Saladin sentence example

saladin
  • They resulted in heavy Christian losses, the death of Shirkuh and the appointment of Saladin as vizir.
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  • Guy was a brave if not a particularly able knight; and his instant attack on Acre after his release by Saladin shows that he had the sentiment de ses devoirs.
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  • It was taken by Saladin in 1187.
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  • He acted as regent in 1183, but he showed some incapacity in the struggle with Saladin, and was deprived of all right of succession.
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  • Just as the latter afterwards makes Nathan the Wise and Saladin meet over the chess-board, so did Lessing and Mendelssohn actually come together as lovers of the game.
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  • After the departure of Philip, Conrad fomented the opposition of the French to Richard, and even intrigued with Saladin against him.
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  • When a power arose in Mosul, about 1130, which was able to unify Syria - when, again, in the hands of Saladin, unified Syria was in turn united to Egypt - the cause of Latin Christianity in the East was doomed.
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  • The land was richer in the north: it was protected by its connexion with Cyprus and Armenia: it was more remote from Egypt - the basis of Mahommedan power from the reign of Saladin onwards.
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  • Into the vicissitudes of the fight it is not necessary here to enter; but in the issue Nureddin won, in spite of the support which Manuel gave to Amalric. Nureddin's Kurdish lieutenant, Shirguh, succeeded in establishing in power the vizier whom he favoured, and finally in becoming vizier himself (January 1169); and when he died, his nephew Saladin (Sala-ed-din) succeeded to his position (March 1169), and made himself, on the death of the caliph in 1171, sole ruler in Egypt.
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  • Saladin acted as the peer of Nureddin rather than as his subject; and the jealousy between the two kept both inactive till the death of Nureddin in 1174.
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  • He won a brilliant victory over the forces of Saladin at Arsuf (1191), and twice led the Christian host within a few miles of Jerusalem.
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  • Unable to revive the African dominion, William directed his attack on Egypt, from which Saladin threatened the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem.
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  • His admiral Margarito, a naval genius equal to George of Antioch, with 600 vessels kept the eastern Mediterranean open for the Franks, and forced the all-victorious Saladin to retire from before Tripoli in the spring of 1188.
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  • In 1090 it passed to the Seljuks, and in 1134 to Jenghiz Khan; but after 1145 it remained attached to Damascus and was captured by Saladin in 117 5.
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  • It was captured by the Moslems in 638 and by the Crusaders in 1102, by Saladin in 1187, recaptured by the Crusaders in 1191, and finally lost by them in 1265, since when till its recent settlement it has lain in ruins.
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  • Nur-ed-din's vassals rebelled against his youthful heir, es-Salih, and Saladin came north, nominally to his assistance.
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  • Probably Saladin made his worst strategical error in neglecting to conquer it before winter.
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  • Saladin immediately surrounded the Christian army and thus began the famous two years' siege.
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  • Negotiations for peace accompanied these demonstrations, which showed that Saladin was master of the situation.
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  • Richard returned to Europe, and Saladin returned to Damascus, where on the 4th of March 1193, after a few days' illness, he died.
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  • In 1198 he was able to procure a five years' truce with the Mahommedans, owing to the struggle between Saladin's brothers and his sons for the inheritance of his territories.
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  • Next year he suffered a crushing defeat at the battle of Hittin, and was taken prisoner by Saladin.
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  • Putting into Tyre he was able to save the city from the deluge of Mahommedan conquest which followed Saladin's victory at Hittin.
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  • The date of the redaction (which was probably made by some learned burgess) may well have been the reign of Baldwin III., as Kugler suggests: he was the first native king, and a king learned in the law; but Beugnot would refer the assizes to the years immediately preceding Saladin's capture of Jerusalem.
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  • Nureddin only left a minor in his place: Amalric, who died in the same year, left a son (Baldwin IV.) who was not only a minor but also a leper; and thus the stage seemed cleared for Saladin.
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  • Damascus he acquired as early as 1174; but Raymund supported the heir of Nureddin in his capital at Aleppo, and it was not until 1183 that Saladin entered the city, and finally brought Egypt and northern Syria under a single rule.
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  • In 1186 he attacked a caravan in which the sister of Saladin was travelling, thus violating a four years' truce, which, after some two years' skirmishing, Saladin and Raymund of Tripoli had made in the previous year owing to the general prevalence of famine.
