(2) Sabaean inscription of Ela Amida in two halves, discovered by J.
Yam, on the borders of Jauf, a vast sandy plain, extending eastwards to El Jail and El Hazm, where Halevy made his most important discoveries of Sabaean inscriptions: here he explored Main, the ancient capital of the Minaeans, Kamna on the banks of the W.
Kharid, the ancient Caminacum, and Kharibat el Beda, the Nesca of Pliny, where the Sabaean army was defeated by the Romans under Aelius Gallus in 24 B.C. From El Jail Halevy travelled northward, passing the oasis of Khab, and skirting the great desert, reached the fertile district of Nejran, where he found a colony of Jews, with whom he spent several weeks in the oasis of Makhlaf.
M., accounts for about a third of this area, but some of the most favoured districts in Arabia - Asir and northern Yemen - remain unexplored, and the hydrography of the Dawasir basin offers some interesting problems, while a great field remains for the archaeologist in the seat of the old Sabaean kingdom from Jauf to the Hadramut valley.
The road is a mere camel track across the desert, the chief places passed are Ma`an on the Syrian border, a station on the old Sabaean trade route to Petra, and Medain Salih, the site of the rock-cut tombs and inscriptions first brought to notice by Doughty.
==Seals, Weights and Coins== The Vienna Museum possesses a small number of seals and gems. The seals are inscribed with Sabaean writing and are of bronze, copper, silver and stone.
These are the kingdoms of Ma t in (Minaean), of Saba (Sabaean), of Hadramaut (Hadramut) and of Katabania (Katabanu).
As to the Sabaean kingdom there is fair agreement among scholars.
An Assyrian inscription mentions Ith`amara the Sabaean who paid tribute to Sargon in 715 B.C. At this time the Sabaeans must have been in north Arabia unless the inscription refers to a northern colony of the southern Sabaeans.
The Sabaean rule is generally divided into periods indicated by the titles given to their rulers.
It is curious that the Sabaean inscriptions contain no mention of the Minaeans, though this may be due to the fact that very few of the inscriptions are historical in content.
The Himyarites were, however, still active, and after a struggle succeeded in establishing a Jewish Sabaean kingdom, having previously accepted Judaism as their religion.
The name, written Aksm and Aksum in the Sabaean and Ethiopic inscriptions in the place, is found in classical and early Christian writers in the forms of Auxome, Axumis, Axume, &c., the first mention being in the Periplus Maris Erythraei (c. A.D.
Assyria under Sargon defeated the southern confederation at Rapihi (Raphia on the border of Egypt) and captured Hanun; the significance of the victory is evident from the submission of the queen of Aribi (Arabia), the Sabaean Itamara, and Musri.
Two other accounts in Genesis, originally independent, give supplementary information drawn from the Sabaean colonies, the stations and factories established to facilitate trade through the desert.
With the Ethiopians Saba means " men," a clear indication of their Sabaean descent.
The biblical picture of the Sabaean kingdom is confirmed and supplemented by the Assyrian inscriptions.
Sabaean colonies in Africa have been already mentioned.
New colonies, however, seem to have followed from time to time, and, according to the Periplus (§ 16), some parts of the African coast were under the suzerainty of the Sabaean kings as late as the Sabaeo-Himyaritic period; the district of Azania was held for the Sabaean monarch by the governor of Maphoritis (Ma`afir), and was exploited by a Sabaean company.
Naturally difficulties would arise between Abyssinia and the Sabaean power.
Doubts as to the greatness and importance of the Sabaean state, as attested by the ancients, and as to the existence of a special Sabaean writing, called " Musnad," of which the Arabs tell, were still current when Niebuhr, in the 18th.
Following this hint, Seetzen, in 1810, was able to send to Europe, from porphyry blocks near Yarim, the first copies of Sabaean inscriptions.
The alphabet of the Sabaean inscriptions is most closely akin to the Ethiopic, but is purely consonantal, without the modifications in the consonantal forms which Ethiopic has devised to express vowels.
In the Thamudaean and Sabaean alphabets the twenty-two original Phoenician characters are mostly similar, and so are the differentiated forms for, and?.
The Thamudaean inscriptions are locally nearer to Phoenicia, and the letters are more like the Phoenician; this character therefore appears to be the link connecting Phoenician with Sabaean writing.
It may be noticed that a Thamudaean legend has been found on a Babylonian cylinder of about woo B.C., and it is remarkable that the Sabaean satara, " write," seems to be borrowed from Assyrian shataru.
Of the two dialects commonly called Sabaean and Minaean the latter might be better called Hadramitic, inasmuch as it is the dialect of the inscriptions found in Hadramut, and the Minaeans seem undoubtedly to have entered the Jauf from Ijadramut.
The inscriptions and coins give the names of more than forty-five Sabaean kings.
525), Halevy fixes 115 B.C. as the epoch of the Sabaean era.
