Rural sentence example
Pop. including a large rural district and several villages (1890), 31,498; (1908, estimate), 33,000.
In 1905 the institute took up the work of rural school extension.
Howie spotted Cummings picking up Jennie Lohr as she hitchhiked to town from her rural Kansas farm.
Until I was ten years old, my family lived in rural east Texas.
The nobles from this time forward retired into the country and the mountains, fortified themselves in strong places outside the cities, and gave their best attention to fostering the rural population.Advertisement
She had not been reported missing because her mother lay dead in their small rural farm house over a hundred miles away.
One incident was an obvious abduction in rural Delaware that occurred overnight.
Subdivisions may be, and often are, named according to the particular duties to which they are assigned, as la police politique, police des mceurs, police sanitaire, &c. The officers of the judicial police comprise the juge de paix (equivalent to the English police magistrate), the maire, the commissaire de police, the gendarmerie and, in rural districts, the gardes champtres and the gardes forestiers.
This measure, which was endorsed by the third Duma in an act passed on the 21st of December 1908, is calculated to have far-reaching and profound effects upon the rural economy of Russia.
The population of the state is largely rural.Advertisement
This rural town is home to hikers, kayakers, fishermen and farmers.
The station is in a rural area with some arable farming in the immediate surrounding area.
Because of its rural setting, the town is a popular destination for those who enjoy camping, hiking or mountain biking.
The tour revolves around Hexham - historic abbey town and heart of Hadrian's Wall Country - and its rural environs.
In general, coastal development has centered upon the large firths with much of the rest of the coast rural in nature.Advertisement
If managed on the right scale at a local level they can reduce reliance on imported fossil fuels, and provide rural employment.
These groups will focus directly on rural development and in particular encourage new innovative measures to develop locally generated potential.
La Grande Maison is a family run guesthouse situated in the center of rural Brittany.
Thus the liability to tubercular infection is far commoner in the midst of a depraved population than in one fulfilling the primary laws of nature; rickets is a disease of great cities rather than of rural districts; and syphilis is more disastrous and protracted in its course in the depraved in health than in the robust.
Throughout most of the villages in the rural tracts men, women and children all take part in the agricultural operations, although in riverine villages whole families often support themselves from the sale of petty commodities and eatables.Advertisement
Market gardening, the rearing of cattle, for which the district is widely famed, and fishing, form the chief occupations of the rural population.
In the cities and towns horses used as beasts of burden are now shod with iron, but in rural or mountainous, districts straw shoes are substituted, a device which enables the animals to traverse rocky or precipitous roads with safety.
About 74% of the whole constitutes the rural population.
Internal Migration.-In modern times there is constant movement of population within national lines, from section to section, and especially from rural districts to the cities.
The most important phase of internal migration is the movement from the rural districts to the cities.Advertisement
The population now made rapid strides as well by ordinary extension as by immigration from the rural districts.
He published essays on the way to destroy mendicancy and to improve the condition of the labourers, and also on the establishment of a fund for rural relief and the organization of rural education.
The rural element of the population is large, though it is not increasing as rapidly as the urban; and no other state in the Union is so uniformly settled.
In France, Colbert, in 1670, ordered the extension to the rural communes of the system which had for many years been in force in Paris of registering and periodically publishing the domestic occurrences of the locality.
The details of deaths in the year preceding the census, for instance, are called for, there being no registration of such occurrences in the rural tracts.
The schedules are distributed by enumerators acting under district supervisors; but it is found impossible to collect the whole number in a single day, nor does the mobility of the population in the rural tracts make such expedition necessary.
A common called the Stray, of 200 acres, secured by act of parliament from ever being built upon, stretches in front of the main line of houses, and on this account Harrogate, notwithstanding its rapid increase, has retained much of its rural charm.
The rural population embraces 51% of the whole, the urban population 48%.
Nearly all the French cathedrals of the 12th and 13th centuries exhibit on their portals a species of rural calendar, in which each month and sign has its corresponding labour.
The population of Kentucky is largely rural.
The rural schools are supervised by a superintendent in each county.
Although local affairs do nut now enlist, even in New England, so large a measure of interest and public spirit as the town system used to evoke in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut in the thirties, still, broadly speaking, the rural local government of America may be deemed satisfactory.
Twitchen Farm - Large self catering accommodation in 16th Century thatched farmhouse set in the rural heartland of North Devon.
How can we achieve fidelity to the national model for community services in rural areas?
Rural medieval pottery kilns in northeast England are rare.
The positive press coverage has helped to promote a new image of rural landscape to a wider audience.
The first was to appoint a principal and the second was to relocate to the then leafy and rural Isleworth.
The dash for exports is also threatening rural livelihoods.
Within the (natural products) sector there are clear opportunities for entrepreneurial development and improved livelihoods for many poor rural communities.
Our volunteers live in rural Native American communities and run local YMCA Youth Centers.
The District, although predominantly rural has a diverse economy, with agriculture and quarrying being the traditional mainstay.
As a result we respond to a wide range of consultations from Government and other agencies, including many pertaining to rural issues.
Their profit margins are likely to come under intense pressure leading to the possible closure of smaller chemists in rural areas.
Virgil is blind, a professional masseur by trade in a small health spa in rural New York state.
They provide the primary means of cover in rural areas.
The metropolitan boro of St Helens is a tightly knit urban area surrounded by rural zones midway between Manchester and Liverpool.
These two summer migrants are most likely to be heard in suburban or rural gardens near woodland.
She has since had another child and her aim to is become a child minder in the rural area where she lives.
Out of work mousers looking for rural employment opportunities.
Rural VCOs can find the agenda too complex and be confused by the multiplicity of institutional structures and processes.
Horsens is another new municipality where a town is being merged with a number of smaller rural municipalities.
The difficulty of engaging 13-14 year olds was highlighted - exacerbated in rural areas by limited availability of public transport.
