I admire the effort and sacrifice you put into it.
This sacrifice was the least he could do for his friend.
It also told me he was willing to make a sacrifice for her protection.
I would sacrifice anything for you--even my feelings.
She wondered how accurate her dream had been, if her only way to save Rhyn was to sacrifice herself.
Yet some can be patriotic who have no self-respect, and sacrifice the greater to the less.
To sacrifice herself for others was Sonya's habit.
I chose to sacrifice my life so that you'd have the chance to do this, Rhyn.
Is being in control so important that you're willing to sacrifice the happiness of your only son?
A small sacrifice for saving your people.
Even as he spoke the words, he knew he couldn't sacrifice her for the kingdom.
She must sacrifice herself for the family that had reared and brought her up.
She suspected even his promise to sacrifice her if it meant saving their world would melt in the furnace of his fury.
You didn't carry that bauble with you for twenty years to sacrifice it now.
I know you do, and I love you all the more for the sacrifice you're willing to make.
Am I to sacrifice my feelings and my honor for money?
He wanted the only woman who chose to sacrifice herself to the Original Other, as part of a horribly planned attempt to save those she loved.
She was ready to sacrifice everything for her benefactors.
He was not occupied with the question of what to sacrifice for; the fact of sacrificing in itself afforded him a new and joyous sensation.
One of the oldest and most widespread methods of divining the future, both among primitive people and among several of the civilizations of antiquity, was the reading of omens in the signs noted on the liver of the animal offered as a sacrifice to some deity.
The one is that the animal sacrificed was looked upon as a deity, and that, therefore, the liver represented the soul of the god; the other theory is that the deity in accepting the sacrifice identified himself with the animal, and that, therefore, the liver as the soul of the animal was the counterpart of the soul of the god.
The conclusion of the treaty of Bardo on the 12th of May, however, compelled Cairoli to sacrifice himself to popular indignation.
She remembered the strong, thoughtful little boy whose life she decided to sacrifice for her cause.
Stymieing her sunny nature now was a small sacrifice compared to seeing it snuffed forever.
"That's not quite what I'm saying. I know you understand that great sacrifice is sometimes warranted for a greater good. And what you might be learning is that the greater good also sometimes requires doing what might be called evil," she said.
Another who wished to gain some advantage would attract the Emperor's attention by loudly advocating the very thing the Emperor had hinted at the day before, and would dispute and shout at the council, beating his breast and challenging those who did not agree with him to duels, thereby proving that he was prepared to sacrifice himself for the common good.
"It's only a sacrifice if they don't live through this!" she snapped.
They are burning for the combat," declared this representative of the Russian nation, "and to prove to Your Majesty by the sacrifice of their lives how devoted they are...."
In the Roman Church the alb is now reckoned as one of the vestments proper to the sacrifice of the Mass.
The stricter party urged the adoption of the Westminster standards and conformity thereto; the broader party were unwilling to sacrifice their liberty.
He was in fact a typical representative of the unscrupulous selfseeking Polish magnates of the 17th century who were always ready to sacrifice everything, their country included, to their own private ambition.
The only vamp that could change someone without them following the normal rite requiring human sacrifice, Xander had once created an army in months.
"He higher iss dan I in rank," said the German colonel of the hussars, flushing and addressing an adjutant who had ridden up, "so let him do what he vill, but I cannot sacrifice my hussars...
At such moments something like a pride of sacrifice gathered in her soul.
again tried to make his peace with the court in January 1792, but he was so insulted that he was not encouraged to sacrifice himself for the sake of the king and queen, who persisted in remembering all old enmities in their time of trouble.
In late versions this legend was expanded and varied, the martyrdom was connected with a refusal to take part in a great sacrifice ordered at Octodurum and the name of Exsuperius was added to that of Mauritius.
"Sacrifice is –" "You saved the human world.
Then he may offer sacrifice so that his prayers be accepted."
The foreign policy of ViscontiVenosta may be said to have reinforced the international position of Italy without sacrifice of dignity, and without the vacillation and short-sightedness which was to characterize the ensuing administrations of the Left.
He.d lost his lover, Jade, that way, a sacrifice that still stung.
While Kris would love to sacrifice a certain infuriating mortal to further his cause, he wouldn.t even sacrifice her, let alone allow Darkyn.s to wipe out a village.
11); the new moons and the Sabbaths alike called men to the sanctuary to do sacrifice (Isa.
But now they wanted her to sacrifice the very thing that constituted the whole reward for her self-sacrifice and the whole meaning of her life.
Thus the old Hindus chose the new and the full moon as days of sacrifice; the eve.
that the daily sacrifices which form a feature of advanced cults involved the belief of the daily slaughter of some deity, and even before this stage was reached the primitive belief of the actual identification of the god with the animal must have yielded to some such belief as that the deity in accepting the sacrifice assimilates the animal to his own being, precisely as man assimilates the food that enters into his body.
He was as strong as she was in that way, willing to sacrifice anyone and anything.
He bristled at the mention of Rhyn in the same sentence as Andre. One half-brother had been noble, courageous, honorable, willing to sacrifice himself for their cause. Rhyn was the opposite.
Whatever her father's feelings might be, she begged Natasha to believe that she could not help loving her as the one chosen by her brother, for whose happiness she was ready to sacrifice everything.
Xander was enjoying his newfound status too much to sacrifice it now, especially when he had a line of women ready to please him.
But you said yourself that we would sacrifice everything.
When the third sacrifice came round Theseus volunteered to go, and with the help of Ariadne slew the Minotaur (Plutarch, Theseus, 15-19; Diod.
One party threatened to return to Romanism; another threatened to sacrifice the independence of Geneva and submit to Berne.
The slaying of the Minotaur by Theseus in that case indicates the abolition of such sacrifice by the advance of Greek civilization.
There were times when I could not afford to sacrifice the bloom of the present moment to any work, whether of the head or hands.
Those conveniences which the student requires at Cambridge or elsewhere cost him or somebody else ten times as great a sacrifice of life as they would with proper management on both sides.
On the other hand, serious difficulties arise if we assume that every animal sacrificed represents a deity; and even assuming that such a belief underlies the rite of animal sacrifice, a modification of the belief must have been introduced when such sacrifices became a common rite resorted to on every occasion when a deity was to be approached.
To sacrifice phrasing, and distinctness in real partwriting, to a crude imitation of the richness produced mechanically on the harpsichord by drawing 4-ft.
I can always sacrifice my feelings for my family's welfare," he said to himself, "but I can't coerce my feelings.
After the Emperor had left Moscow, life flowed on there in its usual course, and its course was so very usual that it was difficult to remember the recent days of patriotic elation and ardor, hard to believe that Russia was really in danger and that the members of the English Club were also sons of the Fatherland ready to sacrifice everything for it.
Her position in the house was such that only by sacrifice could she show her worth, and she was accustomed to this and loved doing it.
To love everything and everybody and always to sacrifice oneself for love meant not to love anyone, not to live this earthly life.
Pierre's one feeling at the moment was a desire to show that he was ready to go all lengths and was prepared to sacrifice everything.
But a few days before they left Moscow, moved and excited by all that was going on, she called Sonya to her and, instead of reproaching and making demands on her, tearfully implored her to sacrifice herself and repay all that the family had done for her by breaking off her engagement with Nicholas.
Pierre wished to say that he was ready to sacrifice his money, his serfs, or himself, only one ought to know the state of affairs in order to be able to improve it, but he was unable to speak.
Self- sacrifice was her most cherished idea but in this case she could not see what she ought to sacrifice, or for whom.
How far this scheme of sacrifice holds good for other areas, and in particular for more primitive peoples, is an open question.
With our present knowledge the problem of the original form of sacrifice, if there be a single primary form, is insoluble.
It is equally impossible to give a general survey of the purposes of sacrifice; not only are they too numerous but it is rare to find any but mixed forms; the scapegoat, for example, is also a messenger to the dead, and its flesh is eaten by the sacrificers.
In both these rites we seem to have a duplication of ritual, and the parallelism of sacrifice and liberation is clear.
(ii.) As an example of the second class may be taken the sacrifice of the bull to Rudra.
But the Nazarite was equally bound to lay aside his holiness before mixing with common folk and returning to ordinary life; this he did by a sacrifice, which, with the offering of his hair upon the altar, freed him from his vow and reduced him to the same level of sanctity as ordinary men.
The sacrifices of sacralization and desacralization mentioned above find their analogues in the Hindu scheme of the rite; sacralization and desacralization, sometimes performed by means of subsidiary sacrifices, are the essential elements of the preparation for sacrifice and the subsequent lustration.
errors of procedure, destructive of the efficacy of the sacrifice.
(3) Where there was an appointed place of sacrifice - the Temple at Jerusalem, according to later Jewish prescription - there was.
The object of the sacrifice being to bridge the gulf between the sacred and profane worlds, the sacrificer had to remain in contact with the victim, either personally, or, to avoid ritual perils, by the intermediary of the priest.
