O'Hanlon, Lives of the Irish Saints, vii.
The church of All Saints is mentioned in Domesday, and tradition ascribes the building of its nave to King John, while the western side of the tower must be older still.
The church df All Saints is a large cruciform building with low central tower.
He can just change the title from Saint among the Sinners to Sinner among the Saints, The Life and Times of a Mine-Town Hooker.
The Madonna is here depicted with various saints, the archangel Michael and St Maurice holding her mantle, which is extended over the kneeling Gianfrancesco Gonzaga, amid a profusion of rich festooning and other accessory.
The church of St Mary and All Saints is a large and beautiful cruciform building principally of the Decorated period.
So at Pentecost on the occasion of the first outpouring of the Spirit the saints were by the bystanders accused of being drunk (Acts ii.
Arnold-Forster, Studies in Church Dedications or England's Patron Saints, i.
The other vigils are recognized in the calendar (including those of the saints) and the rubric directs that "the collect appointed for any Holy-day that hath a Vigil or Eve, shall be said at the Evening Service next before."
Among the other early works of Mantegna are the fresco of two saints over the entrance porch of the church of S.
Antonio in Padua, 1452, and an altar-piece of St Luke and other saints for the church of S.
Zeno, a Madonna and angels, with four saints on each side.
Of a Benedictine abbey dedicated to the same saints there remain a gatehouse and lodge, and a fine doorway.
The saints of the Hebrew nation were sure that as God had entered into fellowship with them, death could not sever them from his presence.
In the Mandaean view the Old Testament saints are false prophets; such as Abraham, who arose six thousand years after NU (Noah) during the reign of the sun, Misha (Moses), in whose time the true religion was professed by the Egyptians, and Shlimun (Solomon) bar Davith, the lord of the demons.
Probably the best modern Life is that by Jean Guiraud, in the series Les Saints (translated into English by Katharine de Mattos, 1901); the bibliography contains a useful list of the chief sources for the history of St Dominic and the order, and of the best modern works thereon.
This figure, also known as the vesica piscis, is common in ecclesiastical seals and as a glory or aureole in paintings of sculpture, surrounding figures of the Trinity, saints, &c. The figure is, however, sometimes referred to the almond, as typifying virginity; the French name for the symbol is Amande mystique.
In 1221 Falkes de Breaute, then custodian of the borough, rendered a palfrey for holding a three days' fair at the feast of All Saints, transferred in 1247 to the feast of St Margaret, and still held under that grant.
In the Roman Church the granting of the title "venerable" is the first step in the long process of the canonization of saints.
I care even less if your brother writes Saint Among the Sinners or Sinner Among the Saints.
In the earliest periods of Christian art this splendour was confined to the figures of the persons of the Godhead, but it was afterwards extended to the Virgin Mary and to several of the saints.
In France, blasphemy (which included, also, speaking against the Holy Virgin and the saints, denying one's faith, or speaking with impiety of holy things) was from very early times punished with great severity.
The church of All Saints (Decorated and Perpendicular) possesses some old brasses; it was restored in 1875.
The custom, however, increased, vigils being instituted for the other festivals, including those of saints.
They taught the Apostles' Creed, rejected Purgatory, the worship of saints and the authority of the Catholic Church, practised infant baptism and confirmation, held a view on the Sacrament similar to that of Zwingli, and, differing somewhat from Luther in their doctrine of justification by faith, declared that true faith was "to know God, to love Him, to do His commandments, and to submit to His will."
In the old Egyptian church order, known as the Canons of Hippolytus, there are numerous directions for the service of the agape, held on Sundays, saints' days or at commemorations of the dead.
Butler, Lives of the Saints, October 25th).
Architectural motives even were introduced, as frames to the embroidered figures of saints, while sometimes the upper edges of the mitre were ornamented with crockets, and the horns with architectural finials.
(For an account of the chief of these female saints see the first volume of W.
In St Theresa (1515-1582) and John of the Cross Other the counter-reformation can boast of saints second Forms of to none in the calendar for the austerity of their Mysticism.
The notices given in the historical synaxaria are summaries of those in the great menologies, or collections of lives of saints, for the twelve months of the year.
The church of All Saints has a good Perpendicular tower, but the remainder is extensively restored.
In 1850 Guthrie published A Plea on behalf of Drunkards and against Drunkenness, which was followed by The Gospel in Ezekiel (1855); The City: its Sins and Sorrows (1857); Christ and the Inheritance of the Saints (1858); Seedtime and Harvest of Ragged Schools (1860), consisting of his three Pleas for Ragged Schools.
The inner walls are decorated with Byzantine frescoes, among which only a painting of the Last Supper, and the portraits of five saints, remain unrestored.
In the Eastern churches, indeed, the conception of the church as the guardian of " the faith once delivered to the saints " soon overshadowed that of interpretation and development by catholic consent, and, though they have throughout claimed the title of Catholic, their chief glory is that conveyed in the name of the Holy Orthodox Church.
JOSEPH SMITH, JR. (1805-1844), the founder, in April 1830, of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, was born in Sharon, Vermont, on the 23rd of December 1805.
It is true that in Roman Catholicism, in medieval as in modern times, the working of miracles has been ascribed to its saints; but the character of most of these miracles is such as to lack the a priori probability which has been claimed for the Scripture miracles.
The name was also borne by the following saints: (1) a Roman tribune who suffered martyrdom under Hadrian; (2) a bishop of Siscia in Pannonia; (3) the patron of the Tegernsee in Bavaria, beheaded in Rome in 269 and invoked by those suffering from gout.
See John Campbell Oman, The Mystics, Ascetics and Saints of India (1903), and Indian Census Reports.
He determined to make the pilgrimage to Jerusalem and to practise all the austerities that he read of in The Flowers of the Saints.
The new learning in religion had divided Christendom; the old learning of the faith, once delivered to the saints, was to reconcile them.
Noteworthy also is the great church of Saints Wenceslaus and Adalbert, built between 1683 and 1733.
Either the address was general ("to the saints who are also faithful") or else a blank was left.
I); "unto me, who am less than the least of all the saints" (iii.
15), and they are explicitly distinguished from "all the saints" (iii.
Its teaching as to the name of God, which claimed to be based on the authority of such eminent saints as St.
Arnold-Forster, Studies in Church Dedications, or England's Patron Saints, ii.
They still believe, as John did, in the return of Nero as the Antichrist; they still expect that after the first resurrection Christ will reign with his saints "in the flesh" for a thousand years.
The early Friends definitely asserted that those who did not know quaking and trembling were strangers to the experience of Moses, David and other saints.
Below the castle is All Saints church, which suffered severely during the siege of the castle, but still retains some work of the 12th century.
The church of St Giles, formerly a chapel of ease to All Saints, but made parochial in the 18th century, is'of Norman date, but most of the present structure is modern.
He used to invite the contadini who had served Cosimo to a banquet on the day of Saints Cosimo and Damiano (the patron saints of the Medici), and entertained them with music and singing.
Explorations conducted in the cemetery of Domitilla in 1897-1898 brought to light a fine double crypt with frescoes representing Christ seated between six male and female saints; also an inscription relating to a new saint (Eulalius) in a cubiculum of the 3rd century.
York also possesses a large number of churches of special architectural interest, including All Saints, North Street, Early English, Decorated and Perpendicular, with a spire 120 ft.
The " parishes " date from 1807; they were based on an earlier Spanish division for religious purposes - whence the names of saints in parish nomenclature.
All early writers speak of Clement in the highest terms of laudation, and he certainly ought to have been a saint in any Church that reveres saints.
He founded a college at Rotherham, which was suppressed under Edward VI., and he was responsible for the building of part of the church of All Saints there.
In each of the first three were 420 saints, succeeding each other (by hundreds), day and night, in their pious offices.
The church of All Saints has Early English and Perpendicular remains.
- Trinity Sunday, all festivals of Christ (except those connected with the Passion), festivals of the Blessed Virgin, of the Holy Angels and Confessors, of holy virgins and women (not being martyrs), nativity of St John the Baptist, festivals of the chains of St Peter and of his see (cathedra Petri), Conversion of St Paul, All Saints, consecration of churches and altars, anniversary of election and coronation of popes, and of election and consecration of bishops.
