In March 1885 when the RussoAfghan Boundary Commission should have been engaged in settling the boundary-line, this portion of it was in dispute between the Afghans and the Russians.
On their refusal the Russians attacked them at 3 a.m.
In 1810 it was captured by the Russians, who destroyed the fortifications.
A monument was erected in 1901 to commemorate the Russians who fell.
Three times captured by the Russians, in 1791, 1807 and 1828, and twice restored by them, in 1792 and 1812, it was finally left in their hands by the treaty of Adrianople in 1829.
During the Crimean War its fortifications were destroyed (1855) by the Russians themselves.
Of the 25,301 foreign-born in 1900, 5114 were Germans; 3485, Irish; 337 6, Swedes; 3344, English; 2623, English-Canadian; 1338, Russians; and 1033, Scots.
The Russians in Turkestan form only about 5% of the total pop., and since most of the rural Mussulman pop. take no part in the voting, the country is governed to all intents and purposes by men elected by the very small proportion of Russians of the lower classes living in the towns.
Taken by storm on New Year's day 1813 by the Russians, Lenkoran was in the same year formally surrendered by Persia to Russia by the treaty of Gulistan, along with the khanate of Talysh, of which it was the capital.
The most important Arctic work in the 18th century was performed by the Russians, for they succeeded in delineating the whole of the northern coast of Siberia.
To the east of Cape Chelyuskin the Russians encountered greater difficulties.
Two of Leroy-Beaulieu's works have been translated into English: one as the Empire of the Tsars and the Russians, by Z.
Kirghiz form 76% of the population, Taranchis 5.7%, Russians 14% and Dzungans most of the remainder.
The chief occupation of the Russians, the Taranchis and the Dzungans, and partly also of the Kirghiz, is agriculture.
It was then seized by the French, who in 1799 had to yield to the Russians and Turks.
But since the Russians became masters of this region, its former inhabitants (Circassian tribes) have emigrated in thousands, so that the country is now only thinly inhabited.
There again his proficiency, especially in physical science, was marked, and he was one of the young Russians chosen to complete their education in foreign countries.
During the Turco-Russian campaign of 1829 it was the headquarters of Mustafa Pasha of Skodra, and was occupied by the Russians for a few days.
The statistics of these show that there was during the thirty-two years, 1856-88, an excess of emigration over immigration of 1,146,052 in the case of Russians, and a surplus of immigration of 2,304,717 foreigners.
During the years 1900-4 inclusive the total emigrants from Russia numbered 2,358,539, of whom 1,144,246 were Russians; while the immigrants numbered 2,333,053, of whom 1,432,057 were foreigners.
The deep indentations of the gulfs of Bothnia and Finland are surrounded by what is ethnologically Finnish territory, and it is only at the very head of the latter gulf that the Russians have taken firm foothold by erecting their capital at the mouth of the Neva.
It is only within the last hundred and thirty years that the Russians have definitely taken possession of the N.
(Great, Little and White Russians), it will be seen that, with the exception of some 3,000,000 Little Russians, now settled in East Galicia and in Poland, and of a few on the southern slope of the Carpathians, the whole of the E.
The Russians have absorbed and assimilated in the course of their history a variety of Finnish and Turko-Finnish elements.
The Russians do not emigrate as isolated individuals; they migrate in whole villages.
Russian type has thus been maintained from Novgorod to the Pacific, with but minor differentiations on the outskirts - and this notwithstanding the great variety of races with which the Russians have come into contact.
Three different branches can be distinguished among the Russians from the dawn of their history: - the Great Russians, the Little Russians (Malorusses or Ukrainians), and the White - Russians (the Byelorusses).
and S., with perhaps an intermediate stream, the proper place of of the White Russians not having been as yet exactly determined.
The primary distinctions between these branches have been increased during the last nine centuries by their contact with different nationalities - the Great Russians absorbing Finnish elements, the Little Russians undergoing an admixture of Turkish blood, and the White Russians submitting to Lithuanian influence.
Moreover, notwithstanding the unity of language, it is easy to detect among the Great Russians themselves two separate branches, differing from one another by slight divergences of language and type and deep diversities of national character - the Central Russians and the Novgorodians.
Many minor anthropological differentiae can be distinguished among both the Great and the Little Russians, depending probably on the assimilation of various minor subdivisions of the Ural-Altaians.
The Great Russians occupy in one compact mass the space enclosed by a line drawn from the White Sea to Lake Pskov, the upper courses of the W.
The Little Russians occupy the steppes of S.
The White Russians, intermingled to some extent with Great and Little Russians, Poles and Lithuanians, occupy the upper parts of the W.
They are on good terms with the Russians.
Little and Great Russians, Rumanians, Bulgarians, Germans, Greeks, Frenchmen, Poles, Tatars and Jews are mingled together and scattered about in small colonies, especially in Bessarabia.
The governments of St Petersburg (apart from the capital), Olonets and Archangel contain an admixture of Karelians, Samoyedes and Syryenians, the remainder being Great Russians.
provinces of the Volga (Nizhniy-Novgorod, Simbirsk, Samara, Penza and Saratov) the Great Russians prevail, the remainder being chiefly Mordvinians, Tatars, Chuvashes and Bashkirs, Germans in Samara and Saratov, and Little Russians in the last named.
