In March 1885 when the RussoAfghan Boundary Commission should have been engaged in settling the boundary-line, this portion of it was in dispute between the Afghans and the Russians.
On their refusal the Russians attacked them at 3 a.m.
In 1810 it was captured by the Russians, who destroyed the fortifications.
A monument was erected in 1901 to commemorate the Russians who fell.
Three times captured by the Russians, in 1791, 1807 and 1828, and twice restored by them, in 1792 and 1812, it was finally left in their hands by the treaty of Adrianople in 1829.
During the Crimean War its fortifications were destroyed (1855) by the Russians themselves.
Of the 25,301 foreign-born in 1900, 5114 were Germans; 3485, Irish; 337 6, Swedes; 3344, English; 2623, English-Canadian; 1338, Russians; and 1033, Scots.
The Russians in Turkestan form only about 5% of the total pop., and since most of the rural Mussulman pop. take no part in the voting, the country is governed to all intents and purposes by men elected by the very small proportion of Russians of the lower classes living in the towns.
Taken by storm on New Year's day 1813 by the Russians, Lenkoran was in the same year formally surrendered by Persia to Russia by the treaty of Gulistan, along with the khanate of Talysh, of which it was the capital.
The most important Arctic work in the 18th century was performed by the Russians, for they succeeded in delineating the whole of the northern coast of Siberia.
To the east of Cape Chelyuskin the Russians encountered greater difficulties.
Two of Leroy-Beaulieu's works have been translated into English: one as the Empire of the Tsars and the Russians, by Z.
Kirghiz form 76% of the population, Taranchis 5.7%, Russians 14% and Dzungans most of the remainder.
The chief occupation of the Russians, the Taranchis and the Dzungans, and partly also of the Kirghiz, is agriculture.
It was then seized by the French, who in 1799 had to yield to the Russians and Turks.
But since the Russians became masters of this region, its former inhabitants (Circassian tribes) have emigrated in thousands, so that the country is now only thinly inhabited.
There again his proficiency, especially in physical science, was marked, and he was one of the young Russians chosen to complete their education in foreign countries.
During the Turco-Russian campaign of 1829 it was the headquarters of Mustafa Pasha of Skodra, and was occupied by the Russians for a few days.
The statistics of these show that there was during the thirty-two years, 1856-88, an excess of emigration over immigration of 1,146,052 in the case of Russians, and a surplus of immigration of 2,304,717 foreigners.
During the years 1900-4 inclusive the total emigrants from Russia numbered 2,358,539, of whom 1,144,246 were Russians; while the immigrants numbered 2,333,053, of whom 1,432,057 were foreigners.
The deep indentations of the gulfs of Bothnia and Finland are surrounded by what is ethnologically Finnish territory, and it is only at the very head of the latter gulf that the Russians have taken firm foothold by erecting their capital at the mouth of the Neva.
It is only within the last hundred and thirty years that the Russians have definitely taken possession of the N.
(Great, Little and White Russians), it will be seen that, with the exception of some 3,000,000 Little Russians, now settled in East Galicia and in Poland, and of a few on the southern slope of the Carpathians, the whole of the E.
The Russians have absorbed and assimilated in the course of their history a variety of Finnish and Turko-Finnish elements.
The Russians do not emigrate as isolated individuals; they migrate in whole villages.
Russian type has thus been maintained from Novgorod to the Pacific, with but minor differentiations on the outskirts - and this notwithstanding the great variety of races with which the Russians have come into contact.
Three different branches can be distinguished among the Russians from the dawn of their history: - the Great Russians, the Little Russians (Malorusses or Ukrainians), and the White - Russians (the Byelorusses).
and S., with perhaps an intermediate stream, the proper place of of the White Russians not having been as yet exactly determined.
The primary distinctions between these branches have been increased during the last nine centuries by their contact with different nationalities - the Great Russians absorbing Finnish elements, the Little Russians undergoing an admixture of Turkish blood, and the White Russians submitting to Lithuanian influence.
Moreover, notwithstanding the unity of language, it is easy to detect among the Great Russians themselves two separate branches, differing from one another by slight divergences of language and type and deep diversities of national character - the Central Russians and the Novgorodians.
Many minor anthropological differentiae can be distinguished among both the Great and the Little Russians, depending probably on the assimilation of various minor subdivisions of the Ural-Altaians.
The Great Russians occupy in one compact mass the space enclosed by a line drawn from the White Sea to Lake Pskov, the upper courses of the W.
The Little Russians occupy the steppes of S.
The White Russians, intermingled to some extent with Great and Little Russians, Poles and Lithuanians, occupy the upper parts of the W.
They are on good terms with the Russians.
Little and Great Russians, Rumanians, Bulgarians, Germans, Greeks, Frenchmen, Poles, Tatars and Jews are mingled together and scattered about in small colonies, especially in Bessarabia.
The governments of St Petersburg (apart from the capital), Olonets and Archangel contain an admixture of Karelians, Samoyedes and Syryenians, the remainder being Great Russians.
provinces of the Volga (Nizhniy-Novgorod, Simbirsk, Samara, Penza and Saratov) the Great Russians prevail, the remainder being chiefly Mordvinians, Tatars, Chuvashes and Bashkirs, Germans in Samara and Saratov, and Little Russians in the last named.
In the Ural governments of Perm and Vyatka Great Russians are in the majority, the remainder being a variety of Finno-Tatars.
Thus more than 88 millions of the Russians are peasants.
The co-operative spirit of the Great Russians shows itself in another sphere in the artel, which has been a prominent feature of Russian life since the dawn of history.
Jews, and elsewhere Russians,-to whom the peasants are for the most part in debt, as they purchase in advance on security of subsequent payments in corn, tar, wooden wares, &c. A good deal of the internal trade is carried on by travelling merchants.
When they first appeared in Europe they were idolaters or Shamanists, and as such they had naturally no religious fanaticism; but even when they adopted Islam they remained as tolerant as before, and the khan of the Golden Horde (Berkai) who first became a Mussulman allowed the Russians to found a Christian bishopric in his capital.
In return the Russians were allowed to trade freely in England.
In the expected war with Poland, which followed quickly, the Russians were so successful that the arrangement was upheld; but it was soon found that the Cossacks, though they professed unbounded devotion to the Orthodox tsar, disliked Muscovite, quite as much as Polish, interference in their internal affairs, and some of their leaders were in favour of substituting federation with Poland for annexation by Russia.
As a true daughter of the great Russian reformer, Elizabeth (1741-61) relegated the German element to a subordinate position in the administration and gave her confidence to genuine Russians like Bestuzhev, Vorontsov, Razumovski (her morganatic husband) and the Shuvalovs.
For this purpose he created a very severe press-censorship and an expensive system of passports, which made it more difficult for Russians to visit foreign countries.
The local institutions were assimilated to those of the purely Russian provinces; the use of the Russian language was made obligatory in the administration, in the tribunals and to some extent in the schools; the spread of Eastern Orthodoxy was encouraged by the authorities, whilst the other confessions were placed under severe restrictions; foreigners were prohibited from possessing landed property; and in some provinces administrative measures were taken for making the land pass into the hands of Orthodox Russians.
Pop. (1866) 31,779, (1900) 33,607, comprising Great and Little Russians, Bulgarians, Jews and Gipsies.
It was occupied by the Russians in 1770, and twenty years later its capture was one of the brilliant achievements of the Russian general, Count A.
In 1809 the town was again captured by the Russians; and, when in 1812 it was assigned to them by the Bucharest peace, they chose it as the central station for their Danube fleet.
Panin was one of the most learned, accomplished and courteous Russians of his day.
The Troitsk or Trinity monastery is the most sacred spot in " middle Russia, the Great Russians regarding it with more veneration than even the cathedrals and relics of the Kremlin at Moscow.
In the war which followed the emperor himself took part, but it was not brought to a successful conclusion till the help of the Russians had been called in.
Aided by the Russians, his troops drove Stanislaus Leszczynski from Poland; Augustus was crowned at Cracow in January 1734, and was generally recognized as king at Warsaw in June 1736.
The Russians captured it from them in 1723, but restored it in 1735; it was incorporated in the Russian empire in 1806.
The words " Asiatic " and " Oriental " are often used as if they denoted a definite and homogeneous type, but Russians resemble Asiatics in many ways, and Turks, Hindus, Chinese, &c., differ in so many important points that the common substratum is small.
In 1895 they defeated the Chinese and ten years later the Russians.
An attempt to obtain possession of the promontory was made by Peter the Great, but it was not definitely annexed by the Russians until seventy years afterwards (1769).
The master of the latter province had beaten off an attack of the Russians in 1502, and secured a fifty years' peace.
In 1678 it was captured by the elector of Brandenburg, but was restored to the Swedes in the following year; in 1713 it was desolated by the Russians; in 1715 it came into the possession of Denmark; and in 1721 it was again restored to Sweden, under whose protection it remained till 1815, when, along with the whole of Swedish Pomerania, it came into the possession of Prussia.
The soil of these plains is generally very fertile and they support a population of nearly 2,800,000 Russians, composed of Cossacks and peasant immigrants, settled chiefly along the rivers and grouped in large, wealthy villages.
The inhabitants of the Kura valley consist principally of Iranian Tates and Talyshes, of Armenians and Lesghians, with Russians, Jews and Arabs.
Religion.-Most of the Russians and the Georgians belong to the Orthodox Greek Church (over 4,000,000 in all); but considerable numbers (estimated at nearly 122,000, though in reality probably a good many more) are Nonconformists of different denominations.
In 1770, during the course of a war between Russia and Turkey, the Russians crossed over the Caucasus and assisted the Imeretians to resist the Turks, and from the time of the ensuing peace of Kuchuk-kainarji the Georgian principalities looked to their powerful northern neighbour as their protector against the southern aggressors the Turks.
Meanwhile the Russians had also subdued the Ossetes (1802) and the Lesghian tribes (1803) of the middle Caucasus.
At first the Russians were able to continue their policy of conquest and annexation without serious check.
More than once he escaped, in a manner that seemed little short of marvellous, out of the hands of the Russians when they held him closely invested in some mountain fastness, as at Himry in 1831.