(6) Then followed the rites of desacralization, including burning of certain of the instruments, lustration of the post, destruction of the butter, &c. Finally the priest, the sacrificer and his wife performed a lustration, found in an exaggerated form in the "bath" which concluded the soma sacrifice, and the ceremonies were at an end.
It has been held that animal sacrifice is the primitive form and that the decay of totemism or lack of domestic animals has brought about the substitution of a human victim; but it has also been urged that in many cases animal victims are treated like human beings and must consequently have replaced them, that human beings are smeared with the blood of sacrifice, and must therefore have themselves been sacrificed before a milder regime allowed an animal to replace them.
On the whole, human sacrifice is far commoner among the semi-civilized and barbarous races than in still lower stages of culture.
for Human Sacrifice).
See also articles "Sacrifice" in Ency.
T.) The Idea of Sacrifice in the Christian Church.
(d) The form of the sacrifice is discussed in the next section.
Hubert and Mauss interpret this to mean that the sanctity of the remainder of the herd was concentrated on a single animal; the god, incarnate in the herd, was eliminated by the sacrifice, and the cattle saved from the dangers to which their association with the god exposed them.
(c) Human representatives of the corn or vegetation spirits are killed; in these, as in other cases of the sacrifice of the man-god cited by Dr Frazer, the killing of the old god is at the same time the making of a new god.
At a later period, pari passe with the spiritualization of the god, comes a refinement of the tastes attributed to him, and the finer parts of the sacrifice, finally it may be only its savour, are alone regarded as acceptable offerings.
This latter idea was the more likely to arise, as the gift theory of sacrifice is closely associated with that of the god as the ruler or king to whom man brings a tribute, just as he had to appear before his earthly king bearing gifts in his hands.
Whereas the god receives a gift in the honorific sacrifice, he demands a life in the piacular.
If tradition is any guide, human sacrifice seems in many important areas to be of secondary character; in spite of the great development of the rite among the Aztecs, tradition says that it was unknown till two hundred years before the conquest; in Polynesia human sacrifices seem to be comparatively modern; and in India they appear to have been rare among the Vedic peoples.
Among the forms of human sacrifice must be reckoned religious suicide.
No general survey of sacrifice on geographical lines is possible, but some of the more important features in each area may be noticed.
Both the mainland of Greece and the Greek colonies practised human sacrifice, usually as a means towards expulsion of evil.
Many animal sacrifices were known; of especial importance is the annual sacrifice of a goat on the Acropolis, though at other times the animal was not permitted to enter the temple.
Important features of Greek sacrifice, though not necessarily found in every rite, were the putting of wreaths and pieces of wool on the victim, the gilding of its horns, the lustration of the officiant and the sprinkling of those present with holy water.
The important Attic sacrifice of the Dipolia, known as Ta f30vOovia, demands some notice.
At Deir el Bahri we see that the animal had its throat cut in Mahommedan fashion; it lay on its side, the legs tied together; the heart was taken out, then the liver; the burnt sacrifice was hardly known.
An account of animal sacrifice has been given above.
Among human sacrifices may be mentioned the suttee, or custom of immolating a widow on the funeral pyre of the husband, and the Khond sacrifice of the Meriah, who was either purchased or the son of a victim father.
the sacrifice, the victim, who was often kept in captivity for long periods, was devoted by the cutting of his hair, previously unshorn, and his sanctity was increased later by various ceremonies of anointing.
- Especially in West Africa many forms of sacrifice are found.
Three main forms of human sacrifice existed in this area: (I) the scapegoat; (2) the messenger; and (3) the expiation, but combinations were not infrequent.
The victim was often kept in captivity and well fed; to transfer their sins people laid their hands upon him as he was led in procession, his head covered with ashes; on the way to the place of sacrifice were three enclosures, the second open to chiefs and priest only, the third to the officiant and his helper alone; the blood of the victim was offered to the gods.
and li., and in Greek literature the striking words which Porphyry quotes from an earlier writer, "We ought, then, having been united and made like to God, to offer our own conduct as a holy sacrifice to Him, the same being also a hymn and our salvation in passionless excellence of soul" (Euseb.
369) is grateful to the deity, being indeed the most essential part of the sacrifice, or at least the vehicle by which alone it can successfully be conveyed to its destination, is also a very early one, if not absolutely primitive; and survivals of it are possibly to be met with even among the most highly cultured peoples where the purely symbolical nature of all religious ritual is most clearly understood and maintained.
Thus, sacrifice was offered to them at night or in the evening; not on a high, but on a low altar (Eo b.pa), surrounded by a trench to receive the blood of the victim, which was supposed to make its way through the ground to the occupant of the grave; the victims were black male animals, whose heads were turned downwards, not upwards; their blood was allowed to trickle on the ground to appease the departed (aiµarcovpLa); the body was entirely consumed by fire and no mortal was allowed to eat of it; the technical expression for the sacrifice was not °ba y but Eva-y1.
On the 16th of the month Maimacterion, a long procession, headed by a trumpeter playing a warlike air, set out for the graves; wagons decked with myrtle and garlands of flowers followed, young men (who must be of free birth) carried jars of wine, milk, oil and perfumes; next came the black bull destined for the sacrifice, the rear being brought up by the archon, who wore the purple robe of the general, a naked sword in one hand, in the other an urn.
In Hinduism the various implements of sacrifice are similarly personified and worshipped, especially the sacrificial post to which the victim is bound, and which, under the name of vanaspall and svaru, is deified and invoked.
The insistence on the unique efficacy of the sacrifice of the altar led to the multiplication of masses, and so of altars, which were placed in the transepts or aisles or in chapels, dedicated to the saints whose relics they enshrined.
Then came another similar, but smaller propylaeum, and opposite to that was the entrance to the great court (auXi 7), nearly 53 by 70 ft., in which stands an altar or pit of sacrifice, in a position similar to that occupied by the altar of Zeus Herceus in the later Greek house.
Of religious ceremonies the most important was sacrifice.
Reading "the sacrifice of my feasts" for "the sacrifice of the feast of the Passover."
When his father was attacked by Memnon, he saved his life at the sacrifice of his own (Pindar, Pyth.
His ashes, with those of Achilles and Patroclus, were deposited in a mound on the promontory of Sigeum, where the inhabitants of Ilium offered sacrifice to the dead heroes (Odyssey, xxiv.
This spirit of do ut des will be found to go closely with the gift-theory of sacrifice, and to be especially characteristic of those religions of middle grade that are given over to sacrificial worship as conducted in temples and by means of organized priesthoods.
Since 1879 their leading doctrines have been formulated as follows: (I) the total depravity of man; (2) the real Godhead and real humanity of Christ; (3) justification and redemption through the sacrifice of Christ; (4) work of the Holy Spirit; (5) good works as fruits of the Spirit; (6) fellowship of believers; (7) second coming of Christ; (8) resurrection of the dead to life or judgment.
To appease these, offerings are made to them either direct or through the mediation of the Devas (domestic or agrarian deities); and if these avail not, the Menyepi or Great Sacrifice is resorted to.
In the course of this ceremony, after the sacrifice, men rush in all directions carrying torches; the women also carry fire-brands, or knock on the houses with rice-crushers and other heavy implements, and thus the evil spirits are considered to be driven away.
The lines run: "Thou cheat'st us, Ford; mak'st one seem two by art: What is Love's Sacrifice but the Broken Heart ?"
In a third tragedy, Love's Sacrifice (acted c. 1630; printed in 1633), he again worked on similar materials; but this time he unfortunately essayed to base the interest of his plot upon an unendurably unnatural possibility - doing homage to virtue after a fashion which is in itself an insult.
- Explanations of sacrifice, as of other rites, are naturally not wanting among the peoples who have practised or still practise it; but they are often of the nature of aetiological myths and give no clue to the original meaning.
These were, in fact, simply the popular theories of sacrifice put on an evidential basis by facts drawn from various stages of culture.
(iii.) In the mystical sacrifice the god is himself slain and eaten by his worshippers.
The sacrifice is in its origin a communion; god and worshippers have a bond of kinship between them; but it is liable to be interrupted or its strength diminished.
From the communion sacrifice sprang the piaculum, which here becomes a subsidiary form and finds its full explanation in the ideas connected with the mystic union of god and worshippers.
For the object of the piaculum is the re-establishment of the broken alliance, which was precisely that of the communion sacrifice.
With the decline of totemism arose the need for human sacrifice - the only means of re-establishing the broken tie of kinship when the animal species was no longer akin to man.
Marillier sacrifice was, at its origin, essentially a magical rite - the liberation by the effusion of a victim's blood of a magical force which was to bend the gods to the will of man; from this arose, under the influence of cult of the dead, the gift theory of sacrifice.
This they did by sacrificing a victim and effecting communion with the god by the application of its blood to the altar; or, more directly, by the sacrifice of the animal-god and the contact of the sacrificer with its blood.