In the Ural governments of Perm and Vyatka Great Russians are in the majority, the remainder being a variety of Finno-Tatars.
Thus more than 88 millions of the Russians are peasants.
The co-operative spirit of the Great Russians shows itself in another sphere in the artel, which has been a prominent feature of Russian life since the dawn of history.
Jews, and elsewhere Russians,-to whom the peasants are for the most part in debt, as they purchase in advance on security of subsequent payments in corn, tar, wooden wares, &c. A good deal of the internal trade is carried on by travelling merchants.
When they first appeared in Europe they were idolaters or Shamanists, and as such they had naturally no religious fanaticism; but even when they adopted Islam they remained as tolerant as before, and the khan of the Golden Horde (Berkai) who first became a Mussulman allowed the Russians to found a Christian bishopric in his capital.
In return the Russians were allowed to trade freely in England.
In the expected war with Poland, which followed quickly, the Russians were so successful that the arrangement was upheld; but it was soon found that the Cossacks, though they professed unbounded devotion to the Orthodox tsar, disliked Muscovite, quite as much as Polish, interference in their internal affairs, and some of their leaders were in favour of substituting federation with Poland for annexation by Russia.
As a true daughter of the great Russian reformer, Elizabeth (1741-61) relegated the German element to a subordinate position in the administration and gave her confidence to genuine Russians like Bestuzhev, Vorontsov, Razumovski (her morganatic husband) and the Shuvalovs.
For this purpose he created a very severe press-censorship and an expensive system of passports, which made it more difficult for Russians to visit foreign countries.
The local institutions were assimilated to those of the purely Russian provinces; the use of the Russian language was made obligatory in the administration, in the tribunals and to some extent in the schools; the spread of Eastern Orthodoxy was encouraged by the authorities, whilst the other confessions were placed under severe restrictions; foreigners were prohibited from possessing landed property; and in some provinces administrative measures were taken for making the land pass into the hands of Orthodox Russians.
Pop. (1866) 31,779, (1900) 33,607, comprising Great and Little Russians, Bulgarians, Jews and Gipsies.
It was occupied by the Russians in 1770, and twenty years later its capture was one of the brilliant achievements of the Russian general, Count A.
In 1809 the town was again captured by the Russians; and, when in 1812 it was assigned to them by the Bucharest peace, they chose it as the central station for their Danube fleet.
Panin was one of the most learned, accomplished and courteous Russians of his day.
The Troitsk or Trinity monastery is the most sacred spot in " middle Russia, the Great Russians regarding it with more veneration than even the cathedrals and relics of the Kremlin at Moscow.
In the war which followed the emperor himself took part, but it was not brought to a successful conclusion till the help of the Russians had been called in.
Aided by the Russians, his troops drove Stanislaus Leszczynski from Poland; Augustus was crowned at Cracow in January 1734, and was generally recognized as king at Warsaw in June 1736.
The Russians captured it from them in 1723, but restored it in 1735; it was incorporated in the Russian empire in 1806.
The words " Asiatic " and " Oriental " are often used as if they denoted a definite and homogeneous type, but Russians resemble Asiatics in many ways, and Turks, Hindus, Chinese, &c., differ in so many important points that the common substratum is small.
In 1895 they defeated the Chinese and ten years later the Russians.
An attempt to obtain possession of the promontory was made by Peter the Great, but it was not definitely annexed by the Russians until seventy years afterwards (1769).
The master of the latter province had beaten off an attack of the Russians in 1502, and secured a fifty years' peace.
In 1678 it was captured by the elector of Brandenburg, but was restored to the Swedes in the following year; in 1713 it was desolated by the Russians; in 1715 it came into the possession of Denmark; and in 1721 it was again restored to Sweden, under whose protection it remained till 1815, when, along with the whole of Swedish Pomerania, it came into the possession of Prussia.
The soil of these plains is generally very fertile and they support a population of nearly 2,800,000 Russians, composed of Cossacks and peasant immigrants, settled chiefly along the rivers and grouped in large, wealthy villages.
The inhabitants of the Kura valley consist principally of Iranian Tates and Talyshes, of Armenians and Lesghians, with Russians, Jews and Arabs.
Religion.-Most of the Russians and the Georgians belong to the Orthodox Greek Church (over 4,000,000 in all); but considerable numbers (estimated at nearly 122,000, though in reality probably a good many more) are Nonconformists of different denominations.
In 1770, during the course of a war between Russia and Turkey, the Russians crossed over the Caucasus and assisted the Imeretians to resist the Turks, and from the time of the ensuing peace of Kuchuk-kainarji the Georgian principalities looked to their powerful northern neighbour as their protector against the southern aggressors the Turks.
Meanwhile the Russians had also subdued the Ossetes (1802) and the Lesghian tribes (1803) of the middle Caucasus.
At first the Russians were able to continue their policy of conquest and annexation without serious check.
More than once he escaped, in a manner that seemed little short of marvellous, out of the hands of the Russians when they held him closely invested in some mountain fastness, as at Himry in 1831.
