In Hellenic times the kingdom of Paphos was only second to Salamis in extent and influence, and bordered on those of Soli and Curium.
The Greek colonists traced their descent, at Curium, from Argos; at Lapathus, from Laconia; at Paphos, from Arcadia; at Salamis, from the Attic island of that name; and at Soli, also from Attica.
EVAGORAS, son of Nicocles, king of Salamis in Cyprus 410374 B.C. He claimed descent from Teucer, half-brother of Ajax, son of Telamon, and his family had long been rulers of Salamis until supplanted by a Phoenician exile.
At last he was totally defeated at Citium, and compelled to flee to Salamis.
Evagoras was allowed to remain nominally king of Salamis, but in reality a vassal of Persia, to which he was to pay a yearly tribute.
The Albanians in Greece, whose settlements extend over Attica, Boeotia, the district of ï¿½ Corinth and the Argolid peninsula, as well as southern Euboea and the islands of Hydra, Spetzae, Poros and Salamis, descend from Tosk immigrants in the 14th century.
Richter in Catalogue of the Cyprus Museum) shows more than five-and-twenty settlements in and about the Mesaorea district alone, of which one, that at Enkomi, near the site of Salamis, has yielded the richest Aegean treasure in precious metal found outside Mycenae.
Topography And Antiquities The Attic plain, -ro ircSlov, slopes gently towards the coast of the Saronic Gulf on the south-west; on the east it is overlooked by Mount Hymettus (3369 ft.); on the north-east by Pentelicus or Brilessus (3635 ft.) from which, in ancient and modern times, an immense quantity of the finest marble has been quarried; on the north-west by Parnes (4636 ft.), a continuation of the Boeotian Cithaeron, and on the west by Aegaleus (1532 ft.), which descends abruptly to the bay of Salamis.
In the early periods of the history of other countries this seems to have been the case even where the dog was esteemed and valued, and had become the companion, the friend and the defender of man and his home; and in the and century of the Christian era Arrian wrote that "there is as much difference between a fair trial of speed in a good run, and ensnaring a poor animal without an effort, as between the secret piratical assaults of robbers at sea and the victorious naval engagements of the Athenians at Artemisium and at Salamis."
In the campaign of Salamis he rendered loyal support to Themistocles, and crowned the victory by landing Athenian.
He spent part of his life in Cyprus, and was a friend of Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis.
The legend of his missionary labours in Cyprus, including martyrdom at Salamis, is quite late and untrustworthy.
It certainly maintained strong Phoenician sympathies, for it was its refusal to join the phil-Hellene league of Onesilas of Salamis which provoked the revolt of Cyprus from Persia in 500-494 B.C. (Herod.
The phil-Hellene Evagoras of Salamis was similarly opposed by Amathus about 385-380 B.C. in conjunction with Citium and Soli (Diod.
Their relics also were carefully preserved: the house of Cadmus at Thebes, the hut of Orestes at Tegea, the stone on which Telamon had sat at Salamis (in Cyprus).
One ship of Croton, however, fought at Salamis, though it is not recorded that Greece asked the Italiotes for help when it sent ambassadors to Gelon of Syracuse.
In these years the Athenian sailors reached a high pitch of training, and by their successes strengthened that corporate pride which had been born at Salamis.
He lost his conquests, but had to be recognized as independent king of Salamis (380 B.C.).
Philochorus also wrote on oracles, divination and sacrifices; the mythology and religious observances of the tetrapolis of Attica; the myths of Sophocles; the lives of Euripides and Pythagoras; the foundation of Salamis.
The journey extended from Salamis " throughout the whole island " of Cyprus as far as Paphos, and on the mainland from Pamphylia to Pisidian Antioch, Iconium, Lystra and Derbe, at each of which places indications are given of a prolonged visit (xiii.
This was the system of Sparta, of Boeotia (where the aporryma = 4 choenices, the cophinus = 6 choenices, and saites or saton or hecteus = 2 aporrymae, while 30 medimni = achane, evidently Asiatic connexions throughout), and of Cyprus (where 2 choes = Cyprian medimnus, of which 5 = medimnus of Salamis, of which 2 = mnasis (18)
In the early 5th century Halicarnassus was under the sway of Artemisia, who made herself famous at the battle of Salamis.