(e) Dr Westermarck takes the view that human sacrifice is as a rule an act of substitution, in that men offer a victim in the hope of saving themselves; but he also recognizes funeral sacrifices of various kinds.
If, however, we turn to Australia, where sacrifice is unknown, we find more than ' one class of rites in which we can trace an idea akin to some forms of sacrifice.
Thus it appears that the gift theory may after all be primitive; the worship of, or care for, the dead may have supplied in other areas the motive for the transition from offering to sacrifice or the evolution may have been due to the spiritualization of the gods.
In Australia, among the Hottentots, in the Malay Peninsula and elsewhere, blood ceremonies are in use which are unconnected with the slaughter of a victim; in this blood ritual we may see another possible source of sacrifice.
In the sacrifice of sacralization the sanctity passes from the victim to the object; in that of desacralization, from the object to the victim.
For Hinduism and later Judaism we possess a wealth of material on which to base a comparative study of the forms of sacrifice; a form of this - animal sacrifice in the Vedas - has been analysed by MM.
The necessary elements of a Hindu sacrifice are: (I) the sacrificer, who provides the victim, and is affected, directly or indirectly, by the sacrifice; he may or may not be identical with (2) the officiant, who performs the rite; we have further (3) the place, (4) the instruments of sacrifice and (5) the victim; where the sacrificer enjoys only the secondary results, the direct influence of the sacrifice is directed towards (6) the object; finally, we may distinguish (7) three moments of the rite - (a) the entry, (b) the slaughter, (c) the exit.
no need of preparation of a place of sacrifice; but the Hindu chose, each for himself, the site of his altar.
The Iroquois sacrifice of the white dog bore in later times the character of a scapegoat festival; but it is doubtful how far this was an original feature.
There can be no doubt that the idea of sacrifice occupied an important place in early Christianity.
Among the Jews the preaching of the prophets had been a constant protest against the grosser forms of sacrifice, and there are indications that when Christianity arose bloody sacrifices were already beginning to fall into disuse; a saying which was attributed by the Ebionites to Christ repeats this protest in a strong form, "I.
The ideas are also found both in the New Testament and in early Christian literature: "Let us offer up a sacrifice of praise to God continually, that is, the fruit of lips which make confession to His name" (Heb.
Trypho, c. 117); "We honour God in prayer, and offer this as the best and holiest sacrifice with righteousness to the righteous Word" (Clem.
The one form, which probably arose from the conception of Yahweh as in an especial sense the protector of the poor, was that gifts to God may properly be bestowed on the needy, and that consequently alms have the virtue of a sacrifice.
Biblical instances of this idea are - "He who doeth alms is offering a sacrifice of praise" (Ecclus.
16); so the offerings sent by the Philippians to Paul when a prisoner at Rome are "an odour of a sweet smell, a sacrifice acceptable, well pleasing to God" (Phil.
The persistence of this form of the idea of sacrifice constitutes so marked a feature of the history of Christianity as to require a detailed account of it.
(I) It was regarded as a true offering or sacrifice; for in the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, in Justin Martyr and in Irenaeus it is designated by each of the terms which are used to designate sacrifices in the Old Testament.
on the Lord's day) until they have been reconciled, that your sacrifice be not defiled."
Combined with this sacrifice of the fruits of the earth to the Creator in memory of creation and redemption, and probably always immediately following it, was the sacred meal at which part of the offerings was eaten.
Such a sacred meal had always, or almost always, formed part of the rites of sacrifice.
In the case of the bread and wine of the Christian sacrifice, it was believed that, after having been offered and blessed, they became to those who partook of them the body and blood of Christ.
It is clear from the evidence of the early Western liturgies that, for at least six centuries, the primitive conception of the nature of the Christian sacrifice remained.
There is a clear distinction between the sacrifice and the communion which followed it, and that which is offered consists of the fruits of the earth and not of the body and blood of Christ.
The main points in which the pre-medieval formularies of both the Eastern and the Western Churches agree in relation to the Christian sacrifice are the following.
The bread and wine are designated by all the names by which sacrifices are designated (sacrificia, hostiae, libamina, and at least once sacrificium placationis), and the act of offering them by the ordinary term for offering a sacrifice (immolatio).
in gold uncial letters upon a purple ground, as distinguished from the vermilion cursive letters of the rest of the MS. With this the sacrifice proper was concluded.
(6) But, since the divine injunction had been" Do this in remembrance of me,"the sacrifice was immediately followed by a commemoration of the passion of Christ, and that again by an invocation of the Holy Spirit (epiclesis) that He would make the bread and wine to become the body and blood of Christ.
From that time until the Reformation the Christian sacrifice was all but universally regarded as the offering of the body and blood of Christ.
For, although the council of Trent recognized fully the distinction which has been mentioned above between the Eucharist and the sacrifice of the mass, and treated of them in separate sessions (the former in Session xiii., the latter in Session xxii.), it continued the medieval theory of the nature of the latter.
The reaction against the medieval theory at the time of the Reformation took the form of a return to what had no doubt been an early belief, - the idea that the Christian sacrifice consists in the offering of a pure heart and of vocal thanksgiving.
Luther at one period (in his treatise De captivitate Babylonica) maintained, though not on historical grounds, that the offering of the oblations of the people was the real origin of the conception of the sacrifice of the mass; but he directed all the force of his vehement polemic against the idea that any other sacrifice could be efficacious besides the sacrifice of Christ.
communities the idea of a sacrifice has almost lapsed.
from the considerable progress of the Anglo-Catholic revival in most English-speaking countries that the idea of sacrifice has not yet ceased to be an important element in the general conception of religion.
So then let them not sacrifice the offering of bread in churches.
The association in the synoptics of the earliest eucharist with the paschal sacrifice provided a model, and long after the eucharist was separated with the agape on other days of the year, we still find celebrated on the evening of Maundy Thursday the sacrifice of the [[Paschal (disambiguation)|paschal ]], immediately followed by an eucharist.
Their idolatry (polytheistic) was unaccompanied by human sacrifice.
Westermarck has shown from his observations in Morocco that the blood of the victim was considered to visit a curse upon the object to whom the sacrifice is offered and thereby the latter is made amenable to the sacrificer.
To the original nomadic Pesah (Passover) - sacrifice of a lamb - there was attached a distinct and agricultural festival of unleavened cakes (ynassoth) which marks the beginning of the corn harvest in the middle of the month Abib (the name of which points to its Canaanite and 1 The tablet is neo-Babylonian and published by Dr Pinches in the Transactions of the Victoria Institute, and is cited by Professor Fried.
The wrath with which the Israelite armies believed themselves to be visited (probably an outbreak of pestilence) when the king of Moab was reduced to his last extremity, was obviously the wrath of Chemosh the god of Moab, which the king's sacrifice of his only son had awakened against the invading army (2 Kings iii.
(or massebah) was the material symbol of deity on which the blood of sacrifice was smeared, and in which the numen of the god resided.
19-24, where a day of sacrifice in the high place is described.
Sacrifice, as this prophet, like his successor Jeremiah, insisted (Amos v.
It is the sons of Zadok only that have any right to offer sacrifice at the altar of burnt offering (xliii.
In the historical evolution of Hebrew sacrifice it is remarkable how long this non-ethical and primitive survival of old custom still survived, even far into post-exilian times.
(See Sacrifice; also Moore's art.
" Sacrifice " in Ency.
1-9, we have details of the purificatory rite which was necessary when human blood was shed; but now and in the future propitiatory sacrifice and ideas of propitiation began to overshadow all the other forms of sacrifice and their ideas.
Corresponding to heaven, the abode of the righteous, we have Ge-henna (originally Ge-Hinnom, the scene of the Moloch rites of human sacrifice), the place of punishment after death for apostate Jews.
The eurapxai (" first fruits ") were conveyed to Eleusis, where sacrifice was offered by a priestess, men being prohibited from undertaking the duty.
Although the offerings at the festival were bloodless, the ceremony of the presentation of the airapxai was probably accompanied by animal sacrifice (Farnell, Foucart); Mommsen, however, considers the offerings to have been pastry imitations.
This is to be distinguished from the later sacrifice of a ram to the same goddess on the 6th of the month Thargelion, probably intended as an act of propitiation.
The other masons warned their families, and 1VIanole was forced to sacrifice his own wife.
So the danger was averted: Alexander offered sacrifice and was shown the prophecy of Daniel, which spoke of him.
Jason sent money for a sacrifice to Heracles at Tyre; and the only recorded opposition to his policy came from his envoys, who pleaded that the money might be applied to naval expenditure.
" The king's officers who were enforcing the apostasy came into the city of Modein to sacrifice, and many of Israel went over to them, but Mattathias.
slew a Jew who came to sacrifice and the king's officer and pulled down the altar " (1 Macc. ii.