There the hitherto indomitable champion of Caucasian independence was forced to surrender to the Russians on the 6th of September 1859.
Nevertheless the spirit of resistance in these stubborn mountaineers was not finally broken until 1864, when the Russians eventually stifled all opposition in the difficult valleys and glens of the western Caucasus.
Forces, inexperienced but devoted, were soon on foot; and he informed his German allies that he would allow the Russians to advance into Central Germany so as to ensure their destruction.
As for the "treason" of General York, who had come to terms with the Russians, it moved him merely to scorn and contempt.
The idea was a captivating one, and an appeal from the Russians for help in that quarter was difficult to resist.
for neglecting the Russians to pursue the Saxons; but at the beginning of the 18th century his decision was natural enough.
The Russians slowly retired before the invader, burning and destroying everything in his path.
On the 26th of June Charles held a council of war, at which it was resolved to attack the Russians in their entrenchments on the following day.
The population, estimated at 605,100 in 1906, numbered 587,326 in 1897, of whom only 5000 were Russians.
It consists chiefly of Little Russians, Poles (31%), and Jews (1 2%).
There are many Nonconformists (18,00o) among the Russians, Tulchin being the seat of their bishops and a centre of propaganda.
Pop. (1890) 81,298; (1900) 108,027, of whom 30,802 were foreign-born, including 10,491 Irish, 5262 Italians, 4743 Germans, 3 1 93 Russians and 1376 Swedes; (1910 census) 133,605.
Since about 1875 the Russians have fostered the industry, introducing American Upland varieties, distributing seed free, importing gins, providing instruction, and guaranteeing the purchase of the crops.
One result of the Russo-Japanese War was the evacuation of Manchuria by the Russians, which, after the conclusion of peace in 1905, was handed over by Japan to China.
In 1813, a sally being made by the French garrison on an advanceguard of the Russians under Benckendorff, the citizens of Breda again made themselves masters of the town.
In the 5th century they attacked the Russians in the Black Sea prairies, and afterwards made raids upon the Greeks.
Trade with Persia and India, as also with the Khazars and the Russians, and undoubtedly with Biarmia (Urals), was, however, their chief occupation, their main riches being furs, leather, wool, nuts, wax and so on.
Their chief town, Bolgari or Velikij Gorod (Great Town) of the Russian annals, was often raided by the Russians.
A disastrous attack on Astrakhan, with the object of carrying out Sokolli's plan for uniting the' Don and the Volga, first brought the Turks into collision with the Russians.
One after another the Hungarian forts were captured by the Austrians; the Venetians were equally successful in Greece and the Morea; the Russians pressed on the Crimea, and Sobieski besieged Kamenets.
At first eminently successful, he drove the Austrians across the Danube, recapturing Nish, Vidin, Semendria and Belgrade; repulses were also inflicted on the Venetians and the Russians.
The Russians pursued him into Turkish territory; which led to a Turkish declaration of war (1710).
The Turks succeeded in surrounding Peter the Great near the Pruth, and his army was menaced with total destruction, when the Turkish commander, the grand vizier Baltaji Mahommed Pasha, was induced by the presents and entreaties of the empress Catherine to sign the preliminary treaty of the Pruth (July 21, 1711), granting terms of peace far more favourable than were justified by the situation of the Russians.
These were naturally dismissed after the defeat of the Russians; the former made good his escape to Russia, the latter was executed.
The Russians had not waited for the formal declaration of war; and on the very day that this was notified by the hanging out of the horse-tails before the Seraglio at Constantinople a Russian army under Marshal Munnich stormed the ancient wall that guarded the isthmus of the Crimea.
But the Ottomans, though the negotiations continued throughout 1738, were in no hurry to come to terms; for the tide of war had turned against both Austrians and Russians; Ochakov and Kinburn were recaptured; and the victorious Turks crossed the Danube and penetrated far into the Banat.
In June Romanzov's victory at Kartal made him master of the principalities, and by November the fortresses of Izmail and Kilia, guarding the passage of the Danube, and those of Akkerman and Bender on the Dniester had fallen into the hands of the Russians.
The campaign of 1771, which opened with a gleam of success in the capture of Giurgevo, proved yet more disastrous to the Turks, the Russians passing the Danube and completing the conquest of the Crimea.
At the beginning of July the Russians, under Kamenskiy, were before Shumla; and a few days later the grand vizier and his army, their communications with the capital severed, were surrounded in the fortress.
The army hereupon retired to Adrianople, and the powerful pasha of Rustchuk, Mustafa Bairakdar, who had distinguished himself by his resistance to the Russians, and who thoroughly shared Selim's desire for reform, was now induced by the many officers who held similar views to march on Constantinople to restore Selim to the throne.
But the sultan refused to ratify these articles, and the relations between Russia and Turkey were therefore determined by the patent treaty only, which positively stipulated for the evacuation by the Russians of every spot occupied by them on Turkish soil in Asia.
When the Russians showed no signs of withdrawing from the valley of the Rion, the sultan threatened to renew the war, the sole result of which was to reveal the determination of the tsar not to be bullied into concessions.
On the 30th of November the Russian fleet attacked and destroyed a Turkish squadron in the harbour of Sinope; on the 3rd of January the combined French and British fleets entered the Black Sea, commissioned to " invite " the Russians to return to their harbours.
As the Russians withdrew from the Danubian principalities, Austrian troops occupied them, and by a convention with the Porte the Austrian government undertook to resist by arms any attempt of the Russians to return.
Rumania joined the Russians, and in Europe no effective opposition was encountered by the invaders until the assaults on Plevna and the Shipka Pass, where the valiant resistance of the Turks won for them the admiration of Europe.
But upon the approach of the Russians to Constantinople the British reserves were called out and the fleet was despatched to the Bosporus.
Mack knew that the Russians would be late at the rendezvous on the Inn.
By constructing an entrenched camp at Ulm and concentrating all the available food within it, he expected to compel Napoleon to invest and besiege him, and he anticipated that in the devastated country his adversary would be compelled to separate and thus fall an easy prey to the Russians.
On the 26th of September, its deployment beyond the mountains was complete, and as Napoleon did not know of Mack's intention to stay at Ulm and had learned that the Russian advance had been delayed, he directed his columns by the following roads on the Danube, between Donauworth and Ingolstadt, so as to be in a position to intervene between the Austrians and the Russians and beat both in detail.
corps and cavalry to observe the Austrians, pressed on to Augsburg with the others so as to be ready to deal with the Russians.
All this, and the almost mutinous discontent of his generals and his enemies of the court circle, shook his resolution of acting as anvil for the Russians, of whose delay also he was aware, and about the 8th of Octoberhedetermined to march out north-eastward across the French lines of communication and save his sovereign's army by taking refuge if necessary in Saxony.
When, therefore, next morning, negotiations were opened by the French, Mack, still feeling certain that the Russians were at hand, agreed to an armistice and undertook to lay down his arms if within the next twenty-one days no relief should arrive.
Napoleon now hastened to rejoin the group of corps he had left under Bernadotte in observation towards the Russians, for the latter were nearer at hand than even Mack had assumed.
Hitherto the French had been operating in a rich country, untouched for half a century past by the ravages of war, but as the necessity for a campaign against the Russians confronted the emperor, he realized that his whole supply and transport service must be put on a different footing.
The Russians meanwhile had been moving slowly forward in two bodies, one under Bennigsen (50,000), the other under Buxhowden (25,000), and the French being at this time in Warsaw, they took up threatening positions about Pultusk, Plock and Prassnitz.
The troops arrived late at their appointed positions, and after a stubborn rearguard action at Pultusk itself and undecisive fighting elsewhere (Soldau-Golymin) the Russians succeeded in retreating beyond the jaws of the French attack, and Napoleon for the first time found that he had exceeded the limit of endurance of his men.
Meanwhile Bennigsen had prepared for a fresh undertaking, and leaving Lestocq with 20,000 Prussians and Russians to contain Bernadotte, who lay between Braunsberg and Spandau on the Passarge, he moved southwards on the 2nd, and on the 3rd and 4th of June he fell upon Ney, driving him back towards Guttstadt, whilst with the bulk of his force he moved towards Heilsberg, where he threw up an entrenched position.
Next day, however, all doubts were set at rest, and as the Russians advanced south of Heilsberg, he decided to wheel his whole force to the right, pivoting on the III.
Murat attacked the Russians, who had halted in their entrenched position, on the 11th and drove in their outposts, but did not discover the entrenchments.
Now the Russians uncovered their entrenchments, and in the absence of artillery preparation Soult's leading troops received most severe punishment.
The emperor now pressed on towards Friedland, where he would completely control the Russian communications with Konigsberg, their immediate base of supply, but for once the Russians outmarched him and covered their movement so successfully that for the next three days he seems to have completely lost all knowledge of his enemy's whereabouts.
The Russians after passing Schippenbeil had suddenly turned northwards, and on the evening of the 13th were taking up a strong position on the river Alle with Friedland as a centre.
and the retreat of the Russians, after severe losses, over the Alle.
Lestocq was, meanwhile, driven through Konigsberg (which surrendered on the r 5th) on Tilsit, and now that he was no longer supported by the Russians, the Prussian commander gave up the struggle.
On the other hand, the Russians, once their fatherland was invaded, became dominated by an ever-growing spirit of fanaticism, and they were by nature too obedient to their natural leaders, and too well inured to the hardships of campaigning, to lose their courage in a retreat.
Information about the Russians was very indifferent; it was only known that Prince Bagration with about 33,000 men lay grouped about Wolkowysk; Barclay de Tolly with 40,000 about Vilna; and on the Austrian frontier lay a small corps under Tormassov in process of formation, while far away on the Turkish frontiers hostilities with the sultan retained Tschitschagov with 50,000 more.
Still everything pointed to the concentration of the Russians at Vilna, and Jerome, who on the 5th of July had reached Grodno, was ordered to push on.
Meanwhile the Russians made good their retreat - Barclay towards the entrenched camp of Drissa on the Dvina, Bagration towards Mohilev.