The Stables is a converted farm outbuilding set among a handful of like properties in this quiet rural setting.
It is only painstaking research in recent years that has restored to us this forgotten focus of rural English Catholicism.
Minster is an important center serving mainly the rural parishes of the district.
I might go out tomorrow, possibly to a rural location to pursue some pastime.
Conveniently situated within rural village yet with superb country views over own pastureland to rear.
Central to this was the creation of a rural Local Delivery pathfinder in each region.
Rural pathfinders set out business plans The plans have been drawn up by eight regional pathfinder partnerships across England.
In rural areas, the new business affected the irrigating peasantry whose traditional and self managed water systems and uses were at risk.
Thirdly, the poor peasantry must be united against the rural bourgeoisie which currently holds surplus grain stocks.
The old methods of subsistence farming disappeared with the rural peasantry.
Now, what's going to happen about all those agricultural pesticides that rural residents have to breath day in day out every year.
They could even be standing underneath a silage pit, possibly even constructed with a European Union grant for poor rural areas.
We will support rural police stations and increase police numbers by 40,000 overall, putting thousands more police on the beat in rural areas.
Instead of creating left-right polity, the laboring classes became small landowners, which resulted in the creation of a large rural conservative society.
We work with the rural poor, using their own skills and knowledge to develop sustainable solutions to poverty.
There also exist barriers that prevent the rural populace from accessing pediatric eye care services.
A village Lodge, the Master was one James Beattie, a rural postman attached to the Forfar Post Office.
He began to try what prayers would do, but city prayers were vain against the great rural potentate.
Where necessary, Update can assist practitioners in remote or rural areas through the use of video conferencing technology.
We work to reduce harmful child labor; promote education for child workers and rural children; support sexual healthcare and HIV/AIDS prevention.
The main objectives of the organization are to promote private enterprise, diversify rural economies and conserve the countryside.
The result of any such policy, he warned, would be to degrade Mozambican peasant farmers to the status of landless rural proletarians.
May, despite the fact that much of rural Britain is in strict quarantine.
Set in a rural location near the Georgian market town of Thirsk with it's popular racecourse.
The rural radial is also loss making, with high fares and very low patronage.
Under the banner of the MCTI we have a marvelous opportunity for rural regeneration.
The North West Development Agency has identified gardens as a key economic regenerator for the rural economy.
The barn has been stylishly renovated to an exceptionally high standard, and benefits from glorious views over the rural Devon countryside.
Given rural interest groups already feel marginalized, the recent reshuffle has caused further discontent.
Initial work on two pilot schemes has already begun and is looking at the application of these methods to rural roads in the county.
Four years ago, four people got together in a rather run-down part of a village in a rural community.
It's rural and untouched natural scenery make it a prime location for many trying to get away from the big city.
Stonington has a bit of a rural atmosphere rolled into a port town that makes it an interesting place to visit.
The Landesausschuss, a constitutional body with parliamentary privileges, consists of 58 members, 34 being appointed out of their number by the various district councils (Bezirkstage), 4 by the large towns, and 20 by the rural districts.
In the urban areas the proportion of persons, of all races, able to read and write was 50 67%; in the rural areas the proportion was 26.43%.
Dogmatic teaching was prohibited during school hours, except in rural schools when parents required such teaching to be given.
The readers of this weekly paper acquired a personal affection for its editor, and he was thus for many years the American writer most widely known and most popular among the rural classes.
The rural population was therefore in that year 58.8% of the total, and the urban was only 28.7% of the total, but from 1890 to 1900 the urban increased 185% while the rural increased only 55.6%.
No part of England surpasses the more fertile portions of this county in the peculiar richness of its rural scenery.
Cottage and village nursing are varieties of the same department; the former is organized on the benefit system, and aims at supplying domestic help and sick-nursing combined in rural districts for an annual subscription of from 2s.
The montons consist of groups of the old rural provinces (muang); the hereditary chiefs of which, except in the Lao country in the north and in the Malay States, have been replaced by governors trained in administrative work and subordinate to the high commissioner.
As in Burma, the Buddhist monasteries scattered throughout the country carry on almost the whole of the elementary education in the rural districts.
The parishes were further grouped together into rural deaneries and archdeaconries.
Witwicki (1800-1847) was son of a professor at Krzemieniec. He was a writer of ballads and poems dealing with rural life,.
In 1908 the General Assembly passed a law providing for annual direct primary elections (outside of Baltimore; and making the Baltimore special primary law applicable to state as well as city officials), but, as regards state officers, making only a slight improvement upon previous conditions inasmuch as the county or district is the unit and the vote of county or district merely " instructs " delegates to the party's state nominating convention, representation in which is not strictly in proportion to population, the rural counties having an advantage over Baltimore; no nomination petition is required.
This system of apportionment gives to the rural counties a considerable pplitical advantage over the city of Baltimore, which, with 42.8% of the total population according to the census of 1900, has only 4 out of 27 members of the Senate and only 24 out of tot members of the House of Delegates.
Though a word of not very strict application, it is now frequently used of the rural population of such countries as France, where the land is chiefly held by small holders, "peasant proprietors."
The rural teachers, however, have been paid from the state fund, so that the poorer districts receive aid from the richer districts of the commonwealth.
According to a school census there was in1908-1909a school population of 739,352, of which 587,051 were reported from the rural districts.
Brigandage was formerly so common that travel without an armed escort was extremely dangerous; under President Diaz, however, not only has such lawlessness been repressed but the brigands themselves have been given regular employment as rural guards under the government.
Other estimates make the " panela " output much larger, the product being largely consumed in the rural districts and never appearing in the larger markets.
