Salt sentence example
You can get that salt shaker now, Cynthia.
There are mines of silver, copper, lignite and salt, and many hot springs, including some of great repute medicinally.
That and the time when I was trying to get the salt shaker from behind the stove.
Of late years the function of the collector is discharged in some forms of apparatus by a salt of radium.
I dropped the salt shaker behind the stove.Advertisement
In 1771 Thomas Jefferson described a " burning spring " in the Kanawha Valley, and when wells were drilled for salt brine near Charleston petroleum and natural gas were found here before there was any drilling for oil in Pennsylvania.
Brine wells have been mentioned above; the salt industry is still carried on in Mason county, and in 1908 145,157 bbls.
You have to take some of Mayer's remarks with a pinch of salt.
Jn 1841 natural gas was found with salt brine in a well on the Kanawha, and was used as a fuel to evaporate the salt water.
The lagoons are believed to act as purifying pans in which the greater part of the salt in the water is precipitated.Advertisement
The term sailor is used in a very wide sense and includes all persons earning their living by navigation on the sea, or in the harbours or roadsteads, or on salt lakes or canals within the maritime domain of the state, or on rivers and canals as far as the tide goes up or sea-going ships can pass.
Despite her fury and fear, she found his presence oddly calming, like sitting in a spa surrounded by incense with her feet in a salt bath.
Salt springs exist in the neighbourhood, and to the south there are two small lakes, Zonar and Rincon, which abound in fish.
A salt basin underlies the city, and, next to the lumber industry, the salt industry was the first to be developed, but its importance has dwindled; the product value in 1905 being $20,098 out of $5,620,866 for all factory products.
The views of Becher on the composition of substances mark little essential advance on those of the two preceding centuries, and the three elements or principles of salt, mercury and sulphur reappear as the vitrifiable, the mercurial and the combustible earths.Advertisement
It is also a considerable market for horses, cattle and grain, and there is a little boat-building and salt and sail-cloth manufacture.
Laristan is famous for the condiment called mahiabeh (fish-jelly), a compound of pounded small sprat-like fish, salt, mustard, nutmeg, cloves and other spices, used as a relish with nearly all foods.
Corn from middle Russia for Astrakhan is transferred from the railway to boats at Tsaritsyn; timber and wooden wares from the upper Volga are unloaded here and sent by rail to Kalach; and fish, salt and fruits sent from Astrakhan by boat up the Volga are here unloaded and despatched by rail to the interior of Russia.
The village appeared to me a great news room; and on one side, to support it, as once at Redding & Company's on State Street, they kept nuts and raisins, or salt and meal and other groceries.
Moscow when occupied by the enemy did not remain intact like Berlin, Vienna, and other towns, simply because its inhabitants abandoned it and did not welcome the French with bread and salt, nor bring them the keys of the city.Advertisement
Cynthia slammed the shaker on the counter, spraying salt on the floor.
The liquid is precipitated by alcohol, and the washed and dried precipitate is then dissolved in water and allowed to stand, when the salt separates in dark-coloured crystals.
The government monopolies of opium and salt were then for the first time placed upon a remunerative basis.
Sugarmaking, the distillation of rice-spirit, silk-weaving, fishing and the preparation of a fish-sauce (nuoc-mam) made from decayed fish, and the manufacture of salt from sea-water and of lime are carried on in many localities.
Salt, &c.Rock-salt is worked chiefly in the department of Meurthe-et-Moselle,which produces more than half the average annual product of salt.Advertisement
The group specially described as indirect taxes includes those on alcohol, wine, beer, cider and other alcoholic drinks, on passenger and goods traffic by railway, on licences to distillers, spirit-sellers, &c., on salt and on sugar of home manufacture.
It may be obtained as a dark brown amorphous powder by placing a mixture of io parts of the roughly powdered oxide with 6 parts of metallic sodium in a red-hot crucible, and covering the mixture with a layer of well-dried common salt.
The Villa Munichen or Forum ad monachos, so called from the monkish owners of the ground on which it lay, was first called into prominence by Duke Henry the Lion, who established a mint here in 1158, and made it the emporium for the salt coming from Hallein and Reichenhall.
It was, for nearly two years after this, rye and Indian meal without yeast, potatoes, rice, a very little salt pork, molasses, and salt; and my drink, water.
William Gilpin, who is so admirable in all that relates to landscapes, and usually so correct, standing at the head of Loch Fyne, in Scotland, which he describes as "a bay of salt water, sixty or seventy fathoms deep, four miles in breadth," and about fifty miles long, surrounded by mountains, observes, "If we could have seen it immediately after the diluvian crash, or whatever convulsion of nature occasioned it, before the waters gushed in, what a horrid chasm must it have appeared!
Everywhere preparations were made not for ceremonious welcomes (which he knew Pierre would not like), but for just such gratefully religious ones, with offerings of icons and the bread and salt of hospitality, as, according to his understanding of his master, would touch and delude him.
The wound opened again and the salt he threw into it drew a sharp response from her.
Howie located a Salt Lake City missing girl of twelve, hidden in the loving care of a distant aunt.
A blue basic salt is precipitated first, which, on boiling, rapidly changes to the rose-coloured hydroxide.
The most common of these sulphides is cobaltous sulphide, CoS, which occurs naturally as syepoorite, and can be artificially prepared by heating cobaltous oxide with sulphur, or by fusing anhydrous cobalt sulphate with barium sulphide and common salt.
By dissolving it in concentrated sulphuric acid and warming the solution, the anhydrous salt is obtained.
This salt may be used for the separation of cobalt and nickel, since the latter metal does not form a similar double nitrite, but it is necessary that the alkaline earth metals should be absent, for in their presence nickel forms complex nitrites containing the alkaline earth metal and the alkali metal.
Cobalt ammonium phosphate, CoNH4PO 4.12H 2 0, is formed when a soluble cobalt salt is digested for some time with excess of a warm solution of ammonium phosphate.
The pentammine purpureo-salts are formed from the luteo-salts by loss of ammonia, or from an air slowly oxidized ammoniacal cobalt salt solution, the precipitated luteosalt being filtered off and the filtrate boiled with concentrated acids.
The total production in 1905 was 149,431 tons; the average price of salt for the island in 1905 was 22d.