White is also worn during the octaves of these festivals, on ordinary days (for which no special colour is provided) between Easter and Whitsuntide, at certain special masses connected with the saints falling under the above category, and at bridal masses.
Spring sets in with remarkable rapidity and charm at the end of April; but in the second half of May come the " icy saints' days," so blighting that it is impossible to cultivate the apple or pear.
Bell, Lives and Legends of the Evangelists, Apostles and other early Saints (London, 1901), pp. 238-240.
The new city, to which the name of Sao Salvador was given, was established on the heights above the Bay of All Saints (Todos os Santos), from which its later name of Bahia is taken.
Maria di Provenzano, a vast baroque building of some elegance, designed by Schifardini (1594) Sant' Agostino, rebuilt by Vanvitelli in 1755, containing a Crucifixion and Saints by Perugino, a Massacre of the Innocents by Matteo di Giovanni, the Coming of the Magi by Sodoma, and a St Anthony by Spagnoletto (?); the beautiful church of the Servites (15th century), which contains another Massacre of the Innocents by Matteo di Giovanni and other good examples of the Sienese school; San Francesco, designed by Agostino and Agnolo about 1326, and now restored, which once possessed many fine paintings by Duccio Buoninsegna, Lorenzetti, Sodoma and Beccafumi, some of which perished in the great fire of 1655; San Domenico, a fine 13th-century building with a single nave and transept, containing Sodoma's splendid fresco the Swoon of St Catherine, the Madonna of Guido da Siena, 1281, and a crucifix by Sano di Pietro.
62 addressing the " saints " at Philippi " with the bishops and deacons."
" Where are the old Magyar saints?
Butler's great work, The Lives of the Saints, the result of thirty years' study (4 vols., London, 1756-1759), has passed through many editions and translations (best edition, including valuable notes, Dublin, 12 vols.
But almost immediately after the king's death Anne of Austria appointed him to the coveted post on All Saints' Eve, 1643.
Palestinian) name of Tiamat the dragon of the abyss, the natural symbol of the power of darkness, or of the kingdom of the world as opposed to the kingdom of the people of the saints of the Most High God.
When we put aside one or two exceptionally fine pieces, like the hymn of the soul in the apocryphal Acts of Thomas, the highest degree of excellence in style is perhaps attained in staightforward historical narrative - such as the account of the PersoRoman War at the beginning of the 6th century by the author who passes under the name of Joshua the Stylite, or by romancers like him who wrote the romance of Julian; by biographers like some of those who have written lives of saints, martyrs and eminent divines; and by some early writers of homilies such as Philoxenus (in prose) and Isaac of Antioch (in verse).
Lives of saints and martyrs form a large group among Syriac books.
His biography was written by John of Asia in the collection of lives of eastern saints which has been edited by Land (Anecd.
A third series of homilies, the Lives of the Saints, dates from 996 to 997.
Some of the sermons in the second series had been written in a kind of rhythmical, alliterative prose, and in the Lives of the Saints (ed.
pp. 8-61 of his edition of the Lives of the Saints, already cited, which gives a full account of the MSS., and a discussion of f lfric's sources, with further bibliographical references; and Alfric, a New Study of his Life and Writings, by Miss C. L.
the Mormons or "Latter Day Saints").
From the 5th century onwards certain celebrated saints were honoured almost universally; St Augustine (Sermo, 276, § 4) says that the festival of St Vincent was celebrated throughout the whole of the Christian world.
In the West these buildings were raised over the tomb, which was left intact; but in the East there was no hesitation in disturbing the graves of the saints and removing the bodies to a basilica built to receive them.
From the 4th century on are recorded cases of translation of the bodies of saints, and they did not even shrink from dividing the sacred relics.
In the West the principle already laid down by St Gregory the Great in his letter to Constantia, namely that of not disturbing the bodies of the saints, was for a long time the rule in all cases, and the portions distributed to the churches were simply brandea, that is to say, linen which had lain upon the tomb of the saint, or, in other words, representative relics.
It is difficult to understand a much-discussed passage of Origen (De oratione, 14), except as applying to prayer addressed to the saints.
The Fathers of the 4th century, and notably the Cappadocian Fathers, provide us with a quantity of evidence on this subject, which leaves no doubt as to the practice of the invocation of saints, nor of the complete approval with which it was viewed.
The cult of the saints early met with opposition, in answer to which the Church Fathers had to defend its lawfulness and explain its nature.
But it is above all St Augustine who in his refutation of Faustus, as well as in his sermons and elsewhere, clearly defined the true character of the honours paid to the saints: "Non eis templa, non eis altaria, non sacrificia exhibemus.
The undoubted abuses which grew up, especially during the middle ages, raised up, at the time of the Reformation, fresh adversaries of the cult of the saints.
The council of Trent, while reproving all superstitious practices in the invocation of the saints, the veneration of relics and the use of images, expresses as follows the doctrine of the Roman Church: "That the saints who reign with Christ offer to God their prayers for men; that it is good and useful to invoke them by supplication and to have recourse to their aid and assistance in order to obtain from God His benefits through His Son our Saviour Jesus Christ, who alone is our Saviour and Redeemer" (Sess.
At the present day the canonization of saints is reserved in the Roman Church to the sovereign pontiff.
The Anglican Church, while still commemorating many of the Catholic saints, has not, since the Reformation, admitted any new names to the authoritative list, with the single exception of that of King Charles I., whose "martyrdom" was celebrated by authority from the Restoration until the year 1859.
Percival, The Invocation of Saints (London, 1896); A.
So it was with Celtic saints, and Adamnan, in his life of St Columba, i.
cross and the saints"; and by the light of this we ought perhaps to interpret section ix.
Ibrahim and the doctor Abdullah developed into the conquering empire of the Murabits, or, as Christian writers call them, the Almoravides, and there still, among the Berbers, the marabouts enjoy extraordinary influence, being esteemed as living saints and mediators.
The institution of the feast of All Saints is usually attributed to this pope.
3, 4, the image of the offering of incense with the prayers of the saints, before the throne of God, is not without its significance.
Catholic writers generally treat it as typifying contrition, the preaching of the Gospel, the prayers of the faithful and the virtues of the saints.
high; the cathedral of All Saints (Protestant Episcopal), an English Gothic structure of pink sandstone designed by R.
Jaidev was succeeded by numerous Hindu saints, who perceived that the superstitions of the age only led to spiritual blindness.
Of these saints Ramanand was one of the most distinguished.
191-246 (Paris, 1896); Cahier, Caracteristiques des saints, p. 761 (Paris, 1867).
He worked as a designer in Paris, and became prominent as a member of the municipal council of Paris, rousing much angry discussion by a proposal to rename the Parisian streets which bore saints' names.
The church of All Saints has Norman portions, and a cross and other remains of pre-Norman date were discovered in restoring the building.
9, &c.; "the saints," iii.
Although a large part of the people disliked the idea of a conflict with the church, an alliance with Florence's old enemy Bernabo Visconti was made, war declared, and a balia of 8, the Otto della guerra (afterwards called the "Eight Saints" on account of their good management) was created to carry on the campaign.
508, and became a bishopric at an early period and a centre of religious enthusiasm, as containing the tomb of the revered St Theodore, who slew a dragon in the vicinity and became one of the great warrior saints of the Greek Church.
Mecca itself was taken; plundering was forbidden, but the tombs of the saints and all objects of veneration were ruthlessly destroyed, and all ceremonies which seemed in the eye of the stern puritan conqueror to suggest the taint of idolatry were forbidden.
1367) wrote a Chronicle of Islam and aives of Saints.
Sacramental confession is enjoined, but has recently become obsolete; prayers for the departed and invocation of saints form part of the services.
are medieval and are written chiefly in Greek letters, and in form and character resemble Coptic. They are, with one exception, written on parchment and contain lives of saints, &c., the exception being a legal document.
The Yahweh, at a time known only to Himself, shall appear with all His saints on Mount Olivet and destroy the heathen in battle, while the men of Jerusalem take refuge in their terror in the great cleft, that opens where Yahweh sets His foot.
in 1535, there were still found in the city native Christians, the last remnants of the mountains, who had never been latinized and never really christianized, accepted Islam without difficulty, but showed their stubborn nationality, not only in the character of their Mahommedanism, which has always been Berber mixed up with the worship of living as well as dead saints (marabouts) and other peculiarities, but also in political movements.