The national revenues are derived from import and export duties, port dues and other taxes levied on foreign commerce; from excise and stamp taxes and other charges upon internal business transactions; from direct taxes levied in the federal district and national territories, covering a land tax in rural districts, a house tax in the city, commercial and professional licences, water rates, and sundry taxes on bread, pulque, vehicles, saloons, theatres, &c.; from probate dues and registry fees; from a surcharge on all taxes levied by the states, called the " federal contribution," which is paid in federal revenue stamps; from post and telegraph receipts; and from some minor sources of income.
The suggestion that Mother Shipton had foretold the end of the world in 1881 was the cause of the most poignant alarm throughout rural England in that year, the people deserting their houses, and spending the night in prayer in the fields, churches and chapels.
Of the total population in 1890 the rural constituted 6 7.4% and the urban 37.6%, but in 1900 the rural constituted only 53.3% of the total and the urban 46.7%.
In the House of Representatives, which has the large membership of 390, representation is on the basis of population, but is so arranged as to favour the rural districts; thus every town or ward of a city having 600 inhabitants is allowed one representative, but, although for every additional representative 1200 additional inhabitants are required, any town having less than 600 inhabitants is allowed a representative for such proportionate part of the time the legislature is in session as the number of its inhabitants bears to 600.
This native population remained, and constituted the majority of the inhabitants of the rural parts and almost the sole inhabitants of the towns.
In the 1st century, when St Paul made his missionary journeys, even the towns Ancyra, Pessinus and Tavium (where Gauls were few) were not Hellenized, though Greek, the language of government and trade, was spoken there; while the rural population was unaffected by Greek civilization.
A study of the family names appearing on the census rolls of two prosperous and typical American counties, one distinctively urban and the other rural, in 1790 and I900, has confirmed the popular impression that the British element is growing little, and that the fastest reproducers to-day are the foreign elements that have become large in the immigration current in very recent decades.
But while this growth was relatively uniform over the South, in the North there was a low (often a decreasing) rate of rural and a high rate of urban growth.
Only one of the original six (Charleston) was in the true South, which was distinctly rural.
The same years, however, made apparent a rapid fall, general and marked, yet possibly only temporary, in the rate at which such urban centres, as well as larger ones, had been gaining upon the rural districts; this reaction being most pronounced in the South and least so in the North Atlantic states, whose manufacturing industries are concentrated in dense centres of population.
In every 1000 urban inhabitants there were, in 1900, 23 (in 1890 only 19) more females than in 1000 rural inhabitants.
The median age of the population of cities of 25,000 or more inhabitants was 355 years greater than that of the inhabitants of smaller urban centres and rural districts, owing probably in the main to the movement of middle-aged native and foreign adults to urban centres, and the higher birth-rate of the rural, districts.
Of the last item $3,269,757,067 represented the value of the products of rural factories (that is, those in cities of under 8000 inhabitants).
The increase of the different items during the five years was greater in every case in the rural than in the urban factories.
Administrative law, including the regulation of urban and rural local government, state and local taxation and finance, education, public works, the liquor traffic, vaccination, adulteration, charities, asylums, prisons, the inspection of mines and factories, general laws relating to corporations, railways, labor questions.
The town, or township, of New England is generally a rural community occupying a comparatively small area, and with a population averaging about 3000, hut ranging from 200 in newly-settled, districts or thinly-peopled hilly districts up to 17,000 in the vicinity of large cities and in manufacturing neighborhoods.
In rural communities the attendance is usually good, the debates are sensible and practical, and a satisfactory administration is generally secured.
In the Middle and Western states the township is a more artificial organism than the rural town of New England.
In rural districts little difficulty arises, because it is known what citizens belong to each party; but in cities, and especially in large cities, where men do not know their neighbors by sight, it becomes necessary to have regular lists of the party voters entitled to attend a primary; and these lists are either prepared and kept by the local party committee, or are settled by the votes of the persons previously on the party rolls.
Ian Maclaren's first sketches of rural Scottish life, Beside the Bonnie Briar Bush (1894), achieved extraordinary popularity and were followed by other successful books, The Days of Auld Lang Syne (1895), Kate Carnegie and those Ministers (1896) and Afterwards and other Stories (1898).
In spite of the growth of manufactures since 1878, there are few large cities, and the proportion of the urban population to the rural is small.
He was postmaster-general in the cabinet of Presidents McKinley and Roosevelt from April 1898 until January 1902, and did much to develop the rural free delivery system.
From 1890 to 1900 the urban population increased 854,730, or 36%, and the semi-urban 134,077, or 18.4%, but the rural increased only 55,195, or 2.4%.
It retains, however, some of its rural character, and has wide thoroughfares and many handsome residences standing in extensive grounds.
Many of the smaller towns, such as Assen, Enschede, Helmond, Hengelo, Tiel, Venlo, Vlaardingen, Zaandam, Yerseke, show a great development, and it is a noteworthy fact that the rural districts, taken as a whole, have borne an equal share in the general increase of population.
The drift townwards of the rural population began in 1890, when the urban population amounted to only 18% of the whole, whereas in 1904 it reached 24%, as compared with 13% for the urban population of Russia as a whole.
These are divided into rural communes (Land gemeinden) and urban communes (Stadtgemeinden), the powers and functions of which, though differing widely, are based upon the same general principle of representative local self-government.
Towns.The constitution of the towns (Stadieverfassung) varies more greatly in the several states than that of the rural communes.
In Wurttemberg, Baden and Hesse-Nassau the system is a compromise between the two; both the town and rural communes have a mayor (Blirgermeister or Schuitheiss, as the case may be) and a Gemeinderat for administrative purposes, the citizens exercising control through a representative Gemeindeausschuss (communal committee).
In the rural districts an attempt is being made to increase efficiency by the consolidation of several small schools and the conveyance of the children to one central building.
Many of the rural schools have gardens, in which the elements of agriculture, botany and kindred subjects are taught in a practical manner.
The electors in the rural districts were 236,000, in the towns 93,000.
In the rural districts the clergy had much influence; they were supported by the peasants, and the diets of Tirol and Vorarlberg, where there was a clerical majority, refused to carry out the school law.