There the hitherto indomitable champion of Caucasian independence was forced to surrender to the Russians on the 6th of September 1859.
Nevertheless the spirit of resistance in these stubborn mountaineers was not finally broken until 1864, when the Russians eventually stifled all opposition in the difficult valleys and glens of the western Caucasus.
Forces, inexperienced but devoted, were soon on foot; and he informed his German allies that he would allow the Russians to advance into Central Germany so as to ensure their destruction.
As for the "treason" of General York, who had come to terms with the Russians, it moved him merely to scorn and contempt.
The idea was a captivating one, and an appeal from the Russians for help in that quarter was difficult to resist.
for neglecting the Russians to pursue the Saxons; but at the beginning of the 18th century his decision was natural enough.
The Russians slowly retired before the invader, burning and destroying everything in his path.
On the 26th of June Charles held a council of war, at which it was resolved to attack the Russians in their entrenchments on the following day.
The population, estimated at 605,100 in 1906, numbered 587,326 in 1897, of whom only 5000 were Russians.
It consists chiefly of Little Russians, Poles (31%), and Jews (1 2%).
There are many Nonconformists (18,00o) among the Russians, Tulchin being the seat of their bishops and a centre of propaganda.
Pop. (1890) 81,298; (1900) 108,027, of whom 30,802 were foreign-born, including 10,491 Irish, 5262 Italians, 4743 Germans, 3 1 93 Russians and 1376 Swedes; (1910 census) 133,605.
Since about 1875 the Russians have fostered the industry, introducing American Upland varieties, distributing seed free, importing gins, providing instruction, and guaranteeing the purchase of the crops.
One result of the Russo-Japanese War was the evacuation of Manchuria by the Russians, which, after the conclusion of peace in 1905, was handed over by Japan to China.
In 1813, a sally being made by the French garrison on an advanceguard of the Russians under Benckendorff, the citizens of Breda again made themselves masters of the town.
In the 5th century they attacked the Russians in the Black Sea prairies, and afterwards made raids upon the Greeks.
Trade with Persia and India, as also with the Khazars and the Russians, and undoubtedly with Biarmia (Urals), was, however, their chief occupation, their main riches being furs, leather, wool, nuts, wax and so on.
Their chief town, Bolgari or Velikij Gorod (Great Town) of the Russian annals, was often raided by the Russians.
A disastrous attack on Astrakhan, with the object of carrying out Sokolli's plan for uniting the' Don and the Volga, first brought the Turks into collision with the Russians.
One after another the Hungarian forts were captured by the Austrians; the Venetians were equally successful in Greece and the Morea; the Russians pressed on the Crimea, and Sobieski besieged Kamenets.
At first eminently successful, he drove the Austrians across the Danube, recapturing Nish, Vidin, Semendria and Belgrade; repulses were also inflicted on the Venetians and the Russians.
The Russians pursued him into Turkish territory; which led to a Turkish declaration of war (1710).
The Turks succeeded in surrounding Peter the Great near the Pruth, and his army was menaced with total destruction, when the Turkish commander, the grand vizier Baltaji Mahommed Pasha, was induced by the presents and entreaties of the empress Catherine to sign the preliminary treaty of the Pruth (July 21, 1711), granting terms of peace far more favourable than were justified by the situation of the Russians.
These were naturally dismissed after the defeat of the Russians; the former made good his escape to Russia, the latter was executed.
The Russians had not waited for the formal declaration of war; and on the very day that this was notified by the hanging out of the horse-tails before the Seraglio at Constantinople a Russian army under Marshal Munnich stormed the ancient wall that guarded the isthmus of the Crimea.
But the Ottomans, though the negotiations continued throughout 1738, were in no hurry to come to terms; for the tide of war had turned against both Austrians and Russians; Ochakov and Kinburn were recaptured; and the victorious Turks crossed the Danube and penetrated far into the Banat.
In June Romanzov's victory at Kartal made him master of the principalities, and by November the fortresses of Izmail and Kilia, guarding the passage of the Danube, and those of Akkerman and Bender on the Dniester had fallen into the hands of the Russians.
The campaign of 1771, which opened with a gleam of success in the capture of Giurgevo, proved yet more disastrous to the Turks, the Russians passing the Danube and completing the conquest of the Crimea.
At the beginning of July the Russians, under Kamenskiy, were before Shumla; and a few days later the grand vizier and his army, their communications with the capital severed, were surrounded in the fortress.
The army hereupon retired to Adrianople, and the powerful pasha of Rustchuk, Mustafa Bairakdar, who had distinguished himself by his resistance to the Russians, and who thoroughly shared Selim's desire for reform, was now induced by the many officers who held similar views to march on Constantinople to restore Selim to the throne.
But the sultan refused to ratify these articles, and the relations between Russia and Turkey were therefore determined by the patent treaty only, which positively stipulated for the evacuation by the Russians of every spot occupied by them on Turkish soil in Asia.
When the Russians showed no signs of withdrawing from the valley of the Rion, the sultan threatened to renew the war, the sole result of which was to reveal the determination of the tsar not to be bullied into concessions.