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  • The Crusade was now at last answered by the counter-Crusade - the jihad; for though for many years past Saladin had, in his attempt to acquire all the inheritance of Nureddin, left Palestine unmenaced and intact, his ultimate aim was always the holy war and the recovery of Jerusalem.
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  • The acquisition of Aleppo could only make that supreme object more readily attainable; and so Saladin had spent his time in acquiring Aleppo, but only in order that he might ultimately "attain the goal of his desires, and set the mosque of Asha free, to which Allah once led in the night his servant Mahomet."
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  • Thus it was on a kingdom of crusaders who had lost the crusading spirit that a new Crusade swept down; and Saladin's army in 1187 had the spirit and the fire of the Latin crusaders of 1099.
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  • At Tiberias a little squadron of the brethren of the two Orders went down before Saladin's cavalry in May; at Hattin the levy masse of the kingdom, some 20,000 strong, foolishly marching over a sandy plain under the heat of a July sun, was utterly defeated; and after a fortnight's siege Jerusalem capitulated (October 2nd, 1187).
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  • A scheme of taxation - the Saladin tithe - was imposed on all who did not take the cross; and this taxation, while on the one hand it drove many to take the cross in order to escape its incidence, on the other hand provided a necessary financial basis for military operations.'
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  • The siege of Acre, as arduous and heroic in many of its episodes as the siege of Troy, had been begun in the summer of 1189 by Guy de Lusignan, who, captured by Saladin at the battle of Hattin, and released on parole, had at once broken his word and returned to the attack.
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  • But far more important than any hostilities are the negotiations which, for the whole year, Richard conducted with Saladin.
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  • Nothing is more striking in these respects than Richard's proposal that Saladin's brother should marry his own sister Johanna and receive Jerusalem and the contiguous towns on the coast.
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  • The Crusade had failed - failed because a leaderless army, torn by political dissensions and fighting on a foreign soil, could not succeed against forces united by religious zeal under the banner of a leader like Saladin.
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  • The difficulties which had arisen between Isaac Angelus and Frederick Barbarossa contain the germs of the Fourth Crusade; the negotiations between Richard and Saladin contain the germs of the Sixth.
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  • Henry thus gained a basis in the Levant; while the death of Saladin in 1193, followed by a civil war between his brother, Malik-alAdil, and his sons for the possession of his dominions, weakened the position of the Mahommedans.
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  • Malik-al-Adil, the brother of Saladin, had by 1200 succeeded to his brother's possessions not only in Egypt but also in Syria, and he granted the Christians a series of truces (1198-1203, 1204-1210, 1211-1217).
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  • Here the sultan reiterated terms which he had already offered several times before - the cession of most of the kingdom of Jerusalem, the surrender of the cross (captured by Saladin in 1187), and the restoration of all prisoners.
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  • The kingdom of Jerusalem, as we have seen, had profited by the alliance of Damascus as early as 1130, when the fear of the atabegs of Mosul had first drawn the two together; and when Damascus had been acquired by the rule of Mosul, the hostility between the house of Nureddin in Damascus and Saladin in Egypt had still for a time preserved the kingdom (from 1171 onwards).
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  • Saladin had united Egypt and Damascus; but after his death dissensions broke out among: the members of his family,' which more than once led to wars between Damascus and Cairo.
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  • His history of the Atabegs was written about 1200, and it presents in a light favourable to Zengi and Nureddin, but unfavourable to Saladin (who thrust Nureddin's descendants aside), the history of the great Mahommedan power which finally crushed the kingdom of J erusalem.'
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  • Side by side with Beha-ud-din's life of Saladin, Ibn Athir's work is the most considerable historical record written by the Arabs.
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  • From the Arabic point of view the life of Richard's rival, Saladin, is described by Beha-ud-din, a high official under Saladin, who writes a panegyric on his master, somewhat confused in chronology and partial in its sympathies, but nevertheless of great value.
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  • The crusading princes of Antioch never held the place, though they attacked it in 1124; and Saladin, who took it in 1183, made it a stronghold against them and the northern capital of himself and his successors until the Tatar invasion of 1260.
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  • It was captured by the crusaders under Tancred soon after the conquest of Jerusalem (1099); they held it till 1184, when they lost it to Saladin.
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  • In July 1174, 50,000 men were landed before Alexandria, but Saladin's arrival forced the Sicilians to re-embark in disorder.