It must be remembered, however, that even though the town was German, the rural population of the surrounding villages was chiefly Slovene.
Taaffe's bill, while keeping the curiae of the feudal proprietors and the chambers of commerce as they were, and making no change in the number of members, proposed to give the franchise in both towns and rural districts to every one who could read and write, and had resided six months in one place.
The law laid down the method to be employed in this case, but pending the completion of the rural taxation this detailed application of the system was allowed to remain in suspense.
The rural classes are mainly engaged in agriculture, which occupies over 62% of the adults.
The Coptic inhabitants are described in the article COPTS, and the rural population under FELLAH.
The percentages of urban and rural population are respectively about 38 and 62.
It was stronger on the islands, where the rural population increased by 5.3% only in eleven years, whereas in Jutland the increase of the rural population between 1890 and 1901 amounted to 12.0%.
The percentage of illegitimacy is high as a whole, although in some of the rural districts it is very low.
In the rural districts the deputy electors returned by election are supplemented by an equal number of those who have paid the highest amounts in taxes and county rates together.
The schools are under the immediate control of school boards appointed by the parish councils, but of which the incumbent of the parish is ex-officio member; superior control is exercised by the Amtmand, the rural dean, and the bishop, under the Minister for church and education.
His exquisite strains, in which pure imagination is blended with most accurate and realistic descriptions of scenery and rural life, have an extraordinary charm not easily described.
The former embraced a large part of the rural population in certain secluded districts, such as parts of Asia Minor and Peloponnesus; and we are told that the efforts directed against them resulted in the forcible baptism of 70,000 persons in Asia Minor alone.
The next table affords a comparison of the numbers of the population as grouped in towns, villages and rural districts, and in the mainland and islands.
Both appear first in the 15th century, probably as results of the war for the Toggenburg inheritance (1436-50); for the intense hatred of Austria, greatly increased by her support of the claims of Zurich, favoured the circulation of stories which assumed that Swiss freedom was of immemorial antiquity, while, as the war was largely a struggle between the civic and rural elements in the Confederation, the notion that the (rural) Schwyzers were of Scandinavian descent at once separated them from and raised them above the German inhabitants of the towns.
The members are elected by the various diocesan conferences, which are in turn elected by the laity of their respective parishes or rural deaneries.
They are called " vicars-forane " or rural deans.
One is that of Basel Stadt or Bale Ville, including, besides the city of Basel, the three rural districts (all to the north of the Rhine) of Riehen, Bettingen and Klein Huningen (the latter now united to the city).
Local self-government, municipal and rural, in the form in which it now prevails in India, is essentially a product of British rule.
Other sources of revenue are stamps, levied on judicial proceedings and commercial documents; registration of mortgages and other instruments; and provincial rates, chiefly in Bengal and the United Provinces for public works or rural police.
The operations of rural life are familiar to every class.
The simple system of rural economy is entirely based upon the dealings of this man, whom it is the fashion sometimes to decry as a usurer, but who is really the one thrifty person among an improvident population.
The village system is well described, each little rural unit seeming to be an independent republic. Megasthenes remarked the exemption of the husbandmen (Vaisyas) from war and public services, and enumerates the dyes, fibres, fabrics and products (animal, vegetable and mineral) of India.
Two of the elected members represent St Louis, the 8 rural districts into which the island is divided electing each one member.
Pop. (1890) 11,400, including many Germans; (1902, estimate) 16,000; of the municipality, including a large rural district and several villages (1890), 30,687.
The subject was discussed at the Penitentiary Congress at Budapest in 1905, and a resolution passed recommending extra-mural employment for prisoners of rural origin, vagrants and drunkards, and those subject to tuberculous disease, "so largely the concomitant of cellular confinement."
The total expenditure for the schools is creditable to the state; but before 1909 hardly half the school population attended; and in general the rural conditions of the state, the shortness of the school terms and the dependence of the schools primarily upon local funds and local supervision, make the schools of inadequate and quite varying excellence.
In 1905-1906 the Peabody Board gave $2000 to aid rural schools, and in general it has done much for the improvement of country public schools throughout the state.
The great bulk of Domesday Book is devoted to the somewhat arid details of the assessment and valuation of rural estates, which were as yet the only important source of national wealth.
Apart from the wholly rural portions, which constitute its bulk, Domesday contains entries of interest concerning most of the towns, which were probably made because of their bearing on the fiscal rights of the crown therein.
Of the population about 47% live in towns or communes exceeding 2000 inhabitants, and about 53% are rural.
In the same period (1900-1905), the value of the products of urban 1 establishments decreased from $1,332,288 to $1,244,223, and the amount of capital invested increased from $871,531 to $988,615; but the value of the products of rural establishments increased from $1,936,267 to $2,279,037, and the capital invested from $1,176,352 to $1,707,274.
A law enacted in 1910 provides a fund for special aid from the state to rural graded schools with at least two rooms. With state aid normal training departments are maintained in several of the high schools in counties which adopt the provisions of the statute.
It was the principle of rural serfdom applied to social functions.
In the one class the density is mainly rural, in the other it is chiefly due to the concentration of the population into large urban aggregates.
All education above that level is in the hands of the educational department and school boards elected in each parish, each rural parish being bound (since 1898) to be divided into a proper number of school districts and to have a school in each of them, the state contributing to these expenses Boo marks a year for each male and 600 marks for each female teacher, or 25% of the total cost in urban communes.
The strike was universal, all classes joining in the movement, and it spread to all the industrial centres and even to the rural districts.
Tudno, Afan, Padarn, &c. To the second division - those place-names which have been corrupted by English usage - belong most of the older historic towns, in striking contrast with the rural villages and parishes, which in nearly all cases have retained unaltered their original Celtic names.