To the north as far as the rocky point of St Gildas, sheltering the mouth of the Loire, the shore, often occupied by salt marshes (marshes of Poitou and Brittany), is low-lying and hollowed by deep bays sheltered by large islands, those of Olron and Re lying opposite the ports of Rochefort and La Rochelle, while Noirmoutier closes the Bay of Bourgneuf.
The aqueous solution is turned bluish black by ferrous sulphate containing a ferric salt.
In seasons of drought they are hardly more than swamps and mud flats, which for a time may become a grassy plain, or desolate coast encrusted with salt.
When Mr Eyre viewed the country from Mount Deception in 1840, looking between Lake Torrens and the lake which now bears his own name, the refraction of light from the glittering crust of salt that covers a large space of stony or sandy ground produced an appearance of water.
After a few months' rest it started on the return journey, following Sturt Creek until its termination in Gregory's Salt Sea, and then keeping parallel with the South Australian border as far as Lake Macdonald.
The salt trade declined altogether in the 18th century, with the exception of one salt-works, which was kept open until 1856.
The next salt to be obtained was the mercuric salt, which was prepared in 1 799 by Edward Charles Howard, who substituted mercury for silver in Brugnatelli's process.
On the same side of the Gede is the health resort of Sindanglaya (founded 1850-1860), with a mineral spring containing salt, and close by is the country residence of Chipanas, belonging to the governor-general.
By passing the vapour of this compound through a red-hot tube, it yields the isomeric a0- pyridylpyrrol, the potassium salt of which with methyl iodide gives a substance methylated both in the pyridine and pyrrol nuclei.
Besides the delta of the Po and the large marshy tracts which it forms, there exist on both sides of it extensive lagoons of salt water, generally separated from the Adriatic by narrow strips of sand or embankments, partly natural and partly artificial, but havin openings which admit the influx and efflux of the sea-water, and serve as ports for communication with the mainland.
Salt has been mined there since the 16th century.
Salicylic acid is now never given internally, being replaced by its sodium salt, which is much cheaper, more soluble and less irritating to mucous membranes.
The salt has a sweet, mawkish taste.
When the salt is taken by the mouth, absorption is extremely rapid, the salt being present in the peripheral blood within ten minutes.
Salt and phosphates of lime are exported.
One of these depicts in a rough way lower Babylonia encircled by a " salt water river," Oceanus.
A pass through the hills gives access to Bahr-Assal; the last of a chain of salt lakes beginning 60 m.
The waters of Bahr-Assal are deeply impregnated with salt, which, in thick crusts, forms crescent-shaped round the banks - dazzling white when reflected by the sun.
The collection of salt from BahrAssal is an industry of some importance.
Among the analytical methods worked up by him the best known is that for the estimation of sugars by "Fehling's solution," which consists of a solution of cupric sulphate mixed with alkali and potassium-sodium tartrate (Rochelle salt).
Formerly the fishery was in the hands of the Dutch, whose supremacy was destroyed, however, by the imposition of the salt tax in 1712.
Near the mouth of the latter was a lake called Caprias, mentioned by Strabo; but it is now a mere salt marsh.
Salt is manufactured at various places in Upper Burma, notably in the lower Chindwin, Sagaing, Shwebo, Myingyan and Yamethin districts, as well as at Mawhkio in the Shan State of Thibaw.
This region is relatively flat, in some districts slightly marshy, but the water oozing from the soil is often brackish, and in places large shallow salt lakes are formed.
Fairly high mountains (in places verging on 4000 ft.) are found between Gafsa and the salt lakes of the J erid.
These salt lakes are a very curious feature.
They are smooth depressed areas (in the case of the largest, the Shat el Jerid, lying a few feet below the level of the Mediterranean), which for more than half the year are expanses of dried mud covered with a thick incrustation of white or grey salt.
This salt covering gives them at a distance the appearance of big sheets of water.
The harbour is too shallow to admit vessels of large size, but the proximity of the town to Odessa secures for it a thriving business in wine, salt, fish, wool and tallow.
The salt is obtained from the saline lakes (limans) in the neighbourhood.
Strontium sulphate, SrSO 4, found in the mineral kingdom as celestine, is formed when sulphuric acid or a soluble sulphate is added to a solution of a strontium salt.
Strontium carbonate, SrCO 3, found in the mineral kingdom as strontianite, is formed when a solution of a carbonate is added to one of a strontium salt.
The acid potassium salt is also found in the leaves and stalks of rhubarb.
Reichenhall possesses several copious saline springs, producing about 850o tons of salt per annum.
There are mines of chrome, mercury, cinnabar, argentiferous lead and rock salt.
The principal exports are salt, minerals, opium, cotton, cereals, wool and live stock; and the imports cloth-goods, coffee, rice and petroleum.
The province contains gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, coal and salt, but mining has never been developed to any extent.
Coal is also found and several salt mines are worked.
Edmund Naumann was the discoverer of these facts, and his attention was first drawn to them by learning that an edible sea-weed, which flourishes only in salt water, is called Asakusanon, from the place (Asakusa) of its original provenance, which now lies some 3 m.
In this process cellulose (in the form of sawdust) is made into a stiff paste with a mixture of strong caustic potash and soda solution and heated in flat iron pans to 20o-250 C. The somewhat dark-coloured mass is lixiviated with a small amount of warm water in order to remove excess of alkali, the residual alkaline oxalates converted into insoluble calcium oxalate by boiling with milk of lime, the lime salt separated, and decomposed by means of sulphuric acid.
Finally, as for salt, that grossest of groceries, to obtain this might be a fit occasion for a visit to the seashore, or, if I did without it altogether, I should probably drink the less water.
What Pierre did not know was that the place where they presented him with bread and salt and wished to build a chantry in honor of Peter and Paul was a market village where a fair was held on St. Peter's day, and that the richest peasants (who formed the deputation) had begun the chantry long before, but that nine tenths of the peasants in that villages were in a state of the greatest poverty.
Cobalt dioxide, Co02, has not yet been isolated in the pure state; it is probably formed when iodine and caustic soda are added to a solution of a cobaltous salt.
On evaporating this solution the hydrated salt CoI 2.6H 2 0 is obtained in hexagonal prisms. It behaves in an analogous manner to CoBr 2.6H 2 0 on heating.