Meanwhile the Russians had not lost a single gun and the moral of their men had been improved by the result of the many minor encounters with the enemy; further, the and then began a series of rearguard actions and nocturnal retreats which completely accomplished their purpose of wearing down the French army.
Here he was overtaken by Murat and Ney, but the French columns had straggled so badly that four whole days elapsed before the emperor was able to concentrate his army for battle and then could only oppose 128,000 men to the Russians' 110,000.
The Russians marched in two columns, which lost touch of one another, and as it was quite impossible for either to engage the French singlehanded, they both retired again towards Smolensk, where with an advanced guard in the town itself - which possessed an oldfashioned brick enceinte not to be breached by field artillery alone - the two columns reunited and deployed for action behind the unfordable Dnieper.
The whole of the 17th was required to complete the movement, and as soon as its purpose was sufficiently revealed to the Russians the latter determined to retreat under cover of night.
Ultimately the sun went down on an undecided field on which 25,000 French and 38,000 Russians had fallen, but the, moral reaction on the former was far greater than on the latter.
Sebastiani, commanding the advanced guard, overtook the Russians in the act of evacuating Moscow, and agreed with the latter to observe a seven hours' armistice to allow the Russians to clear the town, for experience had shown the French that street fighting in wooden Russian townships always meant fire and the consequent destruction of much-needed shelter and provisions.
Towards nightfall Napoleon reached the scene, and the Russians being now clear the troops began to enter, but already fires were observed in the farther part of the city.
Cyr, who had relieved Macdonald on his extreme left, had only 17,000 men left under arms against upwards of 40,000 Russians under Witgenstein; and to the south Tschitschagov's army, being no longer detained on the Turkish frontier, peace having been made, was marching to join Tormassov about Brest-Litewski with forces which would bring the total of the two well over ioo,000 men.
on the 26th the bridges were finished and the passage began, but not without resistance by the Russians, who were gradually closing in.
Meanwhile the Russians and Prussians had concentrated all available men and were moving on an almost parallel line, but somewhat to the south of the direction taken by the French.
Leaving the leading troops to repulse as best they might the furious attack of both Russians and Prussians, and caring little whether they lost ground, he rapidly organized for his own control a battle-reserve.
Blucher with about 95,000 Russians and Prussians was about Breslau, and Schwarzenberg, with nearly 180,000 Austrians and Russians, lay in Bohemia.
Dresden was the last great victory of the First Empire, By noon on the 27th August the Austrians and Russians were completely beaten and in full retreat, the French pressing hard behind them, but meanwhile Napoleon himself again succumbed G Beereri B eip \ ii g?
The allies entered in two lines - one formed of the French and British led byCodrington in the "Asia," the other of the Russians, - and began to anchor in the free water in the midst of Ibrahim's fleet.
On the allied side the British squadron lost 75 killed and 197 wounded; the French 43 killed and 183 wounded; the Russians 59 killed and 139 wounded.
After abolishing the cabinet council system in favour during the rule of the two Annes, and reconstituting the senate as it had been under Peter the Great, - with the chiefs of the departments of state, all of them now Russians again, as ex-officio members under the presidency of the sovereign, - the first care of the new empress was to compose her quarrel with Sweden.
Their bands under Ignaty Malchewsky, Michael Pac and Prince Charles Radziwill ravaged the land in every direction, won several engagements over the Russians, and at last, utterly ignoring the king, sent envoys on their own account to the principal European powers.
Of the total in 1897, 81.4% were Russians, 8.3% Turko-Tatars, 5% Mongols and o 6% " indigenous " races, i.e.
Only 8% of the Russians total are classed as urban.
The great bulk of the popula tion are Russians, whose number increased with great rapidity during the 19th century; although not exceeding 150,000 in 1709 and 500,000 a century later, they numbered nearly 6,500,000 in 1904.
The Russians, issuing from the middle Urals, have travelled as a broad stream through south Siberia, sending branches to the Altai, to the Ili river in Turkestan and to Minusinsk, as well as down the chief rivers which flow to the Arctic Ocean, the banks of which are studded with villages 15 to 20 m.
Their territories are being rapidly occupied by Russians, and their settlements are cut in two by the Russian stream - the Baraba Tatars and the Yakuts being to the north of it, and the others having been driven back to the hilly tracts of the Altai and Sayan Mountains.
In West Siberia there exist compact masses of Russians who have lost little of their primitive ethnographical features: but the case is otherwise on the outskirts.
Castren characterized Obdorsk (mouth of the Ob) as a true Samoyedic town, although peopled with " Russians."
Yakutsk is thoroughly Yakutic; marriages of Russians with Yakut wives are common, and in the middle of the 19th century the Yakut language was predominant among the Russian merchants and officials.
In different parts of Siberia, on the borders of the hilly tracts, intermarriage of Russians with Tatars was quite common.
Agriculture is the chief occupation both of the settled Russians and of the native population.
As an independent pursuit, live-stock breeding is carried on by the Russians in eastern Transbaikalia, by the Yakuts in the province of Yakutsk, and by the Buriats in Irkutsk and Trans- Lave baikalia, but elsewhere it is secondary to agriculture.
Regular postal communication is maintained by the Russians between Kiakhta and Kalgan (close by Peking) across the desert of Gobi.
A decided decline is shown by the graves which have been discovered, until the country reached the low level at which it was found by the Russians on their arrival towards the close of the 16th century.
These were united by Khan Ediger, and conflicts with the Russians who were then colonizing the Urals brought him into collision with Moscow; his envoys came to Moscow in 1555 and consented to a yearly tribute of a thousand sables.
As early as the nth century the Novgorodians had occasionally penetrated into Siberia; but the fall of the republic and the loss of its north-eastern dependencies checked the advance of the Russians across the Urals.
Within eighty years the Russians had reached the Amur and the Pacific. This rapid conquest is accounted for by the circumstance that neither Tatars nor Turks were able to offer any serious resistance.
In 1628 the Russians reached the Lena, founded the fort of Yakutsk in 1637, and two years later reached the Sea of Okhotsk at the mouth of the Ulya river.
The Khivans contested the advance of the Tekkes, but ultimately, about 1856, the latter became the sovereign power in the country, and remained so until the Russians occupied the oasis in 1883.
Pop. (1897), 8727, including Russians, Armenians, Turkomans, Persians and Jews.
Lansdell, The Russians at Mery and Herat (London, 1883).
These so-called " minority " nationalities were: Russians, Germano-Balts (Baits, Balto-Saxons), Jews, Lithuanians, Poles.
In consequence of the political events the number of resident Russians and Baits was in 1921 decreasing, though the number of Russian refugees was considerable.
The Russians were by this time well on their way to the Theiss, and the terrible girdle which was to throttle the liberties of Hungary was all but completed.
He soon made himself cordially detested by Russians of every class.
As a fortified post of Bokhara it was captured by the Russians in 1866.
Of the non-British or Boer whites Russians form 3.01%, Germans 1-62% and Dutch (of Holland) 1-14%.
Here the Russians defeated the Turks in 1853.
Of these last Russians and Poles numbered 21,013; Germans, 3386; Austrians and Hungarians, 2197; Dutch, 1902; Norwegians Swedes and Danes, 1341; and Rumanians, 1016.
German residents are found mainly in the western and west central districts; French mainly in the City of Westminster (especially the district of Soho), St Pancras and St Marylebone; Italians in Holborn (Saffron Hill), Soho and Finsbury; and Russians and Poles in Stepney and Bethnal Green.
A considerable armada was got together, although its assembling took several weeks and although the Russians had as a matter of fact heavily defeated the Turks in Armenia (battle of Sarikamish) even before orders for the assembling were issued.
This mission enrolled a very large number of adherents drawn from the old Church, the Protestant Nestorians, and the UniatChaldeans, but it can hardly be said to have commenced any active work, although the Anglican mission withdrew from competition by closing its schools in the dioceses occupied by the Russians.
To these should be added 133,144 Hungarians, 21,733 natives of Germany (3782 less than in 1890), 2506 natives of Italy, 1703 Russians, 1176 French, 1643 Swiss, &c. Of this heterogeneous population 1,461,891 were Roman Catholics, the Jews coming next in order with 146,926.
The earliest names associated with the exploration of Bering Strait are those of Russians seeking to extend their trading facilities.
448 et seq.), at another to the Turks (c. 580), which would sufficiently explain the signs of Tatar influence in their polity, and also by the testimony of all observers, Greeks, Arabs and Russians, that there was a double strain within the Khazar nation.
The advance of the Petchenegs from the East gave the Russians their opportunity.
The principality of Tmutarakan, founded by his grandson Mstislav (988), replaced the kingdom of Khazaria, the last trace of which was extinguished by a joint expedition of Russians and Byzantines (io16).
On reaching Constantinople, Oleg disembarked his forces, mercilessly ravaged the suburbs of the imperial city, and compelled the emperor to pay tribute, provide the Russians with provisions for the return journey, and take fifty of them over the city.
A new and elaborate treaty, the terms of which have come down to us, was now concluded between the Russians and Greeks, a treaty which evidently sought to bind the two nations closely together and obviate all possible differences which might arise between them in the future.
There was also to be free trade between the two nations, and the Russians might enter the service of the Greek emperor if they desired it.
defeated the Austrians and Russians on the 2nd of December 1805, was fought in the country to the west of Austerlitz, the position of Napoleon's left wing being almost equi-distant from Briinn and from Austerlitz.
(The 'course of events which led to the action is described under Napoleonic Campaigns.) Napoleon, falling back before the advance of the allied Austrians and Russians from Olmiitz, bivouacked west of the Goldbach, whilst the allies, holding, near Austerlitz, the junction of the roads from Olmiitz and from Hungary, formed up in the valleys east of the Pratzen heights.
The attack orders for the 2nd of December (drawn up by the Austrian general Weyrother, and explained by him to a council of superior officers, of whom some were hostile, the greater part indifferent, and the chief Russian member, General Kutusov, asleep) gave the five columns and the reserve, into which the Austro-Russian army was organized, the following tasks: the first and second (Russians) to move south-westward behind the Pratzen ridge towards Telnitz and Sokolnitz; the third (Russian) to cross the southern end of the plateau, and come into line on the right of the first two; the fourth (Austrians and Russians under Kolowrat) on the right of the third to advance towards Kobelnitz.