The important work of Mariano Eduardo Rivero, of Arequipa, 1 The city of Lima produced two saints, the archbishop St Toribio, who flourished from 1578 to 1606, and Santa Rosa, the patron saint of the city of the kings (1586-1616), whose festival is celebrated on the 26th of August.
For the repentance of the righteous bath an end; the days of repentance for all saints are fulfilled..
The positive Christian ideal which " the saints " should attain, " the Lord enabling," it is the business of the Shepherd to set forth.
the pre-existent Holy Spirit or Son, who dwelt in Christ's " flesh "), in baptism, the " seal " which even Old Testament saints had to receive in Hades (Sim.
Of two of these saints, St Catherine of Alexandria, the St Catherine par excellence, and St Catherine of Siena, something st more must be said.
To the men of the middle ages, in any case, St Catherine was very real; she was ranked with the fourteen most helpful saints in heaven, and was the constant theme of preachers and of poets.
The tendency observable in many of the austerities and miracles attributed to St Catherine to outstrip those of other saints, particularly Francis, is especially remarkable in this marvel of the stigmata, and so acute became the rivalry between the two orders that Pope Sixtus IV., himself a Franciscan, issued a decree asserting that St Francis had an exclusive monopoly of this particular wonder, and making it a censurable offence to represent St Catherine receiving the stigmata.
The hope was not fulfilled, but a certain number of philosophic disciples gathered round Comte, and eventually formed themselves, under the guidance of the new ideas of the latter half of his life, into a kind of church, for whose use was drawn up the Positivist Calendar (1849), in which the names of those who had advanced civilization replaced the titles of the saints.
He used to frequent the services at St James's, Piccadilly, and Margaret chapel, since better known as All Saints', Margaret Street.
The long poem celebrating the triumph of Christ and His saints was called forth by the favour shown him by Pope Leo VII., during whose pontificate he visited Rome, and he devotes fourteen books to the history of the popes.
The eastern portion of the vaulting, including the choir and one bay of the nave, has the older and simpler decorations; the rest of the nave has more elaborate painted ornament - foliage mixed with figures of Dominican saints, executed in the 15th century.
This church also contains a large number of fine sculptured tombs of the 14th and 15th centuries, with noble effigies and reliefs of saints and sacred subjects.
Delicate patterns cover all the framework of the panelling and fill the panels themselves; at two stages, where there is a check in the line of the coving, rows of half-figures of saints are minutely painted on blue or gold grounds, forming a scheme of indescribably splendid decoration.
The recumbent effigies and decorative details of these tombs are very beautiful, but the smaller figures of angels, saints and virtues are rather clumsy in proportion.
And though he did not believe in the Incarnation, yet he held deity to be in a sense manifest in humanity; its saints and heroes became, in spite of innumerable frailties, after a sort divine; man underwent an apotheosis, and all life was touched with the dignity and the grace which it owed to its source.
They possess - not in Hebrew, of which they are altogether ignorant, but in Ethiopic (or Geez)- the canonical and apocryphal books of the Old Testament; a volume of extracts from the Pentateuch, with comments given to Moses by God on Mount Sinai; the Te-e-sa-sa Sanbat, or laws of the Sabbath; the Ardit, a book of secrets revealed to twelve saints, which is used as a charm against disease; lives of Abraham, Moses, &c.; and a translation of Josephus called Sana Aihud.
To this we may add a fantastic and absurd allegorization, the indiscriminate laudation of saints and martyrs, polemical strife, the hardening of the doctrine into dogma, the development of a narrow ecclesiasticism, and the failure of the missionary spirit in the orthodox section of the Eastern Church (as contrasted with the marvellous evangelistic activity of the Nestorians.
He also published anonymously, in 1745, the lives of English, Scotch and Irish saints, under the title of Britannia Sancta, an interesting work which has, however, been superseded by that of Alban Butler.
In the Greek synaxaria the same day is assigned to two other saints of the name of Pelagia - one, also of Antioch, and sometimes called Margarito and also "the sinner"; the other, known as Pelagia of Tarsus, in Cilicia.
Delehaye, The Legends of the Saints (London, 1907), pp. 197-205.
I believe (that there is) remission of sins in the holy catholic church, communion of saints, resurrection of the flesh unto eternal life.
., (21) of the worship of saints.
In the 16th century a spirit of universal questioning was rife, and it is this utter unsettlement of opinion which is reflected in the discussions of doubts on matters only remotely connected with " the faith once for all delivered unto the saints " (Jude 3).
articles, usually called the Creed of Pius IV., which reaffirmed the Nicene Creed, and dealt with the preservation of the apostolic and ecclesiastical traditions, the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures " according to the sense which our Holy Mother Church has held," the seven sacraments, the offering of the mass, transubstantiation, purgatory, the veneration of saints, relics, images, the efficacy of indulgences, the supremacy of the Roman Church and of the bishop of Rome as vicar of Christ.
The church of All Saints (1905) commemorates Spencer Perceval, prime minister, who was assassinated in the House of Commons in 1812.
The church of All Saints is good Perpendicular, though considerably restored.
Images of Christ, of the Virgin and saints have achieved many a similar miraculous portent.
SAINT FILLAN, or Faelan, the name of the two Scottish saints, of Irish origin, whose lives are of a purely legendary character.
The legend of the second of these saints is given in the Bollandist Acta SS.
P. Forbes, Kalendars of Scottish Saints (Edinburgh, 18 7 2), pp. 34 1 -34 6; D.
O'Hanlon's Lives of Irish Saints (Dublin), n.d.
These two gods belonged to the old popular religion of the Iranians, but had until then been neglected by the true Zoroastrians; now they were introduced into the official worship much in the way in which the cult of the saints came into the Christian religion.
bir p, above, and SouXEia, service), and (3) dulia, that due to the saints.
Nicola di Bari (Bari, 1901); Charles Cahier, Caracteristiques des saints (Paris, 186 7), p. 354; Frances ArnoldForster, Studies in Church Dedications (London, 1899), i.
The future of the saints is assured: what can avail against Him that hath" glory and dominion for ever and ever "the wild attacks of Rome and even of Satan and his hosts ?
If the clause Kai k Tou aiyaros rC:ov µapri)pcov'Incroii in 6 is an addition, then he thinks the source was Jewish and the "blood of the saints" was that shed at the destruction of Jerusalem, and the forecast of the author related to the destruction of Rome.
Moreover, the expectation that the saints would rise to share in the blessedness of this kingdom is also found in Judaism, 4 Ezra vii.
15-18, in which he foresaw the time when the kingdom of the world would become the kingdom of our Lord and of His Christ, and the saints should enter on their reward.
From the earliest Christian times the saints took the place of the pagan tutelary deities (Di tutelares) and were in this capacity called tutelares or patroni, patron-saints.
A full list of saints, with the objects of the peculiar patronage of each, is given in M.
Pleasant; Penn College (Friends, 1873) at Oskaloosa; St Joseph's College (Roman Catholic, 1873) at Dubuque; Parsons College (Presbyterian, 1875) at Fairfield; Coe College (Presbyterian, 1881) at Cedar Rapids; Drake University (Disciples of Christ, 1881) at Des Moines; Palmer College (Disciples of Christ, 1889) at Legrand; Buena Vista College (Presbyterian, 1891) at Storm Lake; Charles City College (Methodist Episcopal, 1891) at Charles City; Morningside College (Methodist Episcopal, 1894) at Sioux City; Graceland College (Reorganized Church of Latter Day Saints, 1895) at Lamoni.
The church of St Mary and All Saints, originally collegiate, is Perpendicular, and only the nave with aisles, and the tower surmounted by an octagon, remain; but the building is in the best style of its period.
In its chapel are preserved the relics of saints which Henry the Lion brought from Palestine.
The church of All Saints is cruciform, with central tower and spire.
An abridged story of his life will be found in Alban Butler's Lives of the Saints, on the 21st of October, and a critical sketch with full references in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopcidie (ed.
All Saints' Church dates from 1795, and among numerous modern churches St Mary's, erected from designs by G.
Melanchthon, who was for a moment carried away by the movement, partook, with several of his students, of the communion under both kinds, and on Christmas Eve a crowd invaded the church of All Saints, broke the lamps, threatened the priests and made sport of the venerable ritual.
Next year the Mass, processions and the images of saints were abolished.