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  • His reign is marked by the advance of Saladin and by dissensions between the government and Guy of Lusignan.
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  • The opportunity of Saladin lay therefore in the fact that his lifetime covers the period when there was a conscious demand for political union in the defence of the Mahommedan faith.
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  • By race Saladin was a Kurd of Armenia.
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  • Saladin was therefore educated in the most famous centre of Moslem learning, and represented the best traditions of Moslem culture.
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  • His pretext was the plea of an exiled vizier, and Shirkuh was ordered to Egypt in 1164, taking Saladin as his lieutenant.
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  • In 1174 Nur-ed-din died, and the period of Saladin's conquests in Syria begins.
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  • In 1187 a four years' truce was broken by the brilliant brigand Renaud de Chatillon and thus began Saladin's third period of conquest.
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  • Saladin's lack of a fleet enabled the Christians to receive reinforcements and thus recover from their defeats by land.
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  • On the 8th of June 1191 Richard of England arrived, and on the 12th of July Acre capitulated without Saladin's permission.
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  • Though in July Richard secured two brilliant victories at Jaffa, the treaty made on the 2nd of September was a triumph for Saladin.
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  • Nevertheless the Seljukian dominion was petty and unimportant and did not rise to significance till his son and successor, Kilij Arslan II., had subdued the Danishmands and appropriated their possessions, though he thereby risked the wrath of the powerful atabeg of Syria, Nureddin, and afterwards that of Saladin.
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  • Elated by this great success and by his victories over the Armenians, Kaikaus was induced to attempt the capture of the important city of Aleppo, at this time governed by the descendants of Saladin; but the affair miscarried.
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  • Thrice (1164,1167,1168) Amalric penetrated into Egypt: but the contest ended in the establishment of Saladin, the nephew of Shirguh, as vizier - a position which, on the death of the puppet caliph in 1171, was turned into that of sovereign.
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  • But though in 1170 Saladin attacked the kingdom, and captured Aila on the Red Sea, the danger was not so great as it seemed.
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  • Nureddin was jealous of his over-mighty subject, and his jealousy bound Saladin's hands.
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  • This was the position of affairs when Amalric died, in 1174; but, as Nureddin died in the same year, the position was soon altered and Saladin began the final attack on the kingdom.
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  • It fell to Tancred with Antioch in 1102, and was recovered by Saladin in 1188.
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  • The play, which is written in blank verse, is too obviously a continuation of Lessing's theological controversy to rank high as poetry, but the representatives of the three religions - the Mahommedan Saladin, the Jew Nathan and the Christian Knight Templar - are finely conceived, and show that Lessing's dramatic instinct had, in spite of other interests, not deserted him.
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  • In1132-1140the Assassins (q.v.) gained possession of their chief towns, but Saladin recovered them in 1188.
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  • Happily for the kingdom whose king was a child and a leper, the attention of Saladin was distracted for several years by an attempt to wrest from the sons of Nureddin the inheritance of their father - an attempt partially successful in 1174, but only finally realized in 1183.
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  • Meanwhile Raynald of Krak took advantage of the position of his fortress, which lay on the great route of trade from Damascus and Egypt, to plunder the caravans (1182), and thus helped to precipitate the inevitable attack by Saladin.
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  • He gained the respect of all the crusaders, and acted as Richard's principal agent in all negotiations with Saladin, being given a place in the first band of pilgrims that entered Jerusalem.
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  • The last is the Muski district where, since the days of Saladin, " Frank " merchants have been permitted to live and trade.
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  • The citadel or El-Kala was built by Saladin about 1166, but it has since undergone frequent alteration, and now contains a palace erected by Mehemet Ali, and a mosque of Oriental alabaster (based on the model of the mosques at Constantinople) founded by the same pasha on the site of " Joseph's Hall," so named after the prenomen of Saladin.
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  • In the middle ages its strong castle (Hamtab) was an important strategic point, taken by Saladin about A.D.
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  • Although the Joseph whence it takes its name is the celebrated Saladin, it is related that he merely repaired it, and it is not doubted to be of a much earlier period.
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  • This dynasty lasted till 1171, when Egypt was again embodied in the Abbasid empire by Saladin, who, however, was himself the founder of a quasiindependent dynasty called the Ayyubites or Ayyubids, which lasted till 1252.
