Among Servian cities, Nish is only surpassed by Belgrade in commercial and strategic importance; for it lies at the point where several of the chief Balkan highroads converge, and where the branch railway to Salonica leaves the main line between Belgrade and Constantinople.
The trade of the northern and western districts has to some extent been diverted to Salonica since the opening of the railways from that town to Mitrovitza and Monastir.
The committee, restored by the Salonica troops, now decided on Abdul-Hamid's deposition, and on the 27th of April his brother Reshid Effendi was proclaimed sultan as Mahommed V.
The ex-sultan was conveyed into dignified captivity at Salonica.
The main railway from Belgrade to Constantinople skirts the Maritza and Ergene valleys, and there is an important branch line down the Maritza valley to Dedeagatch, and thence coastwise to Salonica.
Boniface, marquis of Monferrat, desired to make good the claim to Salonica, and the Venetians doubtless wished to upset the Greek empire, which had recently shown itself so friendly to their rivals the Genoese.
It corresponded roughly to ancient Thrace, Macedonia with Chalcidice, Epirus and a large part of Illyria, constituting the present administrative divisions of Stambul (Constantinople, including a small strip of the opposite Asiatic coast), Edirne (Adrianople), Salonica with Kossovo (Macedonia), Iannina (parts of Epirus and Thessaly), Shkodra (Scutari or upper Albania).
The headquarters of the ordus are I., Constantinople; II., Adrianople; III., Salonica; IV., Erzerum; V., Damascus; VI., Bagdad; VII., Yemen; 15th division, Tripoli; 16th division, Hejaz.
The chief centres of export are Adrianople (more than half), Constantinople and Smyrna, the others being Brusa, Beirut, Ismid, Mytilene and Salonica.
Salonica, Thessaly, Athens and the Morea were under independent Greek princes.
Bayezid determined to punish this insubordination: Constantinople was besieged and an army marched into Macedonia, capturing Salonica and Larissa (r395).
Of these the most conspicuous was that of Salonica.
The capture of Salonica had been preceded by renewed troubles with Servia and Hungary, peace being concluded with both in 1428.
External influences and latent fanaticism were active; a serious insurrection broke out in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1875, and the efforts to quell it almost exhausted Turkey's resources; the example spread to Bulgaria, where abortive outbreaks in September 1875 and May 1876 led to those cruel measures of repression which were known as " the Bulgarian atrocities," 3 Mussulman public feeling was inflamed, and an attempt at Salonica to induce a Christian girl who had embraced Islam to return to her faith caused the murder of two foreign consuls by a fanatical mob.
A serious Bulgarian insurrection in Macedonia in the autumn of 1903 induced Austria and Russia to combine in formulating the Miirzsteg reform programme, tardily consented to by Turkey, by which Austrian and Russian civil agents were appointed to exercise a certain degree of control and supervision over the three vilayets of Salonica, Monastir and Kossovo.
In these circumstances the headquarters of the Young Turks were transferred from Paris to Salonica, where a central body, known as the committee of union and progress, was established (1908) to organize the revolution.
On the 23rd the committee of union and progress, under the presidency of Enver Bey, proclaimed the constitution in Salonica, while the second and third army corps threatened to march on Constantinople if the sultan refused to obey the proclamation.
was removed to Salonica on the 28th, and on the 10th of May the new sultan was formally invested with the sword of Osman.
For the present purpose it will be convenient to divide the old school promulgated by imperial iade; parliament was prorogued for three months on the 27th, and during the recess the committee of union and progress met at Salonica and modified its own rules (Oct.
The union of these powers, combined with the annexation of Novibazar, would have impeded the extension of Austrian influence towards Salonica.
Skoplye), the capital of the vilayet of Kossovo, European Turkey; on the left bank of the river Vardar, and at the junction of the railways from Nish and Mitrovitza to Salonica.
Even in the Mediterranean sea-ice is formed annually in the northern part of the Black Sea, and more rarely in the Gulf of Salonica and at the head of the Adriatic off Triest.
It has a station on the railway between Salonica and Dedeagatch.
Too independent, however, for the court, Midhat remained in power only three months, and after a short governorship of Salonica he lived apart from affairs at Constantinople until 1875.
Pop. (1905) about 80,000, of whom half are Turks, and half Jews, Greeks, Bulgars, Armenians, &c. Adrianople ranks, after Constantinople and Salonica, third in size and importance among the cities of European Turkey.