This reaffirmed the seven sacraments, transubstantiation and the invocation of saints, and declared the pope head of the Church, but adopted Luther's doctrine of justification by faith in a conditional way, as well as the marriage of priests, and considerably modified the theory and practice of the Mass.
It was at Athens that he seriously began to think of religion, and resolved to seek out the most famous hermit saints in Syria and Arabia, in order to learn from them how to attain to that enthusiastic piety in which he delighted, and how to keep his body under by maceration and other ascetic devices.
Andrewes declares against the invocation of saints, the apparent examples in patristic literature are "rhetorical outbursts, not theological definitions."
By this time the truce extended from the Wednesday evening to the Monday morning in every week and also, in most places, lasted during the seasons of Lent and Advent, the three great vigils and feasts of the Blessed Virgin, and those of the twelve apostles and a few other saints.
BOLLANDISTS, the Belgian Jesuits who publish the Ada Sanctorum, the great collection of biographies and legends of the saints, arranged by days, in the order of the calendar.
His intention was to publish in eighteen volumes the lives of the saints compiled from the MSS., at the same time adding sober notes.
Pitra, Etudes sur la collection des Actes des Saints (Paris, 1880).
He published a number of theological works, and edited the Oratorian Lives of the Saints.
The church of All Saints is Perpendicular, with an Early English tower, and contains some interesting monuments.
In point of doctrine they acknowledged the seven sacraments, but gave them a symbolical meaning; they prayed to the Virgin and saints, and admitted auricular confession, but they denied purgatory and the sacrifice of the mass, and did not observe fasts or festivals.
This was one of essential equality among " the saints " or " the brethren," turning on common possession of and by the one Spirit of Christ.
The church ceased even to be thought of as a society of " saints," or to be organized on that basis.
The church of All Saints has a fine Perpendicular tower, left uninjured when the nave and chancel were burned down in 1842.
The church of All Saints is mainly Perpendicular, and contains some fine woodwork, mostly of the 17th century, and some good memorial tombs.
Both are animated by an active local patriotism, and both honour the same patron saints, Jirjis (St George) and Jonah; the grave of the latter is pointed out on an artificial mound on the left bank of the Tigris.
In Milwaukee are St John's Roman Catholic Cathedral and All Saints Protestant Episcopal Cathedral - the city is the see of a Roman Catholic archbishopric (established in 1892) and of a Protestant Episcopal bishopric. Among other church structures are Plymouth Congregational, Westminster Presbyterian, Church of Gesu (Roman Catholic) and Trinity Lutheran.
He canonized Saints Elizabeth of Thuringia, Dominic, Anthony of Padua and Francis of Assisi.
by saying that souls of saints may attain the fulness of the beatific vision before the last judgment.
Though her reading was confined to the lives of the saints, she taught in the school kept by the nuns for the girls of the neighbourhood, to whom she endeared herself by her kindly disposition.
Newman, afterwards cardinal, in his Lives of the English Saints.
In the early days the Church was thought of as a community of saints, all of whose members were holy, and as a consequence discipline was strict, and offenders excluded from the Church were commonly not readmitted to membership but left to the mercy of God.
The new piety did not set itself in opposition either to the hierarchy or to the institutions of the Church, such as the sacraments and the discipline of penance, nor did it reject those foreign elements (asceticism, worship of saints and the like) which had passed of old time into Christianity from the ancient world.
twice seven) saints, who for their help in time of need have been associated as objects of particularly devoted worship in Roman Catholic Germany since the middle of the 15th century.
This, on the whole, salutary and edifying movement permeated public life, and produced a series of great captains who cheerfully sacrificed themselves for their country, and would have been saints if they had not been heroes.
Among his numerous writings may be mentioned Lives of the Saints, Discourses on the Seven Sacraments, and especially his sermons preached before the diet, in which he lashed the Poles for their want of patriotism and prophesied the downfall of the country.
The first series of caves, dedicated to St Anthony, contains eighty saints' tombs; the second, dedicated to St Theodosius, a saint greatly venerated in Russia, about forty-five.
The foundation of the monastery is ascribed to two saints of the 11th century - Anthony and Hilarion, the latter metropolitan of Kiev.
Farringford House in the parish was for some time the home of Alfred, Lord Tennyson, who is commemorated by a tablet in All Saints' church and by a great cross on the high downs above the town.
It includes also the superfluous merit and satisfaction of the Blessed Virgin and the Saints.
But, speaking of mere satisfaction for punishment due, there cannot be a doubt that some of the Saints have done more than was needed in justice to expiate the punishment due to their own sins.
The church of All Saints is of various dates from Norman onwards.
Saints and angels are highly revered, if not adored, but graven images are forbidden.
The parish church of All Saints was for the most part rebuilt in the latter half of the 18th century; the portions still preserved of the original structure are mainly Early English.
1050), who describes himself as divided in his allegiance between the saints and the muses.
The parish church of All Saints, occupying the site of a building dating from Anglo-Saxon times, was erected in the reign of Edward IV., and is among the best specimens of Perpendicular in the north of England.
It is a palimpsest MS., and the upper writing (lives of saints), dated A.D.
All Saints' church in South Lynn is a beautiful Decorated cruciform structure.
This work is now in the Bologna gallery, - the "Virgin enthroned, with Augustine and five other saints."
The National Gallery, London, contains two remarkably fine specimens of Francia, once combined together as principal picture and lunette, - the "Virgin" and "Child and St Anna" enthroned, surrounded by saints, and (in the lunette) the "Pieta," or lamentation of angels over the dead Saviour.
At a very early date the great prophets became a kind of saints or welis, and the respect paid to the tombs of the prophets, which ultimately took in almost every particular the place of the old local shrines (Matt.
Dietrich, iElfric's most competent biographer (Niedner's, Zeitschrift fiir historische Theologie, 1855-1856), looks upon the Pentateuch, Joshua and Judges as a continuation of his Lives of Saints, including as they do in a series of narratives the Old Testament saints.
(See Saints, Battle Of.) No further operations of note occurred in the West Indies.
This, however, did not represent any definite rule; and the orphreys of chasubles were decorated with a great variety of pictorial subjects, scriptural or drawn from the stories of the saints, while the rest of the vestment was either left plain or, if embroidered, most usually decorated with arabesque patterns of foliage or animals.
chiefly representing Christ's miracles and suffering, with apostles, evangelists and other saints.
i Paul bids the Corinthians, as he had bidden the churches of Galatia, lay up in store on the first of the week, each one of them, money for the poor saints of Jerusalem.
Ancestor-worship has its parallels in Christian cults of the dead and of the saints; it must be remembered, however, that a saint is not as a rule an ancestor, and that his cult is not based upon family feeling and love of kinsmen, nor tends to stimulate and encourage the same.
These dramas, which deal with religious and historical subjects, are of Indian origin, and somewhat resemble the mystery-plays of medieval Europe, a resemblance heightened by the introduction, due to Spanish missionaries, of Christian saints and heroes such asCharlemagne.
Among other denominations the Jewish congregations and the Latter Day Saints were the largest.
Opening from the western side of the cloister, but actually standing in the outer court, is the refectory (G), a large cruciform building, about loo feet each way, decorated within with frescoes of saints.
Domenico contains a good fresco (Madonna and saints) by Giovanni Santi, the father of Raphael.
In 12 4 7 the bishop granted the first charter, giving, among other privileges, a fair on All Saints' Day.
In accordance with the grant of 1247 a fair was held on All Saints' day and also on Holy Thursday; the former was afterwards held on All Souls' Day.
The church of All Saints is in the main Decorated, largely restored in 1860.
There was a Roman fort near the present church of All Saints, and the site has yielded inscriptions and other small remains.
Of the other churches that of All Saints dates from the 13th century.
The first ten books are each occupied with a history of the kings of one of the provinces; the eleventh book gives an account of the Mussulmans of Malabar; the twelfth a history of the Mussulman saints of India; and the conclusion treats of the geography and climate of India.
The church of All Saints is a large cruciform structure, Norman, Early English and Perpendicular, with a central tower 80 ft.
Among the numerous lives of saints written in Anglo-Norman the most important ones are the following, the list of which is given in chronological order: - Voyage de Saint Brandan (or Brandain), written in 1121, by an ecclesiastic for Queen Aelis of Louvain (Rom.