Farther still on the right the 5th column (cavalry under Prince John of Liechtenstein) was to hold the northern part of the plateau, south of the Briinn-Olmiitz road; across the road itself was the corps of Prince Bagration, and in rear of Liechtenstein's corps was the reserve (Russians under the grand-duke Constantine).
The contest was long and doubtful, but the Russians gradually drove back Legrand and a part of Davout's corps; numerous attacks both of infantry and cavalry were made, and by the successive arrival of reinforcements each side in turn received fresh impetus.
The Russians in Sokolnitz surrendered, an opportune cavalry charge further discomfited the allied left, and the Pratzen plateau was now in full possession of the French.
It was taken by the Russians in 1770, 1774 and 1806, but each time returned to the Turks, and not definitely annexed to Russia until 1881.
The population, 2500 in 1881, when the Russians seized it, was 19,428 in 1897, onethird Persians, many of them belonging to the Babi sect.
The town is situated in low, malarious ground, and was originally buried in jungle, but the Russians during their occupation of the place in 1723-34 cleared much timber and jungle and made some open spaces.
The Russians formerly used Hakodate as a winter port.
The fortress was recaptured shortly after the surrender of G6rgei to the Russians at Vilagos.
Several petty wars were undertaken by the Russians after 1847 to destroy the Khokand forts, and to secure possession, first, of the Ili (and so of Dzungaria), and next of the Syr-darya region, the result being that in 1866, after the occupation of Ura-tyube and Jizakh, the khanate of Khokand was separated from Bokhara.
During the forty-five years after the death of Omar (he died in 1822) the khanate of Khokand was the seat of continuous wars between the settled Sarts and the nomad Kipchaks, the two parties securing the upper hand in turns, Khokand falling under the dominion or the suzerainty of Bokhara, which supported Khudayar-khan, the representative of the Kipchak party, in 1858-1866; while Alim-kul, the representative of the Sarts, put himself at the head of the gazawat (Holy War) proclaimed in 1860, and fought bravely against the Russians until killed at Tashkent in 1865.
In 1868 Khudayar-khan, having secured independence from Bokhara, concluded a commercial treaty with the Russians, but was compelled to flee in 1875, when a new Holy War against Russia was proclaimed.
Nalivkin, Short History of Khokand (French trans., Paris, 1889); Niazi Mohammed, Tarihi Shahrohi, or History of the Rulers of Ferghana, edited by Pantusov (Kazan, 1885); Maksheev, Historical Sketch of Turkestan and the Advance of the Russians (St Petersburg,1890); N.
White Russians, Poles, Jews and Great Russians.
Of later years, the Italians, Czechs, Hungarians and Russians were, as will be seen from the following table, numerously represented.
The town was captured by the Russians in 1809, but not formally relinquished by Turkey until 1829.
This era, which is still used in the Greek Church, and was followed by the Russians till the time of Peter the Great, dates from the creation of the world.
Sevastopol sustained a memorable eleven months' siege, and on the 8th of September 1855 was evacuated by the Russians.
But it was continually plundered - either by Russians, who attacked it six times during the 16th century, or by Cossacks, who plundered it three times.
In the 18th century the town was taken several times by Russians and by Swedes, and in 1708 Peter the Great ordered it to be destroyed by fire.
Near here the French under Davoilt defeated the Russians under Bagration on the 23rd of July 1812.
To do this with a heavy lead Sea in 1895-1898, while the Russians investigated the Black attached required a very strong hemp line, and the twine used Sea in 1890-1893.
Such formations, termed toross by the Russians, may extend under water, according to Makaroff's investigations, to at least an equal depth.
The university was founded by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden in 1632; but in 1699 teachers and students removed to Pernau on the advance of the Russians, and on the occupation of the country by Peter the Great again took flight to Sweden.
In 1558 it was captured by the Russians, but in 1582 was yielded to Stephen Bathori, king; of Poland.
The Russians again obtained temporary possession in 1666, but did not effect a permanent occupation.
During the Seven Years' War it was taken by the Russians (1759).
In 1812 it was occupied by the French, who remained till March 1813, when the Russians marched in.
The Rhine frontier was threatened by Schwarzenberg's Austrians (210,000); Barclay de Tolly's Russians (150,000) were slowly coming up; and another Austrian force menaced the S.E.
Thus he designed to crush a part of the coalition before the Russians and Austrians poured over the eastern frontier.
Pop. (1900), 25,141, nearly one-half Jews; the remainder are Little Russians, Poles and a few Armenians.
On sea the empire suffered under the ravages of the Cretan corsairs; and in 865 the first pillaging expedition of the Russians endangered the Bosporus.
The population of Livonia, which was 621,600 in 1816, reached 1,000,876 in 1870, and 1,295,231 in 1897, of whom 43.4 were Letts, 39.9% Ehsts, 7.6% Germans, 5.4% Russians, 2% Jews and 1.2% Poles.
The prevailing religion is the Lutheran (79.8%); 1 4.3% belong to the Orthodox Greek Church; of the Russians, however, a considerable proportion are Raskolniks (Nonconformists); the Roman Catholics amount to 2.3%, and the Jews to 2%.
The continental portion, although less mixed than that of the peninsula, consists of Great and Little Russians, who constitute 83 per cent.
Erzerum was captured by the Russians on Feb.
In December 1880 the place was attacked by 6000 Russians under General Skobelev, and after a siege of twenty-three days was carried by storm, although the defenders numbered 25,000.
To the Guard and 2nd divisions was assigned the frontal attack on the Chiuliencheng position where the Russians had about one-half of Bathe of P, the Yalu.
The Russians, though well aware that the force in their front was an army, neither retired nor concentrated.
Meanwhile, the right attack (12th division) encountering no very serious resistance, crossed the Aiho and began to move on the left rear of the Russians.
On the side of the defence, each colonel had been left to retire as best he could, and thus certain fractions of the retreating Russians encountered Inouye's advancing troops and were destroyed after a most gallant resistance.
It mattered little that the Russians had escaped or that they had been in inferior numbers.
The Japanese losses were 4500 out of 30,000 engaged or 15%, that of the Russians fully half of the 3000 engaged.
The victors captured many guns, but were too exhausted to pursue the Russians, whose retirement was not made in the best order.
The Russians, then, at the beginning of June, were divided into three groups, the Southern, or offensive group (3 5,000), in the triangle Neuchwang-Haicheng-Kaiping; the Eastern or defensive group (30,000), the main body of it guarding the passes right and left of the Wiju-Liao-Yang road, the left (Cossacks) in the roadless hills of the upper Aiho and Yalu valleys, the right (Mishchenko's Cossacks and infantry supports) guarding Fenshuiling pass and the road from Takushan; the reserve (42,000) with Kuropatkin at Liao-Yang; the " Ussuri Army " about Vladivostok; and Stessel's two divisions in the Kwantung peninsula.
On the 14th ands 5th, attacking sharply on the Russian front and lapping round both its flanks, Oku won an important and handsome victory, at a cost of 1200 men out of 35,000 engaged, while the Russians, with a loss of at least 3600 out of about 25,000 engaged, retired in disorder.
Oku renewed the attack next day, but found only a rearguard in front of him, and without following up the retiring Russians he again halted for six days before proceeding to Haicheng to effect a junction with the 4th Army (Nozu), which meantime had won a number of minor actions and forced the passage of the mountains at Fenshuiling South.'
The right (12th) division reached the upper Taitszeho, but the divisions that were to come up on its left were held fast by their Scale, 1:226,000 English Miles 'o ' Russians (29-30 ugust) Japanese advance opponents.
The Russians' semicircle, now contracted, rested on the Taitszeho above and below the town, and their forces were massed most closely on either side of the " Mandarin " road that the 1st Army had followed.
On the morning of the 1st of September - the anniversary of Sedan, as the Japanese officers told their men - Oyama, whose intentions the active Kuroki had somewhat outrun, delivered a last attack with the 2nd and 4th Armies, and the Guard on the south front, in the hope of keeping the main body of the Russians occupied and so assisting Kuroki, but the assailants encountered no resistance, Zarubayev having already retired into the fortress.
Manjuyama, thanks to the courage of the army commander and of a single brigadier, was at last carried after nightfall, and the dislodged Russians made two counter-attacks in the dark before they would acknowledge themselves beaten.
Next morning, when Kuroki, who had conceived the mistaken idea of a general retreat of the Russians on Mukden, was preparing to pursue, the storm broke.
The losses of the Japanese Russian totalled 23,000, those of the Russians 19,000.
At St Petersburg the talk was not of peace but of victory, and after a period of reorganization the Russians advanced afresh to a new trial of strength.
Dislodged from this on Port the 26th of June, the Russians checked Nogi's further on .
The Russians, having had a month wherein to intrench themselves, held out all along the line; but after two days and one night of fighting amongst rocks and on precipitous hill-sides, the Japanese broke through on the night of July 27-28.
The defences of Port Arthur, as designed by the Russians in 1900, and owing to the meagre allotment of funds only partially carried out before the war, had some tincture, but no more, of modern continental ideas.
The Russians, with the resources of the fleet at their disposal (just as at Sevastopol), used great numbers of machine guns and electric lights, and the available garrison at first was probably, including sailors, 47,000 men.
Every attempt to bring up supports to the captured positions failed, and the Russians concentrated on the spot from all quarters.
This sortie raised the spirits of the Russians to the highest pitch.
The Russians strengthened their works around the captured forts in such a way as effectually to prevent farther advance, and the Japanese 3rd Army had now to resign itself to a methodical siege.
On the 1st of December there was a heavy bombardment by the big howitzers, which obliged the Russians to take shelter in rear of the ruined works.
On the 2nd of December the Russians tried a counter-attack.
Those of the Russians were about 5000, chiefly from artillery fire.
Kuroki displayed the greatest skill, but he was of course pressed back by the four-to-one superiority of the Russians.