A natural result of this partial treatment of the towns by the king and his vassals was that the English tongue and also English customs became prevalent if not universal in all the towns of Wales, whilst the rural districts remained strongly Cymric in character, language and sympathy.
Mention must be made of the Rebecca riots in1843-1844in South Wales, wherein many toll gates were destroyed by mobs of countrymen dressed in female garb, " as the daughters of Rebecca about to possess the gates of their enemies "; and the Anti-Tithe agitation of1885-1886- largely traceable to the inflammatory language used concerning clerical tithe by certain organs of the vernacular press - which led to some disorderly scenes between distraining parties of police and crowds of excited peasants in the more remote rural districts.
Rye is extensively employed in the rural districts for the making of a hard bread in flat cakes (knackebriid).
The common material of the characteristic domestic architecture in rural districts is wood, except in Skane, where stone is available and has been used from early times.
The members of the second chamber number 230, of whom 150 are elected from rural constituencies and 80 from towns.
The major rural divisions are the fOgderier, under bailiffs, a subdivision of which is the lansmansdistrikt under a lansman.
The higher education of the people is provided by people's high schools in the rural districts, especially for the peasantry, maintained by the county councils, agricultural societies and the state, and providing a two years' course both in general education and in special practical subjects according to local needs.
According to residence, 1,471,792 were inhabitants of rural districts, and 1,240,353 of towns.
According to the census returns about one-half the population of Chile lives in rural districts, and is engaged nominally in agricultural pursuits.
As a large proportion of the labouring classes lived in the small towns and rural communities, they received comparatively little attention.
According to official returns, the real-estate valuations in 1903-1904 aggregated 1, 777, 21 7,7 0 4 pesos, of which 1,020,609,215 pesos were in urban and 754,608,489 pesos in rural property.
The native population of these villages and rural districts, at first, had no civic rights, but were governed by the foreign settlers.
As regards the rural police of India every village headman and the village watchman as well as the village police office are required by the code to communicate to the nearest magistrate or the officer in charge of the nearest police station, whichever is nearest, any information respecting offenders.
There thus grew up an ungrammatical dialect of Dutch, suited only to the most ordinary requirements of the everyday life of a rural population.
The draft act, with its " one vote one value " principle, its three-membered constituencies and its scheme for proportional representation, threatened Dutch supremacy in the rural districts, and aroused the opposition of Hofmeyr, who secured the passage of amendments through the Cape parliament which destroyed the principle of equal rights.
Each class of road was named after the authority responsible for its construction and upkeep. In some of the remoter rural districts there are only bridle-paths, or rough tracks, which become almost impassable in wet seasons, and are never suitable for vehicles less solid than the Portuguese ox-carts.
In the same year the general distress was intensified by the failure of the Rural and Mortgage Bank of Brazil.
The corregidores and alcaldes also exercise the functions of a justice of the peace in the cantons and rural districts.
Subordinate to the prefects are the subprefects in the provinces, the corregidores in the cantons and the alcaldes in the rural districts - all appointed officials.
Their place was taken by arch-presbyters and rural deans.
Favoured with a suitable climate and inhabited by a thriving rural population, Bohemia is very highly developed in the matter of agriculture.
The urban and rural communities are in the proportion of 4 to 6.
The rural population is practically stationary.
The principle adopted in distributing the representation is that of equal electoral districts, modified in practice by a preference given to the distant and rural constituencies at the cost of the metropolitan electorates.
There were 76.000 occupiers of rural holdings in 1905, and the area occupied by them, exclusive of lands leased from the state, is 48,081,000 acres.
But the mass of the people, and especially the rural population, sick of revolution, and weary even of the moderate republicanism of Cavaignac, were anxious for a stable government.
The constitution of Reuss-Greiz dates from 1867, and provides for a representative chamber of twelve members, of whom three are appointed by the prince, while two are chosen by the landed proprietors, three by the towns and four by the rural districts.
It consists of various races, nearly one-half (920,919 in 1897) being Moldavians, the others Little Russians, Jews (37% in the towns and 1 2% in the rural districts), Bulgarians (103,225), Germans (60, 206), with some Gypsies (Zigani), Greeks, Armenians, Tatars and Albanians.
But the drain on the rural population continued heavy, for in the same purely rural area, which had a population in 1901 of 1,330,319, the excess of births over deaths was 150,437, but the actual increase of population was only 25,492, leaving a heavy loss (9.6%) to be accounted for by migration, the term used in this connexion in the general report of the Census to include movement of population to any new locality, home or foreign.
The average of persons to a house in rural districts was 4.6.
In 1901 the proportion of females to males in urban districts was 1086 to woo, and in rural districts 1011 to 1000.
These again are subdivided into 14,080 parishes (1901), the smallest ecclesiastical units, which are grouped for certain administrative purposes into 810 rural deaneries.
Under the Local Government Act of 1894 the duties of all the highway authorities were transferred to the rural district councils on or before the 31st of March 1899.
It is often asserted that the scenery of rural England is of its kind unrivalled.
The various urban and rural districts are described below (Section X.).
In rural districts the functions of these boards are, under the Local Government Act of 1894, performed by the district councils, and in other places their constitution is similar to that of the urban and district councils (see PooR LAW).
The largest area of local government is the county; next to that the sanitary district, urban or rural, including under this head municipal boroughs, all of which are urban districts.
Election petitions against county councillors and members of other local bodies (borough councillors, urban and rural district councillors, members of school boards and boards of guardians) are classed together as municipal election petitions, and are heard in the same way, by a commissioner who must be a barrister of not less than fifteen years' standing.
In urban districts where such control has not been claimed, and in rural districts, the county council may either maintain the main roads themselves or allow or require the district councils to do so.
The things referred to include the alteration of the boundary of the district or parish; the division or union thereof with any other district or districts, parish or parishes; the conversion of a rural district or part thereof into an urban district or vice versa.