Some of his advisers urged the demolition of the nation on the ground of their exclusiveness, but he sent a sacrifice and won thereby the name of " Pious."
The rebels abode by their decision to stop the daily sacrifice for the emperor; Agrippa's troops capitulated and marched out unhurt; and the Romans, who surrendered on the same condition and laid down their arms, were massacred.
The priests existed to offer sacrifices, and by the Law no sacrifice could be offered except at the Temple of Jerusalem.
Having offered sacrifice and inquired how to renew the human race, they were ordered to cast behind them the "bones of the great mother," that is, the stones from the hillside.
This sacrifice of territory was afterwards ratified by the National Assembly at Bordeaux, though not without a protest from the representatives of the departments about to be given up; and thus Alsace once more became German.
In the legend of Nisus and Scylla there is a trace of the custom which was still observed in classical times in the sacrifice of animals.
This is clearly the same process in essence as that of the formation of a vitellogenous gland from part of the primitive ovary, or of the feeding of an ovarian egg by the absorption of neighbouring potential eggs; but here the period at which the sacrifice of one egg to another takes place is somewhat late.
The goddess sometimes appears with doves, as uranic, at others with snakes, as chthonic. In the ritual fetishes, often of miniature form, played a great part: all sorts of plants and animals were sacred: sacrifice (not burnt, and human very doubtful), dedication of all sorts of offerings and simulacra, invocation, &c., were practised.
It is also known as Sidra' d'neshmatha, " Book of Souls," and besides hymns and doctrinal discourses contains prayers to be offered by the priests at sacrifice and at meals, as well as other liturgical matter.
At the consecration of a church the sacrifice of a dove (the bird of Ishtar) has place among the ceremonies.
Many of the excellencies of L'Herminier's method could not be pointed out without too great a sacrifice of space, because of the details into which.
Calchas announced that the wrath of the goddess could only be appeased by the sacrifice of Iphigeneia.
Her wrath at the sacrifice of Iphigeneia, and her jealousy of Cassandra, are said to have been the motives of her crime.
The assignment of genii to buildings and gates is connected with an important class of sacrifices; in order to provide a tutelary spirit, or to appease chthonic deities, it was often the custom to sacrifice a human being or an animal at the foundation of a building; sometimes we find a similar guardian provided for the frontier of a country or of a tribe.
His theological views have a considerable similarity to those of Frederick Denison Maurice, who acknowledges having been indebted to him for his first true conception of the meaning of Christ's sacrifice.
Diodorus informs us that a sacrifice acceptable to the gods must be attended by a Druid, for they are the intermediaries.
The courage of the Romans, however, soon overcame such fears; the Britons were put to flight; and the groves of Mona, the scene of many a sacrifice and bloody rite, were cut down.
These were hard-headed men of affairs - men who would not lightly embark on joyous ventures, or seek for an ideal San Grail; nor were the popes, doomed to the Babylonian captivity for seventy long years at Avignon, able to call down the spark from on high which should consume all earthly ambitions in one great act of sacrifice.
Agamemnon had offended Artemis, who prevented the Greek fleet from sailing for Troy, and, according to the soothsayer Calchas, could be appeased only by the sacrifice of Agamemnon's daughter.
According to some accounts the sacrifice was completed, according to others Artemis carried away the maiden to be her priestess in the Tauric Chersonese [[[Crimea]]] and substituted for her a hind.
In this new country it was her duty to sacrifice to the goddess all strangers; and as her brother Orestes came to search for her and to carry off to Attica the image of the goddess, she was about to sacrifice him, when a happy recognition took place.
According to other versions of the legend, when saved from sacrifice Iphigeneia was transported to the island of Leuke, where she was wedded to Achilles under the name of Orsilochia (Antoninus Liberalis 27); or she was transformed by Artemis into the goddess Hecate (Pausanias _i.
In ancient vase paintings she is frequently met with; and the picture by Timanthes representing Agamemnon hiding his face at her sacrifice was one of the famous works of antiquity (Pliny, Nat.
He rejected the notion that the sacrament of the altar was a constantly renewed sacrifice, and held it to be merely a commemoration of the one sacrifice of Christ.
The mention of persons who do not sacrifice or take oaths (ix.
Human sacrifice (Jer.
This contained four treatises on the Eucharist, the sacrifice of the Mass, the erection of the patriarchate of Constantinople (in Latin), and the sacrament of the Eucharist (in French).
The second, or " Greater Festival," is called by the Turks Qurban Bairain, Sacrifice Bairam," and by Arabic speakers Al-'id al-kabir, " Greater Festival," or I d al-a4ci, "Festival of Sacrifice."
Similarly throughout the Moslem world, all who can afford it sacrifice at this time a legal animal, and either consume the flesh themselves or give it to the poor.
And several, especially in France and Germany, made the great sacrifice which summarily closed lives and extinguished brains of great value to science.
It is possible that he offered sacrifice to Yahweh in Jerusalem.
In the Pergamene kingdom at any rate, though the living king was worshipped with sacrifice, the title Oe6 was only given to those who were dead (Cardinali, Regno di Pergamo, p. 153).
The pagans had statues of deities and places of sacrifice.
This was no doubt a place of religious sacrifice in heathen times.
The course of inexorable law cannot be turned aside by any sacrifice or offering, nor yet even by the free grace of God.
The most common are the history of Jonah as a type of the Resurrection, the Fall, Noah receiving the dove with the olive branch, Abraham's sacrifice of Isaac, Moses taking off his shoes, David with the sling, Daniel in the lions' den, and the Three Children in the fiery furnace.
(4) Abraham's sacrifice.
But before the sacrifice the shade of Nephele appeared to Phrixus, bringing a ram with a golden fleece on which he and his sister Helle endeavoured to escape over the sea.
Napoleon, however, failed to allow for the psychology of his opponents, who, utterly indifferent to the sacrifice of life, refused to be drawn into engagements to support an advance or to extricate a rearguard, and steadily withdrew from every position when the French gained touch with them.
In memory of this the Israelites were for all time to eat unleavened bread (matzoth) for seven days, as well as keep the sacrifice of the Passover on the eve between the fourteenth and the fifteenth of Nisan.
Those who were unable to perform the sacrifice of the Passover owing to impurity at the appointed time, were permitted to do so a month later.
First-born sons to be redeemed; none to appear before the Lord empty; six days' work, seventh day rest, in the harvest; the sacrifice of the Passover shall not remain until the morning.
In later days when the children shall ask what this means it shall be said that this is the sacrifice of the Lord's Passover.
The sacrifice of the Passover of the flock and the herd shall be done in the place where God shall cause His name to dwell.
Flesh shall not remain until the morning; the sacrifice must not be within their gates but in the place where the Lord shall cause His name to dwell.
In the Deuteronomist the Passover sacrifice can be from either flock or herd, whereas in the Holiness Code only lamb is mentioned, and in the Priestly Code either kid or lamb.
Reverting to the origin and the meaning of the feast, modern criticism draws attention to the different nature of the two observances combined with the name Passover, the pastoral sacrifice of the paschal lamb and the agricultural observance of a seven days' abstention from unleavened bread.
As before remarked, there seems no direct connexion between the paschal sacrifice and what appears to be essentially an agricultural festival; the Hebrew tradition, to some extent, dissociates them by making the sacrifice on the 14th of Nisan and beginning the Feast of Unleavened Bread on the 15th.
The suggestion has been made by Wellhausen and Robertson Smith that the Passover was, in its original form, connected with the sacrifice of the firstlings, and the latter points to the Arabic annual sacrifices called Atair, which some of the lexicographers interpret as firstlings.
But the real Arabic sacrifice of firstlings was called Fara`; it might be sacrificed at any time, as was also the case with the Hebrews (Exod.
As regards the Feast of Unleavened Bread, now indissolubly connected with the paschal sacrifice, no satisfactory explanation has been given either of its original intention or of its connexion with the Passover.
There was also associated in the Hebrew mind a connexion of impurity and corruption with the notion of leaven which was tabu in all sacrifice (Exod.
11) connects the paschal sacrifice with the eating of unleavened bread.
They sacrifice the paschal lamb, which is probably the oldest religious rite that has been continuously kept up. In two important points they differ from later Jewish interpretation.
When the Passover fell upon the sabbath, as occurred during his visit, a difficulty arose about the paschal sacrifice, which might involve work on the sabbath.
In the inscription recording the contracts for its building it is called the Thymele; and this name may give the clue to its purpose; it was probably the idealized architectural representative of a primitive pit of sacrifice, such as may still be seen in the Asclepianum at Athens.
But though by some the benediction has thus been brought into connexion with the supreme means of grace, the sacrifice of the Mass, the blessing does not in itself confer grace and does not act on its recipients ex opere operato.
In 811 Charlemagne founded a church here, perhaps on the site of a Saxon place of sacrifice, and this became a great centre for the evangelization of the north of Europe, missionaries from Hamburg introducing Christianity into Jutland and the Danish islands and even into Sweden and Norway.
of the relation to the sacrifice of the mass.