Epiphanius of Salamis, in his well-known treatise against eighty heresies (Haer.
It refused tribute to Xerxes, and sent one ship to fight on the Greek side at Salamis.
of Athens, occupying the eastern part of a rocky ridge close to the shore opposite the island of Salamis.
It was in the reign of Straton that Tyre fell into the hands of Evagoras, king of Salamis, who had already supplanted Phoenician with Greek civilization in Cyprus (Isocr.
Early in the 5th century the tyrant Terillas, son-in-law of Anaxilas of Rhegium and Zancle, appealed to the Carthaginians, who came to his assistance, but were utterly defeated by Gelon of Syracuse in 480 B.C. - on the same day, it is said, as the battle of Salamis.
After the first rebellion of Egypt, he became satrap of Egypt (484 B.C.); he commanded the Persian fleet at Salamis,.
But .the united power of Gelo and Thero, whose daughter Damarete Gelo had married, crushed the invaders in the great battle of Himera, won, men said, on the same day as Salamis, and the victors of both were coupled as the joint deliverers of Hellas (Herod.
But, while the victory of Salamis was followed by a long war with Persia, the peace which was now granted to Carthage stayed in force for seventy years.
The Phoenician element seems to have been dominant in the island when Evagoras made himself king of Salamis in 412, and restored Hellenism with a strong hand.
SALAMIS, the principal city of ancient Cyprus, situated on the east coast a little north of the river Pedias (Pediaeus).
Traditionally, Salamis was founded after the Trojan War (c. 1180 B.C.) by Teucer from Salamis, the island off Attica, but there was an important Mycenaean colony somewhat earlier.
A king Kisu of Silna (Salamis) is mentioned in a list of tributaries of Assur-bani-pal of Assyria in 668 B.C., and Assyrian influence is marked in the fine terra-cotta figures from a shrine at Toumba excavated in 1890-1891.
The settlements at Paphos and Salamis, and probably at Curium, were believed to date from the period of the Trojan War, i.e.
from the 13th century, and the latter part of the Mycenaean age; the name of Teucer, the legendary founder of Salamis, probably is a reminiscence of the piratical Tikkara who harried the Egyptian coast under Rameses III.
'The same sequence of phases is represented in sculpture by the votive statues from the sanctuaries of Aphrodite at Dali and of Apollo at V6ni and Frangissa; and by examples from other sites in the Cesnola collection; in painting by a rare class of naively polychromic vases; and in both by the elaborately coloured terra-cotta figures from the "Toumba" site at Salamis.
8 The Greek cities, faring ill under Persia, and organized by Onesilaus of Salamis, joined the Ionic revolt in 500 B.C.; 9 but the Phoenician states, Citium and Amathus, remained loyal to Persia; the rising was soon put down; in 480 Cyprus furnished no less than 150 ships to the fleet of Xerxes; 1° and in spite of the repeated attempts of the Delian League to " liberate " the island, it remained subject to Persia during the 5th century."
13 The principal Greek cities were now Salamis, Curium, Paphos, Marion, Soli, Kyrenia and Khytri.
Phoenicians held Citium and Amathus on the south coast between Salamis and Curium, also Tamassus and Idalium in the interior; but the last named was little more than a sanctuary town, like Paphos.
Then in 306 B.C. Demetrius Poliorcetes of Macedon overran the whole island, besieged Salamis, and utterly defeated there the Egyptian fleet.
Usually it was governed by a viceroy of the royal line, but it gained a brief independence under Ptolemy Lathyrus (107-89 B.C.), and under a brother of Ptolemy Auletes in 58 B.C. The great sanctuaries of Paphos and Idalium, and the public buildings of Salamis, which were wholly remodelled in this period, have produced but few works of art; the sculpture from local shrines at Voni and Vitsada, and the frescoed tombstones from Amathus, only show how incapable the Cypriotes still were of utilizing Hellenistic models; a rare and beautiful class of terra-cottas like those of Myrina may be of Cypriote fabric, but their style is wholly of the Aegean.