Their capital, Ma'in, lay in the heart of the Sabaean country, forming a sort of enclave on the right hand of the road that leads northward from Ma'rib.
The Minaeans were evidently active rivals of the Sabaean influence, and a war between the two is once mentioned.
Thus, puzzling as the fact appears, it is clear that the Minaeans formed a sort of political and linguistic island in the Sabaean country.
We cannot but see that their fortified posts in the north of the Sabaean kingdom had a strategical purpose; and so Pliny (xii.
Sun-worship seems to have been peculiar to the Sabaeans and Hamdanites; and, if the Sabis of Sabota (Pliny) was in fact the sun deity Shams, this must be ascribed to Sabaean influence.
The Sabaean Shams was a goddess, while the chief divinity of the Minaeans was the god `Athtar, -a male figure, worshipped under several forms, of which the commonest are the Eastern `Athtar and `Athtar Dhu Kabd.
In conformity with old Semitic usage, pilgrimages were made at definite seasons to certain deities, and the Sabaean pilgrim month, Dhu Hijjatan, is the northern Dhu'l-Hijja.
The reverse has the head of Pallas with a Sabaean N.
Of younger coins the first series has a king's head on the reverse, and the old obverse is enriched with two Sabaean monograms, which have been interpreted as meaning " majesty " and "eponymus " respectively.
Legend has disappeared, and, instead of the two Sabaean monograms, we have the names of the king and the eponymus.
One remarkable tetradrachm with the Sabaean legend Abyath'a is imitated from an Alexander of the 2nd century B.C., the execution being quite artistic and the weight Attic. There are also coins struck at Raydan and Harib, which must be assigned to the Himyarite period (1st and 2nd century A.D.).
A Sabaean (S.
The Sabaean Inscriptions, Glaser, 554, line 32; 618, line 2).
The type is very closely related to the oldest European (Etruscan) forms, and, in a less degree, to the " South Semitic " (old Minaean and Sabaean); and since it at once begins (c. 700) to develop along separate paths (Canaanite and Aramaean), it may be inferred that the common ancestor was not of long derivation.
Muller, daughter-tongues of the old Sabaean and Minaean, standing in the same relation to the speech of the old inscriptions as Coptic does to that of the hieroglyphics.
Last happened in consequence of the events which destroyed the prosperity of the old Sabaean kingdom.
The south Arabian inscriptions to which the terms Himyaritic and Sabaean are applied fall into two groups, the Sabaean proper and the Minaean.
The relative age of the Minaean and Sabaean monuments is a matter of dispute amongst Semitic scholars.
Their date is supposed to be earlier than that of the Sabaean and Minaean.
Two of the earliest are written in Sabaean characters, but in the language which is known as Geez or Ethiopic. From about A.D.
The Sabaean, like other Semitic, inscriptions are generally written from right to left, but a few are 1 30vrrp04nSop; the Ethiopic is written from left to right, and makes a marked advance upon the ordinary Semitic manner of writing by indicating the vowels.
It is noticeable that the changes thus established were made upon the basis of the old Sabaean script, which in its oldest form is evidently closely related to the old Phoenician, though it would be premature to say that the Sabaean alphabet is derived from the Phoenician.
The characteristics of the Sabaean are great squareness and boldness in outline.
As we have seen, it is a tendency in northern Semitic to open the heads of letters, and therefore it is possible that the Sabaean form for Jod Q may be'older 4 than the Phoenician Similarly if Pe means mouth, Hommel is right in contending that the Sabaean p is more like the object than the Phoenician, ), if we suppose the form, like or the Phoenician W and for the Phoenician VI,, turned through an angle of 90°.
So also if Kaf corresponds to the Babylonian Kappu, " hollow-hand," the Sabaean form which Hommel5 interprets as the outline of the hand with the fingers turned in and the thumb raised is a better pictograph than the various meaningless forms of k (&c.).
P. 724) holds that the oldest Sabaean inscriptions may date from about 700 B.C., that the Lihyan inscriptions are at earliest of the Hellenistic period and the Safa inscriptions still later.
P. 462 f.) attempts to trace the development of the Sabaean form from the Phoenician.
But he rejects Taylor's derivation of this alphabet from the Sabaean script, and contends that it is borrowed from the North Semitic. To the pedantry of the Hindu he attributes its main characteristics, viz.
"If by Zerah the Ethiopian or Sabaean prince be meant, the only real difficulty of the narrative is removed.
Is the oasis of Jauf, a hollow or depression, as its name signifies, containing many villages, and of great antiquarian interest as the central point of the old Minaean and Sabaean kingdoms, known to the ancients from the earliest historical times through their control of the frankincense trade of S.
Marib, the Sabaean capital, was celebrated for its great dam, built according to tradition by the Queen of Sheba, and the bursting of which in A.D.