The only basin of any extent is the Sambhar salt lake, of about 50 m.
In the north the staple products for export are salt, grain, wool and cotton, in the south opium and cotton; while the imports consist of sugar, hardware and piece goods.
Should these tests prove satisfactory the core is served with jute yarn, coiled in water-tight tanks, and surrounded with salt water.
S.E., there are deposits of rock salt.
In the middle ages Teignmouth was a flourishing port, able to furnish 7 ships and 120 mariners to the Calais expedition of 1347, and depending chiefly on the fishing and salt industries.
Cadmium hydroxide, Cd(OH) 2, is obtained as a white precipitate by adding potassium hydroxide to a solution of any soluble cadmium salt.
Cadmium nitrate, Cd(N03)2.4H20, is a deliquescent salt, which may be obtained by dissolving either the metal, or its oxide or carbonate in dilute nitric acid.
Boracic acid is chiefly found near Volterra, where there is also a little rock salt, but the main supply is obtained by evaporation.
The total salt production in 1902 was 458,497 tons, of which 248,2i5 were produced in the government salt factories and the rest in the free salt-works of Sicily.
The cura tori or curatoli (factors) receive 40 a year, with a slight interest in the profits; the stockmen hardly earn in money and kind 13; the muleteers and underworkmen get between 5 to 8, plus firewood, bread and oil; irregular workmen have even lower wages, with a daily distribution of bread, salt and oil.
The monopolies are those of salt, tobacco and the lottery.
The annual surpluses are largely accounted for by the heavy taxation on almost everything imported into the country, i and by the monopolies on tobacco and on salt; and are as a rule spent, and well spent, in other ways.
The commission reported favourably, selecting as a site Blair's original Port Cornwallis, but pointing out and avoiding the vicinity of a salt swamp which seemed to have been pernicious to the old colony.
Nagel (Ber., 1898, 31, p. 2009) show the salt to possess the composition Mo 3 C1 6.
Obviously no more than this is possible until physiologists are able to state much more precisely than at present what is the influence of common salt on the plants of salt-marshes, of the action of calcium carbonate on plants of calcareous soils, and of the action of humous compounds on plants of fens and peat moors.
A soil may be physically wet; but if the plants absorb the water only with difficulty, as in a salt marsh, then the soil is, as regards plants, physiologically dry.
In the hollows of this steppe region, salt water lakes occur, known.
Physically wet but physiologically dry ha bit ats,f with the accompanying plant communities of fens, moors, and salt marshes.
The effect of common salt on the metabolism of plants is not understood.
He showed further, that the increase of common salt in the soil is correlated with a reduction in the number and size of the chlo,-oplastids, and therefore in the amount of chlorophyll.
On the other hand, some plants did not respond to the action of common salt, whilst others were killed.
Schimper had previously maintained that the action of common salt in the cell-sap is detrimental as regards assimilation.
Doubtless, the excess of any soluble mineral salt or salts interferes with the osmotic absorption of the roots; and although calcium carbonate is insoluble in pure water, it is slightly soluble in water containing carbon dioxide.
The treatment is therefore to administer an ounce of sodium sulphate in water by the mouth, or to inject a similar quantity of the salt in solution directly into a vein or into the subcutaneous tissues.
The acid renders it available as a manure by converting the calcium phosphate, Ca 3 P 2 O 8, that it contains into the soluble monocalcium salt, CaH 4 P 2 O 8, or "superphosphate."
There are salt works and important coal deposits in its vicinity, the latter at Naricual and Capiricual, 12 m.
The salt of Wieliczka is well known for its purity and solidity, but has generally a grey or blackish colour.
A solution of the free acid may be prepared by adding oxalic acid to the solution of the sodium salt.
The potassium salt, after recrystallization from warm water, separates in large tabular crystals.
Bredig point to the salt possessing the double formula.
This salt may be prepared by digesting flowers of sulphur with sodium sulphite solution or by boiling sulphur with milk of lime.
In this latter reaction the deep yellow solution obtained is exposed to air when the calcium polysulphide formed is gradually converted into thiosulphate by oxidation, and the calcium salt thus formed is converted into the sodium salt by sodium carbonate or sulphate.
Gay-Lussac in 181q, is usually obtained in the form of its barium salt by suspending freshly precipitated hydrated manganese dioxide in water and passing sulphur dioxide into the mixture until all is dissolved; the barium salt is then precipitated by the careful addition of barium hydroxide.
A solution of the free acid may be obtained by decomposing the barium salt with dilute sulphuric acid and concentrating the solution in vacuo until it attains a density of about 1.35 (approximately), further concentration leading to its decomposition into sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid.
The free acid is obtained (in dilute aqueous solution) by the addition of dilute sulphuric acid to an aqueous solution of the barium salt.
The principal manufactures are firearms, ironmongery, earthenware, woollen cloth, beer, stoneware, zinc goods, colours and salt; in the neighbourhood are iron and coal mines.
There is a salt lake or lagoon between the Cape Palmas river and the vicinity of the Cavalla.
This desert is now filled to only a small extent by the salt waters of the Caspian, Aral and Balkash inland seas; but it bears unmistakable traces of having been during Post-Pliocene times an immense inland basin.
At the beginning of the Mesozoic era the whole country became land, bearing upon its surface the salt lakes in which the Trias was laid down.
Notwithstanding serious obstacles offered by shallows, corn, fish, salt and timber are largely shipped to and from Archangel.
The minerals chiefly produced in the Urals are iron, coal, gold, platinum, copper, salt and precious stones.
At one time all Russia was supplied with salt from the Urals, but at the present time the output is extremely small, less than 350 tons annually.
Salt, lime and gypsum are abundant.
In some cases, however, they are filled with fused acetate of soda; this salt is solid when cold, but when the can containing it is heated by immersion in hot water it liquefies, and in the process absorbs heat which is given out again on the change of state back to solid.
The valleys between the tilted mountain blocks are smooth and often trough-like, and are often the sites of shallow salt lakes or playas.
The largest of all, Great Salt Lake, is maintained by the waters of the Wasatch and associated plateaus.
Such are the Great Salt Lake and Carson deserts in the north, the Mohave and Colorado and Amargosa (Death Valley) deserts of the south-west.
Salt deposits are extensive and commercially important in Washoe and Churchill counties.
