There was something sacred about his trust in her.
I consider it a sacred duty to fulfill that person's wishes.
A special guard of fifty soldiers was appointed to protect the sacred standard.
Please be respectful while the sacred music is playing.
They were elected by the people, and ordained or set apart for their sacred work by the Apostles.
The council wants to develop more housing outside town, but that is sacred land, according to an aborigine at the town meeting.
The church was a hallowed place because of the sacred artifacts.
If once we begin judging and arguing about everything, nothing sacred will be left!
They of course regard the cow as equally sacred.
the sacred lots, Urim and Thuminim.
Consequently his theology is cosmological speculation and ethical reflection based on the sacred Scriptures.
Moreover the Dorian population of Delphi constantly strove to establish its independence and about 590 B.C. induced a coalition of Greek states to proclaim a "Sacred War" and free the oracle from Phocian supervision.
A kindly old pedant, Fulcher interlards his history with much discourse on geography, zoology and sacred history.
They laboured carefully in copying books, being instant continually in sacred study and devout meditation.
It has already been noticed how military reconnaissances of the routes to Egypt came to be made; but more important were the guide-books, of which a great number were written to guide the pilgrims from one sacred spot of Bible history to another.
that his Sacred Person was the only Author of them (1649).
Finally, by some process of reasoning not fully recorded, the difficulties were set aside and the book was received into the sacred canon; Jerome (on Eccl.
But Agamemnon had offended the goddess Artemis by slaying a hind sacred to her, and boasting himself a better hunter.
The animals sacred to him were the dog and the vulture.
Another compound, properly of mixed sex, appears in the Aramaean Atargatis (`At[t]ar-`athe), worn down to Derketo, who is specifically associated with sacred pools and fish (Ascalon, Hierapolis-Mabog).
To nomads, Astarte may well have been a sheep-goddess, but this, if her earliest, was not her only type, as is clear from the sacred fish of Atargatis, the doves of Ascalon (and of the Phoenician sanctuary of Eryx), and the gazelle or antelope of the goddess of love (associated also with the Arabian Athtar).
His nephew, Diego, the younger (1586-1660), produced Chauleidos (1628) and other Latin poems, including sacred dramas; a novel, Casamento Perfeito (1630); and shone as a historical critic.
It is held in high veneration by the Sinhalese, and numerous pilgrims ascend to the sacred spot, where a priest resides to receive their offerings and bless them on their departure.
The sacred barks of the divinities preserved in the sanctuary of Karnak were then conveyed in procession by water to Luxor and back again; a representation of the festal scenes is given on the walls of the great colonnade.
The islands derive their name from the sacred images found on them by the early European navigators.
A general insurrection was the result; and the people seceded to the Sacred Mount.
And apparently, he alone knows how to render the grounds no longer sacred.
It is perhaps as much from the impulse which Ernesti gave to sacred and profane criticism in Germany, as from the intrinsic excellence of his own works in either department, that he must derive his reputation as a philologist or theologian.
It is obvious from the tales of Hecuba's transformation and death that she is a form of some goddess to whom dogs were sacred; and the analogy with Scylla is striking.
She didn't understand the significance of the pictures or writing and frowned, wondering how such a simple place was considered sacred.
It was as necessary in the Hebrew religion for the priest to wash his hands after handling the sacred volume as before.
He admits in the sacred writings as in the classics only one acceptation, and that the grammatical, convertible into and the same with the logical and historical.
In sacred literature: Antimuratorius sive confutatio disputationis Muratorianae de rebus liturgicis (1755-1758); Neue theologische Bibliothek, vols.
The 19th day is supposed to have had its sacred nature as the 49th day from the commencement of the preceding month, assuming that to have had 30 days.
They did not dedicate each day in turn to its astrological planet; and it is therefore precarious to assume that the Sabbath was in its origin what it is in the astrological week, the day sacred to Saturn, and that its observance is to be derived from an ancient Hebrew worship of that planet.4 The week, however, is found in various parts of the world in a form that has nothing to do with astrology or the seven planets, and with such a distribution as to make it pretty certain that it had no artificial origin, but suggested itself independently, and for natural reasons, to different races.
The accused jumped into the sacred river, and the innocent swam while the guilty drowned.
The Sacred College having decided to hold the conclave abroad, Crispi assured them of absolute freedom if they remained in Rome, or of protection to the frontier should they migrate, but warned them that, once evacuated, the Vatican would be occupied in the name of the Italian government and be lost to the Church as headquarters of the papacy.
29 cities of former days, there is a succession of small towns along the course of the river - Ramadiya, Feluja, Mussaib, Hillah, Diwanieh, Samawa, el-Khudr (an ancient daphne or sacred grove, 3 I° 11' 58" N., 76° 6' 9" E., the only one anywhere which preserves to this day its ancient charter of the inviolability of all life within its precincts), Nasrieh and Suk-esh-Sheiukh----by means of which the Turkish government controls the river and levies taxes on a small part of the adjacent territory.
Such a sacred meal had always, or almost always, formed part of the rites of sacrifice.
It was not till ten years later, in 1685, that the festival was first celebrated at Paray, and not till after the death of Marguerite, on the 17th of October 1690, that the cult of the Sacred Heart, fostered by the Jesuits and the subject of violent controversies within the church, spread throughout France and Christendom.
iep6s, sacred, and -yXvq 17, carving), the term used by Greek and Latin writers to describe the sacred characters of the ancient Egyptian language in its classical phase.
Out of this grew up in the 3rd or 4th century what is known as the arcani disciplina, or secret discipline of the Church, involving the concealment from the uninitiated and unholy of the more sacred parts of the Christian cult, such as baptism and the eucharist, with their various accompaniments, including the Creed and the Lord's Prayer.
Above all, where, as at Athens, the decision of questions of sacred law fell not to the priests but to the college of i r ynrai, one great source of priestly power was wholly lacking.
There remains, indeed, one other sacred function of great importance in the ancient world in which the Greek priests had a share.
Tickell, S.J., The Life of Blessed Margaret Mary Alacoque, with some account of the devotion to the Sacred Heart (London, 1869); J.
Bali, the ancient language of the kingdom of Magadha, in which the sacred writings of Buddhism were made, was largely instrumental in forming all the languages of Further India, including Siamese - a fact which accounts for the numerous connecting links between the Mon, Burmese and Siamese languages of the present time, though these are of quite separate origin.
In September 1506 he set foot on that sacred soil, and took his D.D.
The sacred tablet on the back wall of the sanctuary is carved in low relief in limestone, and consists of two figures, apparently a priest and his assistant making offerings.
- Of course to address and entreat a fellow-being is a faculty as old as that of speech, and, as soon as it occurred to man to treat sacred powers as fellow-beings, assuredly there was a beginning of prayer.
On this method the sacred writings are regarded as an inexhaustible mine of philosophical and dogmatic wisdom; in reality the exegete reads his own ideas into any passage he chooses.
JOSIAH WILLARD GIBBS (1839-1903), American mathematical physicist, the fourth child and only son of Josiah Willard Gibbs (1790-1861), who was professor of sacred literature in Yale Divinity School from 1824 till his death, was born at New Haven on the 11th of February 1839.
The goddess sometimes appears with doves, as uranic, at others with snakes, as chthonic. In the ritual fetishes, often of miniature form, played a great part: all sorts of plants and animals were sacred: sacrifice (not burnt, and human very doubtful), dedication of all sorts of offerings and simulacra, invocation, &c., were practised.
Dess Beneath A Sacred Tree, With J.H.S]].
AONIA, a district of ancient Boeotia, containing the mountains Helicon and Cithaeron, and thus sacred to the Muses, who are called by Pope the "Aonian maids."
The party set out about the 16th of February 1249, with letters from King Louis and the papal legate, and rich presents, including a chapel-tent, lined with scarlet cloth and embroidered with sacred pictures.
It is not certain that it is quoted in the New Testament, but it appears to be included in Josephus' list of sacred books.
The subjects are taken from the Buddhist sacred books, more especially from the accounts given in them of the life of the Buddha in his last or in his previous births.
Mooney, "The Sacred Formulas of the Cherokees," (7th Rept.
Adorants And Sacred Emblems.
Israelite tradition had ascribed the conquest of Jerusalem, Hebron and other cities of Judah to the Ephraimite Joshua; Judaean tradition, on the other hand, relates the capture of the sacred city from a strange and hostile people (2 Sam.
Judaean tradition dated the sanctity of Jerusalem from the installation of the ark, a sacred movable object which symbolized the presence of Yahweh.
It was at the holy well of Kadesh, in the sacred mounts of Sinai and Horeb, and in the field of Edom that the 1 Cf.
It is his sacred duty and his private interest to beget children and to train them to take his place.
Thus Jason stripped the high-priesthood of its sacred character and did what he could to stamp out Judaism.
Hyrcanus could not entertain the proposal that he should resign the sacred office to which he owed much of his authority.
He conciliated his subjects by his deference to the observances of Judaism, and - the case is probably typical of his policy - he joined in protesting, when Pilate set up a votive shield in the palace of Herod within the sacred city.