A considerable extension of the same powers was made by the Local Government Act 1894, which practically required every council to take into consideration the areas of sanitary districts and parishes within the entire administrative county, and to see that a parish did not extend into more than one sanitary district; to provide for the division of a district which did extend into more than one district into separate parishes, so that for the future the parish should not be in more than one county district; and to provide for every parish and rural sanitary district being within one county.
The powers of the Local Government Board under the Allotments Acts were transferred by the act of 1907 to the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, and by the same act the powers and duties of rural district councils were transferred to parish councils.
By the Public Health Act of that year the whole country was mapped out into urban and rural sanitary districts, and that system has been maintained until the present time, with some important changes introduced by the Public Health Acts 1875 to 1907, and the Local Government Act 1894.
The whole of England and Wales is divided into districts, which are either urban or rural.
Rural districts were first created in 1872.
Before that time there was practically no sanitary authority outside the urban district, for although the vestry of a parish had in some cases power to make sewers and had also some other sanitary powers, there was no authority for such a district as now corresponds to a rural district.
Before the year 1894 the rural district consisted of the area of the poor-law union, exclusive of any urban district which might be within it, and the guardians of the poor were the rural sanitary authority.
By the Local Government Act of that year the guardians ceased to be the rural sanitary authority.
The union was preserved as the rural sanitary district, with this qualification, that if it extended into more than one county it was divided so that no rural district should extend into more than one county.
Rural district councillors are elected for each parish in the rural district, and they become by virtue of their office guardians of the poor for the union comprising the district, so that there is now no election of guardians in a rural district.
Guardians are still elected as such for urban districts, but the rural district council have ceased to be the same body as the guardians and are now wholly distinct.
A district councillor, whether urban or rural, holds office for a term of three years.
The qualification and disqualification of district councillors, whether urban or rural, now depend upon the Local Government Act 1894.
The electors both in urban and rural districts are the body called the parochial electors.
It has been thought convenient to deal here with district councils, whether urban or rural, together, but the powers of the former are much more extensive than those of the latter, and Powers of as the consideration of the subject proceeds it will be necessary to indicate what powers and duties are con- rural ferred or imposed upon urban district councils only.
The necessity for this provision arises because it sometimes happens that in a district otherwise rural there are some centres of population, hardly large enough to be constituted urban districts, which nevertheless require the same control as an urban district.
A rural district council may delegate their entire powers in any parish to a parochial committee.
Such a committee may be subject to any regulations and restrictions imposed upon it by the rural district council.
In so far as such powers and duties are common to urban and rural district councils alike they will be referred to as appertaining to district councils.
When reference is made to any power or duty of an urban council it is to be understood that the rural council have no such power or duty unless conferred or imposed upon them by order of the Local Government Board.
This duty may be enforced by the Local Government Board on complaint made to them that the council have failed in performing it, and in the case of a rural district by the county council on complaint of the parish council.
An urban council and a rural council, if invested with the requisite power by the Local Government Board, may, and when required by order of that board must, provide for the proper cleansing of streets, and may also provide for the proper watering of streets.
It is to be observed that they are not bound to charge for a supply of water at all, unless they are required to do so in an urban district by at least ten persons, rated to the poor rate, or in a parish in a rural district by at least five persons so rated in the parish.
Even then the amount of the rate is left to the council, any deficiency in the cost of the water, in so far as it is not defrayed out of water rates or rents, being borne in an urban district by the general district rate, and in a rural district by the separate sanitary rates made for the parish or contributory place supplied.
These fees are paid by the urban or rural district council as the case may be.
But before 1894 a rural district council had no .
The highway authority in every district, rural as well as urban, is therefore the district council.
In a rural district any parish council may complain to the county council that the district council have made default in keeping any highway in repair, and the county council may thereupon transfer to themselves and execute the powers of the district council at the cost of the latter body, or they may make an order requiring the district council to perform their duty, or they may appoint some person to do so at the cost of the district council.
But while rural as well as urban district councils have the powers and duties of surveyors of highways, the provisions of the Public Health Acts relating to streets apply only in urban districts, except in so far as the Local Government Board may by order have conferred urban powers upon a rural district council.
A district council being a corporation, the general law applies in the case of a rural council that they must contract under their common seal, the exception to this rule including the doing of acts very of lands.
The expenses of a rural district council are of two kinds.
The accounts of a rural district council are made up half-yearly and are audited in the same way.
This part of the act may be adopted by a rural district council, but an urban district council can carry it into execution without formal adoption.
In every rural parish, that is to say, in every parish which is not included within an urban district, there is a parish meeting, which consists of the parochial electors of the parish.
An annual parish meeting in every rural parish must be held on the 25th day of March or within seven days before or after that date; and if there is no parish council, there must be at least one other parish meeting in the year.
Among the most important of the matters which concern a rural parish is the administration of what are commonly called the adoptive acts.
The Baths and Washhouses Acts have already been Baths and referred to in dealing with district councils, and it is Wash- sufficient to say that they are now adopted and ad- houses ministered in a rural parish in the manner pointed out A`"' with reference to the Lighting and Watching Act.
Now, in a rural parish which is coextensive with an area for which the acts have been adopted, the burial board is abolished and the acts are administered by the parish council; and the acts cannot be adopted in a rural parish save by the parish meeting.
If the area under a burial board in 1894 was partly in a rural parish and partly in an urban district, the burial board was superseded, and the powers of the board are exercised bya joint committeeappointed partly by the urban district council and partly by the parish council, or parish meeting, as the case may be.
In a rural parish where there is no parish council, though the acts are adopted by the parish meeting, it is still necessary to elect the burial board, and that board will be elected by the parish meeting.
In the event of the acts being adopted for a portion only of a rural parish, the burial board, or the parish meeting, may by resolution transfer all the powers of the board to the parish council.