Other lives of saints were recognized to be Anglo-Norman by Paul Meyer when examining the MSS.
The village folk are mainly engaged in making toys, and carving crucifixes, rosaries and images of saints.
They include most of the collects on Saints' Days, for which, though no direct evidence of authorship is as yet forthcoming, Cranmer is probably responsible, and certain other collects, such as that for the Royal Family (Archbishop Whitgift); that for the high court of parliament (Archbishop Laud); that for all conditions of men (Bishop Gunning), &c.
Introits were provided for use on every Sunday and Holy-Day; after the offertory intending communicants were directed to " tarry still in the quire or in some convenient place nigh the quire "; in the prayer " for the whole state of Christ's church," the blessed Virgin Mary was commemorated by name among departed saints; prayer for the departed was explicitly retained; also an invocation of the Holy Spirit before the words of institution, the prayer of oblation immediately following them.
We pass on to 1552 when a new and revised edition of the Prayer Book was introduced by an act of parliament which ordered that it should come into use on All Saints' Day (Nov.
The whole is couched in that strain of devotional exaggeration in which the lives of the saints are usually composed.
But as a rule, and especially in the great periods of church architecture, their builders were untrammelled by any utilitarian considerations; they built for the glory of God, for their own glory perhaps, in honour of the saints; and their work, where it survives, is (as it were) a petrification of their beliefs and ideals.
The insistence on the unique efficacy of the sacrifice of the altar led to the multiplication of masses, and so of altars, which were placed in the transepts or aisles or in chapels, dedicated to the saints whose relics they enshrined.
Often they were founded as acts of propitiation of the Almighty or of the saints, and the greater their size and splendour the more effective they were held to be for their purpose.
It has its centre not on earth but in heavenly places, where Christ sitteth at the right hand of God."5 (c) Thirdly, there is no question that the Lord intended the one fellowship of his saints to be a visible fellowship. The idea of an invisible church has only commended itself in dark hours when men despaired of unity even as an ideal.
Luther distinguished between the Spiritual Church, which he identified with the Communion of Saints, and the Corporeal Church, the outward marks of which are Baptism, Sacrament and Gospel.
RELICS (Lat, reliquiae, the equivalent of the English "remains" in the sense of a dead body), the name given in the Catholic Church to,(I) the bodies of the saints, or portions of them,(2) such objects as the saints made use of during their lives, or as were used at their martyrdom.
It was a favourite custom to bury the dead near the graves of the martyrs; and it was the highest wish of many to "rest with the saints."
This was coming very near to a belief that objects which the saints had used during their life had also a share in their miraculous powers.
Nobody hesitated to divide up the bodies of the saints in order to afford as many portions of them as possible.
The only doubt which was felt was as to whether the bodies of the saints should be divided, and removed from their original resting-place.
In order to satisfy it relics were made by placing pieces of cloth on the gravesof the saints, which were afterwards taken to their homes and venerated by the pilgrims.
The same purpose was served by oil taken from the lamps burning at the graves, flowers from the altars, water from some holy well, pieces of the garments of saints, earth from Jerusalem, and especially keys which had been laid on the grave of St Peter at Rome.
But in the long run these substitutes for relics did not satisfy the Christians of the West, and, following the example of the Eastern Church, they took to dividing the bodies of the saints.
Medieval relics in the West also were mostly portions of the bodies of saints or of things which they had used during their lives.
Thomas Aquinas based his justification of them on the idea of reverent commemoration; since we venerate the saints, we must also show reverence for their relics, for whoever loves another does honour to that which remains of him after death.
On this account it is our duty, in memory of the saints, to pay due honour to their relics and especially to their bodies, which were the temples and dwellings of the Holy Ghost in which He dwelt and worked, and which in the resurrection are to be made like to the body of Christ; and in likewise because God honours them, in that He works wonders in their presence (Summa theol.
In the modern Latin Church almost every large church contains several altars - dedicated to certain saints, in private side chapels, established for masses for the repose of the founder's soul, &c. Archbishop Wulfred in 816 ordered that beside every altar there should be an inscription recording its dedication.
The Anglo-Saxon homilist 1Elfric, in his Lives of the Saints (996 or 997), refers to it as in common use; but the earliest evidence of its authoritative prescription is a decree of the synod of Beneventum in 1091.
They declared Christ to be the Son of God only through grace like other prophets, and that the bread and wine of the eucharist were not transformed into flesh and blood; that the last judgment would be executed by God and not by Jesus; that the images and the cross were idols and the worship of saints and relics idolatry.
also who elevated the doctrine of the beatific vision of the saints into a dogma.
(4) Legends of the Saints.
(10) The Congregation of Rites (Congregatio sacrorum Rituum), founded by Sixtus V., has exclusive charge of the liturgy and liturgical books; it also deals with the proceedings in the beatification and canonization of saints.
The Iberians still reverence as saints the Armenian doctors of the 5th century, but as early as 552 they began to resent the dictatorial methods of the Armenians, as well might a proud race of mountaineers who never wholly lost their political independence; and they broke off their allegiance to the Armenian see very soon afterwards, accepted Chalcedon and joined the Byzantine church.
BRIGHAM YOUNG (1801-1877), second president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, was born in Whittingham, Vermont, on the 1st of June 1801.
It was thence applied to denote any luminous ring, such as that viewed around the sun or moon, or portrayed about the heads of saints.
(1) The Messianic is executed by the Messiah or the saints by victory in war, or by judicial sentence.
Paradise was sometimes regarded as the division of Sheol to which the righteous passed after death, but at others it was conceived as the heavenly abode of Moses, Enoch and Elijah, to which other saints would pass after the last judgment.
A millennial reign of Christ on earth is interposed between the first resurrection, confined to the saints and especially the martyrs, and the second resurrection for the rest of the dead.
Peculiar elements in Paul's eschatology are the doctrines of the Rapture of the Saints (1 Thess.
As regards the saints, different degrees of blessedness were recognized; they were supposed to wait in Hades for the return of Christ, but gradually the belief gained ground, especially in regard to the martyrs, that their souls at once entered Paradise.
A great number of saints of the name of Januarius are mentioned in the martyrologies.
He was especially indignant at the way in which spiritual worship was being ousted by the adoration of saints and their relics.
404 an institution in which Goths might be trained to preach the Gospel to their own people; 3 Martin of Tours, who evangelized the central districts of Gaul; Valentinus, the " apostle of Noricum," about 440; Honoratus, who from his monastic home in the islet of Lerins, about 410, sent missionaries among the masses of heathendom in the neighbourhood of Arles, Lyons, Troyes, Metz and Nice; and St Patrick, who converted Ireland into " the isle of saints " (died either in 463 or 495).
The main street leads up a slope from the river to the fine Perpendicular church of All Saints.
The parish church of All Saints, well placed above the river, is a fine Early English and Decorated building, with Perpendicular additions.
For he compiled the legends of the saints (Legendae sanctorum) in one volume, adding many things from the Historia tripartite et scholastica, and from the chronicles of many writers."
The other writings he claims are two anonymous volumes of "Sermons concerning all the Saints" whose yearly feasts the church celebrates.
The Golden Legend, one of the most popular religious works of the middle ages, is a collection of the legendary lives of the greater saints of the medieval church.
The saints lives are full of puerile legend.
In 1647 he was staying at the home of Lady Rouse of Rouse-Lench, and there, in much physical weakness, wrote a great part of his famous work, The Saints' Everlasting Rest (1650).
His Saints' Everlasting Rest will always command the grateful admiration of pious readers.
The town hall, the public library, the assembly hall, and the great Anglican church of All Saints are the chief buildings.
The third council of Carthage in 397 forbade anything but Holy Scripture to be read in church; this rule has been adhered to so far as the liturgical epistle and gospel, and occasional additional lessons in the Roman missal are concerned, but in the divine office, on feasts when nine lessons are read at matins, only the first three lessons are taken from Holy Scripture, the next three being taken from the sermons of ecclesiastical writers, and the last three from expositions of the day's gospel; but sometimes the lives or Passions of the saints, or of some particular saints, were substituted for any or all of these breviary lessons.