6 In 116-117 the Jews of Cyprus, with those of Egypt and Cyrene, revolted, massacred 240,000 persons, and destroyed a large part of Salamis.
For the culture of the Roman period there is abundant evidence from Salamis and Paphos, and from tombs everywhere, for the glass vessels which almost wholly supersede pottery are much sought for their (quite accidental) iridescence; not much else is found that is either characteristic or noteworthy; and little attention has been paid to the sequence of style.
It was made autonomous in the 5th century, in recognition of the supposed discovery of the original of St Matthew's Gospel in a " tomb of Barnabas " which is still shown at Salamis.
Hake at Salamis and Curium for the South Kensington Museum, but no scientific record was made.
Turner enabled the British Museum to open numerous tombs, by contract, of the Graeco-Phoenician age, in 1894, at PalaeoLemesso (Amathus); and of the Mycenaean age, in 1894-1895 at Episkopi, in 1895-1896 at Enkomi (near Salamis), and in 1897-1899 on small sites between Larnaca and Limasol.3 For ancient Oriental references to Cyprus see E.
of Salamis and Plataea definitely shattered the offensive powe of the empire; that the centre of gravity in the worlds history had shifted from Susa and Babylon to the Aegean Sea; and that the Persians were conscious that in spite of all their courage they were henceforward in the presence of an enemy, superior in arms as well as in intellect, whom they could not hope to subdue by their own strength.
Its feebleness, when thrown on its own resources, is evident from the fact that, during the next years, it failed both to reconquer Egypt and to suppress completely King Evagoras of Salamis in Cyprus.
of the ruins of Salamis.
The foundation of Salamis was ascribed to Teucer: it was probably the most important town in early Cyprus.
In 3 06 a great fleet under Demetrius attacked Cyprus, and Ptolemy's brother, Menelaus, was defeated and captured in the decisive battle of Salamis.
At first Ptolemy had made a successful descent upon Asia Minor and on several of the islands of the Archipelago; but he was at length totally defeated by Demetrius in a naval engagement off Salamis, in Cyprus (306).
ARTEMISIA, daughter of Lygdamis, was queen of Halicarnassus and Cos about 480 B.C. Being a dependent of Persia, she took part in person in the expedition of Xerxes against the Greeks, and fitted out five ships, with which she distinguished herself in the sea-fight near Salamis (480).
The Chian ships, under the tyrant Strattis, served in the Persian fleet at Salamis.
The deep bay which here runs into the land is bounded on its southern side by the rocky island of Salamis, which was at all times an important possession to the Athenians on account of its proximity to their city; and the winding channel which separates that island from the mainland in the direction of the Peiraeus was the scene of the battle of Salamis, while on the last declivities of Mt.
Aegaleos, which here descends to the sea, was the spot where, as Byron wrote "A king sate on the rocky brow Which looks o'er sea-born Salamis."
In the grasp of a more inexorable necessity, the champion of Greek freedom was borne onward to a more tremendous catastrophe than that which strewed the waters of Salamis with Persian wrecks and the field of Plataea with Persian dead; but to him, at least, it was given to proclaim aloud the clear and sure foreboding that filled his soul, to do all that true heart and free hand could do for his cause, and, though not to save, yet to encourage, to console and to ennoble.
The human sacrifices at Salamis in Cyprus and at Ales in Achaia Phthiotis may be said to have continued almost to the conversion of the empire (Grote i.
Yet, in spite of the heroic defence of Thermopylae by the Spartan king Leonidas, the glory of the decisive victory at Salamis fell in great measure to the Athenians, and their patriotism, self-sacrifice and energy contrasted strongly with the hesitation of the Spartans and the selfish policy which they advocated of defending the Peloponnese only.
Ajax, who in the post-Homeric legend is described as the grandson of Aeacus and the greatgrandson of Zeus, was the tutelary hero of the island of Salamis, where he had a temple and an image, and where a festival called Aianteia was celebrated in his honour (Pausanias i.