At last John of Giscala portioned out the sacred wine and oil, saying that they who fought for the Temple might fearlessly use its stores for their sustenance.
Apart from these bitter provocations - the prohibition of the sign of the covenant and the desecration of the sacred place - the Jews had a leader who was recognized as Messiah by the rabbi Aqiba.
The sistrum consists of a metal frame in the shape of an egg, fastened to a handle, frequently surmounted by a grotesque head or by a figure of the sacred lioness Sekhet.
New to the Sacred College and free from traditional preconceptions, he was admirably fitted to carry out the papal policy under Leo XIII.
Shrines of the Double Axes have been found in the palace of Cnossus itself, at Hagia Triada, and in a small palace at Gournia, and many specimens of the sacred emblem occurred in the Cave Sanctuary of Dicte, the mythical birthplace of the Cretan Zeus.
Complete scenes of worship in which libations are poured before the Sacred Axes are, moreover, given on a fine painted sarcophagus found at Hagia Triada.
The walls of the throne room show frescoes with sacred griffins confronting each other in a Nile landscape, and a small bath chamber - perhaps of ritual use - is attached.
The chest is of limestone coated with stucco, adorned with life-like paintings of offertory scenes in connexion with the sacred Double Axes of Minoan cult.
When at last the question arose of giving the Christian world a new pope, this time sole and uncontested, Pierre d'Ailly defended the right of the cardinals, if not to keep the election entirely in their own hands, at any rate to share in the election, and he brought forward an ingenious system for reconciling the pretensions of the council with the rights of the Sacred College.
Littledale's first journey ended at Peking; his second, in 1894-1895, took him almost within sight of the sacred walls of Lhasa, but he failed to pass inside.
The life of the ancient Aryans, as portrayed in their sacred songs, the Rig Veda, was quasi-nomadic and in many ways democratic, but by the 6th century B.C. settled states had been formed in the Ganges valley.
Geological Survey of India; Max Muller, The Sacred Books of the East (Oxford, 1890-1894); Elisee Reclus, The Earth and its Inhabitants (series, 1890); G.
The severe impartiality of the sacred historian has concealed no feature in this dark picture, - the brutal passion of Amnon, the shameless counsel of the wily Jonadab, the " black scowl " 1 that rested on the face of Absalom through two long years of meditated revenge, the panic of the court when the blow was struck and Amnon was assassinated in the midst of his brethren.
One makes him the son of Mandane, a daughter of Astyages (originally evidently by a god), who is exposed in the mountains by his grandfather on account of an oracle, but suckled by a dog (a sacred animal of the Iranians) and educated by a shepherd; i.e.
And, moreover, the instincts of Jordanes, as a subject of the Eastern Empire, predisposed him to flatter the sacred majesty of Justinian, by whose victorious arms the overthrow of the barbarian kingdom in Italy had been effected.
The author of The Sacred Order and Offices of Episcopacy or Episcopacy Asserted against the Aerians and Acephali New and Old (1642), could scarcely hope to retain his parish, which was not, however, sequestrated until 1644.
The district is watered by five rivers: the Tungabhadra, formed by the junction of two streams, Tunga and Bhadra, the Haggari, Hindri, Chitravati and Pennar, the last considered sacred by the natives.
tall; the Library building which houses the state library (about 80,000 volumes, with many portraits and a valuable collection of old manuscripts), the State Law Library and also the offices of most, of the state officials; the Post-Office and Customs House; the State Penitentiary; the Chamber of Commerce; and, among the religious edifices, the Sacred Heart Cathedral (Roman Catholic), presented to the city by Mr and Mrs Thomas F.
The lake of Avernus, as an entrance to the infernal regions, was sacred to her.
From the head of a dying person Proserpine was supposed to cut a lock of hair which had been kept sacred and unshorn through life.
The lock so cut may have been that which was kept sacred to the gods and unshorn (Etym.
goddesses, and ancient tradition affirmed that the whole island was sacred to them.
The pomegranate was Proserpine's symbol, and the pigeon and cock were sacred to her.
The next night, however, having dreamt that he beheld Firdousi in paradise dressed in the sacred colour, green, and wearing an emerald crown, he reconsidered his determination; and the poet was henceforth held to be perfectly orthodox.
But the spirit of investigation impelled him to devote himself to the highest studies, philosophy and the exegesis of the sacred Scriptures.
(b) Sacred, such as models or actual examples of ritual objects; of these we have also numerous pictorial representations.
1 They speak the languages of the localities in which they are settled (Arabic or Persian), but the language of their sacred books is an Aramaic dialect, which has its closest affinities with that of the Babylonian Talmud, written in a peculiar character suggestive of the old Palmyrene.
For our knowledge of their doctrinal system, however, we still depend chiefly upon the sacred books already mentioned, consisting of fragments of very various antiquity derived from an older literature.8 Of these the largest and most important is the Sidra' rabbd (" Great Book"), known also as Ginza - ("Treasure"), consisting of two unequal parts, of which the larger is called yamina (to the right hand) and the smaller s'znala (to the left hand), because of the manner in which they are bound together.
Primal Life, who is properly speaking the Mandaean god, has the same predicates as the primal spirit, and every prayer, as well as every section of the sacred books, begins by invoking him.
This burlesquing of things universally held sacred, though condemned by serious-minded theologians, conveyed to the child-like popular mind of the middle ages no suggestion of contempt, though when belief in the doctrines and rites of the medieval Church was shaken it became a ready instrument in the hands of those who sought to destroy them.
The position of the sacred stone, and the interpretation of many details shown on the gems and coins, remain uncertain.
He immediately began to complain to Hyde, earl of Clarendon, of the poverty of the see, and based claims for a better benefice on a certain secret service, which he explained on the 20th of January 1661 to be the sole invention of the Eikon Basilike, The Pourtraicture of his sacred Majestic in his Solitudes and Sufferings put forth within a few hours after the execution of Charles I.
They also contributed to sacred literature themselves in the composition of new psalms. Attendance to the ordinary needs of nature was entirely relegated to the hours of darkness.
9), violent and ecstatic exercises, ceremonial acts of bowing and kissing, the preparing of sacred mystic cakes, appear among the offences denounced by the Israelite prophets, and show that the cult of Baal (and Astarte) included the characteristic features of heathen worship which recur in various parts of the Semitic world, although attached to other names.5 By an easy transition the local gods of the streams and springs which fertilized the increase of the fields became identified with 2 Compounds with geographical terms (towns, mountains), e.g.
The sacred cakes of Astarte and old holy wells associated with her cult were later even transferred to the worship of the Virgin (Ency.
The earliest known description of Athens was that of Diodorus, o ireptryris, who lived in the second half of the 4th century B.C. Among his successors were Polemon of Ilium (beginning of 2nd century B.C.),whose great irepco)ynvcs gave a minute account of thevotiveofferings'on the Acropolis and the tombs on the Sacred Way; and Heliodorus (second half of the 2nd century) who wrote fifteen volumes on the monuments of Athens.
Leake, whom Frazer follows, assumed the Pelasgicum to be a fortified space at the western end of the Acropolis; this view necessitates the assumption that the nine gates were built one within the other, but early antiquity furnishes no instance of such a construction; DOrpfeld believes it to have extended from the grotto of Pan to the sacred precinct of Asclepius.
Built over this early precinct, which Dorpfeld identifies with the Dionysium Ev Aiµvais, or Lenaeum, is a basilicashaped building of the Roman period, apparently sacred to Bacchus; in this was found an inscription containing the rules The city of the society of the Iobacchi.
Admitting the identification, we may perhaps conclude that the temple was repaired in order to provide a temporary home for the venerated image and other sacred objects; no traces of a restoration exist, but the walls probably remained standing after the Persian conflagration.
The walls of the city, now built under the direction of Themistocles, embraced a larger area than the previous circuit, with which they seem to have coincided at the Dipylon Gate on the north-west where the Sacred Way to Eleusis was joined by the principal carriage route to the Peiraeus and the roads to the Academy and Colonus.
The Dipylon consists of an outer and an inner gate separated by an oblong courtyard and flanked on either side by towers; the gates were themselves double, being each composed of two apertures intended for the incoming and outgoing traffic. An opening in the city wall a little to the south-west, supposed to have been the Sacred Gate (iep t riAn), was in all probability an outlet for the waters of the Eridanus.
In this sacred enclosure, which lay between the south-eastern corner of the Propylaea and the wall of Cimon, no traces of a temple have been found.
The site of this precinct, in which the sacred olive tree of Athena grew, has been almost certainly fixed by an inscription found in the bastion of Odysseus.
Immediately west of the theatre of Dionysus is the sacred precinct of Asclepius, which was excavated by the Archaeological Society in 1876-1878.
A Doric colonnade with a double row of columns was found to have extended along the base of the Acropolis for a distance of 54 yds.; behind it in a chamber hewn in the rock is the sacred well mentioned by Pausanias.
These are generally crowded with bathers and worshippers, who come to wash away their sins in the sacred river Ganges.
Even if he be an inhabitant of the sacred city he must traverse it once in the year to free himself from the impurities and sins contracted within the holy precincts.