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  • At the battle of Babain (April 11th, 1167) the allies were defeated by the forces commanded by ShIrguh and his nephew Saladin, who was Sala din presently made prefect of Alexandria, which surrendered to Shirguh without a struggle.
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  • Saladin was soon besieged by the allies in Alexandria; but after seventy-five days the siege was raised, Shirguh having made a threatening movement on Cairo, where a Frankish garrison had been admitted by Shgwar.
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  • After two months ShIrguh died of indigestion (23rd of March 1169), and the caliph appointed Saladin as successor to Shirgflh; the new vizier professed to hold office as a deputy of Nureddin, whose name was mentioned in public worship after that of the caliph.
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  • Saladin at his death divided his dominions between his sons, of whom Othman succeeded to Egypt with the title Malik alAziz Imal al-am.
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  • This cathedral was in turn destroyed by Saladin.
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  • In 1173 Nureddin died, and his kingdom was seized by Saladin (Salah ed-Din), a man of Kurdish origin, who had previously distinguished himself by capturing Egypt in company with Shirkuh, the general of Nureddin.
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  • Saladin almost immediately set himself to drive the Franks from the country.
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  • After being defeated by Saladin at Banias, the Franks were compelled to make a treaty with the Moslem leader.
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  • The treaty was broken, and Saladin proceeded to take action.
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  • Saladin died in 1193.
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  • Saladin, who was at the time besieging Kaukab (a few miles south of Tiberias), sent for him and became his friend.
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  • With this view he composed a treatise on The Laws and Discipline of Sacred War, which he presented to Saladin, who received it with peculiar favour.
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  • After Saladin's death Beha-ud-Din remained the friend of his son Malik uz-Zahir, who appointed him judge of Aleppo.
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  • The greatest event towards the end of his Caliphate was the conquest of Egypt by the army of Nureddin, the overthrow of the Fatimite dynasty, and the rise of Saladin.
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  • During his reign Jerusalem was reconquered by Saladin, 27 Rajab 583 (October 2nd, 1187).
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  • Not long before that event the wellknown Spanish traveller Ibn Jubair visited the empire of Saladin, and came to Bagdad in 580, where he saw the caliph himself.
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  • But the news came that Saladin had taken Jerusalem and Richard took the cross.
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  • In 1188 Philip submitted, and immediately afterwards Frederick took the cross in order to stop the victorious career of Saladin, who had just taken Jerusalem.
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  • In 1115 it was retaken by the Moslems, and in 1178 was occupied by Saladin.
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  • It was re-taken by Saladin in 1187, besieged by Guy de Lusignan in 1189 (see below), and again captured by Richard Cceur de Lion in 1191.
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  • The crusading army under Guy of Lusignan, king of Jerusalem, which was besieging Acre, gave battle on the 4th of October 1189 to the relieving army which Saladin had collected.
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  • The Christian army consisted of the feudatories of the kingdom of Jerusalem, numerous small contingents of European crusaders and the military orders, and contingents from Egypt, Turkestan, Syria and Mesopotamia fought under Saladin.
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  • At Arsuf the Christians fought coherently; here the battle began with a disjointed combat between the Templars and Saladin's right wing.
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  • Thus the steady advance of the Christian centre against Saladin's own corps, in which the crossbows prepared the way for the charge of the men-at-arms, met with no great resistance.
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  • Saladin rallied his men, and, when the Christians began to retire with their booty, let loose his light horse upon them.
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  • The crusaders under Tancred retook it, but lost it to Saladin in 1187.
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  • In the 12th century the town suffered at the hands of Saladin and thereafter fell into decay.
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  • The march was along the sea-shore, and, the forces of Saladin being in the vicinity, the army moved in such a formation as to be able to give battle at any moment.
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  • Saladin had by now decided that the only hope of success lay in compelling the rear of the Christians' column to halt - and thus opening a gap, should the van be still on the move.
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  • The weight of the attack fell upon the rear of Richard's column, as Saladin desired.
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  • From 1124 to 1291 it was a stronghold of the crusaders, and Saladin himself besieged it in vain.
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  • He was a descendant of Ayytib, the father of Saladin.
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  • At the end of the 11th century it fell into crusading hands, but was recovered by the Moslems under Saladin in 1187.
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  • Such a practice had been first seen when Henry II., in his last year, allowed the celebrated Saladin Tithe for the service of the crusade to be assessed by local jurors.