On the 30th of November the Russian fleet attacked and destroyed a Turkish squadron in the harbour of Sinope; on the 3rd of January the combined French and British fleets entered the Black Sea, commissioned to " invite " the Russians to return to their harbours.
As the Russians withdrew from the Danubian principalities, Austrian troops occupied them, and by a convention with the Porte the Austrian government undertook to resist by arms any attempt of the Russians to return.
Rumania joined the Russians, and in Europe no effective opposition was encountered by the invaders until the assaults on Plevna and the Shipka Pass, where the valiant resistance of the Turks won for them the admiration of Europe.
But upon the approach of the Russians to Constantinople the British reserves were called out and the fleet was despatched to the Bosporus.
Mack knew that the Russians would be late at the rendezvous on the Inn.
By constructing an entrenched camp at Ulm and concentrating all the available food within it, he expected to compel Napoleon to invest and besiege him, and he anticipated that in the devastated country his adversary would be compelled to separate and thus fall an easy prey to the Russians.
On the 26th of September, its deployment beyond the mountains was complete, and as Napoleon did not know of Mack's intention to stay at Ulm and had learned that the Russian advance had been delayed, he directed his columns by the following roads on the Danube, between Donauworth and Ingolstadt, so as to be in a position to intervene between the Austrians and the Russians and beat both in detail.
corps and cavalry to observe the Austrians, pressed on to Augsburg with the others so as to be ready to deal with the Russians.
All this, and the almost mutinous discontent of his generals and his enemies of the court circle, shook his resolution of acting as anvil for the Russians, of whose delay also he was aware, and about the 8th of Octoberhedetermined to march out north-eastward across the French lines of communication and save his sovereign's army by taking refuge if necessary in Saxony.
When, therefore, next morning, negotiations were opened by the French, Mack, still feeling certain that the Russians were at hand, agreed to an armistice and undertook to lay down his arms if within the next twenty-one days no relief should arrive.
Napoleon now hastened to rejoin the group of corps he had left under Bernadotte in observation towards the Russians, for the latter were nearer at hand than even Mack had assumed.
Hitherto the French had been operating in a rich country, untouched for half a century past by the ravages of war, but as the necessity for a campaign against the Russians confronted the emperor, he realized that his whole supply and transport service must be put on a different footing.
The Russians meanwhile had been moving slowly forward in two bodies, one under Bennigsen (50,000), the other under Buxhowden (25,000), and the French being at this time in Warsaw, they took up threatening positions about Pultusk, Plock and Prassnitz.
The troops arrived late at their appointed positions, and after a stubborn rearguard action at Pultusk itself and undecisive fighting elsewhere (Soldau-Golymin) the Russians succeeded in retreating beyond the jaws of the French attack, and Napoleon for the first time found that he had exceeded the limit of endurance of his men.
Meanwhile Bennigsen had prepared for a fresh undertaking, and leaving Lestocq with 20,000 Prussians and Russians to contain Bernadotte, who lay between Braunsberg and Spandau on the Passarge, he moved southwards on the 2nd, and on the 3rd and 4th of June he fell upon Ney, driving him back towards Guttstadt, whilst with the bulk of his force he moved towards Heilsberg, where he threw up an entrenched position.
Next day, however, all doubts were set at rest, and as the Russians advanced south of Heilsberg, he decided to wheel his whole force to the right, pivoting on the III.
Murat attacked the Russians, who had halted in their entrenched position, on the 11th and drove in their outposts, but did not discover the entrenchments.
Now the Russians uncovered their entrenchments, and in the absence of artillery preparation Soult's leading troops received most severe punishment.
The emperor now pressed on towards Friedland, where he would completely control the Russian communications with Konigsberg, their immediate base of supply, but for once the Russians outmarched him and covered their movement so successfully that for the next three days he seems to have completely lost all knowledge of his enemy's whereabouts.
The Russians after passing Schippenbeil had suddenly turned northwards, and on the evening of the 13th were taking up a strong position on the river Alle with Friedland as a centre.
and the retreat of the Russians, after severe losses, over the Alle.
Lestocq was, meanwhile, driven through Konigsberg (which surrendered on the r 5th) on Tilsit, and now that he was no longer supported by the Russians, the Prussian commander gave up the struggle.
On the other hand, the Russians, once their fatherland was invaded, became dominated by an ever-growing spirit of fanaticism, and they were by nature too obedient to their natural leaders, and too well inured to the hardships of campaigning, to lose their courage in a retreat.
Information about the Russians was very indifferent; it was only known that Prince Bagration with about 33,000 men lay grouped about Wolkowysk; Barclay de Tolly with 40,000 about Vilna; and on the Austrian frontier lay a small corps under Tormassov in process of formation, while far away on the Turkish frontiers hostilities with the sultan retained Tschitschagov with 50,000 more.
Still everything pointed to the concentration of the Russians at Vilna, and Jerome, who on the 5th of July had reached Grodno, was ordered to push on.
Meanwhile the Russians made good their retreat - Barclay towards the entrenched camp of Drissa on the Dvina, Bagration towards Mohilev.
Meanwhile the Russians had not lost a single gun and the moral of their men had been improved by the result of the many minor encounters with the enemy; further, the and then began a series of rearguard actions and nocturnal retreats which completely accomplished their purpose of wearing down the French army.
