
    0
  • Thechromites maybe looked upon as salts of chromium sesquioxide with other basic oxides, the most important being chromite (q.v.).

    0
    0
  • Chromous chloride, CrC1 2, is prepared by reducing chromic chloride in hydrogen; it forms white silky needles, which dissolve in water giving a deep blue solution, which rapidly absorbs oxygen, forming basic chromic salts, and acts as a very strong reducing agent.

    0
    0
  • On pouring a solution of chromous chloride into a saturated solution of sodium acetate, a red crystalline precipitate of chromous acetate is produced; this is much more permanent in air than the other chromous salts and consequently can be used for their preparation.

    0
    0
  • Chromic salts are of a blue or violet colour, and apparently the chloride and bromide exist in a green and violet form.

    0
    0
  • Werner, four hydrated chromium chlorides exist, namely the green and violet salts, CrC1 3.6H 2 O, a hydrate, CrC1 3.10H 2 O and one CrC1 3.4H 2 0.

    0
    0
  • In accordance with his theory of the constitution of salts Werner formulates the hexahydrate as CrC12 (OH2)4 C1.2H20.

    0
    0
  • Cl-OH, chlorochromic acid, is only known in the form of its salts, the chlorochromates.

    0
    0
  • Chromium salts readily combine with ammonia to form complex salts in which the ammonia molecule is in direct combination with the chromium atom.

    0
    0
  • In many of these salts one finds that the elements of water are frequently found in combination with the metal, and further, that the ammonia molecule may be replaced by such other molecular groups as - N02, &c. Of the types studied the following may be mentioned: the diammine chromium thiocyanates, M[Cr(NH3)2 (SCN)4], the chloraquotetrammine chromic salts, R 1 2 [Cr(NH 3) 4 H 2 0 C1], the aquopentammine or roseo-chromium salts,R 1 3 [Cr(NH 3) 6.

    0
    0
  • H 2 0],thechlorpentammine or purpureo-chromium salts, R 1 2 [Cr(NH 3) 5 Cl], the nitrito pentammine or xanthochromium salts, R 1 2[N02 (NH3)5 Cr], the luteo or hexammine chromium salts, R 1 3[(NH3) 6 Cr], and the rhodochromium salts: where R 1 = a monovalent acid radical and M = a monovalent basic radical.

    0
    0
  • For the preparation and properties of these salts and a discussion on their constitution the papers of S.

    0
    0
  • P. Pfeiffer (Berichte, 1904, 37, p. 4 2 55) has shown that chromium salts of the type [Cr{C2H4(NH2)2}2X2]X exist in two stereo-isomeric forms, namely, the cisand transforms, the dithiocyan-diethylenediamine-chromium salts being the transsalts.

    0
    0
  • Alkylated amino-azo-benzenes are also known, and are formed by the coupling of diazonium salts with alkylated amines, provided they contain a free para.

    0
    0
  • Hantzsch (Ber., 18 99, 3 2, pp. 59 o, 3089) considers that the oxyazo compounds are to be classed as pseudoacids, possessing in the free condition the configuration of quinone hydrazones, their salts, however, being of the normal phenolic type.

    0
    0
  • Diazo-Amines.-The diazo-amines, R N: N NHR I, are obtained by the action of primary amines on diazonium salts; by the action of nitrous acid on a free primary amine, an isodiazohydroxide being formed as an intermediate product which then condenses with the amine; and by the action of nitrosamines on primary amines.

    0
    0
  • Both in the gum and in the boiled-off state silk has the peculiar property of imbibing certain metallic salts largely and combining very firmly with them, the fibre remaining to external appearance undiminished in strength and lustre, but much added to in size and weight.

    0
    0
  • Up to 1857 the utmost the dyer could add was " weight for weight," but an accidental discovery that year put dyers into the way of using tin salts in weighting with the result that they were enabled to add 40 oz.

    0
    0
  • The use of tin salts, especially stannic chloride, SnC1 4, enables dyers to weight all colours the same as black.

    0
    0
  • In the ordinary laboratory the Bunsen flame has become universal, and a number of substances, such as the salts of the alkalis and alkaline earths, show characteristic spectra when suitably placed in it.

    0
    0
  • An interesting and instructive manner of introducing salts into flames was discovered by A.

    0
    0
  • An important experiment by C. Gunther 2 seems however to show that the radiation of metallic salts in a flame has an intensity equal to that belonging to it in virtue of its temperature.

    0
    0
  • The spectra, for instance, of the oxides and haloid salts of the alkaline earths show great resemblance to each other, the bands being similar and similarly placed.

    0
    0
  • Gladstone, 2 at an early period of spectroscopy, examined the absorption spectra of the solution of salts, each constituent of which was coloured.

    0
    0
  • He mentioned as an important exception the case of ferric ferrocyanide, which, when dissolved in oxalic acid, transmits the rays in great abundance, though the same rays be absorbed both by ferrocyanides and by ferric salts.

    0
    0
  • The absorption spectra of cobalt and didymium salts also offer many.

    0
    0
  • It possesses all the characteristic properties of an aldehyde; being readily oxidized to benzoic acid; reducing solutions of silver salts; forming addition products with hydrogen, hydrocyanic acid and sodium bisulphite; and giving an oxime and a hydrazone.

    0
    0
  • The sulphate or " Epsom salts " (q.v.) was isolated in 1695 by N.

    0
    0
  • The problem of magnesium reduction is in many respects similar to that of aluminium extraction, bait the lightness of the metal as compared, bulk for bulk, with its fused salts, and the readiness with which it burns when exposed to air at high temperatures, render the problem somewhat more difficult.

    0
    0
  • Neville), and boils at about lioo C. Magnesium and its salts are diamagnetic. It burns brilliantly when heated in air or oxygen, or even in carbon dioxide, emitting a brilliant white light and leaving a residue of magnesia, MgO.

    0
    0
  • It is rapidly dissolved by dilute acids, with the evolution of hydrogen and the formation of magnesium salts.

    0
    0
  • It precipitates many metals from solutions of their salts.

    0
    0
  • Magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH) 2, occurs native as the minerals brucite and nemalite, and is prepared by precipitating solutions of magnesium salts by means of caustic soda or potash.

    0
    0
  • Magnesium hydroxide is a white amorphous solid which is only slightly soluble in water; the solubility is, however, greatly increased by ammonium salts.

    0
    0
  • The most important of the halide salts is the chloride which, in the hydrated form, has the formula MgC1 2.6H 2 O.

    0
    0
  • Magnesium chloride readily forms double salts with the alkaline chlorides.

    0
    0
  • It is not possible to prepare the normal carbonate by precipitating magnesium salts with sodium carbonate.

    0
    0
  • Magnesia alba, a white bulky precipitate obtained by adding sodium carbonate to Epsom salts,is a mixture of Mg(CO 3 H) (OH) 2H 2 O,Mg(CO 3 H) (OH) and Mg(OH) 2.

    0
    0
  • It is almost insoluble in water, but readily dissolves in ammonium salts.

    0
    0
  • Baeyer (Ber., 1902, 35, p. 1201) regards them as oxonium salts containing tetravalent oxygen (C 2 H 5) 2 :0:(MgR) (X), whilst W.

    0
    0
  • The magnesium salts may be detected by the white precipitate formed by adding sodium phosphate (in the presence of ammonia and ammonium chloride) to their solutions.

    0
    0
Browse other sentences examples →