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  • When Saladin (1187) had almost annihilated the Christian army in the plain of Tiberias, Ascalon offered but a feeble resistance to the victor.
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  • About the same time, or a little later (in the reign of Saladin), it believes that Hermon was colonized by a population of 15,000 Hira and Yemenite Arabs, who had sojourned awhile in Hauran.
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  • With letters of recommendation from Saladin's vizier, he visited Egypt, where the wish he had long cherished to converse with Maimonides, "the Eagle of the Doctors," was gratified.
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  • He afterwards formed one of the circle of learned men whom Saladin gathered around him at Jerusalem.
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  • It was the headquarters of Saladin in the wars with the Franks.
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  • In 1182 it fell to Saladin, whose nephew recovered it when it had temporarily passed (1234) to the sultan of Rum; but the " Eye of Mesopotamia " never recovered the brilliance of earlier days.
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  • After lunch enter the world of medieval Cairo, visiting the imposing hilltop Citadel built by Saladin in the 12th century.
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  • He watched the kites circling the tall spires of the Turkish mosque in Saladin's citadel, then looked across to the railroad station.
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  • Absentee landlords, he thinks, rack-rented the soil (p. 167), while the "inhuman severity" of their treatment of villeins led to a progressive decay of agriculture, destroyed the economic basis of the Latin kingdom, and led the natives to welcome the invasion of Saladin (pp. 327-331) The French writers Rey and Dodu are more kind to the Franks; and the testimony of contemporary Arabic writers, who seem favourably impressed by the treatment of their subjects by the Franks, bears out their view, while the tone of the assizes is admittedly favourable to the Syrians.
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  • Yet by adroit use of his powers of diplomacy, and by playing upon the dissensions which raged between the descendants of Saladin's brother (Malik-al-Adil), he was able, without striking a blow, to conclude a treaty with the sultan of Egypt which gave him all that Richard I.
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  • The Ayyubites had always been, on the whole, chivalrous and tolerant: Saladin and his successors, Malik-al-Adil and Malik-alKamil, had none of them shown an implacable enmity to the Christians.
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  • Once more, in spite of Mongol intervention, Damascus and Cairo were united, as they had been united in the hands of Saladin; once more they were united in the hands of a devout Mahommedan, who was resolved to extirpate the Christians from Syria.
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  • The sultan, who had risen from a Mongolian slave to become a second Saladin, and who combined the physique and audacity of a Danton with the tenacity and religiosity of a Philip II., dealt blow after blow to the Franks of the East.
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  • Hastily patching up a truce with Saladin, under which the Christians kept the coast-towns and received free access to the Holy Sepulchre, Richard started on his return (9th October 1192).
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  • In 1189 Frederick Barbarossa of Germany sought and obtained leave to lead his troops on the third crusade through the Byzantine territory; but he had no sooner crossed the border than Isaac, who had meanwhile sought an alliance with Saladin, threw every impediment in his way, and was only compelled by force of arms to fulfil his engagements.
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  • Saladin retook it in 1187, and thenceforward, for six centuries and a half, whoever its nominal lords may have been, Saracen, Crusader, Mameluke or (from the 16th century) Turk, the Druse emirs of Lebanon dominated it (see DRUSES).
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  • Although a brave and clever warrior, his opponent Saladin was an equally wily campaigner.
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  • Driven from the Red Sea by Saladin, he turned from buccaneering to brigandage, and infested the great trade-route from Damascus to Egypt, which passed close by his seignory.
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  • It became the seat of the Ayyubite sultan Saladin in 1184; was bequeathed in 1233 to the caliphs of Bagdad; was plundered by the Mongols in 1236 and in 1393 by Timur, and was taken in 1732 by the Persians under Nadir Shah.
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  • The crusaders, after failing before it in 1099, captured "Giblet" in 1103, but lost it again to Saladin in 1189.
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  • Saladin besieged it unsuccessfully in 1182.
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  • The character of Saladin and of his work is singularly vivid.
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  • This contains the work of Baha-ud-din (1145-1234), diplomatist, and secretary of Saladin, the general history of Ibn-Athir (1160-1233), the eulogist of the atabegs of Mosul but the unwilling admirer of Saladin, and parts of the general history of Abulfeda.
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  • The best modern authority is Stanley Lane-Poole's Saladin (" Heroes of the Nations" series, London, 1903).
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