Here he was overtaken by Murat and Ney, but the French columns had straggled so badly that four whole days elapsed before the emperor was able to concentrate his army for battle and then could only oppose 128,000 men to the Russians' 110,000.
The Russians marched in two columns, which lost touch of one another, and as it was quite impossible for either to engage the French singlehanded, they both retired again towards Smolensk, where with an advanced guard in the town itself - which possessed an oldfashioned brick enceinte not to be breached by field artillery alone - the two columns reunited and deployed for action behind the unfordable Dnieper.
The whole of the 17th was required to complete the movement, and as soon as its purpose was sufficiently revealed to the Russians the latter determined to retreat under cover of night.
Ultimately the sun went down on an undecided field on which 25,000 French and 38,000 Russians had fallen, but the, moral reaction on the former was far greater than on the latter.
Sebastiani, commanding the advanced guard, overtook the Russians in the act of evacuating Moscow, and agreed with the latter to observe a seven hours' armistice to allow the Russians to clear the town, for experience had shown the French that street fighting in wooden Russian townships always meant fire and the consequent destruction of much-needed shelter and provisions.
Towards nightfall Napoleon reached the scene, and the Russians being now clear the troops began to enter, but already fires were observed in the farther part of the city.
Cyr, who had relieved Macdonald on his extreme left, had only 17,000 men left under arms against upwards of 40,000 Russians under Witgenstein; and to the south Tschitschagov's army, being no longer detained on the Turkish frontier, peace having been made, was marching to join Tormassov about Brest-Litewski with forces which would bring the total of the two well over ioo,000 men.
on the 26th the bridges were finished and the passage began, but not without resistance by the Russians, who were gradually closing in.
Meanwhile the Russians and Prussians had concentrated all available men and were moving on an almost parallel line, but somewhat to the south of the direction taken by the French.
Leaving the leading troops to repulse as best they might the furious attack of both Russians and Prussians, and caring little whether they lost ground, he rapidly organized for his own control a battle-reserve.
Blucher with about 95,000 Russians and Prussians was about Breslau, and Schwarzenberg, with nearly 180,000 Austrians and Russians, lay in Bohemia.
Dresden was the last great victory of the First Empire, By noon on the 27th August the Austrians and Russians were completely beaten and in full retreat, the French pressing hard behind them, but meanwhile Napoleon himself again succumbed G Beereri B eip \ ii g?
The allies entered in two lines - one formed of the French and British led byCodrington in the "Asia," the other of the Russians, - and began to anchor in the free water in the midst of Ibrahim's fleet.
On the allied side the British squadron lost 75 killed and 197 wounded; the French 43 killed and 183 wounded; the Russians 59 killed and 139 wounded.
After abolishing the cabinet council system in favour during the rule of the two Annes, and reconstituting the senate as it had been under Peter the Great, - with the chiefs of the departments of state, all of them now Russians again, as ex-officio members under the presidency of the sovereign, - the first care of the new empress was to compose her quarrel with Sweden.
Their bands under Ignaty Malchewsky, Michael Pac and Prince Charles Radziwill ravaged the land in every direction, won several engagements over the Russians, and at last, utterly ignoring the king, sent envoys on their own account to the principal European powers.
Of the total in 1897, 81.4% were Russians, 8.3% Turko-Tatars, 5% Mongols and o 6% " indigenous " races, i.e.
Only 8% of the Russians total are classed as urban.
The great bulk of the popula tion are Russians, whose number increased with great rapidity during the 19th century; although not exceeding 150,000 in 1709 and 500,000 a century later, they numbered nearly 6,500,000 in 1904.
The Russians, issuing from the middle Urals, have travelled as a broad stream through south Siberia, sending branches to the Altai, to the Ili river in Turkestan and to Minusinsk, as well as down the chief rivers which flow to the Arctic Ocean, the banks of which are studded with villages 15 to 20 m.
Their territories are being rapidly occupied by Russians, and their settlements are cut in two by the Russian stream - the Baraba Tatars and the Yakuts being to the north of it, and the others having been driven back to the hilly tracts of the Altai and Sayan Mountains.
In West Siberia there exist compact masses of Russians who have lost little of their primitive ethnographical features: but the case is otherwise on the outskirts.
Castren characterized Obdorsk (mouth of the Ob) as a true Samoyedic town, although peopled with " Russians."
Yakutsk is thoroughly Yakutic; marriages of Russians with Yakut wives are common, and in the middle of the 19th century the Yakut language was predominant among the Russian merchants and officials.
In different parts of Siberia, on the borders of the hilly tracts, intermarriage of Russians with Tatars was quite common.
Agriculture is the chief occupation both of the settled Russians and of the native population.
As an independent pursuit, live-stock breeding is carried on by the Russians in eastern Transbaikalia, by the Yakuts in the province of Yakutsk, and by the Buriats in Irkutsk and Trans- Lave baikalia, but elsewhere it is secondary to agriculture.
Regular postal communication is maintained by the Russians between Kiakhta and Kalgan (close by Peking) across the desert of Gobi.