Still the result of Stakelberg's attack, for which he was unable to deploy his whole force, was disappointing, but the main Japanese attack on Bilderling was not much more satisfactory, for the Russians had entrenched every step of their previous advance, and fought splendidly.
In the fighting of the 13th-16th of October the Russians gradually gave back as far as the line of the Sha-ho, the Japanese following until the armies faced roughly north and south on parallel fronts.
Putilov and Novgorod hills, south of the Sha-ho, were stormed by the Russians, and the Japanese made several efforts to retake these positions without success.
The total losses of the Russians are stated as 42,000 men, but this is very considerably exaggerated; the Japanese acknowledged 20,000 casualties.
The Russians, 300,000 strong, were now organized in three armies, commanded by Generals Linievich, Grippenberg and Kaulbars; the total strength of the Japanese 1st, 2nd and 4th Armies and reserve was estimated by the Russians at 220,000.
The losses were roughly 8000 Japanese to over io,000 Russians.
The Russians had another offensive in contemplation when the Japanese forestalled them by advancing on the 21st of February.
Nogi and Oyama were equally impressed with the strength of the new (west) Russian front, and like Grant at Petersburg in 1864, extended farther and farther to the outer flank, the Russians following suit.
On the loth, covered by Kaulbars, who held off Nogi, and by strong rearguards at and east of Mukden, the movement continued, and though it was not executed with entire precision, and the rearguards suffered very heavily, the Russians managed to draw off in safety to the northward.
The circle was complete, but there were no Russians in the centre, and a map of the positions of the Japanese on the evening of the 10th shows the seventeen divisions thoroughly mixed up and pointing in every direction but that of the enemy.
Thus the further pursuit of the Russians could only be undertaken after an interval of re-organization by the northernmost troops of the 5th and 3rd Armies.
But the material loss inflicted on the Russians was far heavier than it had ever been before.
A British fleet " shadowed " Rozhestvenski for some time, but eventually the Russians were allowed to proceed.
The Russians left Kamranh on the 14th of May, and for a time disappeared into the Pacific. It was assumed that they were making for Vladivostok either via Tsushima strait or by the Pacific. Rozhestvenski chose the former course, and on the 27th of May the fleets met near Tsushima.
About 1.45 p.m., the Russians, who were still in a close cruising formation, attempted to open out for battle as the Japanese approached.
Togo, concentrating his fire on each ship in succession, and seeking by superior speed to head off the Russians, now inclined towards the S.E., and the Russians conformed.
Shortly afterwards the Russians suddenly turned N., and sought to pass, across the wake of Togo's battle-fleet, up the straits.
They were not unscathed, but the Russians were suffering far more severely.
The Russians again broke out northward; but some of the Japanese squadrons hung on to the remnant of the enemy's battle-fleet, and the others dealt with the numerous Russian vessels that were unable to keep up. Then Togo called off his ships, and gave the torpedo craft room and the night in which to act.
Frederick was taken prisoner in Leipzig, and the government of his kingdom was assumed for a year by the Russians.
Nothing but Austria's vehement desire to keep a powerful neighbour at a distance from her boundaries preserved it from being completely annexed by the Prussians, who had succeeded the Russians in the government.
The May revolution of 1682 placed Golitsuin at the head of the Posolsky Prikaz, or ministry of foreign affairs, and during the regency of Sophia, sister of Peter the Great, whose lover he became, he was the principal minister of state (1682-1689) and "keeper of the great seal," a title bestowed upon only two Russians before him, Athonasy Orduin-Nashchokin and Artamon Matvyeev.
Of the total foreign-born population of 88,508, 19,788 were Norwegians, 17,873 Germans, 12,365 Russians, 59 06 English Canadians, 5038 Danes, 3862 English and 3298 Irish.
In the 15th century it fell under the dominion of Lithuania, but was retaken by the Russians.
The principal elements composing the white foreign population were as follows: Norwegians 30,206, English Canadians 25,004, Russians 14,979, Germans 22,546, Swedes 8419.
At the beginning of the 19th century it was but a poor village, and in 1812 when it was acquired by Russia from Moldavia it had only 7000 inhabitants; twenty years later its population numbered 35,000, while in 1862 it had with its suburbs 92,000 inhabitants, and in 1900 125,787, composed of the most varied nationalities - Moldavians, Walachians, Russians, Jews (43%), Bulgarians, Tatars, Germans and Gypsies.
Eight years later the town was burned by the Russians.
of Brandenburg, and after being plundered by the Russians in 1713 was ceded to Prussia by the peace of Stockholm in 1720.
His wise and thorough reorganization of the whole department contributed essentially to the victories of the Russians during the Napoleonic wars.
Of the 52,644 (42,607) foreigners, there were 34,277 (26,018) French, 10,211 (9, 26) Italians, 4653 (4283) subjects of the German empire, 583 (468) British subjects, 832 (777) Russians, and 285 (251) citizens of the United States of America.
were non-Swiss, the Russians (475 in number) forming the majority of the foreign students.
The citadel, which was stormed by the Russians in 1864, stands on high ground above the town, but is now in ruins.
Through her agency an important bulwark for the Christian faith was created in the new nations which had sprung into existence since the beginning of the middle ages: the Bulgarians, the Servians, and the multifarious peoples grouped under the name of Russians.
The Czechs and the Slovaks, or, to give them their united name, the Czechoslovaks, are a branch of the great Slav family of which the Russians are the most numerous and the most important member and to which the Serbo-Croats with the Slovenes, the Poles, the Bulgarians and the Wends of Germany also belong.
Balta was in great part destroyed by the Russians in 1780.
The Russians fled at the sight of them, "like hares before hunters."
Swedes, Saxons and Russians not only lived upon the country, but plundered it systematically.
and his partisans were besieged by the Russians in Danzig, their last refuge, and with the surrender of that fortress the cause of Stanislaus was lost.
The Turks, already alarmed at the progress of the Russians in Poland, and stimulated by Vergennes, at that time French ambassador at Constantinople, at.
The Russians then poured into eastern Poland; the Prussians, at the beginning of 1793, alarmed lest Catherine should appropriate the whole Republic, occupied Great Poland; and a diminutive, debased and helpless assembly met at Grodno in order, in the midst of a Russian army corps,"to come to an amicable understanding" with the partitioning powers.
The Russians were defeated in more than one pitched battle; three-quarters of the ancient territory was recovered, and Warsaw and Vilna, the capitals of Poland and Lithuania respectively, were liberated.
The first serious reverse, at Szczekociny (June 5), was more than made up for by the successful defence of Warsaw against the Russians and Prussians (July 9 to Sept.
The Polish troops had taken a prominent part in the invasion of Russia, and their share in the plundering of Smolensk and of Moscow had intensified the racial hatred felt for them by the Russians.
The Russians occupied Warsaw on the 18th of February 1813 and overran the grand duchy, which thus came into their possession by conquest.
No attempt was made to profit by the embarrassments of the Russians in their war with Turkey.
The Russians, who had endeavoured to overawe Europe by the report of their immense military power, had the utmost difficulty in putting 114,000 men into the field, yet in less than a year, under the leadership of Diebitsch, and then of Paskevich, they mastered the Poles.
It was the hope of the emperor that they would thus become united in interest with the Russians.
For instance, there are no bilinf or legendary poems, such as are found among the Russians, although many passages in the ancient chroniclers from their poetical colouring seem to be borrowed from old songs or legends, and the first verses of some of these compositions have been preserved.
In 1858 he published a work in which he traced the origin of Poland from the Varangians (Lechicki poczatek polski), thus making them identical in origin with the Russians.
Pop. (1890), 53,230; (igoo), 79, 8 5 o, of whom 23,758 were foreign-born (including 8076 Irish, 2700 Germans, 2260 Russians, 1952 Italians, 1714 Swedes, 1634 English and 1309 English Canadians); (1910 census) 98,915.
Another power entered on the field of exploration when the Russians sent Adam Ivan Krusenstern to the Pacific (1803).
For five weeks, from the 20th July onwards, Russians and Austro-Hungarians, as well as Rumans, attend the fair which is held at Falticheni, chiefly for.
Schuyler estimated the population, which includes Taranchis, Dungans, Sarts, Chinese, Kalmucks and Russians, at 10,000 in 1873; it has since increased.
During the insurrection of 1864 the Dungans and the Taranchis formed here the Taranchi sultanate, and this led to the occupation of Kulja by the Russians in 1871.
Meanwhile Bokhara became an object of rivalry to Russia and England, and envoys were sent by both nations to cultivate the favour of the emir, who treated the Russians with arrogance and the English with contempt.
In 1866 the Russians invaded the territory of Bokhara proper, and a decisive battle was fought on the 10th of May at Irdjar on the left bank of the Jaxartes.
In 1868 the Russians entered Samarkand (May 14), and the emir was constrained to submit to the terms of the conqueror, becoming henceforward only a Russian puppet.
He was the first tsar to import foreign teachers on a great scale, the first to send young Russians abroad to be educated, the first to allow Lutheran churches to be built in Russia.
It was occupied by the Russians in 1829 and 1878 (see RussoTURKISH Wars).
The revolutions of 1830 strengthened Frederick William in his reactionary tendencies; the question of the constitution was indefinitely shelved; and in 1831 Prussian troops concentrated on the frontier helped the task of the Russians in reducing the military rising in Poland.
The Russians acquired possession of it piecemeal between 1829 and 1842, but their power was not firmly established until after 1864.
It has some 20,000 inhabitants, consisting of Tatars (75%), Armenians and Russians.
The Russians first entered Shirvan in 1723, but soon retired.
There had already been serious revolts and raids, and after the battle of Leipzig the Russians drove the king from Cassel (October 1813), the kingdom of Westphalia was dissolved and the old order was for a time re-established.
The population belongs almost entirely to the Kartvelian or Georgian group, and is distributed as follows: Imeretians, 41.2%; Mingrelians and Lazes, 2 2.5%; Gurians, 7.3%; Ajars, 5.8%; Svanetians, 1.3%; of other nationalities there are 6% of Abkhasians, 2.6% of Turks, 2.3% of Armenians, besides Russians, Jews, Greeks, Persians, Kurds, Ossetes and Germans.