Sherring, The Sacred City of the Hindus (1868).
The Kubbet-esSakhra, or Dome of the Rock, at Jerusalem, is only a shrine erected over the sacred rock, so that the title often ascribed to it as "the mosque of Omar" is misleading.
The Koran, sacred and secular law, logic, poetry, arithmetic, with some medicine and geography, are the chief subjects of study.
Osiris and Isis are closely connected with Syria and the Lebanon in legend; the Ded or sacred pillar of Osiris is doubtless really a representation of a great cedar with its horizontally outspreading branches; 8 another of the sacred Egyptian trees is obviously a cypress; corn and wine are traditionally associated with Osiris, and it is probable that corn and wine were first domesticated in Syria, and came thence with the gods Osiris and Re (the sun god of Heliopolis) into the Delta.
Jameson, Sacred and Legendary Art, 768-770 (1896); A.
She is also designated as Nin-Khar-sag, "Lady of the mountain," which name stands in some relationship to Im-Khar-sag, "storm mountain" - the name of the staged tower or sacred edifice to Bel at Nippur.
In order to dominate the Sacred College more completely he created twelve new cardinals, among them his own son Cesare, then only eighteen years old, and Alessandro Farnese, the brother of Giulia Bella, one of the pope's mistresses, creations which caused much scandal.
A first meridian, separating a leeward from a windward region, passed through Ras Kumhari (Comorin) and was thus nearly identical with the first meridian of the Indian astronomers which passed through the sacred city of Ujjain (Ozere of Ptolemy) or the meridian of Azin of the Arabs.
Accepting the Jewish apocalypses as sacred books of venerable antiquity, they read them eagerly, and transferred their contents bodily to Christianity.
By other decrees the jurisdiction of the court of Rome was much limited, and rules were even made for the election of popes and the constitution of the Sacred College.
It was accepted as an unquestionable fact by every one who undertook to describe the catacombs, that the Christians of Rome, finding in the labyrinthine mazes of the exhausted arenariae, which abounded in the environs of the city, whence the sand used in building had been extracted, a suitable place for the interment of their martyred brethren, where also the sacred rites accompanying the interment might be celebrated without fear of interruption, took possession of them and used them as cemeteries.
Their funerals were as much under the protection of the law, which not only invested the tomb itself with a sacred character, but included in its protection the area in which it stood, and the cella memoriae or chapel connected with it, as those of their heathen fellow-citizens, while the same shield would be thrown over the burial-clubs, which, as we learn from Tertullian 2 Cicero is our authority for the burial of Marius, and for Sulla's being the first member of the Gens Cornelia whose dead body was burnt (De Legg.
So Beauty is by itself described as the Sensuous World, and in this capacity is called the Sacred King or simply the King, whilst Kingdom, the tenth Sephirah, which unites all the nine Sephiroth, is used to denote the Material World, and as such is denominated the Queen or the Matron.
" Just as the Sacred Aged is represented by the number three, so are all the other lights (Sephiroth) of a threefold nature " (Zohar, iii.
Mulk property is governed chiefly by the Sheri (sacred Taw).
The sultan also acquired from him the sacred banner and other relics of the founder of Islam, which have since been preserved in the Seraglio at Constantinople.
The highest dignitaries of the ecclesiastical class were at first the kazaskers, or military judges, of Europe and Asia; later the office of Sheikh-ul-Islam was created as the supreme authority in matters relating to the Church and the sacred law.
Finally, they reached Iolcus, and the "Argo" was placed in a groove sacred to Poseidon on the isthmus of Corinth.
It was therefore decided that with the cardinals each nation should associate six delegates, and that the successful candidate should be required to poll two-thirds of the suffrages, not only in the Sacred College, but also in each of these five groups.
It is still, however, the centre of distribution for a very large, if scantily populated, country, and it also derives much profit from pilgrims, lying as it does on the route which Shiite pilgrims from Persia must take on their way to the sacred cities.
The Hebrew tradition further connects the revelation of the sacred name of the God of the Hebrews with this festival, which thus combines, in itself, all the associations connecting the Hebrews with their God.
He quotes all the books of the Old Testament except Ruth and the Song of Solomon, and amongst the sacred writings of the Old Testament he evidently included the book of Tobit, the Wisdom of Solomon and Ecclesiasticus.
The day of the victory, the 10th of August 1557, was sacred to St Laurence; and accordingly the building was dedicated to that saint, and received the title of El real monasterio de San Lorenzo del Escorial.
Directly under the altar is situated the pantheon or royal mausoleum, a richly decorated octagonal chamber with upwards of twenty niches, occupied by black marble urnas or sarcophagi, kept sacred for the dust of kings or mothers of kings.
below the site of the present city; of the Academy of the Sacred Heart (Roman Catholic, 1860) and of two business colleges.
The Hieron (sacred precinct) of Asclepius, which lies inland about 8 m.
In addition to the sacred precinct, with its temples and other buildings, the theatre and stadium have been cleared; and several other extensive buildings, including baths, gymnasia, and a hospital for invalids, have also been found.
The sacred road from Epidaurus, which is flanked by tombs, approaches the precinct through a gateway or propylaea.
The chief buildings outside the sacred precinct are the theatre and the stadium.
Such is this famous work, full of obscurities, redundancies and contradictions, in which the thread of the argument is sometimes lost in a labyrinth of reasonings and citations, both sacred and profane, but which nevertheless expresses, both in religion and politics, such audacious and novel ideas that it has been possible to trace in it, as it were, a rough sketch of the doctrines developed during the periods of the Reformation and of the French Revolution.
a v, portrait, image), generally any image or portrait-figure, but specially the term applied to the representations in the Eastern Church of sacred personages, whether in painting or sculpture, and particularly to the small metal plaques in archaic Byzantine style, venerated by the adherents of the Greek Church.
Both by Catholics and by Protestants blessings may be applied to things inanimate as well as animate; but while in the reformed Churches this involves no more than an appeal to God for a special blessing, or a solemn "setting apart" of persons or objects for sacred purpoes, in the Catholic idea it implies a special power, conferred by God, of the priests over the invisible forces of evil.
reserved to sacred uses and preserved from the contaminating influence of evil spirits.
(X.) Ark of the Covenant, Ark of the Revelation, Ark of the Testimony, are the full names of the sacred chest of acacia wood overlaid with gold which the Israelites took with them on their journey into Palestine.
The Biblical narratives reveal traces of a considerable development in the traditions regarding this sacred object, and those which furnish the most complete detail are of post-exilic date when the original ark had been lost.
It is of course possible that the ark was originally the sacred shrine of the clans which came direct to Judah, and that the traditions in 1 Sam.
Others have regarded it as an empty portable throne, 2 or as a receptacle for sacred serpents (analogies in Frazer, Pausanias, iv.
The possibility must be conceded that there were several arks in the course of Hebrew history and that separate tribes or groups of tribes had their own sacred object.
Accordingly the conception of the ark must be based in the first instance upon the beliefs of the particular clans or tribes whose sacred object it was.
The taurobolium was probably a sacred drama symbolizing the relations of the Mother and Attis (q.v.).
The epithets i-rriria, XaXtviTts, 5a t ta6t7r7r-os, usually referred to her as goddess of war-horses, may perhaps be reminiscences of an older religion in which the horse was sacred to her.
(r) The ceremony of the Three Sacred Ploughs, by which the signal for seed-time was given, apparently dating from a period when agriculture was one of the chief occupations of her worshippers.
His morality is not yet separated from his religion; and religion for him means the cult of some superior being - the king or priest of his tribe - whose person is charged with a kind of sacred electricity.
Elaborate rules are accordingly drawn up to secure the maximum of benefit, and the minimum of inconvenience, from this sacred fire; and in the application of these rules does savage casuistry consist.
Hence the rise of sacred books among most Eastern peoples.
casuistry found no place, because there were no sacred books.
"I will never," he declared, "allow to come between Almighty God and this country a blotted parchment, to rule us with paragraphs, and to replace the ancient, sacred bond of loyalty."
The word most generally denotes writings which claimed to be, or were by certain sects regarded as, sacred scriptures although excluded from the canonical scriptures.
In due course the Jewish authorities were forced to draw up a canon or book of sacred scriptures, and mark them off from those which claimed to be such without justification.
For writings that stood wholly without the pale of sacred books such as the books of heretics or Samaritans they used the designation Hisonim, Sanh.
In 1546 the council of Trent adopted the canon of Augustine, declaring " He is also to be anathema who does not receive these entire books, with all their parts, as they have been accustomed to be read in the Catholic Church, and are found in the ancient editions of the Latin Vulgate, as sacred and canonical."
As a young and beautiful soldier, he is a favourite subject of sacred art, being most generally represented undraped, and severely though not mortally wounded with arrows.
It was restored to sacred uses in 1887, and has been carefully liberated from later alterations (U.
KO,unros); the comes sacrarum largitionum (count of the sacred bounties) was called at Constantinople b K6pns TWV aaKpt v XapyLTUJP Wv and the comes rerum privatarum 1 The exact significance of a title is difficult to reproduce in a foreign language.