The state is crossed from east and west by three main lines of railway, parts of the great transcontinental systems, the Southern Pacific and the Western Pacific in the northern part of the state and the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake in the southern.
The San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake railway, also an important factor in east and west transcontinental traffic, opened in May 1905, has been of special value in the development of the southern part of the state.
It crosses a section that is mostly desert, but is connected with the Bullfrog District by the Las Vegas & Tonopah, which runs from Goldfield through Beatty and Rhyolite, and meets the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake at Las Vegas.
Thus, in the above example, it is immaterial whether M displaces M" from its salt directly, or whether M first displaces M', which is then used to displace M".
The Edomites, who had been almost extirpated by David in the valley of Salt, south of the Dead Sea, were now strong enough to seek revenge; and the powerful kingdom of Damascus, whose foundation is ascribed to this period, began to threaten Israel on the north and north-east.
From an early date and for many centuries salt was the staple manufacture of Lymington.
About 4,000,000 bottles of water are exported annually, and another article of export is the salt recovered from the water by evaporation.
The kavirs, or salt depressions, of the Persian desert are more frequently widespread deposits of mud and salt than water-covered areas.
The vegetation of the dry region of central Asia is remarkable for the great relative number of Chenopodiaceae, Salicornia and other Central salt plants being common; Polygonaceae also are abun Asia.
The harbour of Cagliari (along the north side of which runs a promenade called the Via Romo) is a good one, and has a considerable trade, exporting chiefly lead, zinc and other minerals and salt, the total annual value of exports amounting to nearly 12 million sterling in value.
It is obtainable from most natural fatty bodies by the action of alkalis and similar reagents, whereby the fats are decomposed, water being taken up, and glycerin being formed together with the alkaline salt of some particular acid (varying with the nature of the fat).
In systematic chemistry, sodium hyposulphite is a salt of hyposulphurous acid, to which Schutzenberger gave the formula H 2 S0 2, but which Bernthsen showed to be H 2 S 2 0 4.
About 50,000 tons of coal of very poor quality are, however, extracted annually, and the same quantity of salt in the Armenian highlands and in Kuban.
The pulp is much esteemed in the West Indies and is eaten as a salad, usually with the addition of pepper, salt and vinegar.
Sulphur, salt and copper are the most important of the minerals.
Its specific gravity of 4.5 is about twice as great as that of salt and of many other colourless, transparent and glassy minerals not unlike barytes in general appearance.
Artificially prepared crystals of barytes may be obtained by allowing a solution of a soluble barium salt to diffuse slowly into a solution of a soluble sulphate.
Salt and petroleum are worked in the mountains, and there is a.
But when Venice took possession of the mainland her builders were able to employ a strong hydraulic dark lime from Albettone, which formed a durable cement, capable of resisting salt water and the corrosive sea air.
Ohio, in 1908, produced 3,4 2 7,47 8 barrels of salt valued at $864,710.
The school revenues are derived from the sale and rental of public lands granted by Congress, and of the salt and swamp lands devoted by the state to such purposes, from a uniform levy of one mill on each dollar of taxable property in the state, from local levies (averaging 7.2 mills in township districts and 10.07 mills in separate districts in 1908), from certain fines and licences, and from tuition fees paid by non-resident pupils.
The surface of the peninsula was very hilly and irregular, the shore-line was deeply indented with coves, and there were salt marshes that fringed the neck and the river-channel and were left oozy by the ebbing tides.
It has important fisheries, and manufactures salt, pottery, roofing (made of nipa leaves), and nipa wine.
Thus by heating spirits of salt he obtained "marine acid air" (hydrochloric acid gas), and he was able to collect it because he happened to use mercury, instead of water, in his pneumatic trough.
Steamers ascend this river as far as Bilyutai, near the Mongolian frontier, and bring back tea, imported via Kiakhta, while grain, cedar nuts, salt, soda, wool and timber are shipped on rafts down the Khilok, Chikoi and Uda (tributaries of the Selenga), and manufactured goods are taken up the river for export to China.
No other feed is required, the only provision necessary being an adequate supply of water and an occasional allowance of salt.
Salt, flax, cotton and currants are also mentioned among the produce.
But their indulgence even then is not mentioned to have gone beyond the coarse bread, flavoured with salt and sometimes hyssop, while their drink was water from the spring.
The processes and extent of the manufacture were revolutionized at about the beginning of the 19th century by Chevreul's classical investigations on the fats and oils, and by Leblanc's process for the manufacture of caustic soda from common salt.
But in this case the fatty acid unites with the alkali into its potash or soda salt, forming a soap C3H5(C16H3102)3+3NaOH =3NaC16H3102+C,H5(OH) 3 Palmitin.
Almost all soda soaps are precipitated from their watery solutions by the addition of a sufficiency of common salt.
Soap when dissolved in a large amount of water suffers hydrolysis, with formation of a precipitate of acid salt and a solution containing free alkali.
Chevreul found that a neutral salt soap hydrolysed to an acid salt, free alkali, and a small amount of fatty acid.
Steam is turned on, and, the mass being brought to a clear condition with weak lye or water, strong lye is added and the boiling continued with close steam till the lye attains such a state of concentration that the soap is no longer soluble in it, and it will separate from the caustic lye as from a common salt solution.
Marine Soap. - These soaps are so named because they are not insoluble in a strong solution of salt; hence they form a lather and can be used for washing with sea-water.
Being thus soluble in salt water it cannot, of course, be salted out like common soaps; but if a very concentrated salt solution is used precipitation is effected, and a curd soap is separated so hard and refractory as to be practically useless.
There is no separation of underlyes in potash soap, consequently the product contains the whole constituents of the oils used, as the operation of salting out is quite impracticable owing to the double decomposition which results from the action of salt, producing thereby a hard principally soda soap with formation of potassium chloride.
The finest agricultural land in the United States is near the lake, and there is an immense trade in all grains, fruits, livestock and lumber, and in products such as flour, pork, hides, leather goods, furniture, &c. Rich lead and copper mines abound, as also salt, iron and coal.
Later, as in the works attributed to Basil Valentine, sulphur, mercury and salt are held to be the constituents of the metals.