A decided decline is shown by the graves which have been discovered, until the country reached the low level at which it was found by the Russians on their arrival towards the close of the 16th century.
These were united by Khan Ediger, and conflicts with the Russians who were then colonizing the Urals brought him into collision with Moscow; his envoys came to Moscow in 1555 and consented to a yearly tribute of a thousand sables.
As early as the nth century the Novgorodians had occasionally penetrated into Siberia; but the fall of the republic and the loss of its north-eastern dependencies checked the advance of the Russians across the Urals.
Within eighty years the Russians had reached the Amur and the Pacific. This rapid conquest is accounted for by the circumstance that neither Tatars nor Turks were able to offer any serious resistance.
In 1628 the Russians reached the Lena, founded the fort of Yakutsk in 1637, and two years later reached the Sea of Okhotsk at the mouth of the Ulya river.
The Khivans contested the advance of the Tekkes, but ultimately, about 1856, the latter became the sovereign power in the country, and remained so until the Russians occupied the oasis in 1883.
Pop. (1897), 8727, including Russians, Armenians, Turkomans, Persians and Jews.
Lansdell, The Russians at Mery and Herat (London, 1883).
These so-called " minority " nationalities were: Russians, Germano-Balts (Baits, Balto-Saxons), Jews, Lithuanians, Poles.
In consequence of the political events the number of resident Russians and Baits was in 1921 decreasing, though the number of Russian refugees was considerable.
The Russians were by this time well on their way to the Theiss, and the terrible girdle which was to throttle the liberties of Hungary was all but completed.
He soon made himself cordially detested by Russians of every class.
As a fortified post of Bokhara it was captured by the Russians in 1866.
Of the non-British or Boer whites Russians form 3.01%, Germans 1-62% and Dutch (of Holland) 1-14%.
Here the Russians defeated the Turks in 1853.
Of these last Russians and Poles numbered 21,013; Germans, 3386; Austrians and Hungarians, 2197; Dutch, 1902; Norwegians Swedes and Danes, 1341; and Rumanians, 1016.
German residents are found mainly in the western and west central districts; French mainly in the City of Westminster (especially the district of Soho), St Pancras and St Marylebone; Italians in Holborn (Saffron Hill), Soho and Finsbury; and Russians and Poles in Stepney and Bethnal Green.
A considerable armada was got together, although its assembling took several weeks and although the Russians had as a matter of fact heavily defeated the Turks in Armenia (battle of Sarikamish) even before orders for the assembling were issued.
This mission enrolled a very large number of adherents drawn from the old Church, the Protestant Nestorians, and the UniatChaldeans, but it can hardly be said to have commenced any active work, although the Anglican mission withdrew from competition by closing its schools in the dioceses occupied by the Russians.
To these should be added 133,144 Hungarians, 21,733 natives of Germany (3782 less than in 1890), 2506 natives of Italy, 1703 Russians, 1176 French, 1643 Swiss, &c. Of this heterogeneous population 1,461,891 were Roman Catholics, the Jews coming next in order with 146,926.
The earliest names associated with the exploration of Bering Strait are those of Russians seeking to extend their trading facilities.
448 et seq.), at another to the Turks (c. 580), which would sufficiently explain the signs of Tatar influence in their polity, and also by the testimony of all observers, Greeks, Arabs and Russians, that there was a double strain within the Khazar nation.
The advance of the Petchenegs from the East gave the Russians their opportunity.
The principality of Tmutarakan, founded by his grandson Mstislav (988), replaced the kingdom of Khazaria, the last trace of which was extinguished by a joint expedition of Russians and Byzantines (io16).
On reaching Constantinople, Oleg disembarked his forces, mercilessly ravaged the suburbs of the imperial city, and compelled the emperor to pay tribute, provide the Russians with provisions for the return journey, and take fifty of them over the city.
A new and elaborate treaty, the terms of which have come down to us, was now concluded between the Russians and Greeks, a treaty which evidently sought to bind the two nations closely together and obviate all possible differences which might arise between them in the future.
There was also to be free trade between the two nations, and the Russians might enter the service of the Greek emperor if they desired it.
defeated the Austrians and Russians on the 2nd of December 1805, was fought in the country to the west of Austerlitz, the position of Napoleon's left wing being almost equi-distant from Briinn and from Austerlitz.
(The 'course of events which led to the action is described under Napoleonic Campaigns.) Napoleon, falling back before the advance of the allied Austrians and Russians from Olmiitz, bivouacked west of the Goldbach, whilst the allies, holding, near Austerlitz, the junction of the roads from Olmiitz and from Hungary, formed up in the valleys east of the Pratzen heights.
The attack orders for the 2nd of December (drawn up by the Austrian general Weyrother, and explained by him to a council of superior officers, of whom some were hostile, the greater part indifferent, and the chief Russian member, General Kutusov, asleep) gave the five columns and the reserve, into which the Austro-Russian army was organized, the following tasks: the first and second (Russians) to move south-westward behind the Pratzen ridge towards Telnitz and Sokolnitz; the third (Russian) to cross the southern end of the plateau, and come into line on the right of the first two; the fourth (Austrians and Russians under Kolowrat) on the right of the third to advance towards Kobelnitz.