Since 1880 Italians, Russians, Poles, Austrians, Bohemians and Hungarians have enormously increased in the immigrant population.
In 1758 and again in 1760 the Russians besieged Kolberg in vain, but in 1762 they succeeded in capturing it.
The population is composed mainly of Englishor French-speaking people, but there are German settlements of some extent in Ontario, and of late years there has been a large immigration into the western provinces and territories from other parts of Europe, including Russians, Galicians, Polish and Russian Jews, and Scandinavians.
The three southern islands, Kunashiri, Etorofu, and Shikotan, are believed to have belonged to Japan from a remote date, but at the beginning of the 18th century the Russians, having conquered Kamchatka, found their way to the northern part of the Kuriles in pursuit of fur-bearing animals, with which the islands then abounded.
To Wellington and Blucher were committed the invasion of France from the north, while the Russians and Austrians entered it from the east.
He received the education commonly given to young Russians of good family at that time - a smattering of a great many subjects, and a good practical acquaintance with the chief modern European languages.
The large skete of St Andrew and some others belong to the Russians; there are also Rumanian and Georgian sketae.
Hangs now takes front rank as a fashionable watering-place, especially for wealthy Russians, having a dry climate and a fine strand.
There are a large number of foreign residents, notably Austro-Hungarians and Russians, and also a considerable colony of English and Americans, the latter amounting to about 150o.
The intervention of Austria in the War of Liberation, and the consequent advance of the Allies under the Austrian field-marshal Prince Schwarzenberg from Prague upon Dresden, recalled Napoleon from Silesia, where he was engaged against the Prussians and Russians under Blucher.
On the right the Russians under Wittgenstein advanced from Striesen, the Prussians under Kleist through the Grosser Garten, whilst Prussians under Prince Augustus and Austrians under Colloredo moved upon the Moczinski redoubt, which was the scene of the most desperate fighting, and was repeatedly taken and retaken.
The centre, aided by the defences of the Dresden suburbs, could hold its own, as the events of the 26th had shown, the left, now under Ney, with whom served Kellermann's cavalry and the Young Guard, was to attack Wittgenstein's Russians on the Pirna road.
Still, the left attack may have had a purely tactical object, for in that quarter was the main body of the Prussians and Russians, and Napoleon's method was always to concentrate the fury of the attack on the heaviest masses of the enemy, i.e.
The Russians offered a strenuous resistance, defending Seidnitz, Gross Dobritz and Reick with their usual steadiness, and Ney was so far advanced that several generals at the Allied headquarters suggested a counter-attack of the centre by way of Strehlen, so as to cut off the French left from Dresden.
The forces engaged were 96,000 French, Saxons, &c., and 200,000 Austrians, Russians and Prussians.
The population numbered 828,511 in 1897, of whom the major part were Tatars; other races were Russians, the Iranian tribes of the Tates (89,519) and Talysh (34994), Armenians (52,233) and the Caucasian mountaineers known as Kurins.
Some Russians would have preferred to proclaim Peter as emperor of the East; but Peter himself adopted the more patriotic title.
He was determined that, at whatever cost, hardship and inconvenience, Russia should be ruled by Russians, not by foreigners; and before his death he had the satisfaction of seeing every important place in his empire in the hands of capable natives of his own training.
The town was burned by Albert of Mecklenburg's party in 1389, by an accidental conflagration in 1665, and by the Russians in 1719.
In 17 3 6 it was taken and burnt by the Russians, and in 1784, after the conquest of the Crimea by the Russians, it received its present name and became the capital of Taurida.
Military operations against Sweden's Baltic provinces were to be begun simultaneously by the Saxons and Russians.
He detested the Russians, and surrounded himself with Holsteiners.
Chappe d'Auteroche had discovered that Siberia was not a paradise, and had observed that the Russians were dirty in their habits, and that masters whipped their servants, male and female.
Kastro was again besieged by the Russians in 1770.
Pop. (1900), 18,800; including many Russians, Turks, Greeks and Jews.
The town was unsuccessfully attacked by the Russians on the 9th of November 1877 after a victory gained by them a short time previously on the Deveboyun heights; it was occupied by them during the armistice (7th of February 1878) and restored to Turkey after the treaty of Berlin.
The town was burned in 1810 by the Russians; but after 1820 it began to revive, and the introduction of steam traffic on the lower Danube (1835) restored its prosperity.
The Russians are represented by the Amur Cossacks, whose villages, e.g.
This region became known to the Russians in 1639.
In the latter part of the 1 8th century Braila was several times captured by the Russians, and in 1770 it was burned.
Parker's orders were to give Denmark twenty-four hours in which to withdraw from the coalition, and on her refusal to destroy or neutralize her strength and then proceed against the Russians before the breaking up of the ice allowed the ships at Reval to join the squadron at Kronstadt.
Turkey held her own against the Austrians, but in 1788 Ochakov fell to the Russians.
In 1855 it was bombarded by the Anglo-French fleet, and after that the Russians demolished the fortifications.
The Russians besieged Orsha more than once in the 16th and 17th centuries, and finally annexed it in 1772.
It is the most popular tree with the Poles, as the birch with the Russians; judgment of old was pronounced under its shade, and all the folksongs repeat its name.
According to nationalities, the population was made up as follows in 18 97: 6, 755,5 0 3 Poles, equal to 64.6% of the total; 1,267,194 Jews, equal to 12.1%; 631,844 Russians (6%); 39 1, 44 0 Germans (4%); 310,386 Lithuanians and Letts (3%); with a few thousands each of Tatars, Bohemians, Rumanians, and Esthonians, and a few Gypsies and Hungarians.
In Russia they constitute, with Jews, Lithuanians, Ruthenians and White Russians, the town population, as also the landed nobility and the country gentry, in several governments west of the Dvina and the Dnieper.
In 1807 several engagements took place in the vicinity between the French and Russians.
In 1814 it was occupied by the Russians, by the congress of Vienna it was assigned to Prussia, and in 1822 it was made the seat of government of the Rhine province.
It occupies both banks of the Motala, the wide and rapid emissary of lake Vetter, close to its outlet in the Bravik, an inlet of the Baltic. Having been burned by the Russians in 1719 and visited by further fires in 1812, 1822 and 1826, the whole town has a modern appearance, with wide and regular streets.
The Russians keep a small naval flotilla on the Caspian, all other nations being debarred from doing so by the treaty of Turkmanchai (1828).
It was occupied by the Russians under Marshal Miinnich in 1736, and in 1771 by Prince Dolgorukov.
The Russians have themselves established several important factories at Hankow, which is the chief seat of this industry, and to which place they import in large quantities tea-dust and small broken tea from India, Ceylon and Java.
On the 10th of June 1807 a battle took place at Heilsberg between the French under Soult and Murat, and the Russians and Prussians under Bennigsen.
Since the first published text 3 contains names like " Russians " and " Crimea," Saint Martin in his edition 4 denied that it was written by Moses, and assigned its origin to the 10th century.
Russians flocked to Germany in thousands after the Russo-Japanese War and the insurrections in Russia, and the figures given for 1900 had been doubled in 1907.
Henry led his troops in person and obtained assistance from the Russians and the Hungarians; peace was concluded in 1018, the Elbe remaining the north-east boundary of Germany.
In 1813 King Frederick William, after an agony of hesitation, was forced by I War of the patriotic initiative of General Yorck, who concluded, L,ibera~ with the Russians the convention of Tauroggen on his own responsibility, and by the pressure of public opinion supported by Queen Louise and by Hardenberg, to enter into an alliance with Russia.
But a sortie of the garrison of Astrakhan drove back the besiegers; 15,000 Russians, under Knes Serebianov, attacked and scattered the workmen and the Tatar force sent for their protection; and, finally, the Ottoman fleet was destroyed by a storm.
sultan of the Turks; and in October 1853, of an engagement between Turks and Russians.
At the beginning of 1849 it was the scene of several engagements between the Austrians and Hungarians; and later in the year it was several times taken and retaken by the Russians and Hungarians.
The Russians have improved the town and port, but the latter is still exposed to west and south-west gales.
It was captured by the Russians in 1812 and 1829.
On the fifth day a telegram from Mr Layard was published announcing that the Russians were nearing Constantinople.
Not far from Aussig iš the village of Kulm, where, on the 29th and 30th of August 1813, a battle took place between the French under Vandamme and an allied army of Austrians, Prussians and Russians.
It has belonged to Mecklenburg-Schwerin since 1695; in 1712 it was taken by the Swedes, in 1715 by the Danes and in 1716 by the Russians.
The native city in 1871 had 78,130 inhabitants, and in 1897 156,414, mostly Sarts, with Uzbegs, Kirghiz, Jews, Russians and Germans.
In 1875 its population, exclusive of the military, was 4860, mostly Russians, and in 1900 about 25,000.
They made a gallant resistance, but the Russians quickly cleared the ridge, capturing several guns, and their first line was followed by a heavy mass of cavalry which crossed the ridge and descended into the Balaklava plain.
At this moment the British cavalry division under the earl of Lucan was in the plain, but their commander was prevented from engaging the Russians by the tenor of his orders.
The Russians were at this juncture reinforced by a mixed force on the Fedukhine heights; Liprandi's infantry occupied the captured ridge, and manned the guns taken from the Turks.
The French 4th Chasseurs d'Afrique made a dashing charge which drove the Russians off the Fedukhine heights, though at considerable loss.
But the campaign of Austerlitz followed, then the peace of Pressburg which guaranteed to Napoleon the former dominions of Venice, and finally the treaty of Tilsit, which involved, among other things, the withdrawal of the Russians from the Ionian Islands and the Albanian coast.
In the former year Frederick triumphed, at a heavy cost, over the Russians at Zorndorf; and although, through lack of his usual foresight, he lost the battle of Hochkirch, he prevented the Austrians from deriving any real advantage from their triumph, Silesia still remaining in his hands at the end of the year.
He had here to contend both with the Russians and the Austrians; and although at first he had some success, his army was in the end completely broken.