The count of the sacred bounties was the lord treasurer or chancellor of the exchequer, for the public treasury and the imperial fisc had come to be identical; while the count of the private estates managed the imperial demesnes and the privy purse.
In the 5th century the "sacred bounties" corresponded to the aerarium of the early Empire, while the res privatae represented the fisc. The officers connected with the palace and the emperor's person included the count of the wardrobe (comes sacrae vestis), the count of the residence (comes domorum), and, most important of all, the comes domesticorum et sacri stabuli (graecized as Kowis Tou o-Ta,3Xov).
As a god who gave victory, he was prominent in the official cult of Persia, the seventh month and the sixteenth day of other months being sacred to him.
The main room of the ordinary temple was rectangular, with an elevated apsidal arrangement, like a choir, containing the sacred relief on its wall, at the end opposite the entrance, and with continuous benches (podia) of masonry, about 5 ft.
In 1771 he published his Zend-Avesta (3 vols.), containing collections from the sacred writings of the fire-worshippers, a life of Zoroaster, and fragments of works ascribed to him.
The subdeacons, no doubt, became a necessity when the deacons, whose number was limited to seven in memory of their original institution, were no longer equal to their duties in the " regions " of the imperial city, and left their lower work, such as preparation of the sacred vessels, to their subordinates.
The Sacred Congregation, with the pope's approval, declared his orders to be null.
But now the greater boldness of the dialecticians awakened a spirit of general distrust in the exercise of reason on sacred subjects, and we find even a Realist like Gilbert de la Porree arraigned by Bernard and his friends before a general council on a charge of heresy (at Rheims, 1148).
Andrew Farkas and the homilist Peter Melius (Juhasz) attempted didactic verse; and Batizi busied himself with sacred song and Biblical history.
More fluent but not less gloomy are the sacred lyrics of Nyeki-Veres first published in 1636 under the Latin title of Tintinnabulum Tripudiantium.
Of considerable merit are also the sacred lyrical melodies of Paul Radai in his Lelki hodolds (Spiritual Homage), published at Debreczen in 1715.
Thus he is director of the sun's horses; he is guardian of soma, the sacred liquor, and therefore is regarded as the heavenly physician, soma being a panacea.
One result of the introduction of the new conceptions dating from Darwin was a healthy reaction from that attitude of mind which led to the regarding of the classes and orders recognized by authoritative zoologists as sacred institutions which were beyond the criticism of ordinary men.
They were dedicated to solar deities, and were especially numerous at Heliopolis, where there was probably a single one sacred to the sun of immemorial antiquity.
The origin of the obelisk may be sought in sacred upright stones set up in honour of gods and dead, like the menhirs, and the Semitic Massebahs and bethels.
It may be due partly to the natural conformation of the rock and the differences of level, partly to the necessity of enclosing within a single building several objects of ancient sanctity, such as the mark of Poseidon's trident and the spring that arose from it, the sacred olive tree of Athena, and the tomb of Cecrops.
The construction of the building at this southwestern corner shows that there was some sacred object that had to be bridged over by a huge block of marble; this we know from inscriptions to have been the Cecropeum or tomb of Cecrops.
In the north portico a square hole in the floor, with a corresponding hole in the roof above it, must have given access to another sacred object, the mark of Poseidon's trident in the rock.
The sacred olive tree probably stood just outside the temple to the west in the Pandroseion.
In this story the names make sense in Iranian, the tribes are not again mentioned except when this passage is copied, the objects are hardly such as would be held sacred by nomads, the form of ordeal is to be paralleled in Iranian legends, and the people say themselves that they are not really Scythae.
Herodotus mentions the existence of this class, called Enarees, and says that they suffer from a sacred disease owing to the wrath of the goddess of Ascalon whose shrine they had plundered.
So he secured the lives of some free men who had been taken and (by the gift of Titus) certain sacred books.
(1892); Wellhausen, in Sacred Books of the Old Test.
The monstrance was formerly used of a reliquary, exposing the sacred object to view.
a crystal or glass circular disk, more suited to the shape of the sacred wafer; this is mounted in a frame of golden rays, and the whole is supported by a stem and bases.
From the 4th century on are recorded cases of translation of the bodies of saints, and they did not even shrink from dividing the sacred relics.
The Pharaoh's characteristic crown (or crowns) symbolized his royal domains, the sacred uraeus marked his divine ancestry, and he sometimes appeared in the costume of the gods with their fillets adorned with double feathers and horns.
Lucian's De Dea Syria, § 48; for " bees," &c., as titles of sacred attendants, see J.
The sacred lots which gave " judgment " in accordance with the divine oracle (Num.
The sacred spot on the forehead of a Hindu pundit is also partly composed of it.
The drug has naturally always been liable to great adulteration in spite of penalties, the severity of which suggests the surviving tradition of its sacred character.
A fragment of the "sacred marriage" of Zas and Chthonie was found on an Egyptian papyrus at the end of the r9th century.
Upon the fall of his cabinet Antonelli created for himself the governorship of the sacred palaces in order to retain constant access to and influence over the pope.
Grouped around the main sanctuary there arose temples and chapels to the gods and goddesses who formed his court, so that E-Kur became the name for an entire sacred precinct in the city of Nippur.
The name "mountain house" suggests a lofty structure and was perhaps the designation originally of the staged tower at Nippur, built in imitation of a mountain, with the sacred shrine of the god on the top. The tower, however, also had its special designation of "Im-Khar-sag," the elements of which, signifying "storm" and "mountain," confirm the conclusion drawn from other evidence that En-lil was originally a storm-god having his seat on the top of a mountain.
Nippur continued to be a sacred city after it ceased to have any considerable political importance, while in addition the rise of the doctrine of a triad of gods symbolizing the three divisions - heavens, earth and water - assured to Bel, to whom the earth was assigned as his province, his place in the religious system.
123, as an island sacred to Artemis, though the identification with Delos is not certain), though why Corinthians should have worshipped Artemis in preference to any other deity is not clear.
It is extremely probable that Acrae was not founded until after two obvious outposts had already been occupied - a post guarding the road to Acrae itself, and including the sacred enclosure of Apollo, which later, when it became a quarter of the city, acquired the name Temenites; and another post on the road to the north, in the upper part of the region known as Achradina.
The site has been excavated by the Greek Archaeological Society; it contained a temple, a sacred spring, into which coins were thrown by worshippers, altars and porticoes, and a small theatre, of which the proscenium is well preserved.
Worshippers used to consult the oracle of Amphiaraus by sleeping on the skin of a slaughtered ram within the sacred building.
Sick persons repaired, or were conveyed, to the temples of Asclepius in order to be healed, just as in modern times relief is sought by a devotional pilgrimage or from the waters of some sacred spring, and then as now the healing influence was sometimes sought by deputy.
The sick person, or his representative, after ablution, prayer and sacrifice, was made to sleep on the hide of the sacrificed animal, or at the feet of the statue of the god, while sacred rites were performed.
He was educated for a business career, but in his eighteenth year entered the Church, joining the Society of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and Mary (also known as the Picpus Congregation), and taking Damien as his name in religion.
They probably carried the incense in the sacred bag so frequently seen in their hands and in those also of the common priests.
Five times a day the priests of the Persians (Zoroastrians) burnt incense on their sacred fire altars.
The rich land round about the holy city of Pandharpur, sacred to Vithoba the national Mahratta form of (Krishna)- Vishnu, is wholly restricted to the cultivation of the tulsi plant.
After the Restoration a fence was erected on the inside of the great north door to hinder a concourse of rude people, and when the cathedral was being rebuilt Sir Christopher Wren made a strict order against any profanation of the sacred building.
Other lakes are the Paunglin lake in Minbu district, the Inma lake in Prome, the Tu and Duya in Henzada, the Shahkegyi and the Inyegyi in Bassein, the sacred lake at Ye in Tenasserim, and the Nagamauk, Panzernyaung and Walonbyan in Arakan.
The Buddhist law is contained in certain sacred books called Dhammathats.
He was also known as the author of sacred poems. Gottfried Arnold has rightly been classed with the pietistic section of Protestant historians (Bibliotheca Sacra, 1850).
All hesitated save Angad (or own body), who knelt and uncovered the dead, but, behold, the corpse had disappeared, and a dish of sacred food was found in its place.
Macauliffe, The Sikh Religion: Its Gurus, Sacred Writings and Authors (6 vols., 1909), and two lectures before the United Service Institution of India on "The Sikh Religion and its Advantages to the State" and "How the Sikhs became a Militant Race."
Here he composed a large number of motets and sacred pieces, which, being brought under the notice of Pope Urban VIII., obtained for him an appointment in the choir of the Sistine Chapel at Rome.
One of the first acts of Cyrus accordingly was to allow these exiles to return to their own homes, carrying with them the images of their gods and their sacred vessels.
In the vicinity there are a number of sacred caves, among which those of Pandu Lena are the most noteworthy.
- The Principles of Church Polity (1882); The Doctrine of Sacred Scripture (1884); 4What is the Bible?
Latin.) to the appointment of persons to watch over the sacred cloak (cappa or capella) of St Martin of Tours, which was preserved as a relic by the French monarchs.