Farther still on the right the 5th column (cavalry under Prince John of Liechtenstein) was to hold the northern part of the plateau, south of the Briinn-Olmiitz road; across the road itself was the corps of Prince Bagration, and in rear of Liechtenstein's corps was the reserve (Russians under the grand-duke Constantine).
The contest was long and doubtful, but the Russians gradually drove back Legrand and a part of Davout's corps; numerous attacks both of infantry and cavalry were made, and by the successive arrival of reinforcements each side in turn received fresh impetus.
The Russians in Sokolnitz surrendered, an opportune cavalry charge further discomfited the allied left, and the Pratzen plateau was now in full possession of the French.
It was taken by the Russians in 1770, 1774 and 1806, but each time returned to the Turks, and not definitely annexed to Russia until 1881.
The population, 2500 in 1881, when the Russians seized it, was 19,428 in 1897, onethird Persians, many of them belonging to the Babi sect.
The town is situated in low, malarious ground, and was originally buried in jungle, but the Russians during their occupation of the place in 1723-34 cleared much timber and jungle and made some open spaces.
The Russians formerly used Hakodate as a winter port.
The fortress was recaptured shortly after the surrender of G6rgei to the Russians at Vilagos.
Several petty wars were undertaken by the Russians after 1847 to destroy the Khokand forts, and to secure possession, first, of the Ili (and so of Dzungaria), and next of the Syr-darya region, the result being that in 1866, after the occupation of Ura-tyube and Jizakh, the khanate of Khokand was separated from Bokhara.
During the forty-five years after the death of Omar (he died in 1822) the khanate of Khokand was the seat of continuous wars between the settled Sarts and the nomad Kipchaks, the two parties securing the upper hand in turns, Khokand falling under the dominion or the suzerainty of Bokhara, which supported Khudayar-khan, the representative of the Kipchak party, in 1858-1866; while Alim-kul, the representative of the Sarts, put himself at the head of the gazawat (Holy War) proclaimed in 1860, and fought bravely against the Russians until killed at Tashkent in 1865.
In 1868 Khudayar-khan, having secured independence from Bokhara, concluded a commercial treaty with the Russians, but was compelled to flee in 1875, when a new Holy War against Russia was proclaimed.
Nalivkin, Short History of Khokand (French trans., Paris, 1889); Niazi Mohammed, Tarihi Shahrohi, or History of the Rulers of Ferghana, edited by Pantusov (Kazan, 1885); Maksheev, Historical Sketch of Turkestan and the Advance of the Russians (St Petersburg,1890); N.
White Russians, Poles, Jews and Great Russians.
Of later years, the Italians, Czechs, Hungarians and Russians were, as will be seen from the following table, numerously represented.
The town was captured by the Russians in 1809, but not formally relinquished by Turkey until 1829.
This era, which is still used in the Greek Church, and was followed by the Russians till the time of Peter the Great, dates from the creation of the world.
Sevastopol sustained a memorable eleven months' siege, and on the 8th of September 1855 was evacuated by the Russians.
But it was continually plundered - either by Russians, who attacked it six times during the 16th century, or by Cossacks, who plundered it three times.
In the 18th century the town was taken several times by Russians and by Swedes, and in 1708 Peter the Great ordered it to be destroyed by fire.
Near here the French under Davoilt defeated the Russians under Bagration on the 23rd of July 1812.
To do this with a heavy lead Sea in 1895-1898, while the Russians investigated the Black attached required a very strong hemp line, and the twine used Sea in 1890-1893.
Such formations, termed toross by the Russians, may extend under water, according to Makaroff's investigations, to at least an equal depth.
The university was founded by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden in 1632; but in 1699 teachers and students removed to Pernau on the advance of the Russians, and on the occupation of the country by Peter the Great again took flight to Sweden.
In 1558 it was captured by the Russians, but in 1582 was yielded to Stephen Bathori, king; of Poland.
The Russians again obtained temporary possession in 1666, but did not effect a permanent occupation.
During the Seven Years' War it was taken by the Russians (1759).
In 1812 it was occupied by the French, who remained till March 1813, when the Russians marched in.
The Rhine frontier was threatened by Schwarzenberg's Austrians (210,000); Barclay de Tolly's Russians (150,000) were slowly coming up; and another Austrian force menaced the S.E.
Thus he designed to crush a part of the coalition before the Russians and Austrians poured over the eastern frontier.
Pop. (1900), 25,141, nearly one-half Jews; the remainder are Little Russians, Poles and a few Armenians.
On sea the empire suffered under the ravages of the Cretan corsairs; and in 865 the first pillaging expedition of the Russians endangered the Bosporus.
The population of Livonia, which was 621,600 in 1816, reached 1,000,876 in 1870, and 1,295,231 in 1897, of whom 43.4 were Letts, 39.9% Ehsts, 7.6% Germans, 5.4% Russians, 2% Jews and 1.2% Poles.
The prevailing religion is the Lutheran (79.8%); 1 4.3% belong to the Orthodox Greek Church; of the Russians, however, a considerable proportion are Raskolniks (Nonconformists); the Roman Catholics amount to 2.3%, and the Jews to 2%.