The expenses in a rural parish are defrayed by means of a rate raised with, and as part of, the poor rate, with a qualification to the effect that agricultural land, market gardens and nursery grounds are to be assessed to the rate at one-third only of their rateable value.
In 1909 the taxable valuation was $100,771,321, and the tax rate was 13.8 mills for city property, 9.2 mills on rural property and 6.9 mills on agricultural property.
This unusual predominance of rural over urban manufacturing is further shown by the fact that in 1900, 64.3% of the establishments reporting, and 69.3% of the value of their products were from factories classified as rural, and in 1905 the proportion of rural factories was 58.8%, and the value of their products 72.9% of the total.
This predominance was largely due to the smelting and refining industry, the smelters being chiefly in the rural districts.
School attendance is compulsory for twenty weeks each year in rural districts and for thirty weeks each year in cities of the first and second class for all children between eight and sixteen years.
In Wales and Ireland the greater part of the rural working classes was reduced not to a state of slavery, but to serfdom.
The regulations in question, although entered in a legal text, are not a legislative enactment but the result of a slow process of adjustment of claims between the ecclesiastical landowners and masters on one side and their rural dependents on the other.
And the screen of rural custom proved sufficient to allow of the growth of some property in the hands of the toiling class, a result which in itself rendered possible further emancipation.
The custom of the country gradually took the shape of a simultaneous resettlement of all conditions of rural occupation about St George's day (November 24), that is after the gathering of the harvest and the practical winding up of rural work.
But matters were clearly ripe for a wider application of the view that the peasant ought to stick to the soil, and the restoration of the Muscovite empire under the Romanovs brought with it the consolidation of all rural arrangements around this principle.
Peter the Great regularized and completed this evolution by effecting a comprehensive cadastre and census of the rural population.
The night of the 4th of August 1789 put an end to this contrast at one stroke and the further history of rural population came to depend entirely on the play of free competition and free contract.
Its spaciousness and free rural aspect, its old graveyards and towering elms, its great university, its cultivated society and its vicinity to humane, substantial, busy Boston, were all attractions for such a man.
In 1291 Bedfordshire was an archdeaconry including six rural deaneries, which remained practically unaltered until i 880, when they were increased to eleven with a new schedule of parishes.
Rumania (1828-56), when magistrates were made irremovable, and new tribunals created, including a petty court in each rural commune.
At the close of the 19th century, however, the accommodation was insufficient, the attendance limited in consequence, and the percentage of illiterates high; reaching 88.5% in some of the rural communes.
In the same year the army was reorganized, and a rural police created.
As the process of naturalization has never been accelerated, the 300,000 Jews said to inhabit Rumania are still regarded as foreigners; and although liable to military service and to the payment of taxes, are unable to own rural land or possess electoral or other civil rights.
Under such conditions primary schools in the villages and rural districts were practically unknown, and the parish priest was the only educated person in the community.
The first task of the new government was to introduce (on the 4th of March) an Additional Representation Bill, to rectify - in part - the disparity in electoral power of the rural and urban districts.
When the great Mahommedan sultanates had become too much occupied in internecine wars to maintain order in the distant Hejaz, those branches of the Hassanids which from the beginning of Islam had retained rural property in Arabia usurped power in the holy cities and the adjacent Bedouin territories.
But even the rural populations have generally found surface springs insufficiently constant for their use and have adopted the obvious remedy of sinking wells.
Hence, throughout the world we find the shallow well still very common in rural districts.
In 1908 there was paid for the support of common schools $3,061,994; the average monthly salary of rural teachers was $49.60, and of school principals, $80.87.
The solidarity of clan and fine in their respective spheres, the provisions of the system, the simple rural life, and the prevalence of barter and payments in kind, left comparatively little occasion for contracts between individuals.
About 57% of the population was returned in 1905 as "rural," in spite of the large number of so-called "towns," only five of which, however, have more than 20,000 inhabitants - Posen, Bromberg, Hohensalza, Gnesen and Schneidemiihl.
The early 'eighties were made notable by a tremendous " boom " in real estate, rural and urban, throughout the commonwealth.
The English people became aware of this transformation in the theory of the state mainly through the fact that the new tenants-in-chief, bringing with them the ideas in which they had been reared, failed to com,prehend the rather complicated status of the rural population on this side of the Channel.
In the districts which took arms two main causes of insurrection may be differentiated; the first and the most widespread was the discontent of the rural population with the landowners and the Statute of Laborers.
There is certainly very little evidence of any general discontent among the rural population, such as had prevailed in the times of Edward III.
The seclusion of these rural sojourns, originally dictated by delicate health, was as wholesome to the mind as to the body.
Entering the church in 1838, he was curate at Wylye in Wiltshire, and for a short time at Steeple Claydon in Buckinghamshire, becoming later rector of Down Hatherley in Gloucestershire, and finally (1855) vicar of Rowington in Warwickshire, and rural dean.
About 1906 rural graded schools, outside of villages, were first organized.
The total income for schools in1907-1908was $1,773,659, of which $1,379,410 was from the seven-tenths-of-a-mill tax, $200,000 was from licence fees and taxes upon corporations (for salaries of rural school inspectors) and $194,249 the income from the common school fund which in that year amounted to $3,845,929.
The last named distributes it thus-1,50o,000 rural, 200,000 urban, and ioo,000 shepherds.
For fourteen years his education, more or less interrupted, went on in the rural home at Belluton, on his father's little estate, half a mile from Pensford, and 6 m.
Besides the small farms there is the zadruga, a form of community which appears to date from prehistoric times, and mainly survives along the Bosnian frontier, though tending to disappear everywhere and to be replaced by rural co-operation.
A new stimulus was given to agriculture by the encouragement which King Alexander personally extended to the establishment of rural co-operative associations on the Raiffeisen principles.
A new series of Poems of Rural Life in the Dorset Dialect appeared in 1862, and he was persuaded in 1868 to publish a series of Poems of Rural Life in Common English, which was less successful than his dialect poems. These latter were collected into a single volume in 1879, and on the 7th of October 1886 Barnes died at Winterborne Came.