Adrianople is on the railway from Belgrade and Sofia to Constantinople and Salonica.
Voden, anc. Edessa, q.v.), a city of European Turkey, in the vilayet of Salonica, western Macedonia; at the source of the small river Bistritza, which flows east and south into Lake Yenije, and on the railway from Salonica to Monastir.
Owing to the timely submission of the monks to the Turks after the capture of Salonica (1430), their privileges were respected by successive sultans: a tribute is paid to the Turkish government, which is represented by a resident kaimakam, and the community is allowed to maintain a small police force.
The mis-government and financial straits of the country brought on the outbreak of Mussulman discontent and fanaticism which eventually culminated in the murder of two consuls at Salonica and in the "Bulgarian atrocities," and cost Abd-ul-Aziz his throne.
In pursuance of the above plan, a squadron under SAlih Pasha, shortly before appointed high admiral, arrived at Alexandria on the 1st of July 1806 with 3000 regular troops and a successor to Mehemet Ali, who was to receive the pashalik of Salonica.
The Jews are most numerous at Salonica where they form half the population.
In 1204 Constantinople was captured by the Latins of the Fourth Crusade, and Baldwin of Flanders was crowned emperor; the Venetians acquired several maritime towns and islands, and Frankish feudal dynasties were established in Salonica, Athens, Achaea and elsewhere.
A large Bulgarian principality was created extending from the Danube to the Aegean and from the Black Sea to the river Drin in Albania; it received a considerable coast-line on the Aegean and abutted on the Gulf of Salonica under the walls of that town.
In the .next war, the landing of the Allied forces at Salonica led to some archaeological discoveries in the occupied territory.
The antiquities collected at the headquarters of the British Salonica force were presented to the nation by the Greek Government, and are now in the British Museum.
One was excavated by the French in the town of Salonica,` and another by the British on the Monastir road in 1919.
by the Morea, or in other words the ancient provinces, including Constantinople and Salonica, of Thrace and Macedonia.
A sect of Sabbataeans - the Dormeh of Salonica - survived him, and for many a long year the controversy for and against his claims left an echo in Jewish life.
the subsequently-formed principality of Bulgaria), and those of Adrianople, Salonica, Kossovo and Monastir (i.e.
In Macedonia opium culture was begun in 1865 at Istip with seed obtained from Karahissar in Asia Minor, and extended subsequently to the adjacent districts of Kotchava, Stroumnitza, Tikvish and Kinprulu-veles, most of the produce being exported under the name of Salonica opium.
KAVALA, or Cavalla, a walled town and seaport of European Turkey in the vilayet of Salonica, on the Bay of Kavala, an inlet of the Aegean Sea.
It is the capital of a department of the same name, and is an important station on the railway from Nish to Salonica, with a custom house, principally for merchandise imported into Servia via Salonica.
Galatz, Salonica, Fiume).
But the Berlin Treaty (1878) stipulated that Servia should construct part of the international railway to Constantinople and to Salonica, and should pay the Turkish landowners an indemnity for the estates which had been taken from them and divided among their Servian tenants.
Here two roads diverge; one branching off southeastwards to Pirot, Sofia and Constantinople; the other proceeding southwards to Vranya, Uskiib and Salonica.
The railway which connects western and central Europe with Constantinople and Salonica takes the same course.
The Constantinople and Salonica roads remain the best in Servia.
He took from the Greeks Albania and Macedonia excepting Salonica, Kastoria and Iannina.
nearly to the Greek frontier, then sharply turns N.E., and finally enters the Gulf of Salonica.
SALONICA, SALONIKA or Saloniki (anc. Thessalonica, Turkish Selanik, Sla y.
Solun); the capital of the Turkish vilayet of Salonica, in western Macedonia, and one of the principal seaports of south-western Europe.
Salonica lies on the west side of the Chalcidic peninsula, at the head of the Gulf of Salonica (Sinus Thermaicus), on a fine bay whose southern edge is formed by the Calamerian heights, while its northern and western side is the broad alluvial plain produced by the discharge of the Vardar and the Bistritza, the principal rivers of western Macedonia.
Apart from churches, mosques and synagogues, there are a few noteworthy modern buildings, such as the Ottoman Bank, the baths, quarantine station, schools and hospitals; but the chief architectural interest of Salonica is centred in its Roman and Byzantine remains.