However this may be, the name capellanus was generally applied to those who were in charge of sacred relics: such officials were also known as custodes, martyrarii, cubicularii.
From the care of sacred relics preserved in royal chapels, &c. (sacella or capellae), the office of capellanus naturally extended its scope until it covered practically that of the modern court chaplain, and was officially recognized by the Church.
The date is late, for the writer speaks of the "venerable and holy images," as well as "the glorious and precious crosses and the sacred things of the churches" (xiv.), which points to the 5th century, when such things were first introduced into churches.
Merawi) at the foot of Jebel Barkal, "the sacred mountain," which in time became formidable, and in the middle of the 8th century conquered Egypt; an Egyptian campaign is recorded in the famous stele of King Pankhi.
SACRILEGE, the violation or profanation of sacred things, a crime of varying scope in different religions.
But wherever the idea of sacred exists, sacrilege is possible..
sacrilegium, which originally meant merely the theft of sacred things, although already in Cicero's time it had grown to include in popular speech any insult or injury to them.
The primitive defence against sacrilege lay directly in the nature of sacred things, those that held a curse for any violation or profanation.
Sacrilegium was narrowly construed as the theft of sacred things from a sacred place.
Sacred things, according to Gaius, were those things that had been definitely consecrated to the gods - and so had come to partake of their holiness.
Sacred places did not include private shrines.
The latter penalty was also attached to theft of sacred things by night, but stealing by day from a temple objects of little value brought only sentence to the mines.
But it was rather that an enlarged application of the idea of sacred made the crime of sacrilege in the sense of violatio sacri a more general one.
The tendency of the later law has been to put the offence of sacrilege in the same position as if the offence had not been committed in a sacred building Thus breaking into a place of worship at night, says Coke, is burglary, for the church is the mansion house of Almighty God.
The Larceny Act of 1861 punishes the breaking into, or out of, a place of divine worship in the same way as burglary, and the theft of things sacred in the same way as larceny.
After being professor of sacred literature in the Bangor Theological Seminary for three years, he was president of Bowdoin College from 1839 to 1866, and introduced there many important reforms. From June 1867 to September 1868 Dr Woods worked in London and Paris for the Maine Historical Society, collecting materials for the early history of Maine; he induced J.
The foundation of Delphi follows immediately on the birth of the god; and on the sacred way between Tempe and Delphi the giant Tityus offers violence to Leto, and is immediately slain by the arrows of Apollo and Artemis (Odyssey, xi.
The honour paid to her in Delphi and Delos might be explained as part of the cult of her son Apollo; but temples to her existed in Argos; in Mantineia and in Xanthus in Lycia; her sacred grove was on the coast of Crete.
The two poems give evidence of genius and trained skill, though the poet was no doubt hampered by the necessity of not deviating too widely from the sacred originals.
That the author of the Heliand was, so to speak, another Ca dmon - an unlearned man who turned into poetry what was read to him from the sacred writings - is impossible, because in many passages the text of the sources is so closely followed that it is clear that the poet wrote with the Latin books before him.
Hard by was a sacred fig-tree, called after him the Navian fig-tree.
The first explorer to enter the sacred Hejaz with a definite scientific object was the Spaniard, Badia y aeblich, who, under the name of Ali Bey and claiming to be the last representative of the Abbasid Caliphs, arrived at Jidda in 1807, and performed the pilgrimage to Mecca.
Some bear figures of the conventionalized sacred tree with worshippers, similar to Babylonian designs.
With the success of Moawiya Damascus became the capital of the caliphate (658) and Arabia became a mere province, though always of importance because of its possession, of the two sacred cities Mecca and Medina.
The two sacred cities supported him.
In Arabia he subjugated Oman, and swooping down on the west in 92 9 he horrified the Moslem world by capturing Mecca and carrying off the sacred black stone to Bahrein.
In 1801 Saud, son of the amir Abdul Aziz, led an expedition to the Euphrates, and on the festival of Bairam, the 10th of April, stormed Kerbela, put the defenders to the sword, destroyed the sacred tomb, scattered the sacred relics and returned laden with the treasures, accumulated during centuries in the sanctuary of the Shia faith.
Moreover, the hierarchy derives a vast revenue from the fees for burials in the sacred limits.
(1188-1200), who made the spot peculiarly sacred by bringing fifty-three shiploads of earth from Mount Calvary.
4) was doubtless a sacred tree, as there the images (which it was not seemly to bring on a pilgrimage to Beth-el) would be safe.
The site of the sacred oak has been sought at two places: one called El-'Amud, " the column" - where is "Joseph's tomb"; and the other at Balata (a name containing the consonants of the Semitic word for "oak"), near Jacob's well.
Close to the mouth of the river was the sacred grove of the Italic goddess Marica.
The revelation of the name to Moses was made at a mountain sacred to Yahweh (the mountain of God) far to the south of Palestine, in a region where the forefathers of the Israelites had never roamed, and in the territory of other tribes; and long after the settlement in Canaan this region continued to be regarded as the abode of Yahweh (Judg.
It is probable that Yahweh was at one time worshipped by various tribes south of Palestine, and that several places in that wide territory (Horeb, Sinai, Kadesh, &c.) were sacred to him; the oldest and most famous of these, the mountain of God, seems to have lain in Arabia, east of the Red Sea.
- xii.) conduct us through sacred and secular history down to the triumph of Christianity under Constantine.
The sacred buildings, mosques, &c., were patched up (except a few which were quite ruinous) and the walls wholly removed, but an unsightly fragment of a palace-tower still remained in 1906.
At Mizpah, after another solemn warning, the sacred lot is taken and falls upon Saul of Benjamin, who, however, is not at first unanimously accepted (x.
The "Chinese sacred lily" or "joss flower" is a form of N.
from Sardis, a little south of the sacred Gygaean Lake, Coloe; here the Maeonian chiefs, sons, according to Homer, of the lake, were brought to sleep beside their mother.
This church also contains a large number of fine sculptured tombs of the 14th and 15th centuries, with noble effigies and reliefs of saints and sacred subjects.
These reliefs represent both sacred subjects and scenes of war and hunting, mixed with grotesque monsters, such as specially delighted the rude, vigorous nature of the Lombards; they are all richly decorative in effect, though strange and unskilful in detail.
Of his teachers, one, the Rev. Charles Wellbeloved, was, Martineau said, " a master of the true Lardner type, candid and catholic, simple and thorough, humanly fond indeed of the counsels of peace, but piously serving every bidding of sacred truth."
He has, indeed, described in graphic terms the greatest of the more superficial changes he underwent; how he had " carried into logical and ethical problems the maxims and postulates of physical knowledge," and had moved within the narrow lines drawn by the philosophical instructions of the class-room " interpreting human phenomena by the analogy of external nature "; how he served in willing captivity " the ` empirical ' and ` necessarian ' mode of thought," even though " shocked " by the dogmatism and acrid humours " of certain distinguished representatives "; 1 and how in a period of " second education " at Berlin, " mainly under the admirable guidance of Professor Trendelenburg," he experienced " a new intellectual birth" which " was essentially the gift of fresh conceptions, the unsealing of hidden openings of self-consciousness, with unmeasured corridors and sacred halls behind; and, once gained, was more or less available throughout the history of philosophy, and lifted the darkness from the pages of Kant and even Hegel."
Channing (q.v.), whom Martineau had called " the inspirer of his youth," Theodore Parker had succeeded, introducing more radical ideas as to religion and a more drastic criticism of sacred history.
Only two other mountains in KishiC need be mentioneda volcano (3~,I3 ft.) on the island Sakura-jima, in the extreme south; and Kirishiina-yama (5538 ft.), on the boundary of Hiuga, a mountain specially sacred in Japanese eyes, because on its eastern peak (Takachiho-dake) the god Ninigi descended as the forerunner of the first Japanese sovereign, Jimmu.
The Japanese regard it as a sacred mountain, and numbers of pilgrims make the ascent in midsummer.
high and has pure white plumage with a red crown, black tail-feathers and black upper neck, It is a sacred bird, and it shares with the tortoise the honor of being an emblem of longevity.
The style was applied only to the representations of sacred personages and scenes, and as the traditional forms and attributes of the Brahmanic and Buddhist divinities were mutable only within narrow limits, the subjects seldom afforded scope for originality of design or observation of nature.
Sacred images were not the only specimens of glyptic art produced in these six centuries; reliquaries, bells, vases, incenseburners, candlesticks, lanterns, decorated arms and armour, and many other objects, showing no less mastery of design and execution, have reached us.
Wylde conjectures that it had become unsuitable for a royal seat by having acquired the status of a sacred city, and thus affording sanctuary to criminals and political offenders within the chief church and a considerable area round it, where there are various houses in which such persons can be lodged and entertained.
Bent's Sacred City of the Ethiopians (London, 1893), and E.
The special duty which he enjoined upon the inmates was the acquisition of knowledge, both sacred and profane, the latter, however, being subordinated to the former.
(b) Institutiones divinarun et humanarum litterarum, an encyclopaedia of sacred and profane literature for the monks, and a sketch of the seven liberal arts.