Of the liturgical vestments not immediately or exclusively associated with the sacrifice of the mass the most conspicuous are the cope and surplice.
dalmatic, tunicle, surplice - are sometimes blessed when used in connexion with the sacrifice of the mass, but there is no definite rule on the subject.
In this he criticizes the bishops' Report in a sympathetic spirit, but points out how intimately the symbolism of the vestments had become associated with the doctrine of the Sacrifice of the Mass, and how logical was the action of the Reformers in rejecting certain of these vestments.
TAUROBOLIUM, the sacrifice of a bull, usually in connexion with the worship of the Great Mother of the Gods, though not limited to it.
At Athens she presided over the phratries or clans, and was known as airarovpia and 4paTpia, and sacrifice was offered to her at the festival Apaturia.
the use of the subjunctive, without any conjunction, to express purpose, a clause prescribing a sacrifice to Ceres being followed immediately by pacr si ut propitia sit).
By the terms of the peace of Utrecht (1713) the fortifications were demolished and its harbour filled up, a sacrifice demanded by England owing to the damage inflicted on her shipping by Jean Bart and other corsairs of the port.
The scorpion, attacking the genitals of the bull, is sent by Ahriman from the lower world to defeat the purpose of the sacrifice; the dog, springing towards the wound in the bull's side, was venerated by the Persians as the companion of Mithras; the serpent is the symbol of the earth being made fertile by drinking the blood of the sacrificial bull; the raven, towards which Mithras turns his face as if for direction, is the herald of the Sun-god, whose bust is near by, and who has ordered the sacrifice; various plants near the bull, and heads of wheat springing from his tail, symbolize the result of the sacrifice; the cypress is perhaps the tree of immortality.
From its duration and frequent battles and sieges this war involved an immense sacrifice of life to Brazil, the army in the field having been constantly maintained at between 20,000 and 30,000 men, and the expenditure in maintaining it was very great, having been calculated at upwards of fifty millions sterling.
He knew very well that the theologians of his church almost without exception held that the handing over of the paten and chalice with the words, " Receive power of offering sacrifice," &c., were the essential matter and form of ordination to the priesthood; indeed he published the decree of Eugenius IV.
We may grant the pope's contention that the Edwardine church had no belief in priests who offered in sacrifice the body and blood of Christ or in bishops capable of ordaining such priests.
But then the liturgy of Serapion, the friend of Athanasius, recently discovered, contains forms for the ordination of priests and bishops which do not say a word about power to sacrifice, much less about power to sacrifice Christ's literal body and blood.
The canons of Hippolytus, which are about 150 years older, and indeed all the oldest forms for celebration, absolutely ignore any such power of sacrifice.
If they speak of sacrifice at all, it is a sacrifice of the gifts brought by the faithful and distributed in the congregation and among the poor, or again they refer to those spiritual sacrifices which a bishop is to offer " day and night."
The Delphic oracle bade them sacrifice a virgin of the house of Aepytus.
He foretold the duration of the siege of Troy, and, when the fleet was detained by adverse winds at Aulis, he explained the cause and demanded the sacrifice of Iphigeneia.
In front of the bestpreserved obelisk is a raised altar with holes sunk in it apparently to receive the blood of the sacrifice to the ancestors.
Upon the top is set up a sword which is the image of Ares; to this they sacrifice captives, pouring their blood over it.
Whether he subsequently regarded the victory of the monarchy and its corollary, the admittance of the middle classes to all offices and dignities, as a satisfactory equivalent for his original demands; or whether he was so overcome by royal favour as to sacrifice cheerfully the political liberties of his country, can only be a matter for conjecture.
xl., we have the striking assertion, which surely did not originate in the Temple, that God has no delight in sacrifice and offerings.
They allegorized the Eucharist and explained away the bread and wine of which Jesus said to His apostles, "Take, eat and drink," as mere words of Christ, and denied that we ought to offer bread and wine as a sacrifice.
According to Gregory Magistros the Thonraki would say: "We are no worshippers of matter, but of God; we reckon the cross and the church and the priestly robes and the sacrifice of mass all for nothing, and only lay stress on the inner sense."
So then let them not offer the sacrifice of bread in churches.
The word would thus mean the object either of religious invocation or of religious worship by sacrifice.
The sick person, or his representative, after ablution, prayer and sacrifice, was made to sleep on the hide of the sacrificed animal, or at the feet of the statue of the god, while sacred rites were performed.
The cardinal line of the poem, "Tantum religio potuit suadere malorum," is elicited from him as his protest against the sacrifice of Iphigenia by her father.
Maimonides, in his More Nevochim, states that the use of intense in the worship of the Jews originated as a corrective of the disagreeable odours arising from the slaughter and burning of the animals offered in sacrifice.
sacrifice a considerable proportion of the mineral, which is left for the support of the overlying strata.
A similar sacrifice in the shape of pillars is often necessary to support the surface, either to avoid injury to valuable structures or to prevent a flooding of the mine.
In practice, however, it is not found that the presence either of a decidedly greenish-yellow colour or of numerous small bubbles interferes at all seriously with the successful use of the lenses for the majority of purposes, so that it is preferable to sacrifice the perfection of the glass in order to secure valuable optical properties.
Owing to the sacrifice of form to prismatic brilliance, cut-glass gradually lost its artistic value.
The subjects depicted are processions of figures, human and divine (Yasili Kaya, Euyuk, Giaur Kalessi); scenes of sacrifice or adoration, or other cult-practice (Yasili Kaya, Euyuk, Fraktin, Ivriz, and perhaps the figures seated beside tables at Marash Sakchegeuzu, Sinjerli, &c.); of the chase (Arslan Tepe, Sakchegeuzu); but not, as known at present, of battle.
The Levitical code exacted of the offender reparation for the damage with the addition of one-fifth of the amount, and an expiatory sacrifice (Lev.
Early meanings of the root gild or geld were expiation, penalty, sacrifice or worship, feast or banquet, and contribution or payment; it is difficult to determine which is the earliest meaning, and we are not certain whether the gildsmen were originally those who contributed to a common fund or those who worshipped or feasted together.
and the Oxyrhynchus Saying, " except ye fast from the world "); and next, as a counsel of perfection, a fast to yield somewhat for the relief of the widow and orphan, that this extra " service " may be to God for a " sacrifice."
27) after the regular daily sacrifice (in the synagogues a substitute - probably Adonay - was employed); 4 on the Day of Atonement the High Priest uttered the name ten times in his prayers and benediction.
The birthday of Eumenes was regularly kept, and every month sacrifice was offered to him and games held in his honour.
0v63, from Ov&v, to offer a burnt sacrifice, cf.
Yahweh appears to plead with His people for their sins, but the sinners are no longer a careless and oppressive aristocracy buoyed up by deceptive assurances of Yahweh's help, by prophecies of wine and strong drink; they are bowed down by a religion of terror, wearied with attempts to propitiate an angry God by countless offerings, and even by the sacrifice of the first-born.
A few, like Ruskin, were doubtful about "that increased quietness of style"; one or two already suspected that the "sweetness" was obtained at some sacrifice of force, and that the "purity" involved a concession to Victorian conventionality.
This capacity, coupled with readiness to sacrifice life at any moment on the altar of country, fief or honor, made a remarkably heroic character.
Whatever may be said of the upper class, it is probably true that the average Japanese will not sacrifice expediency on the altar of truth.
Tradition credits him with an especial genius for the delineation of animals and landscape, and commemorates his skill by a curious anecdote of a painted horse which left its frame to ravage the fields, and was reduced to pictorial stability only by the sacrifice of its eyes.
It is believed that after death the soul remains in a place of darkness till the third day, when the first sacrifice for the dead is offered; prayers are read in the synagogue for the repose of the departed, and for seven days a formal lament takes place every morning in his house.
Nestorius held the two natures so far apart as to appear to sacrifice the unity of the person of Christ.
While he sometimes disregarded the wishes of others, no one was more ready to sacrifice his own feelings for the attainment of the master aim of his life, the restoration of the "Balance of Power," by the overthrow of the predominance of France.
On this spot was the oracle of Trophonius in an underground cave; those who wished to consult it first offered the sacrifice of a ram and called upon the name of Agamedes.
There remains, however, a letter from the king, in which Philip tells his old favourite, with frivolous ferocity, that it might be necessary to sacrifice his life in order to avert unpopularity from the royal house.
All this was done according to certain ancient and rigidly prescribed forms and after the performance of special religious rites, in which the consecration of the pickaxe and the sacrifice of sugar formed a prominent part.
Accordingly recourse is had, tinder the direction of the Sibylline books, to new forms of appeal for the divine help, the general vowing of the ver sacrum and the elaborate Greek lectisternium after Trasimene in 217 B.C., and the human sacrifice in the forum after Cannae in the following year.