His poetry is essentially English in character; no other writer has given quite so simple and sincere a picture of the homely life and labour of rural England.
Venizelos himself received a huge majority in Athens and Piraeus, but was defeated by the vote of the rural population of Attica.
As Ireland is mainly an agricultural country the loss of population has been most marked in the rural districts.
The inhabitants of the rural districts (3,073,846) decreased during the decade by over 380,000; that of the urban districts, i.e.
There are also societies for poultry-rearing, rural industries, bee-keeping, bacon-curing, &c., in connexion with the central organization.
To the county councils were also assigned the power of assessing and levying the poor rate in rural districts, the management of lunatic asylums, and the administration of certain acts such as the Explosives Act, the Technical Education Act and the Diseases of Animals Act.
Subordinate district councils, urban and rural, were also established as in England and Scotland to manage the various local areas within each county.
So important a place did bee-culture hold in the rural economy of the ancient Irish that a lengthy section is devoted to the subject in the Brehon Laws.
Except in number, the rural establishments showed greater increases than the urban.'
The number of rural establishments in 1900 was 1174; in 1905, 1179; and the number of urban establishments in 1900, 195; in 1905, 220; but the capitalization of the rural establishments increased from $50,057,922 in 1900 to $97,942,185 in 1905; while that of the urban increased from $12,692,105 to $15,480,039; the value of the products of the rural establishments increased from $41,930,816 to $ 6 4, 88 7,74 8; while that of the urban establishments increased from $11,404,995 to $14,488,514; and the number of employes in rural establishments increased from 36,616 to 50,744, while those in urban establishments increased from 7409 to 8697.
This time events worked in his favour; the industrial insurrection of June made the middle classes and the mass of the rural population look for a saviour, while it turned the industrial population towards Bonapartism, out of hatred for the republican bourgeois.
In both countries rural society was based on the old-fashioned household community, or zadruga, which still survives in the territories that formed the Military Frontier, though everywhere tending to disappear and be replaced by individual ownership. The Croatian peasantry are least prosperous in the riverside districts, where marshfevers prevail, and especially beside the Save.
For administrative purposes Croatia-Slavonia is divided into 8 rural counties, already enumerated; besides the 4 urban counties, or municipalities of Agram, Semlin, Warasdin and Esseg.
These are subdivided into rural and urban communes, each with its representative council.
The affairs of each rural county are managed by an assembly chosen for 6 years, which comprises not only elected members, but delegates from all the cities except Agram and Esseg, with certain high ecclesiastics and officials.
Out of these developed the rural deaneries, the office of archpriest being ultimately merged in that of rural dean, with which it became synonymous.
In the Lutheran Church in Germany the title archpriest (Erzpriester) was in some cases long retained as the equivalent of that of superintendent, sometimes also still called dean (Dechant), his functions being much the same as those of the rural dean.
Of the total population of Austria 14,009,233 were scattered in 26,321 rural communities with less than 2000 inhabitants; while the remainder was distributed in 1742 communities with a population of in 260 communities with a population of 5000-10,00o; in 96 towns with a population of 10,000-20,000; in 41 towns with a population of 20,000-50,000; in 6 towns with a population of 50,000-Ioo,000; and in 6 towns with a population of over 100,000 inhabitants.
But the twofold effect of civil warthe ruin of the farmers and the scarcity and high price of rural laborwas only reduced arbitrarily and, by fits and starts.
The archdeaconry of Lincoln was among those instituted by Remigius, and the division into rural deaneries also dates from this period.
Almost everything connected with bee-craft has been revolutionized, and apiculture, instead of being classed with such homely rural occupations as that of the country housewife who carries a few eggs weekly to the market-town in her basket, is to-day regarded in many countries as a pursuit of considerable import ance.
It may be safely said that the value of the bee to the fruit-grower and the market-gardener has been proved beyond dispute; and the technical instruction now afforded by county councils in the rural districts of England has an appreciable effect.
This newly-aroused interest in the subject is no doubt to a large extent fostered by the grants in aid of technical instruction afforded by county councils in rural districts.
Instruction is compulsory upon children over seven years of age and under thirteen years in the towns of Hobart and Launceston, but not in the rural districts.
State aid to religion, which was given to any denomination which would receive it, was abolished; local self-government was extended to the rural as well as to the urban districts; a policy of semiprotection was introduced; the island was connected by a submarine cable to the mainland of Australia, and thence to the rest of the civilized world; and the population, which was only 99, 328 in 1870, was nearly doubled.
By their influence the rural districts have been brought into close touch with the cities, and many centres of population have been so connected as to make them practically one community.
Young saw the commencement of violence in the rural districts, and his sympathies began to take the side of the classes suffering from the excesses of the Revolution.
The diet (Landtag) is composed of thirty-six members, of whom two are appointed by the duke, eight are representatives of landowners paying the highest taxes, two of the highest assessed members of the commercial and manufacturing classes, fourteen of the other electors of the towns and ten of the rural districts.
The population of the province of Saxony in 1905 was 2,979,221, an average of 305 persons to the square mile; they were almost equally divided between urban population and rural.
The rural countryside that surrounded the building rolled gracefully to trees that looked like Oaks, but it was winter and they still had their leaves.
One such incident was an obvious abduction in rural Delaware that occurred overnight.
A network television station announced the arrest of Byron John Jacobson for the murder of Elsie Otis whose nude body was found in rural Kentucky!
Hunting with hounds is a highly contentious subject of great interest to people who live in rural areas.
Providers servicing rural areas used locally-based tutors to reduce travel costs and make delivery more cost-effective.
A delightful rural hamlet of natural stone cottages, set deep in the wooded Camel valley.
In February 2002, the ROC will hold an election for rural and township chiefs and county and city councilors.