Though an alchemist, Boyle, in his Sceptical Chemist (1661), cast doubts on the " experiments whereby vulgar Spagyrists are wont to endeavour to evince their salt, sulphur and mercury to be the true principles of things," and advanced towards the conception of chemical elements as those constituents of matter which cannot be further decomposed.
It is celebrated for the extensive deposit of rock salt in its vicinity.
The salt forms a mountain mass about 300 ft.
A similar ammonium salt has been obtained.
Brick clay and limestone are abundant, and there are on the south coast a sand marl rich in phosphates and productive salt deposits.
It forms a characteristic explosive silver salt on the addition of ammoniacal silver nitrate to its aqueous solution, and an amorphous precipitate which explodes on warming with ammoniacal cuprous chloride.
Imports are coal, textiles, salt, grain and flour.
The chief imports are cotton piece goods, cotton twist, salt, sugar, provisions, railway materials, raw cotton, metals, coal, tobacco, spices and kerosene oil.
The metals may be arranged in a series according to their power of displacing one another in salt solutions, thus Cs, Rb, K, Na, Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Cd, Tl, Fe, Co, Ni, Sn, Pb, (H), Sb, Bi, As, Cu, Hg, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au.
An acid terminating in -ous forms a salt ending in -ite, and an oxyacid ending in -ic forms a salt ending in -ate.
An acid salt is one in which the whole amount of hydrogen has not been replaced by metal; a normal salt is one in which all the hydrogen has been replaced; and a basic salt is one in which part of the acid of the normal salt has been replaced by oxygen.
This is also the case if two substances are brought together in solution, by the action of which upon each other a third body is formed which is insoluble in the solvent employed, and which also does not tend to react upon any of the substances present; for instance, when a solution of a chloride is added to a solution of a silver salt, insoluble silver chloride is precipitated, and almost the whole of the silver is removed from solution, even if the amount of the chloride employed be not in excess of that theoretically required.
For example, when a solution of a ferric salt is added to a solution of potassium thiocyanate, a deep red coloration is produced, owing to the formation of ferric thiocyanate.
Thus potassium ortho-oxybenzoate is converted into the salt of para-oxybenzoic acid at 220 0; the three bromphenols, and also the brombenzenesulphonic acids, yield m-dioxybenzene or resorcin when fused with potash.
In many cases it may be connected with basic oxygen, and the salt formation is assumed to involve the passage of divalent into tetravalent oxygen.
Solution in dilute alkali was supposed to be accompanied by the rupture of the lactone ring with the formation of the quinonoid salt shown in 2.
On the chromophoreauxochrome theory (the nitro group being the chromophore, and the hydroxyl the auxochrome) it is necessary in order to explain the high colour of the metallic salts and the colourless alkyl and aryl derivatives to assume that the auxochromic action of the hydroxyl group is only brought strongly into evidence by salt formation.
Minerals, in which Oberhessen is much richer than the two other provinces, include iron, manganese, salt and some coal.
Pyrrol is readily converted into pyridine derivatives by acting with bromoform, chloroform, or methylene iodide on its potassium salt, t3-brom-and O-chlorpyridine being obtained with the first two compounds, and pyridine itself with the last.
Andrusov, when the union of the Black Sea with the Mediterranean through the Bosporus took place, salt water rushed into it along the bottom of the Bosporus and killed the fauna of the less saline waters.
The important mineral products are salt, sulphur, petroleum and natural gas.
The deposit of rock salt on Petite Anse Island, in the coast swamp region, has been extensively worked since its discovery during the Civil War.
A few shallow salt lakes are filled by rain water, but they dry up on the setting in of the hot weather, leaving a thick crust of salt on their beds, which is used for commercial and domestic purposes.
The silver salt is a bright yellow solid, soluble in dilute sulphuric and nitric acids, and may be crystallized from concentrated solutions of ammonia.
The calcium salt, CaN 2 O 2.4H 2 O, formed by the action of calcium chloride on the silver salt in the presence of a small quantity of nitric acid, is a lustrous crystalline powder, almost insoluble in water but readily soluble in dilute acids.
In some islands there are rich salt ponds, but.
Valuable salt is obtained from the pits at Dolnja Tuzla, and the southern part of Herzegovina yields asphalt and lignite.
The production of salt is also under the direction of the public debt administration.
About a fourth of the salt produced is exported to foreign countries, and of this about three-fourths goes to British India.
In the second were comprised tithes, mine-royalties, forests and domains, customs, sheep-tax, tobacco, salt, spirits, stamps and " various.
The only exception made to this rule was in the case of revenues showing a yearly increase, such as Post Office revenue, tobacco, salt, for which were taken the figures of 1323 (1907) increased by a certain average."
These " six indirect contributions " were the revenues from tobacco, salt, wines and spirits, stamps (commercial), certain specified fisheries, and the silk tithe in specified provinces.
A large and remunerative export trade in salt to India is now established, whereas formerly not one grain found its way there; the first steps in this direction were taken in 1892 when works were begun to place the great rock-salt salines of Salif, on the coast of the Red Sea, on a commercial footing.
The gross receipts from this export trade amounted in the year1908-1909to £T99,564, and the profits approximately to £T12,000, in spite of the contest between Liverpool and Spanish salt merchants on the Calcutta market, which led to a heavy cutting of prices.
Pains, moreover, have been taken by the public debt council to develop the sale of salt within the empire.
These efforts have been rewarded by the increase of the salt revenue from £T635,000 in 1881-1882, the year preceding the establishment of the council, to £T1,075,880 in 1907-1908.
Salt is an important export, being manufactured in salt water swamps and marshes throughout the province of Pangasinan (whose name, from asin, " salt," means "the place where salt is produced").
Through the kindness of Henry Salt, the traveller and antiquarian, who was ever afterwards his patron, he was engaged at Astley's amphitheatre, and his circumstances soon began to improve.
In 1812 he left England, and after travelling in Spain and Portugal reached Egypt in 1815, where Salt was then British consul-general.
Burckhardt, he was sent at Salt's charges to Thebes, whence he removed with great skill the colossal bust of Rameses II., commonly called Young Memnon, which he shipped for England, where it is in the British Museum.
First the "creature of salt" is exorcized, "that.
Albumins (as classified above) are soluble in water, dilute acids and alkalies, and in saturated neutral salt solutions; they are coagulated by heat.