The conspicuous mosques of Salonica are nearly all of an early Christian origin; the remarkable preservation of their mural decorations makes them very important for the history of Byzantine architecture.
Salonica is the see of an Orthodox Greek archbishop. Each religious community has its own schools and places of worship, among the most important being the Jewish high-school, the Greek and Bulgarian gymnasia, the Jesuit college, a high-school founded in 1860 and supported by the Jewish Mission of the Established Church of Scotland, a German school, dating from 1887, and a college for boys and a secondary school for girls, both managed by the French Mission Laique and subsidized since 1905 by the French government.
- Salonica is the principal Aegean seaport of the Balkan Peninsula, the centre of the import trade of all Macedonia and two-thirds of Albania, and the natural port of shipment for the products of an even larger area.
One line goes north to Nish in Servia, where it meets the main line (Paris-Vienna-Constantinople) of the Oriental railways; another, after following the same route as far as Uskiib in Macedonia, branches off to Mitrovitza in Albania; the extension of this line to Serajevo in Bosnia was projected in 1908 in order to establish direct communication between Austria and Salonica.
A third line, intended ultimately to reach the Adriatic, extends westward from Salonica to Monastir.
Salonica exports grain, flour, bran, silk cocoons, chrome, manganese, iron, hides and skins, cattle and sheep, wool, eggs, opium, tobacco and fennel.
On the death of Demetrius, who had been supported in his endeavour to recover his father's throne by Pope Honorius III., the empty title of king of Salonica was adopted by several claimants.
They cut to pieces the body of St Demetrius, the patron saint of Salonica, who had been the Roman proconsul of Greece, under Maximian, and was martyred in A.D.
In 1876 the French and German consuls at Salonica were murdered by the Turkish populace.
During the early years of the 10th century Salonica was the headquarters of the Committee of Union and Progress, the central organization of the Young Turkey Party, which carried out the constitutional revolution of 1908.
Before this event the weakness of Turkey had encouraged the belief that Salonica would ultimately pass under the control of Austria-Hungary or one of the Balkan States, and this belief gave rise to many political intrigues which helped to delay the solution of the Macedonian Question.
The remarkable revolution associated with the names of Niazi Bey and Enver Bey, the young Turk leaders, and the Committee of Union and Progress is described elsewhere (see Turkey: History); here it must suffice to say that Abd-ul-Hamid, on learning of the threat of the Salonica troops to march on Constantinople (July 2 3), at once capitulated.
Sergio and Bacco - are slightly later in date, but by the churches of Salonica (A.D.
The work of reorganization was efficiently carried out, and the gendarmerie school at Salonica, under British supervision, showed excellent results.
part of the Turkish empire, on the direct route between Bosnia and Salonica, and forms a wedge of Turkish territory between Servia and Montenegro.
In accordance with another clause of the treaty of Berlin, Austria was permitted to place troops in the sanjak of Novi-Bazar, a district of great strategic importance, which separated Servia and Montenegro, and through which the communication between Bosnia and Salonica passed.
The principal summits are Olympus overlooking the Gulf of Salonica; Musalla (9631) and Popova Shapka (8855), both in the Rhodope system; Liubotrn in the Shar Dagh (8989); Elin, in the Perin Planina (8794); Belmeken in southern Bulgaria (chain of Dospat, 8562); Smolika in the Pindus range (8445); Dormitor in northern Montenegro (8294); Kaimakchalan in central Macedonia (8255); and Kiona in Aetolia (8235).
At the same time the frontiers of Servia and Montenegro were enlarged so as to become almost contiguous, and Montenegro received the ports of Antivari and Dulcigno on the Adriatic. From a strategical point of view the Bulgaria of the San Stefano treaty threatened Salonica, Adrianople and Constantinople itself; and the great powers, anticipating that the new state would become a Russian dependency, refused their sanction to its provisions.
Servia demanded compensation in various forms for the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina; what the government hoped to obtain was the cession to Servia of a strip of territory between Herzegovina and Novibazar, which would check the advance of Austria-Hungary towards Salonica, make Servia and Montenegro conterminous, pave the way for a union between them, and give Servian commerce an outlet to the Adriatic. Neither the Dual Monarchy nor the Young Turks would consider the cession of any territory, and in January 1909 the outcry for war was renewed in Servia.
The vilayet of Salonica has an area of 13,510 sq.
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