Johanan solaced his disciples on the fall of the Temple by the double thought that charity could replace sacrifice, and that a life devoted to the religious law could form a fitting continuation of the old theocratic state.
The Religions of the World (1847); Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy (at first an article in the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, 1848); The Church a Family (1850); The Old Testament (1851); Theological Essays (1853); The Prophets and Kings of the Old Testament (1853); Lectures on Ecclesiastical History (1854); The Doctrine of Sacrifice (1854); The Patriarchs and Lawgivers of the Old Testament (1855); The Epistles of St John (1857); The Commandments as Instruments of National Reformation (1866); On the Gospel of St Luke (1868); The Conscience: Lectures on Casuistry (1868); The Lord', Prayer, a Manual (1870).
Proceeding to obey, he was prevented by an angel as he was about to sacrifice his son, and slew a ram which he found on the spot.
Its proper meaning is "sacrifice," and thus the word hunsl appears in Ulfilas' Gothic version of Matt.
13, "I will have mercy and not sacrifice."
The fifteenth article, treating of the Lord's Supper, defines the ground common to both parties even in this debateable region, recognizing the necessity of participation in both kinds, and rejecting the sacrifice of the Mass.
On their left, however, no fresh troops were as yet available, and on being informed, about 2.30 p.m., that French cavalry seemed to be about to charge the exhausted 6th division, Alvensleben ordered Bredow's cavalry brigade to charge, and if necessary to sacrifice itself, to save the infantry.
The individuality of great authors is thus dissipated except when it has been preserved by an occasional sacrifice of the arrangement - and this defect, if it is to be esteemed a defect, is increased by the very sparing references to personal history and character with which Hallam was obliged to content himself.
His father having neglected to sacrifice to Artemis, she sent a wild boar to ravage the laud, which was eventually slain by Meleager.
2 The narrative (which must be judged with due regard to the conditions of the age) shows that the sacrifice of the first-born, though not inconsistent with Yahweh's claims (Ex.
This is the teacher of Asia,"they shouted," this is the father of the Christians: this is the destroyer of our gods: this is the man who has taught so many no longer to sacrifice and no longer to pray to the gods."13 And after the execution they refused to deliver up his bones to the Christians for burial on the ground that" the Christians would now forsake the Crucified and worship Polycarp."14 Polycarp was indeed, as Polycrates says," "one of the great luminaries" (peyitXa 6Tocxeia) of the time.
The Druids claimed the dread power of excluding offenders from sacrifice (Caes.
These agreed in repudiating certain of the doctrines, rites and practices of the medieval Church, especially the sacrifice of the Mass and the headship of the bishop of Rome, and, whatever their official designations, came generally to be known as " Protestant."
This made it clear that the communion was no longer to be regarded as a propitiatory sacrifice, the names " Holy Communion " and " Lord's Supper " being definitively substituted for " Mass " (q.v.), while the word " altar " was replaced by " table."
The unmistakable rejection on the part of the English Church of the conception of the eucharist as a sacrifice had alone many widereaching implications.
According to Herodotus he was killed by his brother Saulius while he was performing sacrifice to the goddess Cybele.
Great Britain could not afford to stand aside and watch the accomplishment of an ambition to prevent which she had, at immense sacrifice of blood and treasure, overthrown the power of Louis XIV.
Adoration is permitted, and the use of the terms "sacrifice" and "altar" maintained as being consonant with scripture and antiquity.
"By the same rules that the Passover was, by the same may ours be termed a sacrifice.
In rigour of speech, neither of them; for to speak after the exact manner of divinity, there is but one only sacrifice, veri nominis, that is Christ's death.
And that sacrifice but once actually t performed at His death, but ever before represented in figure, from the beginning; and ever since repeated in memory to the world's end.
The eucharist is to be celebrated every Lord's Day, and preceded by confession of sins, "that your sacrifice may be pure.
for this is that sacrifice which was spoken of by the Lord, In every place and time to offer unto Me a pure sacrifice.
It was decided that images are forbidden by Scripture and that the mass is not a sacrifice.
In point of doctrine they acknowledged the seven sacraments, but gave them a symbolical meaning; they prayed to the Virgin and saints, and admitted auricular confession, but they denied purgatory and the sacrifice of the mass, and did not observe fasts or festivals.
With the increase of the city the operation grew in importance, and was followed by an official lustruni, or purificatory sacrifice, offered on behalf of the people by the censors or functionaries in charge of the classification.
This sacrifice of local autonomy was in a measure prepared for by an earlier centralizing movement proper to the churches themselves, whereby those in certain areas met in conference or " synod " to formulate a common policy on local problems. Such inter-church meetings cannot be traced back beyond the latter half of the 2nd century, and were purely ad hoc and informal, called to consider specific questions like Montanism and Easter observance.
To afford a home for the centralized activities of the Union, the Memorial Hall, Farringdon Street, London, was built on the site of the Fleet prison - soil consecrated by sacrifice for conscience under Elizabeth - and opened in 1875.
In 1804, having shown his unwillingness to sacrifice his convictions for the purpose of furthering the designs of Napoleon, he was removed from the office of tribune, being at the same time nominated to a lucrative post, which, however, he thought it his duty to resign.
is alone preserved), admitted to the Main Court, in whose centre was the High Altar of Burnt Sacrifice.
The names for altar (midhbaji) and sacrifice (dhibh) are common Semitic words, and the altar of incense has among other names that of miktar, as in Hebrew.
A variety of reasons were leading to a rupture in the harmonious relations between Frederick and Henry, whose increasing power could not escape the emperor's notice, and who showed little inclination to sacrifice his interests in Germany in order to help the imperial cause in Italy.
Angered by this sacrifice of their lands and excited by prophecies of the coming of the Messiah, a considerable number of the Indians went on the warpath, but after a short campaign they were defeated by General Nelson A.
He bestowed the priesthood and a consulship upon his horse Incitatus, and demanded that sacrifice should be offered to himself.
The commonest method of sacrifice was by hanging the victim on a tree; and in the poem Hdvamfil the god himself is represented as sacrificed in this way.
ready to sacrifice a clear injunction of his own conscience to the claims of an alien authority.
7, always "the Molech"), the name or title of the divinity which the men of Judah in the last ages of the kingdom were wont to propitiate by the sacrifice of their own children.
Human sacrifice was common in Semitic heathenism, and at least the idea of such sacrifices was 1 In 2 Chron.
27 that the piacular sacrifice of his son and heir was the last offering which the king of Moab made to deliver his country.
Even the Hebrew historian ascribes to this act the effect of rousing divine indignation against the invading host of Israel; it would not, therefore, be surprising if under the miseries brought on Palestine by the westward march of the Assyrian power, the idea of the sacrifice of one's own son, as the most powerful of atoning rites, should have taken hold of those kings of Judah (Ahaz and Manasseh, 2 Kings xvi.
Ahaz's sacrifice of his son (which indeed rests on a somewhat late authority) was apparently an isolated act of despair, since human sacrifices are not among the corruptions of the popular religion spoken of by Isaiah and Micah.
It is indeed plain that such a sacrifice - for we have here to do, not with human victims in general, but with the sacrifice of the dearest earthly thing - could only be paid to the supreme deity; and Manasseh and his people never ceased to acknowledge Yahweh as the God of Israel..
2, the interpretation "they that sacrifice men" is improbable, and 2 Kings xvii.
the inscription of Mesha), but lacked the distinctive character of a sacrifice in which the victim is the food of the deity, conveyed to him through fire.
On archaeological evidence for human sacrifice from Palestinian soil, see H.
Sacrifice and other rites are also spoken of as conditions of the restoration of man to happy relations with God.
of sacrifice to ritual, venial and involuntary sins,' and requires that the sacrifices should be offered at Jerusalem by the Aaronic priests; but these limitations did not belong to the older religion; and even in later times popular faith ascribed a larger efficacy to sacrifice.
On the other hand, other passages protest against the ascription of great importance to sacrifice; or regard the rite as a consequence rather than a cause of forgiveness.
The Old Testament has no theory of sacrifice; in connexion with sin the sacrifice was popularly regarded as payment of penalty or compensation.
to reconcile his Father to us, and to be a sacrifice, not only for original guilt, but also for all actual sins of men "; and (xxxi.) "
The Westminster Confession declares: " The Lord Jesus Christ, by His perfect obedience and sacrifice of Himself, which He through the Eternal Spirit once offered up to God, bath 12 Mark 45; Matt.
Bushnell, Vicarious Sacrifice (1871); J.
The first Babylonian month Nisan, dedicated to Anu and Bel, was that of " sacrifice "; and its association with the Ram as the chief primitive object of sacrifice is thus intelligible.'
The remaining books relate the exploits of Neoptolemus, Eurypylus and Deiphobus, the deaths of Paris and Oenone, the capture of Troy by means of the wooden horse, the sacrifice of Polyxena at the grave of Achilles, the departure of the Greeks, and their dispersal by the storm.