The globulins are insoluble in water and in dilute acids, but soluble in alkalies and in neutral salt solutions; these solutions are coagulated on boiling.
By the rennet ferment caseinogen is converted into casein, a substance resembling caseinogen in being soluble in water, but differing in having an insoluble calcium salt.
They are loose, white, non-hygroscopic powders, soluble in water and salt solutions, and have an acid reaction; they give the colour reactions of albumins.
They are quite insoluble in water and in salt solutions, and difficultly soluble in dilute acids and alkalies.
It forms shiny, homogeneous masses, quite insoluble in cold water and in salt solutions, but soluble in alkalies.
Melanins obtained from tumours form black, shiny masses; they are insoluble in water, neutral salt solutions, dilute acids and in the common organic solvents.
It is more probable, however, that it arose from the fact that the Salians for a long period occupied the shores of the salt sea.'
As an example we may take the case of a solution of a salt such as copper sulphate in water, through which an electric current is passed between copper plates.
Volta's cell consists essentially of two plates of different metals, such as zinc and copper, connected by an electrolyte such as a solution of salt or acid.
Berzelius stated that neutral salt solutions could be decomposed by electricity, the acid appearing at one pole and the metal at the other.
It is found that the most accurate and convenient apparatus to use is a platinum bowl filled with a solution of silver nitrate containing about fifteen parts of the salt to one hundred of water.
At the electrodes, however, the small quantity of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions from the water are liberated first in cases where the ions of the salt have a higher decomposition voltage.
The salt must therefore be derived from an acid, chloroplatinic acid, H 2 PtC1 6, and have the formula Na 2 PtC1 6, the ions being Na and PtCls", for if it were a double salt it would decompose as a mixture of sodium chloride and platinum chloride and both metals would go to the cathode.
A freedom of interchange is thus indicated between the opposite parts of the molecules of salts in solution, and it follows reasonably that with the solution of a single salt, say sodium chloride, continual interchanges go on between the sodium and chlorine parts of the different molecules.
If the ions move at equal rates, the salt which is decomposed to supply the ions liberated must be taken equally from the neighbourhood of the two electrodes.
But if one ion, say the anion, travels faster through the liquid than the other, the end of the solution from which it comes will be more exhausted of salt than the end towards which it goes.
If we assume that no other cause is at work, it is easy to prove that, with non-dissolvable electrodes, the ratio of salt lost at the anode to the salt lost at the cathode must be equal to the ratio of the velocity of the cation to the velocity of the anion.
Here the middle part of the solution is unaltered and the number of ions liberated is the same at either end, but the amount of salt left at one end is less than that at the other.
On the right, towards which the faster ion travels, five molecules of salt are left, being a loss of two from the original seven.
If either ion carried with it some of the unaltered salt or some of the solvent, concentration or dilution of the liquid would be produced where the ion was liberated.
Thus the osmotic pressure, or the depression of the freezing point of a solution of potassium chloride should, at extreme dilution, be twice the normal value, but of a solution of sulphuric acid three times that value, since the potassium salt contains two ions and the acid three.
For instance, the colour of a salt solution is the colour obtained by the superposition of the colours of the ions and the colour of any undissociated salt that may be present.
If an alkali is added, however, a highly dissociated salt of para-nitrophenol is formed, and the yellow colour is at once evident.
The tests for a salt, potassium nitrate, for example, are the tests not for KNO 3, but for its ions K and NO 3, and in cases of double decomposition it is always these ions that are exchanged for those of other substances.
Another method is to allow an acid to act on an insoluble salt, and to measure the quantity which goes into solution.
Determinations have been made with calcium oxalate, CaC 2 04+H 2 0, which is easily decomposed by acids, oxalic acid and a soluble calcium salt being formed.
This explains the action of a strong acid on the salt of a weak acid.
In order that this should hold, we have seen that a considerable quantity of acetic acid must be present, so that a corresponding amount of the salt will be decomposed, the quantity being greater the less the acid is dissociated.
The temperature coefficient of conductivity has approximately the same value for most aqueous salt solutions.
The dissociation theory gives an immediate explanation of the fact that, in general, no heat-change occurs when two neutral salt solutions are mixed.
Plates of platinum and pure or amalgamated zinc are separated by a porous pot, and each surrounded by some of the same solution of a salt of a metal more oxidizable than zinc, such as potassium.
When the solutions may be taken as effectively dilute, so that the gas laws apply to the osmotic pressure, this relation reduces to E _ nrRT to c1 ey gE c2 where n is the number of ions given by one molecule of the salt, r the transport ratio of the anion, R the gas constant, T the absolute temperature, y the total valency of the anions obtained from one molecule, and c i and c 2 the concentrations of the two solutions.
Silver chloride is a very insoluble substance, and here the amount in solution is still further reduced by the presence of excess of chlorine ions of the potassium salt.
We can therefore calculate the rate at which the salt as a whole will diffuse by examining the conditions for a steady transfer, in which the ions diffuse at an equal rate, the faster one being restrained and the slower one urged forward by the electric forces.
Barreswil found that a strongly alkaline solution of copper sulphate and potassium sodium tartrate (Rochelle salt) remained unchanged on boiling, but yielded an immediate precipitate of red cuprous oxide when a solution of glucose was added.
The principal mineral wealth of Upper Austria is salt, of which it extracts nearly 50% of the total Austrian production.
There are about thirty mineral springs, the best known being the salt baths of Ischl and the iodine waters at Hall.
The principal articles of export are salt, stone, timber, live-stock, woollen and iron wares and paper.
An authority on precious stones, and especially the diamond, he succeeded in artificially making some minute specimens of the latter gem; and on the discovery of radium he was one of the first to take up the study of its properties, in particular inventing the spinthariscope, an instrument in which the effects of a trace of radium salt are manifested by the phosphorescence produced on a zinc sulphide screen.
The principal occupation is the manufacture of the salt obtained from the brine springs or wyches, to which the town probably owes both its name and its origin.
At the time of the Domesday Survey all the salt springs belonged to the king, who received from them a yearly farm of X65, but the manor was divided between several churches and tenants-in-chief.
The burgesses of Droitwich are mentioned in the Domesday Survey, but they probably only had certain franchises in connexion with the salt trade.