His range of learning was wide, and he published a handbook of Jewish history, a historical calendar intended to supersede the Roman Saints' Calendar, and a revision of the Latin Old Testament.
novrarccov, "scroll") celebrating the festivals of the ecclesiastical year, the lives of the saints and other sacred subjects - on the death of a monk (extremely impressive); the last judgment; the treachery of Judas; the martyrdom of St Stephen; Simeon s Digesta Justiniani Augusti, recognovit Th.
Gradually the canonization of saints came to be included in the centralizing movement which reserved to the pope the most important acts of ecclesiastical power.
The Greek Church, represented by the patriarch of Constantinople, and the Russian Church, represented by the Holy Synod, also canonize their saints after a preliminary examination of their titles to public cultus.
The popular feeling for the first time found expression when Luther, on All Saints day 1517, nailed to a church door in Wittenberg the theses in which he contested the doctrine Luther which lay at the root of the scandalous traffic in indulgences carried on in the popes name by Tetzel and his like.
There are also a large number of lives of saints and churchmen, in which the legendary element is still more conspicuous.
The Protestants eagerly sought out the writings which exposed and denounced the arrogance of the popes, while the Romanists attempted to counter them with the numerous lives of the saints.
Still Christianity and the Greek tongue never died out; churches and monasteries received and held property; there still are saints and scholars.
He may have written some of the lives in this collection, and gathered together materials concerning the history of Scotland; but he did not, as some have thought, continue the Scotichronicon, nor did he write the Lives of Scottish Saints.
BAHIA, or SRI SALVADOR, a maritime city of Brazil and capital of the state of Bahia, situated on the Bay of All Saints (Bahia de Todos os Santos), and on the western side of the peninsula separating that bay from the Atlantic, in r3° S.
From the mass of material comprised in the Koran - and the account we have given is far from exhaustive - we should select the histories of the ancient prophets and saints Narratives.
Tombs of Mahommedan saints are also numerous, and are often placed on the summit of the cliffs overlooking the Nile.
Tombs of saints abound, one or more being found in every town and village; and no traveller up the Nile can fail to remark how every prominent hill has the sepulchre of its patron saint.
The great saints of Egypt are the imam Ash-Shafii, founder of the persuasion called after him, the sayyid Abmad al-Baidawi, and the sayyid Ibrahim Ed-DesUki, both of whom were founders of orders of dervishes.
But, besides the graves of her native saints, Egypt boasts of those of several members of the Prophets family, the tomb of the sayyida Zeyneb, daughter of Ali, that of the sayyida Sekeina, daughter of Hosain, and that of the sayyida Nefisa, great-granddaughter of Hasan, all of which are held in high veneration.
The screen is subdivided into four or five tiers, each tier decorated with a series of panels containing representations of the saints: of these only the heads, hands and feet are painted, the bodies being covered with embossed metal work, richly gilded.
the being and attributes of God, the freedom of the will, sin, heaven and hell, &c. Religious earnestness, ceasing to touch the higher problems of speculative thought, has expressed itself in later times exclusively in protest against the extravagances of the dervishes, of the worship of saints, and so forth, and has thus given rise to movements analogous to Puritanism.
Mahomet himself made a concession to heathen traditions when he recognized the Ka`ba and the black stone; and the worship of saints, which is now spread throughout Islam and supported by obviously forged traditions, is an example of the same thing.
Figures of the Virgin and Child, of the apostles and evangelists, the fathers of the Church, the saints and martyrs, with illustrations of sacred history and the Apocalypse, were supplied in endless repetition to satisfy the cravings of a pious and simple-minded people.
Of a little later date, and of almost as fine a quality, are the first seven of a large series of woodcuts known as the Great Passion; and a little later again (probably after 1500), a series of eleven subjects of the Holy Family and of saints singly or in groups: then, towards 1504-1505, come the first seventeen of a set illustrating the life of the Virgin: neither these nor the Great Passion were published till several years later.
He attempted no subjects at all commensurate with those of his great woodcuts, but contented himself for the most part with Madonnas, single figures of scripture or of the saints, some nude mythologies of a kind wholly new in northern art and founded upon the impressions received in Italy, and groups, sometimes bordering on the satirical, of humble folk and peasants.
It shows the pope and emperor, with a lute-playing angel between them, kneeling to right and left of the enthroned Virgin and Child, who crown them with rose garlands, with a multitude of other kneeling saints disposed with free symmetry in the background, and farther in the background portraits of the donor and the painter, and a flutter of wreath-carrying cherubs in the air.
In 1509 followed the "Assumption of the Virgin" with the Apostles gathered about her tomb, a rich altarpiece with figures of saints and portraits of the donor and his wife in the folding wings, executed for Jacob Heller, a merchant of Frankfort, in 1509.
In 1511 was completed another famous painting, multitudinous in the number of its figures though of very moderate dimensions, the "Adoration of the Trinity by all the Saints," a subject commissioned for a chapel dedicated to All Saints in an almshouse for decayed tradesmen at Nuremberg, and now at the Imperial Gallery at Vienna.
Besides these three masterpieces of line-engraving, the same years, 1512-1515, found DUrer occupied with his most important experiments in etching, both in dry-point ("The Holy Family and Saints" and the "St Jerome in the Wilderness") and with the acid bath.
For a great group of the Madonna surrounded with saints there are extant two varying sketches of the whole composition and a number of finished studies for individual heads and figures.
These are the two pairs of saints, St John with St Peter in front and St Paul with St Mark in the background.
12-14) is the most striking instance of an analogy between his miracles and those recorded of medieval saints.
On the departure of the Romans, the Goidelic hill-tribes, probably with help from Gower and Ireland, seem to have regained possession of the Usk valley under the leadership of a chieftain of their own race, Brychan, who became the ancestor of one of the three chief tribes of hereditary Welsh saints.
With regard to the Pre-Reformation period in England, it is of interest to note that by the constitutions of Archbishop Winchelsey, 1305, it was the duty of the parish to provide for the parish church, among other objects, the images of Christ on the Cross, of the saint to whom the church was dedicated, to be placed in the chancel, and of other saints.
Many were thought to be possessed of powers of healing and of prediction; in fact a belief in their supernormal gifts, like those of Catholic saints, was part of the basis of their prestige.
Among monographs, Six Saints of the Covenant and The Life of Mary Stuart (up to 1568), by D.
He professed to rest all upon Scripture, yet accepted from the Babylon of Rome a baptism neither scriptural nor primitive, nor fulfilling the chief conditions of admission into a visible brotherhood of saints, to wit, repentance, faith, spiritual illumination and free surrender of self to Christ.
Rost related be true, namely that they called themselves A postolici, and went barefooted healing the sick, they must have at least absorbed into themselves a sect of whom we hear in the 12th century in the north of Europe as deferring baptism to the age of 30, and rejecting oaths, prayers for the dead, relics and invocation of saints.
The medieval Church was even more profoundly convinced than its predecessor that the miraculous power of Deity attached to the bodies of saints and their relics.
But the younger nations - French, English and German - were scantily endowed with saints; while, on the other hand, the belief obtained that the home-countries of Christianity, especially Rome and Jerusalem, possessed an inexhaustible supply of these sanctified bodies.
594) mentions one of his deacons who made a pilgrimage into the East, in order to collect relics of the Oriental saints; and, on his return, visited the grave of the bishop Nicetius (St Nizier, d.
One of the most attractive works of early medievalism - Einhard's little book, Translatio Marcellini et Petri - gives a vivid description of the methods by which the bodies of the two saints were acquired and transported from Rome to Seligenstadt on the Main.
The place to be visited was not specified; but the pilgrim, who was bound by an open letter of his bishop to disclose himself as a pentitent, lay under the obligation, wherever he went, to repair to the churches and - more especially - the tombs of the saints, and there offer his prayers.
Flach gave them a solid basis by the wide range of his researches, utilizing charters and cartularies (published and unpublished), chronicles, lives of saints, and even those dangerous guides, the chansons de geste.
732-737 (London, 1896); Cahier, Caracteristiques des saints, pp. 183, 775, &c. (Paris, 1867).
So) still only refers simply to the heathen belief, the author of the (Jewish?) original of the 17th chapter of the Apocalypse of St John expects the return of Nero with the Parthians to take vengeance on Rome, because she had shed the blood of the Saints (destruction of Jerusalem!).
If on one or two points, as, for instance, the invocation of saints, some germs of subsequent Roman teaching may be discovered, there is a want of anything like the doctrine of indulgences or of compulsory private confession.