While he pointed out to the dissenters the scandalous inconsistency of their playing fast and loose with sacred things, yet he denounced the impropriety of requiring tests at all.
Its three roots go down into the three great realms - (I) of death, where, in the well Hvergelmer, the dragon Nidhug (Niandggr) and his brood are ever gnawing it; (2) of the giants, where, in the fountain of Mimer, is the source of wisdom; (3) of the gods, Asgard, where, at the sacred fountain of Urd, is the divine tribunal, and the dwelling of the Fates.
But the tongue of land at Allahabad, where the Jumna and the Ganges join, is the true Prayag, the place of pilgrimage, to which hundreds of thousands of devout Hindus repair to wash away their sins in the sacred river.
By uttering a sacred formula the good spirit throws the evil one into a state of confusion for a second 3000 years, while he produces the archangels and the material creation, including the sun, moon and stars.
He rarely painted sacred subjects.
Besides these pictures of sacred subjects, he made some designs for Dalziel's Bible, which for force of imagination excel the paintings.
In 339, as one of the Athenian deputies (pylagorae) in the Amphictyonic Council, he made a speech which brought about the Sacred War.
to dig up sacred vessels hidden by Moses there (Jos.
In late days the Greeks report that KuvES (dogs) were the sacred animals of Anubis while those of Ophois were Aukoc (wolves).
The domestic dog would be brought into the sacred circle through the increased veneration for animals, and the more pronounced view in later times of Anubis as servant, messenger and custodian of the gods.
The great sources of Greek poetry were no longer regarded, as they were by Lucretius and Virgil, as sacred, untasted springs, to be approached in a spirit of enthusiasm tempered with reverence.
Of these Adams accepts as certainly genuine the 2nd, 6th, 5th, 3rd (7 books), 4th, 7th, 8th, 9th and 12th, and as " pretty confidently acknowledged as genuine, although the evidence in their favour is not so strong," the 1st, Loth and 13th, and, in addition, (14) On Ulcers (IIEpi EXKc v); (15) On Fistulae (IIEpi vu piyywv); (16) On Hemorrhoids (IIEpi aipoppot&e); (17) On the Sacred Disease (IIEpi iepi l s yob o- According to the sceptical and somewhat subjective criticism of Ermerins, the whole collection is to be regarded as spurious except Epidemics, books i.
In the eastern of these was the main entrance by which Pausanias went in along the Sacred Way.
There are several narrow paths and stairs that cut off the zigzags of the Sacred Way.
On the north side of the Sacred Way, close to the main entrance, stood the offering dedicated by the Lacedaemonians after the battle of Aegospotami.
A little farther on, but below the Sacred Way, is another open space, of circular form, which is perhaps the iXcos or sacred threshing-floor on which the drama of the slaying of the Python by Apollo was periodically performed.
After rounding the east end of the terrace wall, the Sacred Way turns northward, leaving the Great Altar, dedicated by the Chians, on the left.
They give no certain information as to the sacred cleft and other matters relating to the oracle.
After chewing the sacred bay and drinking of the spring Cassotis, which was conducted into the temple by artificial channels, she took her seat on the sacred tripod in the inner shrine.
Delphi also contained the "Omphalos," a sacred stone bound with fillets, supposed to mark the centre of the earth.
A raid on Delphi attempted by the Persians in 480 B.C. was said to have been frustrated by the god himself, by means of a storm or earthquake which hurled rocks down on the invaders; a similar tale is told of the raid of the Gauls in 279 B.C. But the sacrilege thus escaped at the hands of foreign invaders was inflicted by the Phocian defenders of Delphi during the Sacred War, 356-346 B.C., when many of the precious votive offerings were melted down.
Cornelius Sulla for the payment of his soldiers; Nero removed no fewer than 500 bronze statues from the sacred precincts; Constantine the Great enriched his new city by the sacred tripod and its support of intertwined snakes dedicated by the Greek cities after the battle of Plataea.
3) and failure in payment of sacred dues (iii.
In thus looking to the return of the ancient prophet to do the work for which later prophecy is too weak, Malachi unconsciously signalizes the decay of the order of which he was one of the last representatives; and the somewhat mechanical measure which he applies to the people's sins, as for example when he teaches that if the sacred dues were rightly paid prosperous seasons would at once return (iii.
Tree-worship again is a constantly recurring feature, seen, for instance, in the permanently sacred character of the ficus Ruminalis and the caprcus of the Campus Martius, and above all in the oak of luppiter Feretrius, on which the spolia opima were hung after a victory.
Locality thus becomes an important point in the conception of the numen: the household spirits must be worshipped at the door, the hearth, the store-cupboard, and the external spirits of the fields and countryside have their sacred hill-tops or groves.
The worship centres round certain numina, the spirits indwelling in the sacred places of the original round hut in which the family lived.
To these numina of the sacred places must be added two other important conceptions, that of the Lar familiaris and the Genius.
Jupiter in the rusticcult was a sky-god concerned mainly with the wine festivals and associated with the sacred oak on the Capitol.
The very inconsistency with which Villehardouin is chargeable, the absence of compunction with which he relates the changing of a sacred religious pilgrimage into something by no means unlike a mere filibustering raid on the great scale, add a charm to the book.
The most interesting of them are the Assa range, with its sandal trees and Buddhist remains; Udayagiri (Sunrise-hill), with its colossal image of Buddha, sacred reservoir, and ruins; and Assagiri, with its mosque of 1719.
At Rome and Carthage, and in all other places where sincere Montanists were found, they were confronted by the imposing edifice of the Catholic Church, and they had neither the courage nor the inclination to undermine her sacred foundations.
By that time, as we know from many sources, Aramaic was not only the language in common use, but had also received official recognition,' despite the fact that Hebrew still remained the learned and sacred tongue.
On the other hand, they regarded it as necessary to present the sacred text in such a manner as best to convey the particular form of interpretation then current.
But later Jewish exegesis was especially concerned to eliminate everything in the sacred writings that might give rise to misconception with respect to God on the part of the unlearned.
Sacred Books of the East, xxxi.
The pains taken to preserve it suggest that it was invested with a sacred character.
He stayed some time at Treves studying and observing, and it was there that he first began to think seriously upon sacred things.
Beersheba, which figures in both, is celebrated by the planting of a sacred tree and (like Bethel) by the invocation of the name of Yahweh.
The people nominally profess the Buddhist religion, but in reality their religious exercises are confined to the propitiation of evil spirits, and the mechanical recital of a few sacred sentences.
32, 7 seq.) looks back to it as the safe guardian of the deposit " of the faith " against all the depredations of heresy which " when the sacred college of apostles had suffered death in various forms, and the generation of those that had been deemed worthy to hear the inspired wisdom with their own ears had passed away ...
His cult survived the metamorphosis of the ancient Vedic nature-worship into modern Hinduism, and there still are in India fire-priests (agnihotri) whose duty is to superintend his worship. The sacred fire-drill for procuring the temple-fire by friction - symbolic of Agni's daily miraculous birth - is still used.
It is the seat of St Mary's, Academy (1872; R.C.) for young women, and the College of the Sacred Heart (1880; R.C.) for men.
The Semite or savage who sets up a sacred stone or Bethel believes indeed that a divine power or influence enters the stone and dwells in it, and he treats the stone as if it were the god, kisses it, anoints it with oil, feeds the god in it by pouring out over it the blood of victims slain.
In the history of human religions can we trace, as it were, a law of transition from sacred stock and stone up to picture and image?
An image fashioned like a god, and which has this advantage over a mere stock and stone that it declares itself and reveals at a glance to what god it is sacred, must surely attract and influence the god to choose it as his home and tenement.
It disturbed the most cherished traditions and the most sacred themes.
The various literatures of these nations were locked from view for more than two thousand years, while the literature of Israel had not merely been preserved, but had come to be regarded as inspired and sacred among all the cultured nations of the Western world.
These had been sacred to almost a hundred generations of men, and it was difficult for the eye of faith to see them as other than absolutely infallible documents.
Their origin, lost in the dimness of remote antiquity, was invested by priestly legends with a sacred character.
Various computations were made at different times, from Biblical sources, as to the age of the world; and Des Vignoles, in the preface to his Chronology of Sacred History, asserts that he collected upwards of two hundred different calculations, the shortest of which reckons only 3483 years between the creation of the world and the commencement of the vulgar era and the longest 6984.
After a short pastorate at Brandon, Vermont, he was successively professor of English literature in the University of Vermont (1845-1852), professor of sacred rhetoric in Auburn Theological Seminary (1852-1854), professor of church history in Andover Theological Seminary (1854-1862), and, after one year (1862-1863) as associate pastor of the Brick Church of New York City, of sacred literature (1863-1874) and of systematic theology (1874-1890) in Union Theological Seminary.
Each college had the care of twelve sacred shields called ancilia.
Guthe in Haupt's Sacred Books of Old Testament (1899); and S.
Laurentum was also accessible by a branch from the Via Ostiensis at the eighth mile (at Malafede) leading past Castel Porziano, the royal hunting-lodge, which is identical with the ancient Ager Solonius (in which, Festus tells us, was situated the Pomonal or sacred grove of Pomona) and which later belonged to Marius.