Klaproth in the mineral honeystone, which is the aluminium salt of the acid, The acid may be prepared by warming honeystone with ammonium carbonate, boiling off the excess of the ammonium salt and adding ammonia to the solution.
The precipitated alumina is filtered off, the filtrate evaporated and the ammonium salt of the acid purified by recrystallization.
The ammonium salt is then converted into the lead salt by precipitation with lead acetate and the lead salt decomposed by sulphuretted hydrogen.
It oxidizes a manganese salt (free from chlorine) in the presence of nitric acid to a permanganate; this is a very delicate test for manganese.
This salt gives the corresponding chloride and fluoride with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids, and the phosphate, Pb(HP04)2, with phosphoric acid.
Acids decompose it into lead dioxide and monoxide, and the latter may or may not dissolve to form a salt; red lead may, therefore, be regarded as lead orthoplumbate, Pb2Pb04.
It is artificially obtained by adding hydrochloric acid to a solution of lead salt, as a white precipitate, little soluble in cold water, less so in dilute hydrochloric acid, more so in the strong acid, and readily soluble in hot water, from which on cooling, the excess of dissolved salt separates out in silky rhombic needles.
Lead fluoride, PbF2, is a white powder obtained by precipitating a lead salt with a soluble fluoride; it is sparingly soluble in water but readily dissolves in hydrochloric and nitric acids.
Lead bromide, PbBr 2, a white solid, and lead iodide, PbI 21 a yellow solid, are prepared by precipitating a lead salt with a soluble bromide or iodide; they resemble the chloride in solubility.
It is produced by the addition of a solution of lead salt to an excess of ammonium carbonate, as an almost insoluble white precipitate.
Another process depends upon the formation of lead chloride by grinding together litharge with salt and water, and then treating the alkaline fluid with carbon dioxide until it is neutral.
It may be artificially prepared by leading sulphur vapour over lead, by fusing litharge with sulphur, or, as a black precipitate, by passing sulphuretted hydrogen into a solution of a lead salt.
Strong sulphuric acid dissolves it, forming an acid salt, Pb(HS04)2, which is hydrolysed by adding water, the normal sulphate being precipitated; hence the milkiness exhibited by samples of oil of vitriol on dilution.
The borate, Pb 2 B 6 0 1 u 4H20, is obtained as a white precipitate by adding borax to a lead salt; this on heating with strong ammonia gives PbB2044H2.
When carbon dioxide is passed into this solution the whole of the added oxide, and even part of the oxide of the normal salt, is precipitated as a basic carbonate chemically similar, but not quite equivalent as a pigment, to white lead.
Some cotton is grown, although the soil is as a whole poor; the manufactures include salt, metal vessels and stone handmills.
In order to soften meat before it is salted, so as to allow the salt to extract the blood more freely, the meat is soaked in water for about half an hour.
It is then covered with salt for about an hour and afterwards washed three times.
The inactive mixture may be resolved into its active components by fractional crystallization of the cinchonine salt, when the salt of the dextro modification separates first; or the ammonium salt may be fermented by Penicillium glaucum, when the laevo form is destroyed and the dextro form remains untouched; on the other' hand, Saccharomyces ellipsoideus destroys the dextro form, but does not touch the laevo form.
Since i +47-K' can never be negative, the apparent susceptibility will be positive or negative according as is greater or less than Thus, for example, a tube containing a weak solution of an iron salt will appear to be diamagnetic if it is immersed in a stronger solution of iron, though in air it is paramagnetic.4 Circular Magnetization.
Annexed are values of Io 6 K for the different salts examined, w being the weight of the salt per c.c. of the solution.
A salt morass was on the lower end of the lake.
They contain scarcely any water except in the rainy season, when they are very full and rapid, and discharge themselves into the Runn, all along the coast of which the wells and springs are more or less impregnated with common salt and other saline ingredients.
When heated they liquefy; and if the heating be continued, the water of crystallization is driven off, the salt froths and^swells, and at last an amorphous powder remains.
From the name schistos, and the mode of formation, there can be little doubt that this species was the salt which forms spontaneously on certain slaty minerals, as alum slate and bituminous shale, and which consists chiefly of the sulphates of iron and aluminium.
Possibly in certain places the iron sulphate may have been nearly wanting, and then the salt would be white, and would answer, as Pliny says it did, for dyeing bright colours.
The salt separates from solutions containing hydrofluoric acid in large plates, which are greenish yellow in colour.
Cattle, phosphate of lime and salt, manufactured from a lake in the interior, are the principal exports, the market for these being the neighbouring island of St Thomas.
Both have outlets to the sea, and the former is salt.
Salt, which does not figure in the list of exports, is produced along the coast between Pernambuco and Cape St Roque.
Joppa, which adjoins it, has salt works, but is chiefly a residential neighbourhood.
It contains manufactories of chemicals, machinery, starch, white lead and various other articles, but is chiefly noted for its extensive salt springs and works, which produce about 75,000 tons of salt per annum.
During the formation of the Schlier the plain was covered by an inland sea or series of salt lakes, in which evaporation led to the concentration and finally to the deposition of the salts contained in the water.
Finally, in the Pontian period, the lagoons became gradually less and less salt, and the deposits are characterized especially by the abundance of shells.
The value of the mining (except salt) and smelting production in Hungary amounted in 1900 to £4,500,000, while in 1877 the value was only £I,50o,000.
Besides wine, fruit, grain and timber, the surrounding uplands yield petroleum and salt.
Within a few miles are the thermal springs of Olanestzi and the salt mines of Ocnele Mari.
Although saline springs are mentioned here as early as the 13th century, the first attempt to bore for salt was not made until 1839, while the systematic exploitation of the salt-beds, to which the town is indebted for its prosperity, dates only from 1856.
The shafts reached deposits of salt at a depth of 850 ft., but the finer and purer layers lie more than 1 roo ft.
Berzelius about 1823 found that the yellow oxide, when treated with excess of sulphuric acid, gave a sulphate not unlike the ferric salt.
He concluded that the uranium salt was Ur 2033S0 3, where Ur 2 0 3, according to his analysis, represents 864 parts of yellow oxide (0 = 16).
The filtrate contains the uranium as uranous and the iron as ferrous salt.