The continental portion, although less mixed than that of the peninsula, consists of Great and Little Russians, who constitute 83 per cent.
Erzerum was captured by the Russians on Feb.
In December 1880 the place was attacked by 6000 Russians under General Skobelev, and after a siege of twenty-three days was carried by storm, although the defenders numbered 25,000.
To the Guard and 2nd divisions was assigned the frontal attack on the Chiuliencheng position where the Russians had about one-half of Bathe of P, the Yalu.
The Russians, though well aware that the force in their front was an army, neither retired nor concentrated.
Meanwhile, the right attack (12th division) encountering no very serious resistance, crossed the Aiho and began to move on the left rear of the Russians.
On the side of the defence, each colonel had been left to retire as best he could, and thus certain fractions of the retreating Russians encountered Inouye's advancing troops and were destroyed after a most gallant resistance.
It mattered little that the Russians had escaped or that they had been in inferior numbers.
The Japanese losses were 4500 out of 30,000 engaged or 15%, that of the Russians fully half of the 3000 engaged.
The victors captured many guns, but were too exhausted to pursue the Russians, whose retirement was not made in the best order.
The Russians, then, at the beginning of June, were divided into three groups, the Southern, or offensive group (3 5,000), in the triangle Neuchwang-Haicheng-Kaiping; the Eastern or defensive group (30,000), the main body of it guarding the passes right and left of the Wiju-Liao-Yang road, the left (Cossacks) in the roadless hills of the upper Aiho and Yalu valleys, the right (Mishchenko's Cossacks and infantry supports) guarding Fenshuiling pass and the road from Takushan; the reserve (42,000) with Kuropatkin at Liao-Yang; the " Ussuri Army " about Vladivostok; and Stessel's two divisions in the Kwantung peninsula.
On the 14th ands 5th, attacking sharply on the Russian front and lapping round both its flanks, Oku won an important and handsome victory, at a cost of 1200 men out of 35,000 engaged, while the Russians, with a loss of at least 3600 out of about 25,000 engaged, retired in disorder.
Oku renewed the attack next day, but found only a rearguard in front of him, and without following up the retiring Russians he again halted for six days before proceeding to Haicheng to effect a junction with the 4th Army (Nozu), which meantime had won a number of minor actions and forced the passage of the mountains at Fenshuiling South.'
The right (12th) division reached the upper Taitszeho, but the divisions that were to come up on its left were held fast by their Scale, 1:226,000 English Miles 'o ' Russians (29-30 ugust) Japanese advance opponents.
The Russians' semicircle, now contracted, rested on the Taitszeho above and below the town, and their forces were massed most closely on either side of the " Mandarin " road that the 1st Army had followed.
On the morning of the 1st of September - the anniversary of Sedan, as the Japanese officers told their men - Oyama, whose intentions the active Kuroki had somewhat outrun, delivered a last attack with the 2nd and 4th Armies, and the Guard on the south front, in the hope of keeping the main body of the Russians occupied and so assisting Kuroki, but the assailants encountered no resistance, Zarubayev having already retired into the fortress.
Manjuyama, thanks to the courage of the army commander and of a single brigadier, was at last carried after nightfall, and the dislodged Russians made two counter-attacks in the dark before they would acknowledge themselves beaten.
Next morning, when Kuroki, who had conceived the mistaken idea of a general retreat of the Russians on Mukden, was preparing to pursue, the storm broke.
The losses of the Japanese Russian totalled 23,000, those of the Russians 19,000.
At St Petersburg the talk was not of peace but of victory, and after a period of reorganization the Russians advanced afresh to a new trial of strength.
Dislodged from this on Port the 26th of June, the Russians checked Nogi's further on .
The Russians, having had a month wherein to intrench themselves, held out all along the line; but after two days and one night of fighting amongst rocks and on precipitous hill-sides, the Japanese broke through on the night of July 27-28.
The defences of Port Arthur, as designed by the Russians in 1900, and owing to the meagre allotment of funds only partially carried out before the war, had some tincture, but no more, of modern continental ideas.
The Russians, with the resources of the fleet at their disposal (just as at Sevastopol), used great numbers of machine guns and electric lights, and the available garrison at first was probably, including sailors, 47,000 men.
Every attempt to bring up supports to the captured positions failed, and the Russians concentrated on the spot from all quarters.
This sortie raised the spirits of the Russians to the highest pitch.
The Russians strengthened their works around the captured forts in such a way as effectually to prevent farther advance, and the Japanese 3rd Army had now to resign itself to a methodical siege.
On the 1st of December there was a heavy bombardment by the big howitzers, which obliged the Russians to take shelter in rear of the ruined works.
On the 2nd of December the Russians tried a counter-attack.
Those of the Russians were about 5000, chiefly from artillery fire.
Kuroki displayed the greatest skill, but he was of course pressed back by the four-to-one superiority of the Russians.
Still the result of Stakelberg's attack, for which he was unable to deploy his whole force, was disappointing, but the main Japanese attack on Bilderling was not much more satisfactory, for the Russians had entrenched every step of their previous advance, and fought splendidly.
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