On the second, Anarrhysis (from &vappuecv, to draw back the victim's head), a sacrifice of oxen was offered at the public cost to Zeus Phratrius and Athena.
On the third day, Cureotis (Koupe&Tls), children born since the last festival were presented by their fathers or guardians to the assembled phratores, and, after an oath had been taken as to their legitimacy and the sacrifice of a goat or a sheep, their names were inscribed in the register.
The mother will defend her young with the utmost desperation against any assailant, and ha s p been known to sacrifice her own life rather than desert them.
This has led to the generally accepted conclusion that the custom of hanging these oscilla represents an older practice of expiating human sacrifice.
Hence the king starting as a magician tends gradually to exchange the practice of magic for the functions of prayer and sacrifice."
AmOng the Babylonians and Assyrians the baru (from bars to see, inspect) was a soothsaying priest who was consulted whenever any important undertaking was proposed, and addressed his inquiries to Samas the sun god (or Adad) as bet biri or lord of the oracle (accompanied by the sacrifice of lambs).
19 sqq., we read " that the masmasu (priest's magician) is to pass forth to the gateway, sacrifice a sheep in the palace portal, and to smear the threshold and posts of the palace gateway right 'and left with the blood of the lamb."
Homer knows special priests who preside over ritual acts in the temples to which they are attached; but his kings also do sacrifice on behalf of their people.
As man approached the gods in sacrifice and prayers, so too the gods declared themselves to men by divers signs and tokens, which it was possible to read by the art of Divination (q.v.).
This power grew with the growing importance of the sacrifice and the complication of its ceremonial.
In the post-Vedic period ` right ' or ` wrong ' simply means the exact performance or the neglect, whether intentional or unintentional - of all the details of a prescribed ritual, the centre of which was the sacrifice.
These acts required no priestly aid; each man slew his own victim and divided the sacrifice in his own circle; the share of the god was the blood which was smeared upon or poured out beside stone (nosb, ghabghab) set up as an altar or perhaps as a symbol of the deity.
It does not appear that any portion of the sacrifice was burned on the altar, or that any part of the victim was the due of the sanctuar y.
(especially as sacrifice in antiquity is a common preliminary to the consultation of an oracle), but the public ritual will still remain closely associated with oracle or divination, and the priest will still be, above all things, a revealer.
15 whether even at Shiloh the priest had anything to do with sacrifice, whether those who burned the fat were the worshippers themselves or some subordinate ministers of the Temple.
as to the priestly dues is certainly ancient, and shows that besides the tribute of first-fruits and the like the priests had a fee in kind for each sacrifice, as we find to have been the case among the Phoenicians according to the sacrificial tablet of Marseilles.
to seq.); indeed the monarchs of Judah, like those of other nations, did sacrifice in person when they chose down to the time of the captivity (I Kings ix.
The first forms the text of the principal argument in the Epistle to the Hebrews, in which the author easily demonstrates the inadequacy of the mediation and atoning rites of the Old Testament, and builds upon this demonstration the doctrine of the effectual high-priesthood of Christ, who, in his sacrifice of himself, truly " led His people to God," not leaving them outside as He entered the heavenly sanctuary, but taking them with Him into spiritual nearness to the throne of grace.
The further development of the notion of Christian priesthood was connected with the view that the Eucharist is a propitiatory sacrifice which only a consecrated priest can perform.
It is sufficient to remark here that the presentation of the sacrifice of the mass came to be viewed as the essential priestly office, so that the Christian presbyter really was a sacerdos in the antique sense.
Protestants, in rejecting the sacrifice of the mass, deny also that there is a Christian priesthood " like the Levitical," and have either dropped the name of " priest" or use it in a quite emasculated sense.
The Paris Conference in July 1920 decided for the partition of the disputed area; and the decision, though it signified no small sacrifice for the Czechoslovaks and caused deep disappointment throughout the country, was accepted loyally in the hope that by this sacrifice the friendship of the Poles would be secured.
In regard to all these, the abolition of protection meant a real sacrifice to domestic industries.
The medieval church had spanned the centuries by supposing that Christ's death was continuous down through the age in the sacrifice of the Mass; Protestant theology had nothing equivalent.
44) relates that one who touched a sacrifice meant to avert divine anger must bathe and wash his clothes in running water before returning to his city and home, and similar scruples in regard to holy objects and persons have been observed among the natives of Polynesia, New Zealand and ancient Egypt.
In view of the fact that Poland was the most defenceless country in Europe, with no natural boundaries, and constantly exposed to attacks from every quarter, it was not unreasonable to expect even this patriotic sacrifice from the privileged classes, who held at least two-thirds of the land by military tenure.
It contemplates the assumption of the vow for a limited period only, and gives particular details as to the atoning ceremonies at the sanctuary by which the vow must be recommenced if broken by accidental defilement, and the closing sacrifice, at which the Nazarite on the expiry of his vow cuts off his hair and burns it on the altar, thus returning to ordinary life.
29-35), shows that the Nethinim were in charge of the rings and hooks connected with the temple service; they sheared the sheep offered for sacrifice in the temple and poured the libations.
The draining of the site and neighbourhood was a costly undertaking, and was only accomplished by the sacrifice of many lives.
In September 1650 he came to an agreement with the commissioners of the United Colonies of New England at Hartford upon the boundary between New Netherland and Connecticut, involving the sacrifice of a large amount of territory, the new boundary crossing Long Island from the west side of Oyster Bay to the Atlantic Ocean, and on the mainland north from a point west of Greenwich Bay, 4 m.
For before he died he told his wife that when he was gone she was not to offer the usual sacrifice to the dead.
According to the oracle, the wrath of Poseidon could only be appeased by the sacrifice of one of the king's daughters.
31-33), its chief temples and statues, its springs, its market-place and gymnasium, its place of sacrifice (lepoOuvcov), the tomb of the hero Aristomenes and the temple of Zeus Ithomatas on the summit of the acropolis with a statue by the famous Argive sculptor Ageladas, originally made for the Messenian helots who had settled at Naupactus at the close of the third Messenian War.
He pushes the claim even further, requiring, besides entire outward submission to command, also the complete identification of the place of God, without reference to his personal wisdom, piety or discretion; that any obedience which falls short of making the superior's will one's own, in inward affection as well as in outward effect, is lax aect; that going beyond the letter of command, even in things abstractly good and praiseworthy, is disobedience, and that the "sacrifice of the intellect" is the third and highest grade of obedience, well pleasing to God, when the inferior not only wills what the superior wills, but thinks what he thinks, submitting his judgment, so far as it is possible for the will to influence and lead the judgment.
them, teaching men to follow his austere and virtuous life, to hate all violence and war, to sacrifice no men or beasts on the altars, but to give mild offerings of bread and flowers and perfumes, and to do penance by the votaries drawing blood with thorns from their own bodies.
Coxcoxtli used the help of the Aztecs against the Xochimilco people; but his own nation, horrified at their bloodthirsty sacrifice of prisoners, drove them out to the islands and swamps of the great salt lagoon, where they are said to have taken to making their chinampas or floating gardens of mud heaped on rafts of reeds and brush, which in later times were so remarkable a feature of Mexico.
Prisoners of war were mostly doomed to sacrifice, but other classes of slaves were mildly treated, retaining civil rights, and their children were born free.
On the paved platform were three-storey tower temples in whose ground-floor stood the stone images and altars, and before that of the war-god the green stone of sacrifice, humped so as to bend upward the body of the victim that the priest might more easily slash open the breast with his obsidian knife, tear out the heart and hold it up before the god, while the captor and his friends were waiting below for the carcase to be tumbled down the steps for them to carry home to be cooked for the feast of victory.
The rites performed were such as are found elsewhere - prayer, sacrifice, processions, dances, Brasseur de Bourbourg.
As to sacrifice, maize and other vegetables were offered, and occasionally rabbits, quails, &c., but, in the absence of cattle, human sacrifice was the chief rite, and cannibalism prevailed at the feasts.
It had been protected under the native kings by a system of dikes, which were added to under the earlier viceroys, but serious inundations in 1553 and 1580 flooded the city, and the latter suggested the relief of the highest lake, that of Zumpango, by a tunnel carrying its chief affluent into a tributary of the Panuco, and so to the Atlantic. This, however, was not then undertaken, and when mooted again in 1603 was opposed as certain to involve a heavy sacrifice of Indian life.
Its fame was due to the tradition that it was the starting-place of the Greek fleet before the Trojan War, the scene of the sacrifice of Iphigenia.
It is probable that the first of these forms is the primary one and the second in most cases a development from it due to (i.) the influence of other individual cults, (ii.) anthropomorphic tendencies, (iii.) the influence of chieftainship, hereditary and otherwise, (iv.) annual sacrifice of the sacred animal and mystical ideas connected therewith, (v.) syncretism, due either to unity of function or to a philosophic unification, (vi.) the desire to do honour to the species in the person of one of its members, and possibly other less easily traceable causes.