The identification of Ajax with the family of Aeacus was chiefly a matter which concerned the Athenians, of ter Salamis had come into their possession, on which occasion Solon is said to have inserted a line in the Iliad (ii.
The chief authorities used were: Julius Sextus Africanus (3rd century); the consular Fasti; the Chronicle and Church History of Eusebius; John Malalas; the Acta martyrum; the treatise of Epiphanius, bishop of Constantia (the old Salamis) in Cyprus (fl.
431, by an edict of the emperor Zeno (to whom the church had sent a cogent argument on its own behalf, the alleged body of its reputed founder St Barnabas, then just discovered at Salamis), and by the Trullan Council in 692.
The bishop of the capital, Salamis or Constantia, was constituted metropolitan by Zeno, with the title "archbishop of all Cyprus," enlarged subsequently into "archbishop of Justiniana Nova and of all Cyprus," after an enforced expatriation to Justinianopolis in 688.
The suppressed sees have never been restored, but the four which survive (now known as Nicosia, Paphos, Kition and Kyrenia) are of metropolitan rank, so that the archbishop, whose headquarters, first at Salamis, then at Famagusta, are now at Nicosia, is a primate amongst metropolitans.
salamis made from wild boar.
Semillon Chardonnay blends are good, especially with the spicier, peppery salamis.
The meat counter includes traceable local hams cooked on the premises, along with the best European salamis.
According to Isocrates, whose panegyric must however be read with caution, Evagoras was a model ruler, whose aim was to promote the welfare of his state and of his subjects by the cultivation of Greek refinement and civilization, which had been almost obliterated in Salamis by a long period of barbarian rule.
The power of the nobles would seem to have been more effectively broken in a war with Athens, in which Megara ultimately lost the island of Salamis (about 570, see SoLoN), for shortly afterwards the constitution was changed to a democracy, and eventually was fixed as an oligarchy of a moderate type.
The people of Ceos fought on the Greek side at Artemisium and Salamis; they joined the Delian League and also the later Athenian alliance in 377 B.C. They revolted in 3 6 3-3 62, but were reduced again, and the Athenians established a monopoly of the ruddle, or red earth, which was one of the most valuable products of the island.
The Albanians in Greece, whose settlements extend over Attica, Boeotia, the district of Ã¯¿½ Corinth and the Argolid peninsula, as well as southern Euboea and the islands of Hydra, Spetzae, Poros and Salamis, descend from Tosk immigrants in the 14th century.
It is the more remarkable that no incidents are recorded in the period between Marathon and Salamis, seeing that at the time of the Isthmian Congress the war is described as the most important one then being waged in Greece (Herod.
It was to Aegina rather than Athens that the prize of valour at Salamis was awarded, and the destruction of the Persian fleet appears to have been as much the work of the Aeginetan contingent as of the Athenian (Herod.
She was forced into patriotism in spite of herself, and the glory won at Salamis was paid for by the loss of her trade and the decay of her marine.
In 394, in consequence of the attack upon the doctrines of Origen made by Epiphanius of Salamis during a visit to Jerusalem, a fierce quarrel broke out, which found Rufinus and Jerome on different sides; and, though three years afterwards a formal reconciliation was brought about between Jerome and John, the breach between Jerome and Rufinus remained unhealed.
In 1890 and 1893 Sta y s cleared out certain less rich dome-tombs at Thoricus in Attica; and other graves, either rock-cut "bee-hives" or chambers, were found at Spata and Aphidna in Attica, in Aegina and Salamis, at the Heraeum (see Argos) and Nauplia in the Argolid, near Thebes and Delphi, and not far from the Thessalian Larissa.
Though the traditional account of this war exaggerates the services of Athens as compared with the other champions of Greek independence, there can be no doubt that the ultimate victory was chiefly due to the numbers and efficiency of the Athenian fleet, and to the wise policy of her great statesman Themistocles (see Salamis, Plataea).
infantry on the island of Psyttaleia and annihilating the Persian garrison stationed there (see SALAMIS).
Though Melos inhabitants sent a contingent to the Greek fleet at Salamis, it held aloof from the Attic league, and sought to remain neutral during the Peloponnesian War.