Dilute sulphuric acid attacks it but slowly; hydrochloric acid, especially if strong, dissolves it readily, with the formation, more immediately, of a hyacinthcoloured solution of U 2 C1 6, which, however, readily absorbs oxygen from the air, with the formation of a green solution of UC1 4, which in its turn gradually passes into one of yellow uranyl salt, U02.
Various hydrates have been described, but they cannot be formed by precipitating a uranyl salt with an alkali, this reagent giving rise to salts termed uranates.
Uranyl nitrate, U02(N03)2.6H20, is the most important uranium salt.
Salt is obtainable from the many pans in the plateaus, notably in the Zout(salt)pansberg, and was formerly manufactured in considerable quantities.
The department imports coal, lime, stone, salt, raw sulphur, skins and timber and exports agricultural and mineral products, bricks and tiles, and other manufactured goods.
One part of cream of tartar, two of alum and two of common salt are dissolved in boiling water, and the solution is boiled with granulated metallic tin (or, better, mixed with a little stannous chloride) to produce a tin solution; and into this the articles are put at a boiling heat.
A solution of the pure salt yields fine prisms of the composition Na2Sn03+10H20, which effloresce in the air.
The salt is used as a mordant in dyeing and calico-printing.
The chloride readily combines with water to form a crystallizable hydrate SnCl 2.2H 2 O, known as "tin salt" or "tin crystals."
This salt is also formed by dissolving tin in strong hydrochloric acid and allowing it to crystallize, and is industrially prepared by passing sufficiently hydrated hydrochloric acid gas over granulated tin contained in stoneware bottles and evaporating the concentrated solution produced in tin basins over granulated tin.
The crystals are very soluble in cold water, and if the salt is really pure a small proportion of water forms a clear solution; but on adding much water most of the salt is decomposed, with the formation of a precipitate of oxychloride, 2Sn(OH)Cl H20.
M 2 SnC1 61 analogous to the chloroplatinates; the salt (NH 4) 2 SnC1 6 is known industrially as - "pink salt" on account of its use as a mordant to produce a pink colour.
Stannous salt solutions yield a brown precipitate of SnS with sulphuretted hydrogen, which is insoluble in cold dilute acids and in real sulphide of ammonium, (NH 4) 2 S; but the yellow, or the colourless reagent on addition of sulphur, dissolves the precipitate as SnS 2 salt.
Stannic salt solutions give a yellow precipitate of SnS 2 with sulphuretted hydrogen, which is insoluble in cold dilute acids but readily soluble in sulphide of ammonium, and is re-precipitated therefrom as SnS2 on acidification.
Tirgu Ocna is built among the Carpathian Mountains, on bare hills formed of rock salt.
The thickness of the salt is unknown; the mines yield about 11,000 tons annually.
In the 15th and 16th centuries the town was a leading seat of the salt industry ("salt to Dysart" was the equivalent of "coals to Newcastle"), but the salt-pans have been abandoned for a considerable period.
Sulphur is mined near Carupano, and salt in Zulia and on the peninsula of Araya.
The chief imports are coal, timber and iron, and the exports grain and other agricultural products and salt.
The exports include cattle, hides, coffee, rubber, fruit and salt.
Consumption of Kohat salt is restricted, on account of its paying less duty, to the tracts lying to the north of the Indus and to the frontier tribes.
The mines are under the control of the Northern India Salt Department.
Heidenhain recognizes two classes, first, such substances as peptone, leech extract and crayfish extract; and, secondly, crystalloids such as sugar, salt, &c. Starling sees no reason to believe that members of either class act otherwise than by increasing the pressure in the capillaries or by injuring the endothelial wall.
Generally it is either dried, after being separated from the wash water, by means of common salt, upon a layer of which the moist nitroglycerin is gently run and allowed to drain or filter through, or it is filtered through a mass of dry sponge or similar dry and porous material.
He regarded all bodies, organic and inorganic, as composed of the three elements - spirit, sulphur and salt, the first being only found abundantly in animal bodies.
In the case of coal, salt, iron ore, pyrite and other homogeneous minerals, boring may give all the information required.
The food of the people consists as a rule of boiled rice with salted fresh or dried fish, salt, sessamum-oil, chillies, onions, turmeric, boiled vegetables, and occasionally meat of some sort from elephant flesh down to smaller animals, fowls and almost everything except snakes, by way of condiment.
For the commoner grades of dark-coloured bottles the glass mixture is cheapened by substituting common salt for part of the sulphate of soda, and by the addition of felspar, granite, granulite, furnace slag and other substances fusible at a high temperature.
The carbonates are decomposed by mineral acids, with formation of the corresponding salt of the acid, and liberation of carbon dioxide.
The summer climate is cool, usually too cool for sea-bathing, but there is a large open-air salt water swimming bath.
The inhabitants grow hemp, Indian corn, coffee, sibucao, cacao, cocoanuts (for copra) and sugar, weave rough fabrics and manufacture tuba (a kind of wine used as a stimulant), clay pots and jars, salt and soap. There is some fishing here.
The actual formation of this salt is not quite clear; but it is certainly conditioned by the simultaneous contact of decaying nitrogenous matter, alkalies, air and moisture.
The salt is obtained from the soil in which it occurs naturally, or from the heaps in which it is formed artificially, by extracting with water, and adding to the solution wood-ashes or potassium carbonate.
This is generally effected by adding the calculated amount of potassium chloride (of which immense quantities are obtained as a by-product in the Stassfurt salt industry) dissolved in hot water to a saturated boiling solution of sodium nitrate; the common salt, which separates on boiling down the solution, is removed from the hot solution, and on cooling the potassium nitrate crystallizes out and is separated and dried.
It contains from 48 to 75% of sodium nitrate and from 20 to 40% of common salt, which are associated with various minor saline components, including sodium iodate and more or less insoluble mineral, and also some organic matter, e.g.
The chief applications of Chile saltpetre are in the nitric acid industry, and in the manufacture of ordinary saltpetre for making gunpowder, ordinary Chile saltpetre being unsuitable by reason of its deliquescent nature, a property, however, not exhibited by the perfectly pure salt.
The material is moistened with a solution of common salt and placed in very large heaps to ferment for some weeks.
To obtain the metal chemically pure a specially prepared pure oxide or salt of zinc is distilled.