This structure was probably put to some ecclesiastical Byzantine use, as certain mutilated heads of saints appear upon it; and later it became a fortress and received certain additions.
The earthquake at the moment of our Lord's death and the subsequent appearance of departed saints are strange traditions unattested by other writers.
But although he goes to the Scriptures, and tastes the mystical spirit of the medieval saints, the Christ of his conception has traits that seem borrowed from Socrates and from the heroes of Attic tragedy, who suffer much, and yet smile gently on a destiny to which they were reconciled.
Marco (now converted into a national museum), a series of frescoes, beginning towards 1443; in the first cloister is the Crucifixion with St Dominic kneeling; and the same treatment recurs on a wall near the dormitory; in the chapterhouse is a third Crucifixion, with the Virgin swooning, a composition of twenty life-sized figures - the red background, which has a strange and harsh effect, is the misdoing of some restorer; an "Annunciation," the figures of about three-fourths of life-size, in a dormitory; in the adjoining passage, the "Virgin enthroned," with four saints; on the wall of a cell, the "Coronation of the Virgin," with Saints Paul, Thomas Aquinas, Benedict, Dominic, Francis and Peter Martyr; two Dominicans welcoming Jesus, habited as a pilgrim; an "Adoration of the Magi"; the "Marys at the Sepulchre."
All these works are later than the altarpiece which Angelico painted (as before mentioned) for the choir connected with this convent, and which is now in the academy of Florence; it represents the Virgin with Saints Cosmas and Damian (the patrons of the Medici family), Dominic, Peter, Francis, Mark, John Evangelist and Stephen; the pediment illustrated the lives of Cosmas and Damian, but it has long been severed from the main subject.
Marco; also an altarpiece in tempera of the Virgin and Child between Saints Peter, Thomas Aquinas, Dominic and Peter Martyr, now much destroyed.
The subject is a Glory, Christ with the banner of the Resurrection, and a multitude of saints, including, at the extremities, the saints or beati of the Dominican order; here are no fewer than 266 figures or portions of figures, many of them having names inscribed.
In Orvieto cathedral he painted three triangular divisions of the ceiling, portraying respectively Christ in a glory of angels, sixteen saints and prophets, and the virgin and apostles: all these are now much repainted and damaged.
In Rome, in the Chapel of Nicholas V., the acts of Saints Stephen and Lawrence; also various figures of saints, and on the ceiling the four evangelists.
The sources for her life are to be found in the Bollandist Acta Sanctorum on the Ilth of August, and sketches in such Lives of the Saints as Alban Butler's.
The church of All Saints (the castle church) was closely connected with the university of Wittenberg.
He had procured an Indulgence for all who attended its services on All Saints' Day, and crowds commonly gathered.
It was held that the good deeds over and above what were needed for their own salvation by the living or by the saints in heaven, together with the inexhaustible merits of Christ, were all deposited in a treasury out of which they could be taken by the pope and given by him to the faithful.
The Treasury of Merits has never been properly defined; it is hard to say what it is, and it is not properly understood by the people; it cannot be the merits of Christ and of His saints, because these act of themselves and quite apart from the intervention of the pope; it can mean nothing more than that the pope, having the power of the keys, can remit ecclesiastical penalties imposed by the church; the true Treasure-house of merits is the Holy Ghost of the grace and glory of God.
Heiligenkultus, &c. (Tubingen, 5904); P. Saintyves, Saints successeurs des dieux (Paris, 1907).
After his death he was included among the saints of the orthodox church.
On the other hand, saints, both male and female, are paid more reverence by Berbers than by Arabs.
Female saints, too, are held in high honour; and the Berber pays his wife the compliment of monogamy.
All Saints' church, restored in 1866, is late Norman, containing several monuments to the Carys, lords of the manor for 600 years.
He lavished presents on influential saints, built shrines, sent gifts to churches, went on frequent pilgrimages and spent much time in prayer - employing his consummate diplomacy to win celestial allies, and rewarding them richly when their aid secured him any advantage.
He tried to bribe the saints of his enemies, as he did their ministers.
When the ring of St Zanobius and the blood of Cape Verde turtles gave him no relief from his last illness, he showered gifts upon his patron saints, secured for his own benefit the masses of his clergy, and the most potent prayers in Christendom, those of the two most effective saints of his day, Bernardin of Doulins and Francis of Paolo.
During a subsequent mission to Lithuania he converted numerous noble families, including the Radziwills, and held for some years the rectorship of the Jesuit Academy at Wilna, where he composed his Lives of the Saints.
The most important of his works are: Lives of the Saints (Wilna, 1579, 27th edition, 1884); Sermons on Sundays and Saints' Days (1st ed., Cracow, 1595, Latin ed., Cracow, 1691); Sermons preached before the Diet (last and best edition, Cracow, 1904) and numerous other volumes of sermons, some of which have already run through thirty editions.
See Acta sanctorum, August, iii: 380-415; Charles Cahier, Les Caracteristiques des saints (Paris, 1867).
still, in the litanies of the saints), or simply "Apostolicus."
where worship was divided between the serpent and the Mosaic Law, it is said that the great dragon was burst asunder by the prayers of Christian saints (c. A.D.
12 Christian saints have also stepped into the shoes of earlier serpent-slayers, while, in the stories of " St George and the Dragon " type, the victory of the pious over the enemy of mankind has often been treated as a literal conflict with dragons, thus introducing a new and confusing element into the subject.
Among the numbers of religious denominations in 1906 the Roman Catholics, with 10,264 communicants, had the largest membership, followed by the Latter-day Saints, or Mormons, with 5211 communicants (21.8% of the total church membership for the state), the Protestant Episcopalians with 1741, the Methodists with 1612 and the Presbyterians with 984.
The modern church of St John the Baptist replaces the old parish church of All Saints in the village of Epping Upland 2 m.
The parish church of All Saints, 'between the bridge and the grounds, was erected in 1881 from designs by Sir Arthur Blomfield.
16-17), and on his part he proclaimed that these sinners would enter into the Kingdom of Heaven before the self-righteous saints (Matt.
Salvation henceforth is not the descent of the New Jerusalem out of heaven, but the ascent of the saints to heaven; for the individual it is not the resurrection of the body but the immortality of the soul.
Its control of the sciences embroiled it with its own philosophers and scholars, while saints and pure-minded ecclesiastics attempted, without success, its reform from within.
C. Oman, Mystics, Ascetics and Saints of India, p. 273) remarks:" Sadlzuism, whether perpetuating the peculiar idea of the efficiency of austerities for the acquisition of far-reaching powers over natural phenomena, or bearing its testimony to the belief in the indispensableness of detachment from the world as a preparation for the ineffable joy of ecstatic communion with the Divine Being, has undoubtedly tended to keep before men's eyes, as the highest ideal, a life of purity, self-restraint, and contempt of the world and human affairs.
C. Oman, Indian Life, Religious and Social (London, 1879); The Mystics, Ascetics and Saints of India (London, 1903); The Brahmans, Theists and Muslims of India (London, 1907); S.
Thus he may grant indulgences, issue censures, give dispensations, canonize saints, institute bishops, create cardinals - in short, perform all the acts of his jurisdiction, even though he be no more than a layman; but by custom certain of his more solemn acts are postponed till after the ceremony of his coronation, from which his pontificate is officially dated.
The Flemish Jesuit Bolland brought the light of criticism to bear on the legends of the saints (see Bollandists).
canonized more saints than all his predecessors together for a century and a half.
In Christian tradition he even appears as the mystic Antichrist, who was destined to come once again to trouble the saints.
To be a gentleman in Italy meant at this epoch to be a man acquainted with the rudiments at least of scholarship, refined in diction, capable of corresponding or of speaking in choice phrases, open to the beauty of the arts, intelligently interested in archaeology, taking for his models of conduct the great men of antiquity rather than the saints of the church.
The Breviary gives no legend; but in current works, such as Butler's Lives of the Saints, it is to the effect that "these holy martyrs seem.
Baring-Gould's Lives of the Saints.
The initial element Caed - or Cead (probably adopted from British names in which it represents catu, war) appears combined with an Old English terminal element in the name Caedbaed (cp., however, the Irish name Cathbad), and hypocoristic forms of names containing it were borne by the English saints Ceadda (commonly known as St Chad) and his brother Cedd, called Ceadwealla in one MS. of the Old English Martyrology.