Personal cupidity, discourtesy to the allies, and a tendency to adopt the style and manners of oriental princes, combined to alienate from him the sympathies of the Ionian allies, who realized that, had it not been for the Athenians, the battle of Salamis would never have been even fought, and Greece would probably have become a Persian satrapy.
The only occasion on which the island is mentioned in history is during the expedition of Xerxes (B.C. 480), when the Samothracians sent a contingent to the Persian fleet, one ship of which bore a conspicuous part in the battle of Salamis (Herod.
Under Egyptian and Roman administration Salamis flourished greatly, though under the Ptolemaic priest-kings and under Rome the seat of government was at New Paphos (see Paphos).
After the battle of Marathon, Themistocles persuaded the Athenians to devote the revenue derived from the mines to shipbuilding, and thus laid the foundation of the Athenian naval power, and made possible the victory of Salamis.
8 The Greek cities, faring ill under Persia, and organized by Onesilaus of Salamis, joined the Ionic revolt in 500 B.C.; 9 but the Phoenician states, Citium and Amathus, remained loyal to Persia; the rising was soon put down; in 480 Cyprus furnished no less than 150 ships to the fleet of Xerxes; 1Ã‚° and in spite of the repeated attempts of the Delian League to " liberate " the island, it remained subject to Persia during the 5th century."
Tubbs; 22 (3) in 1890-1891 extensive trials were made at Salamis, by the same; 23 (4) minor sites were examined at Leondari Vouno (1888), 24 Amargetti (1888), 25 and Limniti (1889) 26 (5) in 1888 Hogarth made a surface-survey of the Karpass promontory; 27 and finally, (6) in 1894 the balance was expended by J.
On the fields of Marathon and Plataea, the Persian archers succumbed to the Greek phalarn of hoplites; but the actual decision was effected by Themistocles who had meanwhile created the Athenian fleet which at Salamis proved its superiority over the Perso-Phoenician armada, anc thus precluded beforehand the success of the land-forces.
In 476 Phrynichus was successful with the Phoenissae, so called from the Phoenician women who formed the chorus, which celebrated the defeat of Xerxes at Salamis (480).
Among the culinary specialities of the region are the sausages and salamis made from wild boar.
It is probable that the power of Aegina had steadily declined during the twenty years after Salamis, and that it had declined absolutely, as well as relatively, to that of Athens.
In the great Persian war of 480 Corinth served as the Greek headquarters: her army took part at Thermopylae and Plataea and her navy distinguished itself at Salamis and Mycale.
The active and energetic Persian general Pharnabazus succeeded in creating a fleet by the help of Evagoras, king of Salamis in Cyprus, and the Athenian commander Conon, and destroyed the Spartan fleet at Cnidus (August 394).
This deterioration was necessarily slow; it could not have advanced far in 480 B.C., when on the eve of the battle of Salamis, as we are informed (Arist.
Salamis, Greece >>
At the battle of Salamis the serpent which appeared among the ships was taken to be the hero Cychreus.'
7 But an ethnological tradition appears when Phorbas killed the serpent Ophiusa, freed Rhodes of snakes and obtained supremacy, or when Cychreus slew the dragon of Salamis and took the kingdom.
The latter of these may evidently be taken to belong to Salamis in Cyprus and the festival of the Cyprian Aphrodite, in the same way that the Hymn to Apollo belongs to Delos and the Delian gathering.
a list of Cypriote towns seems to include among others the names of Salamis, Citium, Soli, Idalium, Cerynia (Kyrenia), and Curium.
At the outset the Arabs under the caliph Othman made themselves masters of the island, and destroyed the city of Salamis, which until that time had continued to be the capital.
During the later part of this period, indeed, the Genoese made themselves masters of Famagusta - which had risen in place of Salamis to be the chief commercial city in the island - and retained possession of it for a considerable time (1376-1464); but it was recovered by King James II., and the whole island was reunited under his rule.
Ninety years after Salamis and Plataea, the goal for which Xerxes had striven was actually attained, and the kings will was law in Greece.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.