From this standpoint it may be argued that every apocalypse is in a certain sense pseudonymous; for the materials are not the writer's own, but have come down to him as a sacred deposit - full of meaning for the seeing eye and the understanding heart.
SACRARIUM, the term in classic architecture given to the cella of a temple, and to the apartment in a dwelling-house which was sacred to a deity.
Sacred Heart >>
To them churches and other sacred buildings are dedicated, and they are regarded as the protectors and guardians of countries, towns, professions, trades and the like.
C. Walcott's Sacred Archaeology (1868).
A great rectangular enclosure of crude bricks, measuring about goo X 850 ft., contains the sacred buildings: it was entered by two stone gateways, in the north and the east sides, built by Domitian.
To the south lies a rolling plateau of basaltic formation (with the sacred town of Multai, and the springs of the river Tapti at its highest point), extending over the whole of the southern face of the district, and finally merging into the wild and broken line of the Ghats, which lead down to the plains.
On his death-bed he gave to Nicholas Ferrar a manuscript with the title The Temple: Sacred Poems and Private Ejaculations.
for "circle" of sacred stones), the name of several places in Palestine, mentioned in the Old Testament.
Close to it are the foundations of several temples, one of them sacred to the hero Podaros.
Thus the money deposited by each of two litigants in a sacred precinct or with a priest, was called a sacrament.
The sacred feasts of the Essenes and Therapeutae in particular, as described by Josephus and Philo, closely resembled the Eucharistic agape.
And Origen compares them to the sacred vessels, and would have them " guarded secretly behind the veil of the conscience and not lightly produced before the public."
He even writes thus: " 0 ye initiated ones, with purified sense of hearing, shall ye accept in your souls these truly sacred mysteries, nor divulge them to any of the uninitiated....
How can they have been the " awful mysteries," the " dread and terrible canons," the " mystic teachings," the " ineffable sentences," the " oracles too sacred to be committed to writing " which the homilists of that age pretend them to have been?
The archiepiscopal museum (1872) contains examples of all branches of sacred art in the Netherlands.
jurisdiction in cases of homicide and the care of sacred olive trees.
- Leaf 3 of the Tonalamatl, or sacred cycle of 260 days, from the Aubin collection.
Figure of the god Texcatlipoca, surrounded by the 20 day symbols of the sacred cycle of 260 days, tonalanaatl.
The Mayas had a calendar of 360 days, with intercalary days; this solar year was intersected by their sacred year of twenty weeks of thirteen days each, and these assembled in bewildering cycles.
The polished stone work is superb, finding its climax in Porto Rico, which seems to have been the sacred island of the Caribs.
Sometimes fourteen articles are detected (in either creed), 7+7; the sacred number twice over.'
$ Loci communes (1610-1622), on Interpretation of Sacred Scripture, ix.
At this period of his life Mademoiselle de Noailles persuaded him to paint a sacred subject, with Christ as the hero.
Their sacred book is called Al-Yalvah, and its chief exponent was Shaikh Adi (c. 1200).
It became the usual port for those going from the sacred city of Kairawan to Spain, and was one of the residences of the Aghlabite dynasty (800-909).
erecting a temple to his memory on the site of Cicero's villa, instituted sacred games to be held in the city every five years.
She had a sanctuary in a sacred grove (perhaps on the Esquiline), where, by an ordinance of Servius Tullius, a piece of money (lucar Libitinae) was deposited whenever a death took place.
" Church privileges " meant to many only the sacred duty of electing their own ministry and a formal right of veto on the proposals of pastor and deacons.
As Apollo's champion Hercules is Daphnephoros, and fights Cycnus and Amyntor to keep open the sacred way from Tempe to Delphi.
Kerbela is a place of pilgrimage of the Shiite Moslems, and is only less sacred to them than Meshed `Ali and Mecca.
Some 200,000 pilgrims from the Shiite portions of Islam are said to journey annually to Kerbela, many of them carrying the bones of their relatives to be buried in its sacred soil, or bringing their sick and aged to die there in the odour of sanctity.
The last variety is both the most ancient and the most commonly found, and is the sacred barley of antiquity, ears of which are frequently represented plaited in the hair of the goddess Ceres, besides being figured on ancient coins.
The troops in the capital were won over (the same troops who had effected the revolution of the previous year), and on April 1 2 they demanded that the constitution should be subject to Mahommedan sacred law, and great demonstrations, attended by fighting, taking place against the Government.
Other noteworthy buildings are the Franciscan and Trappist monasteries, a girls' school, belonging to the Sisterhood of the Sacred Blood of Nazareth, a real-school and a Turkish bazaar.
The greater of the two temples was sacred to Jupiter (Baal), identified with the Sun, with whom were associated Venus and Mercury as a-p,u co,uoc Beni.
The island is visited periodically by a few Samoyedes; they formerly considered it sacred, and some of their sacrificial piles, consisting of drift-wood, deer's horns and the skulls of bears and deer, have been observed by travellers.
He is chiefly known by his Sacred History Cie pa avay pack), a philosophical romance, based upon archaic inscriptions which he claimed to have found during his travels in various parts of Greece.
was chosen German king in 1002 he met the Saxons at Merseburg, and on promising to observe their laws Bernard gave him the sacred lance, thus entrusting Saxony to his care.
which finally vindicated the reality of spiritual things and the supremacy of Yahweh's purpose, in the political ruin of the' nation which was the faithless depository of these sacred truths.
It even seems possible from a close attention to descriptions of sacred ordinances to conclude that his special: interests are those of a common Levite rather than of a priest,, and that of all Levitical functions he is most partial to those of the singers, a member of whose guild he may have been.
trans.), pp. 171-227; Benzinger in Marti's Hand-Kommentar (1901); Kittel in Sacred Books of the Old Test.
Various sacred trees were known to the Semitic peoples, such as the fig-tree (cp. iii.
7), which sometimes appears, conventionalized, as a sacred tree.
9 But clearly the tree referred to was more than a" sacred tree "; it was a tree from whose fruit or juice, as culture advanced, some intoxicating drink was produced.
that for any being to retain this intensified vitality the eating of the 9 See illustration in Toy's Ezekiel (Sacred Books of the Old Testament), p. 182.
And though the priestly writer, to whom the first Creation-story in its present form is due, says nothing about a sacred mountain as the dwelling-place of the first-created man, yet this mountain belongs to the type of tradition which the passage, Gen.
On this sacred mountain, see Cosmogony.
Some better monumental illustration may some day be found, for it is clear that the Babylonian sacred literature had much to tell of offences against the gods in the primeval age.
The greater number of Martini's sacred compositions remain unprinted.
Pieces of polished alabaster and marble, with small pieces of pure gold and gold-headed copper nails, found on and about the top of the second stage, indicated that a small but richly adorned sacred chamber, apparently plated within or without in gold, formerly crowned the top of this structure.
Mont St Michel was a sacred place from the earliest times.
It is the seat of North-western University (1865; Lutheran), which includes collegiate, pre - paratory and academic departments, and had in1908-1909instructors and 283 students, and of the Sacred Heart College (Roman Catholic, opened in 1872 and chartered in 1874), under the Congregation of the Holy Cross.
APIS or Hapis, the sacred bull of Memphis, in Egyptian Hp, Hape, Hope.
Apis was the most important of all the sacred animals in Egypt, and, like the others, its importance increased as time went on.
The sacred books of Siam are still written in the Cambodian character.
Nok Khum is one of the theories of the genesis of mankind, the Nok Khum being the sacred goose or "Hansa" from whose eggs the first human beings were supposed to have been hatched.
A Decorated chapel in it, formerly desecrated, was restored to sacred use by citizens of Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A., in 1857, in memory of the connexion of that city with the English town.
The long preparation and training, bought by privation and uncongenial toil, was over, and he was ready to apply himself to the scientific study of sacred letters.
The essential part of this was that the Empire accepted the canonical election of bishops, and allowed the metropolitan to confer the sacred office by gift of ring and pastoral staff; while the Church acknowledged that the bishop held his temporal rights from the Empire, and was therefore to be invested with them by a touch from the royal sceptre.
The theologians of the Greek and Latin churches expressly found the conception of a Christian priesthood on the hierarchy of the Jewish temple, while the names by which the sacerdotal character is expressed - iEpEbs, sacerdos - originally designated the ministers of sacred things in Greek and Roman heathenism, and then came to be used as translations into Greek and Latin of the Hebrew kohen.
On the other hand, gentes and phratriae, which had no natural head, had special priests chosen from their members; for every circle of ancient society, from the family up to the state, was a religious as well as a civil unity, and had its own gods and sacred rites.
The voice of the god might be uttered in omens which the skilled could read, or conveyed in the inspired rhymes of soothsayers, but frequently it was sought in the oracle of the sanctuary, where the sacred lot was administered for a fee by the sadin.
As in Arabia, the ordinary sanctuary is still a sacred stone (n:r.
The priest has no place in this ritual; he is not the minister of an altar,' but the guardian of a temple, such as was already found here and there in the land for the custody of sacred images and palladia or other consecrated things (the ark at Shiloh, I Sam.