He had now, however, to act on the defensive, and fortunately for him, the Russians, on the death of the empress Elizabeth, not only withdrew in 1762 from the compact against him, but for a time became his allies.
The Russians continued their attacks, burning and plundering the town, and twice, in 1633 and 1705, taking possession of it for a few years.
The only other craft, except the steamships of the Russians, that venture on the waters, are the flat-bottomed boats of the Kirghiz.
He experimented in the outlying provinces of his empire; and the Russians noted with open murmurs that, not content with governing through foreign instruments, he was conferring on Poland, Finland and the Baltic provinces benefits denied to themselves.
The French remained in Prussia, the Russians on the Danube; and each accused the other of breach of faith.
Every place of any importance has at least one cadi, who is nominated by the government, 4 but has no further dependence 1 Till the Russians gained preponderating influence the khan of Khiva also acknowledged the sultan as his suzerain.
When in 1736 Khan Feta Ghirai was driven by the Russians from Bakhchi-sarai he settled at Karasu-Bazar, but next year the town was captured, plundered and burned by the Russians.
There are also 32,000 Russians, of whom over 22,150 are convicts.
The Russians made their first permanent settlement on Sakhalin in 1857; but the southern part of the island was held by the Japanese until 1875, when they ceded it to Russia.
was re-ceded to Japan, the Russians retaining the other three-fifths of the area.
The Russians besieged Reval twice, in 1570 and 1577.
Evidence has been yearly accumulating on the existence of restrictions as to intermarriage, and as to the right of eating together (commensality) among other Aryan tribes, Greeks, Germans, Russians and so on.
In 1867 an army assembled by the amir of Bokhara was attacked and dispersed by the Russians, who in 1868 entered Samarkand, and became virtually rulers of Bokhara.
The administration of the whole of the states on the right bank of the Oxus, down to the Russian boundary line at Ichka Yar, is now in the hands of Bokhara, including Karateghin - which the Russians have transferred to it from Khokand - and Darwaz at the entrance to the Pamir highlands.
Of the total population, civil and military, 578,458 were Magyars, 104,520 were Germans, 25,168 were Slovaks, and the remainder was composed of Croatians, Servians, Rumanians, Russians, Greeks, Armenians, Gypsies, &c. According to religion, there were 445,023 Roman Catholics, 5806 Greek Catholics, 4422 Greek Orthodox; 67,319 were Protestants of the Helvetic, and 38,811 were Protestants of the Augsburg Confessions; 168,985 were Jews, and the remainder belonged to various other creeds.
The Russians arranged for a combined attack on the ridge above-mentioned by part of Menshikov's army (16,oco) and a corps (19,000) that was to issue from Sevastopol.
But already General Pennefather, commanding the division, had pushed forward one body of his infantry after another down the forward slope, near the foot of which they encountered the Russians in great force.
Soimonov himself was killed, and the disciplined confidence and steady volleys of the defenders dominated the chaotic élan of the Russians.
The sangar at first fell into the hands of the Russians, but they were soon ejected, and small British detachments reoccupied and held it, while the various Russian attacks flowed up and past it and ebbed back into the Quarry Ravine.
He had not proceeded far, however, when a body of Russians moving higher up descended upon the small British corps and scattered it, Cathcart himself being killed.
guns of the British siege train and assisted by the bold advance of two French horse-artillery batteries which galloped down the forward slope and engaged the Russians at close range, gained the upper hand.
Last of all, the dominant guns on Shell Hill thus silenced, the resolute advance of a handful of British infantry decided the day, and the Russians retreated.
The Russians are said to have lost 11,000 out of about 42,000 present.
On the other hand, the reproaches addressed by some British writers to General Bosquet for not promptly supporting the troops at Inkerman with his whole strength are equally unjustifiable, for apparently Sir George Brown and Sir George Cathcart both declined his first offers of support, and he had Prince Gorchakov with at least 20,000 Russians in his own immediate front.
The season is almost continuous; in the winter the English, in the summer Russians, Spaniards and French fill the hotels of the town.
Bender was taken by the Russians in 1770, in 1789 and in 1806, but it was not held permanently by Russia till 1812.
According to nationality, over 40% were Ruthenians, 35% Rumanians, 13% Jews, and the remainder was composed of Germans, Poles, Hungarians, Russians and Armenians.
It was occupied by the Russians in 1769, and by the Austrians in 1774.
After 1849, when the annexation of the Punjab had carried the Indian northwestern frontier up to the skirts of the Afghan highlands, the corresponding advance of the Russians south-eastward along the Oxus river became of closer interest to the British, particularly when, in 1856, the Persians again attempted to take possession of Herat.
When, therefore, the conquest of Khiva in 1873 by the Russians, and their gradual approach towards the amir's northern border, had seriously alarmed Shere Ali, he applied for support to the British; and his disappointment at his failure to obtain distinct pledges of material assistance, and at Great Britain's refusal to endorse all his claims in a dispute with Persia over Seistan, so far estranged him from the British connexion that he began to entertain amicable overtures from the Russian authorities at Tashkend.
Nevertheless the correspondence between Kabul and Tashkend continued, and as the Russians were now extending their dominion over all the region beyond Afghanistan on the northwest, the British government determined, in 1876, once more to undertake active measures for securing their political ascendancy in that country.
Abdur Rahman, the son of the late amir Shere Ali's elder brother, had fought against Shere Ali in the war for succession to Dost Mahommed, had been driven beyond the Oxus, and had lived for ten years in exile with the Russians.
The work went on with much difficulty and contention, until in March 1885, when the amir was at Rawalpindi for a conference with the viceroy of India, Lord Dufferin, the news came that at Panjdeh, a disputed place on the boundary held by the Afghans, the Russians had attacked and driven out with some loss the amir's troops.
At this time the Russians were advancing rapidly in Central Asia, and a Persian army, not without Russian support, was besieging Herat, the traditional bulwark of Afghanistan on the east.
He stayed at Sarai, their Volgan capital, all the winter, and not only succeeded in obtaining a mitigation of the tribute, but also the abolition of the military service previously rendered by the Russians to the Tatars.
Until the war of 1870, the prevailing nationality was French, but of late years Americans, Russians and English are the more numerous.
Besides the British concession the French, Germans, Russians, Japanese, Austrians, Italians and Belgians have separate settlements, five miles in all, the river front being governed by foreign powers.
defeated an allied army of Russians and Prussians (see Napoleonic Campaigns).
Bautzen itself was held as an advanced post of the left wing (Russians), the main body of which lay 2 m.
of Bautzen), were the Russians of Barclay de Tolly.
The advance was carried out with precision; the Russians were quickly dislodged, and Ney was now closing upon the rear of Blucher's corps at the village of Preititz.
However, the Russians came in 1805, and in 1812 founded on Bodega Bay a post they held till 1841, whence they traded and hunted (even in San Francisco Bay) for furs.
Spain's fears passed on to Mexico, the Russians being feared only less than Americans.
Varna was occupied in 1828 by the Russians, in 1854 by the allies, who here organized the invasion of the Crimea, and in 1877 by the Egyptian troops summoned to the defence of Turkey against the Russians.
The new French ambassador, Admiral Roussin, had arrived on the 17th; he now, with the full concurrence of Mandeville, the British charge d'affaires, persuaded the Porte to invite the Russians to withdraw, undertaking that France would secure the acceptance by Mehemet Ali of the sultan's terms. A period of suspense followed.
The Porte now tried once more to modify its terms; but the Western powers were now intent on getting rid of the Russians at all costs, and as a result of the pressure they brought to bear on both parties the preliminary convention of Kutaiah, conceding all the Egyptian demands, was signed on the 8th of April, and Ibrahim began his withdrawal.
A further contingent of six or seven thousand Russians had arrived on the 22nd of April; Russian engineers were busy with the fortifications along the Straits; Russian agents alone were admitted to the sultan's presence.
To complete the desperateness of the situation the news reached the capital that Ahmed Pasha, the Ottoman admiral-in-chief, had sailed to Alexandria and surrendered his fleet to Mehemet Ali, on the pretext that the sultan's advisers were sold to the Russians.
He stayed for some time in Russia, hoping that his claim against England would be taken up by the Russians; but when that expectation proved futile he proceeded to Paris, where he lived for the rest of his life on the pension allowed him by the Indian government.
The Servians and Russians apparently always used the Cyrillic, and its advantages gradually ousted the Glagolitic elsewhere, though the service book in the old ecclesiastical language which is used by the Roman Catholic Croats is in Glagolitic.4 While the Carian and Lycian were probably independent of the Greek in origin, so, too, at the opposite end of the Mediterranean was the Iberian.
It suffered severely through various wars of the 17th and 18th centuries, and in 1734, having declared in favour of Stanislus Leszczynski, was besieged and taken by the Russians and Saxons.
The confluence of the Oka and the Volga, inhabited in the 10th century by Mordvinian tribes, began to be coveted by the Russians as soon as they had occupied the upper Volga, and as early as the Iith century they established a fort, Gorodets, 20 m.
Until the beginning of the 14th century Nizhniy-Novgorod, which grew rapidly as the Russians colonized the banks of the Oka, remained subject to Suzdal; it enjoyed, however, almost complete independence, being ruled by its popular assembly.
The inhabitants (Little Russians) are mostly employed in agriculture and gardening; but sugar and tobacco are manufactured and spirits distilled.
Of Russians there were only 5939, chiefly in the provinces of Viborg and Nyland.
Through it went the communications of the empire with the Petchenegs and other native tribes, and more especially with the Russians.
The commerce of Cherson is guaranteed in the early treaties between the Greeks and Russians, and it was in Cherson, according to Ps.
But, while the Russians were driven from the Black Sea by the Khazars, and later on by a tide of Ugrian migration from the north-east, a stream of Sla y s moved slowly towards the north-east, down the upper Oka, into the borderland between the Finnish and Turkish regions.
After two centuries of struggle the Russians succeeded in colonizing the fertile valleys of the Oka basin; in the 12th century they built a series of fortified towns on the Oka and Klyazma; and finally they reached the mouth of the Oka, there founding (in 1222) a new Novgorod - the Novgorod of the Lowlands, now Nizhniy-Novgorod.