The cathedral church of All Saints occupies a very ancient site, but only slight traces of buildings previous to the 14th century can be seen.
In1203-1204William Earl Warenne received a grant of a fair at Wakefield on the vigil, day and morrow of All Saints' day.
His enemies denounced him as a pretender, a selfish intriguer, and an abandoned profligate; his supporters placed him among the sages and sometimes even among the saints.
Not a few saints were rewarded for their fasting by glimpses of the beatific vision.
The church of All Saints, late Perpendicular, consisting of chancel with aisles and two chapels, was restored in 1630 and in modern times.
granted by charter to John Mansel a weekly market on Monday and two fairs, each of three days, beginning on the eve of Ascension Day and on the eve of All Saints' Day, October 28th.
granted a three days' fair from the eve of St Wilfrid instead of the All Saints' fair, but in 1329 Edward III.
The church of All Saints is of Saxon origin, and was existing in Edward the Confessor's time.
It was a matter of course that saints' days and church festivals were abolished as having no warrant in Scripture; Sunday alone remained, as the principal day of preaching.
OATES, TITUS (1649-1705), English conspirator, was the son of Samuel Oates (1610-1683), an Anabaptist preacher, chaplain to Pride, and afterwards rector of All Saints' Church, Hastings.
&,ycos, saint, Xeyos, discourse), that branch of the historical sciences which is concerned with the lives of the saints.
The most important collections are those which comprise the Acts of the Martyrs and the lives of saints, arranged in the order of the calendar.
They generally draw from a common source, the Roman legendary, and the lives of the local saints, i.e.
One of the most zealous collectors of lives of saints was John Gielemans of Brabant (d.
It was he, too, who conceived the plan of a great collection of lives of saints, compiled from the manuscripts and augmented with notes, from which resulted the collection of the Acta sanctorum (see Bollandists).
The various religious orders collected the Ada of their saints, often increasing the lists beyond measure.
Lobineau, Vie des saints de Bretagne (Rennes, 1725); and J.
The principal lives of the German saints are published in the Monumenta Germaniae, and a special section of the Scriptores rerum Merovingicarum is devoted to the lives of the saints.
Metcalfe at Paisley in 1889, under the title of Lives of the Scottish Saints); W.
Rees's Lives of the Cambro-British Saints (Llandovery, 1853); Acta sanctorum Hiberniae (Edinburgh, 1888); Whitley Stokes's Lives of Saints from the Book of Lismore (Oxford, 1890); and J.
O'Hanlon's Lives of the Irish Saints (Dublin, 1875-1904).
Towards the 13th century vernacular collections of lives of saints began to increase.
Assemani's Acta sanctorum martyrum orientalium (Rome, 1748) and P. Bedjan's Acta martyrum et sanctorum (Paris, 1890-1897); for Armenian, the acts of martyrs and lives of saints, published in two volumes by the Mechitharist community of Venice in 1874; for Coptic, Hyvernat's Les Actes des martyrs de l'Egypte (Paris, 1886); for Ethiopian, K.
"Though the lives of saints," says a recent historian, "are filled with miracles and incredible stories, they form a rich mine of information concerning the life and customs of the people.
He is one of the most popular saints in Egypt.
The author of the Harmonica Institutio wrote numerous lives of the saints and a curious poem on bald men, dedicated to Charles the Bald.
Raphael, "one of the seven holy angels, which present the prayers of the saints, and go in before the glory of the Holy One," resembles the protecting spirit Sraosha.
reforming councils of Constance (1415) and Basel (1432); but the overwhelming majority of orthodox churchmen were unwilling to abandon a rule for which the saints had fought during so many centuries, and to which many of them probably attributed an apostolic origin.'
On the other hand, Judaism has never been without its heroes, martyrs or saints, and the fact that it still lives is sufficient to prove that the mechanical legalism of the Talmud has not hindered the growth of Jewish religion.
His doctrine at that date appears to have been very vague; he seemingly rejected the invocation of saints and also second marriages, and preached penitence.
According to Peter the Venerable, Henry's teaching is summed up as follows: rejection of the doctrinal and disciplinary authority of the church; recognition of the Gospel freely interpreted as the sole rule of faith; condemnation of the baptism of infants, of the eucharist, of the sacrifice of the mass, of the communion of saints, and of prayers for the dead; and refusal to recognize any form of worship or liturgy.
The Virgin, the angelic hierarchy, the saints, have received the believer's homage, and answered his petitions.
The result was that their numbers grew with astonishing rapidity, and scholarly saints like Balthasar Hubmaier (ca.
The principles of religion he learnt from the Bible, Sulpicius Severus and some lives of saints, but to patristic literature and the subtleties of theology he remained a stranger.
The second book, from 397 to 511, deals with the invasions of the Franks, and is based on the histories of Sulpicius Alexander and Renatus Profuturus Frigeridus, now lost; on the catalogues of the bishops of Clermont and Tours; on some lives of saints, e.g.
SEVEN CHAMPIONS OF CHRISTENDOM, the name given in medieval tales to the seven national saints - of England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, France, Spain and Italy - i.e.
Saints George, Andrew,`..
Fort St Philippe, south of the kasbah, replaces the old Castle of the Saints of the Spaniards.
Flavian was soon after his death enrolled among the saints of the Greek Church, and after some opposition he was also canonized by the Latin Church.
The Anglican church, dedicated to All Saints, the principal banks and business houses, are in Khedive Avenue.
It was not the Old Testament saints, however, but only sinners and malefactors like Cain, Esau and Saul, who obeyed his summons.
Jean Beleth, a 12th-century liturgical author, gives the following list of books necessary for the right conduct of the canonical office: - the Antiphonarium, the Old and New Testaments, the Passionarius (liber) and the Legendarius (dealing respectively with martyrs and saints), the Homiliarius (homilies on the Gospels), the Sermologus (collection of sermons) and the works of the Fathers, besides, of course, the Psalterium and the Collectarium.
The Roman has thus become nearly universal, with the allowance only of additional offices for saints specially venerated in each particular diocese.
Historically, this proceeded from the labours of Jean de Launoy (1603-1678), "le denicheur des saints," and Louis Sebastien le Nain de Tillemont, who had shown the falsity of numerous lives of the saints; while theologically it was produced by the Port Royal school, which led men to dwell more on communion with God as contrasted with the invocation of the saints.
The services were at the same time simplified and shortened, and the use of the whole Psalter every week (which had become a mere theory in the Roman Breviary, owing to its frequent supersession by saints' day services) was made a reality.
It is particularly valuable for the trustworthy notices of the early history of Scotland which are embedded in the lives of the national saints.
The Breviary itself is divided into four seasonal parts - winter, spring, summer, autumn - and comprises under each part (1) the Psalter; (2) Proprium de Tempore (the special office of the season); (3) Proprium Sanctorum (special offices of saints); (4) Commune Sanctorum (general offices for saints); (5) Extra Services.
The Proprium Sanctorum contains the lessons, psalms and liturgical formularies for saints' festivals, and depends on the days of the secular month.
in origin proper to individual saints.
The psalms have already been dealt with, but it may be noted again how the multiplication of saints' festivals, with practically the same special psalms, tends in practice to constant repetition of about one-third of the Psalter, and correspondingly rare recital of the remaining two-thirds, whereas the Proprium de Tempore, could it be adhered to, would provide equal opportunities for every psalm.
The lessons, as has been seen, are drawn variously from the Bible, the Acts of the Saints and the Fathers of the Church.
The Christian Church which Paul planted there was governed by Timothy and John, and is famous in Christian tradition as a nurse of saints and martyrs.
The pagan custom of burying lamps with the dead conveyed no such symbolical meaning as was implied in the late Christian custom of placing lights on and about the tombs of martyrs and saints.
This pronouncement, indeed, though it certainly condemns the use of ceremonial lights in most of its later developments, and especially the conception of them as votive offerings whether to God or to the saints, does not necessarily exclude, though it undoubtedly discourages, their purely symbolical use.'
His theories of life were very different from theirs; and they had taken a strong line against his Maxims of the Saints, holding that visionary theories of perfection were ill-fitted for a world where even the holiest could.
Some things in the history of his last days, and in the indications of beatitude recorded, strongly recall the parallel history of the saints of the Roman calendar.