Such treasures required a guardian; but, above all, wherever there was a temple there was an oracle, a kind of sacred lot, just as in Arabia (1 Sam.
8 seq.); on the contrary, the decisions of the sanctuary had grown up into a body of sacred law, which the priests administered according to a traditional precedent.
But, on the other hand, the material influence of the priests was greater than it had ever been before; the Temple was the only visible centre of national life in the ages of servitude to foreign power, and the priests were the only great national functionaries, who drew to themselves all the sacred dues as a matter of right and even appropriated the tithes paid of old to the king.
Becoming a Congregationalist, he accepted in 1842 the chair of biblical criticism, literature and oriental languages at the Lancashire Independent College at Manchester; but he was obliged to resign in 1857, being brought into collision with the college authorities by the publication of an introduction to the Old Testament entitled The Text of the Old Testament, and the Interpretation of the Bible, written for a new edition of Horne's Introduction to the Sacred Scripture.
Among his principal works are: - Sacred Hermeneutics Developed and Applied (1843), rewritten and republished as A 'Treatise on Biblical Criticism (1852), Lectures on Ecclesiastical Polity (1848), An Introduction to the New Testament (1848-1851), The Hebrew Text of the Old Testament Revised (1855), Introduction to the Old Testament (1862), On a Fresh Revision of the Old Testament (1873), The Canon of the Bible (1877), TheDoctrine of Last Things in the New Testament (1883), besides translations of the New Testament from Von Tischendorf's text, Gieseler's Ecclesiastical History (1846) and Fiirst's Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon.
According to Philo, Sanchuniathon derived the sacred lore from the mystic inscriptions on the Aµµovveis (probably hammanim, " sun pillars," cf.
18 seq., reference is made to its agricultural life in terms suggesting that along with its younger, but more successful "brother," it was the guardian of a sacred mountain (Carmel, Tabor?) visited periodically for sacrificial feasts.
And so, though we cannot follow the steps of the process, we are not surprised to learn that they soon had an established footing in Israel, and that the prophets came to be recognized as a standing sacred element in society.
Such interventions with an Eastern king demanded great moral courage, for, though to some extent protected by their sacred character, the persons of the prophets were by no means legally inviolable (i Kings xix.
The rise of this function of the prophets is plainly parallel with the change which took place under the kings in the position of the priestly oracle; the Torah of the priests now dealt rather with permanent sacred ordinances than with the giving of new divine counsel for special occasions.
Zion at least, the sacred hearth of Yahweh, the visiblecentre of His kingdom, 1 It must not be supposed that this conception necessarily came into force as soon as it was recognized that Yahweh was the creator of the universe.
After the beginning of the 3rd century there were still no doubt men under the control of the hierarchy who experienced the prophetic ecstasy, or clerics like Cyprian who professed to have received special directions from God; but prophets by vocation no longer existed and these sporadic utterances were in no sense placed on a level with the contents of the sacred Scriptures.
He lived at Cnossus for periods of nine years, at the end of which he retired into a sacred cave, where he received instruction from Zeus in the legislation which he gave to the island.
The relation is 258: 229 :: 9:8; but the exact form in which the descent took place is not settled: 1/60 or 129 of gold is worth 57 of silver or a drachm, 1/4 of 230 (or by trade weights 127 and 226); otherwise, deriving it from the silver weight of 86 already formed, the drachm is 1/3 of the stater, 172, or double of the Persian danak of 28.7, and the sacred unit of Didyma in Ionia was this half-drachm, 27; or thirdly, what is indicated by the Lydian coinage (17), 86 of gold was equal to 1150 of silver, 5 shekels or 1/10th mina.
(23) Sir Isaac Newton, Dissertation upon the Sacred Cubit (1737);
His work Against the Christians was directed, not against Christ, nor even against what he believed to be Christ's teaching, but against the Christians of his own day and their sacred books, which, according to Porphyry, were the work of deceivers and ignorant people.
These were mostly Spanish, but some were suggested to Prudentius by sacred images in churches or by the inscriptions of Damasus.
in sacred art Judas Iscariot is generally treated as the very incarnation of treachery, ingratitude and impiety.
In this original scheme it is clearly marked out "that this entire Society and all its members fight for God under the faithful obedience of the most sacred lord, the pope, and the other Roman pontiffs his successors"; and Ignatius makes particular mention th4t each member should "be bound by a special vow," beyond that formal obligation under which all Christians are of obeying the pope, "so that whatsoever the present and other Roman pontiffs for the time being shall ordain, pertaining to the advancement of souls and the propagation of the faith, to whatever provinces he shall resolve to send us, we are straightway bound to obey, as far as in us lies, without any tergiversation or excuse, whether he send us among the Turks or to any other unbelievers in being, even to those parts called India, or to any heretics or schismatics or likewise to any believers."
In France, even after their expulsion in 1765, they had maintained a precarious footing in the country under the partial disguise and names of "Fathers of the Faith" or "Clerks of the Sacred Heart," but were obliged by Napoleon I.
Finally, sacred formulas, names and symbols are of the highest importance among the Gnostic sects.
On the one hand we have sects with a strongly ascetic tendency, on the other we find some characterized by unbridled libertinism; in some the most abandoned prostitution has come to be the most sacred mystery; in others again appears the worship of serpents, which here appears to be connected in various and often very loose ways with the other ideas of these Gnostics - hence the names of the " Ophites," " Naasseni."
In the Zapotec district the Wiyatao or high-priest of Zopaa was a divine ruler before whom all prostrated themselves with faces to the ground; he was even too sacred to allow his foot to touch the earth, and was only seen carried in a litter.
For the great festival of Tezcatlipoca, the handsomest and noblest of the captives of the year had been chosen as the incarnate representative of the god, and paraded the streets for public adoration dressed in an embroidered mantle with feathers and garlands on his head and a retinue like a king; for the last month they married him to four girls representing four goddesses; on the last day wives and pages escorted him to the little temple of Tlacochcalco, where he mounted the stairs, breaking an earthenware flute against each step; this was a symbolic farewell to the joys of the world, for as he reached the top he was seized by the priests, his heart torn out and held up to the sun, his head spitted on the tzompantli, and his body eaten as sacred food, the people drawing from his fate the moral lesson that riches and pleasure may turn into poverty and sorrow.
The people watching from their flat housetops all the country round saw with joy the flame on the sacred hill, and hailed it with a thank-offering of drops of blood drawn from their ears.
re-kindle the fires of the land, the sacred fire on the teocalli of the war-god blazed up again, and the people began with feasting and rejoicing the new cycle.
The schools were extensive buildings attached to the temples, where from an early age boys and girls were taught by the priests to sweep the sanctuaries and keep up the sacred fires, to fast at proper seasons and draw blood for penance, and where they received moral teaching in long and verbose formulas.
Nor does the statement that " the sacred vessels " were visible from the place where Jesus was standing seem at all probable.
This document lays down: (I) that the temporal sovereignty of kings is independent of the pope; (2) that a general council is above the pope; (3) that the ancient liberties of the Gallican Church are sacred; (4) that the infallible teaching authority of the church belongs to pope and bishops jointly.
(A) There are two broad divisions: (I) all animals of a given species are sacred, perhaps owing to the impossibility of distinguishing the sacred few from the profane crowd; (2) one or a fixed number of a species are sacred.
It is probable that the first of these forms is the primary one and the second in most cases a development from it due to (i.) the influence of other individual cults, (ii.) anthropomorphic tendencies, (iii.) the influence of chieftainship, hereditary and otherwise, (iv.) annual sacrifice of the sacred animal and mystical ideas connected therewith, (v.) syncretism, due either to unity of function or to a philosophic unification, (vi.) the desire to do honour to the species in the person of one of its members, and possibly other less easily traceable causes.
Similar observances are found in our own day on the Upper Nile; the Nuba and Nuer worship the bull; the Angoni of Central Africa and the Sakalava of Madagascar keep sacred bulls.
Among the Harranians dogs were sacred, but this was rather as brothers of the mystae.
In the temples of Apollo and Aphrodite were sacred fish, which may point to a fish cult.
Atargatis is said to have had sacred fish at Askelon, and from Xenophon we read that the fish of the Chalus were regarded as gods.
The rainbow-god of the Ewe was also conceived to have the form of a snake; his messenger was said to be a small variety of boa; but only certain individuals, not the whole species, were sacred.
==Sheep== Only in Africa do we find a sheep-god proper; Ammon was the god of Thebes; he was represented as ram-headed; his worshippers held the ram to be sacred; it was, however, sacrificed once a year, and its fleece formed the clothing of the idol.
It consists of sacred songs or chants, partly composed independently, partly formed out of the contents of the Bible, which, however, has evidently been gathered by them orally, as until quite lately they were almost entirely illiterate and did not possess any written book.
During the Conclave of 1878 he succeeded, by negotiations with Cardinal Pecci (afterwards Leo XIII.), in inducing the Sacred College to remain in Rome, and, after the election of the new pope, arranged for his temporary absence from the Vatican for the purpose of settling private business.