This invasion checked but did not stop the advance of the Russians down the Volga.
Two centuries elapsed before the Russians covered the 300 m.
With the capture of Kazan (1552) the Russians found the lower Volga open to their boats, and eight years afterwards they were masters of the mouth of the river at Astrakhan.
Two centuries more elapsed before the Russians secured a free passage to the Black Sea and became masters of the Sea of Azov and the Crimea; the Volga, however, was their route.
Some three-fourths of the population are Little Russians; the other elements are White and Great Russians, Poles (5.2%), Jews (13.2%) and Germans (5.7%).
It occasionally served as the winter headquarters of the Turks in their wars with Russia, and was bombarded by the Russians in 1854.
During the "Boxer" rising of 1900 it was, for a few weeks, the centre of military action directed against the Russians.
A few months later, the Swedes were compelled by the Russians to evacuate Marienburg, and Martha became one of the prisoners of war of Marshal Sheremetev, who sold her to Prince Menshikov, at whose house, in the German suburb of Moscow, Peter the Great first beheld and made love to her in his own peculiar fashion.
The population, which consists chiefly of Ehstes (365,959 in 1897), Russians (18,000), Germans (16,000), Swedes (5800), and some Jews, is growing fairly fast: in 1870 it numbered 323,960, and in 1897 413,747, of whom 210,199 were women and 76,315 lived in towns; in 1906 it was estimated at 451,700.
The Esths, Ehsts or Esthonians, who call themselves Tallopoeg and Maamees, are known to the Russians as Chukhni or Chukhontsi, to the Letts as Iggauni, and to the Finns as Virolaiset.
Nothing else was done on either side for six months more; and then the Swedish generals made a " tacit truce " with the Russians through the mediation of the French ambassador at St Petersburg.
By the time that the " tacit truce " had come to an end the Swedish forces were so demoralized that the mere rumour of a hostile attack made them retire panic-stricken to Helsingfors; and before the end of the year all Finland was in the hands of the Russians.
with such a hatred of Napoleon that European when a general coalition was formed against the Coalition, French emperor he was one of the first to join it 1804 (Dec. 3, 1804), pledging himself to send an army corps to cooperate with the English and Russians in driving the enemy out of Holland and Hanover.
Castelnuovo is a picturesque town, with a dismantled 14thcentury citadel, which has, at various times, been occupied by Bosnians, Turks, Venetians, Spaniards, Russians, French, English and Austrians.
In 1828 the Russians entered the country and took Prince John prisoner.
The Greek Orthodox Catholics are represented by Russians, who reside in northern Persia; they have a church at the Russian legation in Teheran, and another at the Russian consulate in Tabriz.
The Turks seized on Tiflis, Tabriz and Hamadan, while Peter the Great, whose aid had been sought by the friendless Tahmasp, fitted out a fleet on the Caspian.2 The Russians occupied Shirvan, and the province of Gilan south-west of the Caspian;3 and Peter made a treaty with Tahmasp II.
2 In 1721 Sultan Flosain sent an embassy to the Russians, seeking aid against the Afghans.
The Russians remained in Gilan until 1734, when they were obliged to evacuate it, owing to the unhealthiness of the climate.
The following story, told by Forster,2 and varied by a later writer, is characteristic. A party of Russians having obtained permission to build a counting-house at Ashraf, i Markham.
As the most powerful chief in Persia since the death of Karim Khan, the Russians were seeking to put their yoke upon him.
Although, when the spring arrived and the shah led his forces to the Aras, the Russians had, it is true, retreated, yet territory had been regained by them as far south as the Talysh.
The Russians, moreover, made a futile attempt on Gilan by landing troops at Enzeli, which returned to Baku, where Zizianov fell a victim to the treachery of the Persian governor.
1804 and 1805, to allow the Russians to Turke make free use of the south-eastern coasts of the Black Sea, to facilitate operations against the shahs troops; and there had been a passage of arms betweenthe kings eldest son, Mahommed Au Mirza, and Suleiman Pasha, son-in-law of the governor-generat of Bagdad, which is locally credited as a battle won by the former.
Frequent interruptions occurred on the telegraph line between Teheran and Meshed in 1885, at the time of the Panjdeh incident, when the Russians were advancing towards Afghanistan and Sir Peter Lumsden was on the Afghan frontier; and Sir Ronald Thomson concluded an agreement with the Persian government for the line to be kept in working order by an English inspector, the Indian government paying a share not exceeding 20,000 rupees per annum of the cost of maintenance, and an English signaller being stationed at Meshed.
Mahommed Ali consented, but withdrew from Teheran; and on his departure the royal bodyguard of so-called Cossacks Persian soldiers officered by Russians in the shahs serviceat once came into conflict with the Nationalists.
The presence of the Russians ultimately induced the Royalists to abandon the siege.
Throughout 1789 and 1790 Gustavus, in the national interests, gallantly conducted the unequal struggle with Russia, finally winning in the Svensksund (9th-loth July) the most glorious naval victory ever gained by the Swedish arms, the Russians losing one-third of their fleet and 7000 men.
Kurakin was one of the best-educated Russians of his day, and his autobiography, carried down to 1709, is an historical document of the first importance.
Since that time the Russians have made many additions to the works, and the place now forms, with Warsaw, Ivangorod and Brest-Litovsk, the so-called Polish Quadrilateral.
In the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 he joined the Russians before Plevna, and being placed in command of the combined Russian and Rumanian forces, forced Osman Pasha to surrender.
In 1768 a confederation of the Polish nobles (see next article) against the Russians was formed in the town, which was shortly after taken by storm, but did not become finally united to Russia till the partition of 1793.
Twice during the Seven Years' War Berlin was attacked by the enemy: in 1757 by the Austrians, who penetrated into the suburbs and levied a heavy contribution, and in 1760 by the Russians, who bombarded the city, penetrated into it, and only retired on payment of a ransom of 1,500,000 thalers (225,000).
In the revolutionary war of 1848-49 the Hungarians were twice defeated before the walls of Kassa by the Austrians under General Schlick, and the town was held successively by the Austrians, Hungarians and Russians.
The Russians made their first settlements in Kamchatka in the end of the 17th century; in 1696 Atlasov founded Verkhne-Kamchatsk, and in 1704 Robelev founded Bolsheryetsk.
Russians began to mine in 1727 at Kolyvan, and in 1739 at Barnaul.
Although all are called Kalmucks by the Russians, they speak a Turkish language.
The virgin forests of the Kuznetsk Ala-tau - the Chern, or Black Forest of the Russians - are peopled by Tatars, who live in very small settlements, sometimes of the Russian type, but mostly in wooden yurts or huts of the Mongolian fashion.
Deposed in 1805, he escaped to St Petersburg, and in 1806, at the head of some 20,000 Russians, returned to Bucharest, where he set to work on a fresh attempt to liberate Greece.
Sigismund II., king of Poland, took Riga in 1547, and in 1558 the Russians burned its suburbs and many ships in the river.
In 1621 Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, took it from Poland, and held it against the Poles and the Russians, who besieged it in 1656.
During the Northern War between Sweden and Russia, it was courageously defended (1700), but after the battle of Poltava it succumbed, and was taken in July 1710 by the Russians.
Frequently ravaged during the wars which devastated the district, it was plundered several times by the imperialists during the Thirty Years' War; in 1657 it was burnt by the Poles and in 1713 by the Russians.
Among the motley population of Russians, Tatars, Armenians, Germans and Greeks are several hundred Qaraite Jews.
In 1771 it was taken by the Russians, and in 1783 annexed by them, whereupon the greater part of its population deserted it.
Its inhabitants, 21,282 in 1900, are Little Russians, Jews and Mennonites, who carry on agriculture and shipbuilding.
ALEXIS BORISOVICH, PRINCE LOBANOV-ROETOVSKI (1824-1896), Russian statesman, was born on the 30th of December 1824, and educated, like Prince Gorchakov and so many other eminent Russians, at the lyceum of Tsarskoe Selo.
They are certainly of a mixed origin, and present a variety of ethnological types, all the more so as all who are neither Armenians nor Russians,.
They are difficult to classify, for they are the result of somewhat recent minglings of races and customs, and they are all more or less in process of being assimilated by the Russians, but the following subdivisions may be accepted provisionally.
After a strenuous resistance to Russian conquest, and much suffering at a later period from Kirghiz and Kalmuck raids, they now live by agriculture, either in separate villages or along with Russians.
In last century they paid a tribute for 2550 arbaletes, but they now are rapidly becoming fused with Russians.
Among the various elements comprising the foreign-born population were 119,598 Germans; 94,844 Irish; 45,428 English; 42,865 Italians; 19,745 Russians; 14,913 Hungarians; 14,728 Austrians; 14,357 Poles; 14,211 Scotch; and 10,261 Dutch.
It consists of various races, nearly one-half (920,919 in 1897) being Moldavians, the others Little Russians, Jews (37% in the towns and 1 2% in the rural districts), Bulgarians (103,225), Germans (60, 206), with some Gypsies (Zigani), Greeks, Armenians, Tatars and Albanians.
Kagul, on the Pruth, and Reni on the Danube (the place to which Alexander of Bulgaria was carried when kidnapped by the Russians in 1886), are small, but lively, river-ports.
From early in the 18th century it was a bone of contention between the Ottoman Turks and the Russians, the latter capturing it five times between 1711 and 1812.
In the Crimean War the Turks forced the river at this point and inflicted heavy losses on the Russians.
They were good fighters until they were cowed by the treatment of the Russians, who practically reduced them to slavery.
It is stated that before the advent of the Russians there were 25,000 Aleuts on the archipelago, but that the barbarities of the traders eventually reduced the population to one-tenth of this number.
Then, however, the Russian government held out inducements to settlers, and these have been responded to by Russians, Greeks, Armenians and Rumanians, but the process of repeopling the long deserted territory is slow and difficult.
The governing classes are of course Russians, who constitute also the merchant and artizan classes.
There is a small colony of British, French, Italians and Russians.
Of the whole, 79% are Letts, 8% Germans, 1.7 7c, Russians, and 1% each Poles and Lithuanians.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.