The simple offering of food or shedding of blood at the grave develops into an elaborate system of sacrifice; even where ancestor-worship is not found, the desire to provide the dead with comforts in the future life may lead to the sacrifice of wives, slaves, animals, &c., to the breaking or burning of objects at the grave or to the provision of the ferryman's toll, a coin put in the mouth of the corpse to pay the travelling expenses of the soul.
This stage of religion is well illustrated by the Red Indian custom of offering sacrifice to certain rocks, or whirlpools, or to the indwelling spirits connected with them; the rite is only performed in the neighbourhood of the object, it is an incident of a canoe or other voyage, and is not intended to secure any benefits beyond a safe passage past the object in question; the spirit to be propitiated has a purely local sphere of influence, and powers of a very limited nature.
It was not until the 11th century, when the cope (q.v.) had become established as a liturgical vestment, that the chasuble began to be reserved as special to the sacrifice of the Mass.
by 750, in the south-eastern part of the town; within it was a square tower or fort; a portico of entrance and an avenue of rows of sphinxes was added in Ptolemaic times, as is shown by the foundation deposits found at the corners of the portico; these consisted of models of the tools and materials used in the buildings, models of instruments for sacrifice or ceremonies, and cartouches of King Ptolemy Philadelphus.
The Cycle of Spring (1917), Sacrifice (1917), and other plays; the novels, The Home and the World (1919), The Wreck (1921); as well as a volume of letters, Glimpses of Bengal (1921), and the short stories Hungry Stones German East Africa Tanganyika Territory) Scale.]: 7.500,000 0 50 100, 50 Boundary 19141Le r ial921 Railways - - - Roads - - - - - (1916) and Mashi (1918); and republished lectures, Sadhana, or the Realization of Life (1913), Nationalism (1917), Personality (1917).
Kocvcovia), the fellowship between believers and union with Christ; Lord's Supper, so called from the manner of its institution; Sacrament as a consecration of material elements; the Mystery (in Eastern churches) because only the initiated participated; the Sacrifice as a rehearsal of Christ's passion.
In Matthew and Mark, Jesus says of the bread " Take ye it, this is my body," omitting the idea of sacrifice imported by Paul's addition " which is for you "; but in them Jesus enunciates the same idea when he says of the cup: " This is my blood of the covenant which is poured out for many," Mathew adding " for the remission of sins," a phrase which savours of Heb.
r, we learn that the Eucharist was on Sunday: - " Now when ye are assembled together on the Lord's day of the Lord, break bread and give thanks, having first confessed your transgressions, so that your sacrifice may be pure."
The bread and wine are indeed an offering to God of what is his own, pure because offered in purity of heart; but they are not interpreted of the sacrifice of Jesus' body broken on the cross, or of his blood shed for the remission of sin.
Out of these they provide the Suppers held every Lord's day, offering them as " a pure sacrifice."
Before the 3rd century we cannot trace the view that in the Eucharistic rite the death of Christ, regarded from the Pauline standpoint as an atoning or redemptive sacrifice for the sins of mankind, is renewed and repeated, though the germ out of which it would surely grow is already present in the words " My blood.
facite, could to pagan ears mean " this do ye sacrifice."
In the first two centuries the rite is spoken of as an offering and as a bloodless sacrifice; but it is God's own creations, the bread and wine, alms and first-fruits, which, offered with a pure conscience, he receives as from friends, and bestows in turn on the poor; it is the praise and prayers which are the sacrifice.
In Cyprian of Carthage (c. 250) we first find the Eucharist regarded as a sacrifice of Christ's body and blood offered by the priest for the sins of the living and dead.
As Jesus our high priest offered himself as a sacrifice to his Father, so the human priest takes Christ's place, and imitates his action by offering in church a true and full sacrifice to God the Father (Ep. 63).
He speaks of the dominical host (hostia), and takes the verb to do in Paul's letter in the sense of to sacrifice.
As early as Tertullian prayers for the dead, who were named, were offered in the rite; but there was as yet no idea of the sacrifice of Christ being reiterated in their behalf.
In the East we do not hear of the sacrifice of the body and blood before Eusebius, about the year 300.
17, ad Heb.), after writing " We offer (rocoup€v) not another sacrifice, but the same," instantly corrects himself and adds: " or rather we perform a commemoration of the sacrifice."
It was, save where animal sacrifices survived, the Christian sacrifice, par excellence, the counterpart for the converted of the sacrificial communions of paganism; and though charged with higher significance than these, it yet reposed on a like background of religious usage and beliefs.
He entreats " the Lord of Powers to fill this sacrifice with his Power and Participation," and calls the elements a " living sacrifice, a bloodless offering."
It has been justly remarked of the Pauline view, that- " The union with the Lord Himself, to which those who partake of the Lord's Supper have, is compared with the union which those who partake of a sacrifice have with the deity to whom the altar is devoted - in the case of the Israelites with God, of the heathen with demons.
This idea that to partake of sacrifice is to devote oneself to the deity, lies at the root of the ancient idea of worship, whether Jewish or heathen; and St Paul uses it as being readily understood.
And in Greek Panegureis or festivals the sacrificial wine had to be dispensed from one common bowl: " Unto a common cup they come together, and from it pour libations as well as sacrifice," says Aristides Rhetor in his Isthmica in Neptunum, p. 45.
This reconstruction of its meaning seems to have been the peculiar revelation of the Lord to Paul, who viewed Christ's crucifixion and death as an atoning sacrifice, liberating by its grace mankind from bonds of sin which the law, far from snapping, only made more sensible and grievous.
Now in this second month of spring, in reverent observance of the old statutes, with victims, silks, spirits, and fruits, I offer sacrifice to thee.
To them, under the name of Lares, it was the solemn preoccupation of male descendants to offer food and sacrifice and to keep alight the hearth fire which cooked the offerings.
If he marries, it is to have children who may celebrate them after his death; if he has no children, he lies under the strongest obligation to adopt them from another family, ` with a view,' writes the Hindu doctor, ` to the funeral cake, the water and the solemn sacrifice.'" "May there be born in our lineage," so the Indian Manes are supposed to say, "a man to offer to us, on the thirteenth day of the moon, rice boiled in milk, honey and ghee."
The sacrifice of foreign prisoners before a god, a regular scene on temple walls, is perhaps only symbolical, at any rate for the later days of Egyptian history, but foreign intruders must often have suffered rude treatment at the hands of the Egyptians, in spite of the generally mild character of the latter.
But this advantage is only procured by the sacrifice of some accuracy; for notwithstanding the cumbersome apparatus employed, the conditions of the problem are not always exactly satisfied, nor is it possible that they can be always satisfied by any similar method of proceeding.
Once a year every fire was extinguished on the island for nine days, during which period sacrifice was offered to the gods of the underworld and the dead.
Like his brother Mahommed (1104-1118), who successfully rebelled against him, his most dangerous enemies were the Ismailites, who had succeeded in taking the fortress of Alamut (north of Kazvin) and become a formidable political power by the organization of bands of fedais, who were always ready, even at the sacrifice of their own lives, to murder any one whom they were commanded to slay.
This seems to have involved a human sacrifice, and a feast in which the man who received the portion of a human victim was changed to a wolf, as Lycaon had been after sacrificing a child.
Other paintings with which the name of the gallery is generally associated are Correggio's "La Notte" and "Mary Magdalene"; Titian's "Tribute Money" and "Venus"; "The Adoration" and "The Marriage in Cana," by Paul Veronese; Andrea del Sarto's "Abraham's Sacrifice"; Rembrandt's "Portrait of Himself with his Wife sitting on his Knee"; "The Judgment of Paris" and "The Boar Hunt," by Rubens; Van Dyck's "Charles I., his Queen, and their Children."
The moral results of this sanguinary fighting were, however, important and perhaps justified the sacrifice of so many valuable soldiers.
Even so, Peter, by the peace of the Pruth, had to sacrifice all that he had gained by the Azov expedition fifteen years previously.
Invocation of a name, with sacrifice and anointing, consecrated the Semitic massebas or nosbs, - erect pillars of stone 1 From A.
The narrative in Genesis which tells us that "the Lord had respect unto Abel and to his offering, but unto Cain and to his offering he had not respect," is supplemented by the statement of the New Testament, that "by faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain" (Heb.
The religion of Israel from this time of the captivity ceased to be a merely national religion connected with particular forms of sacrifice in a particular land.
50) spoke of the precious blood of the martyrs, they were thinking of the act of faith which the martyrs had accomplished by the sacrifice of their life.
Hence his philosophy, like the Hegelian, continually torments one with the difficulty that its sacrifice of the distinct being of xvili.
8 a all individual substances to the universality of God entails the sacrifice of the individual personality of men.
In the sacrifice of Jesus these are reconciled.
These theories have to do with the being to whom the ransom is paid or the sacrifice offered.