Ruminants sentence example
These ruminants are best described as goat-like antelopes.
The same conclusion is indicated by the absence from the Moluccas and Celebes of various other Mammals, Quadrumana, Carnivora, Insectivora and Ruminants, which abound in the western part of the Archipelago.
Of the ruminants, Brazil has only four or five species of Cervidae, which are likewise common to other countries of South America.
The typical genus Tragulus, which is Asiatic, contains the smallest representatives of the family, the animals having more of the general aspects and habits of some rodents, such as the agoutis, than of other ruminants.
The majority of these are large and heavilybuilt ruminants, with horns present in both sexes, the muzzle broad, moist and naked, the nostrils lateral, no face-glands, and a large dewlap often developed in the males; while the tail is long and generally tufted, although in one instance longhaired throughout.Advertisement
Next come the Rupicaprinae, which include several genera of mountain-dwelling ruminants, typified by the European chamois (Rupicapra); the other genera being the Asiatic serow, goral and takin, and the North American Rocky Mountain goat.
Xiphodon and Dichodon represent another type with cutting premolars and selenodont molars; while Caenotherium and Plesiomeryx form yet another branch, with resemblances to the ruminants.
Some, for instance, may consider that the chamois and the so-called white goat of the Rocky Mountains are entitled to be included in the group; but this is not the view held by the authors of the Book of Antelopes referred to below; and, as a matter of fact, the term is only a vague designation for a number of more or less distinct groups of hollow-horned ruminants which do not come under the designation of cattle, sheep or goats; and in reality there ought to be a distinct English groupname for each subfamily into which "antelopes" are subdivided.
The great majority of antelopes, exclusive of the doubtful chamois group (which, however, will be included in the present article), are African, although the gazelles are to a considerable extent an Asiatic;'group. They include ruminants varying in size from a hare to an ox; and comprise about 150 species, although this number is subject to considerable variation according to personal views as to the limitations of species and races.
They are all small or medium-sized mountain ruminants, for the most part European and Asiatic, but with one North American representative.Advertisement
They are heavily built ruminants, with horns of nearly equal size in both sexes, short tapering tails, large hoofs, narrow goat-like upper molars, and usually small face-glands.
It is probable that the milk of ruminants possesses certain physical and physiological distinctions from that of non-ruminant animals, which will account for the virtues attributed to the milk of the ass and mare.
About equal in height to a roebuck, and with a short black tail, the chamois is readily distinguishable from all other ruminants by its vertical, backwardly-hooked, black horns, which are common to males and females, although smaller in the latter.
A thick under-fur is developed in the winter-coat, as in all other ruminants dwelling at high altitudes.
Pecora, or true ruminants as they may be conveniently called, have complex stomachs and chew the cud; they have no upper incisor teeth; and the lower canines are approximated to the outer incisors in such a manner that the three incisors and the one canine of the two sides collectively form a continuous semicircle of four pairs of nearly similar teeth.Advertisement
From the fact that the bony horn-core of the hollow-horned ruminants first develops as a separate ossification, as do the horns of the giraffe, while the pedicle of the antlers of the deer grow direct from the frontal bone, it has been proposed to place the hollow-horned ruminants (inclusive of the prongbuck) and the giraffes in one group and the deer in another.
Whether he is right in regarding the hollow-horned ruminants as derived from the primitive deer may, however, be a matter of opinion.
The feet have only two hoofs, all traces of the small lateral pair found in many other ruminants having disappeared.
From North America have been obtained remains of certain ruminants which seem in some degree intermediate between deer and the prongbuck.
The most noteworthy point of distinction is in the skull, in which the facial portion is sharply bent down on the posterior basal axis in the fashion characteristic of the hollow-horned ruminants (oxen, antelopes, &c.), and the American prongbuck, instead of running more or less nearly parallel to the same, as in deer.Advertisement
In the absence of any trace of the lower extremities of the metacarpal and metatarsal bones of the lateral toes the skeleton differs from the American deer, and resembles those hollow-horned ruminants in which these toes persist.
Lastly, we have the great family of hollow-horned ruminants or Bovidae, in which the horns (present in the males at least of all the existing species) take the form of simple non-deciduous hollow sheaths growing upon bony cores.
A small deer and, in southern Ecuador, the llama (Auchenia) with its allied species, the alpaca, guanaco and vicuna, represent the ruminants.
The most interesting of the ruminants is the timarau (Bubalus mindorensis, Heude), peculiar to Mindoro.
Tahr frequent the worst ground of almost all ruminants.Advertisement
The Siwalik fossils contain 84 species of mammals of 45 genera, the whole bearing a marked resemblance to the Miocene fauna of Europe, but containing a larger number of genera still existing, especially of ruminants, and now held to be of Pliocene age.
Three very characteristic ruminants, having some affinities with goats, inhabit the Himalaya; these are the " serow " (Nemorhaedus), " goral " (Cemas) and " tahr " (Hemitragus), the last-named ranging to rather high elevations.
Although many of the domesticated breeds are hornless, sheep belong to the family of hollow-horned ruminants or Bovidae.
In this connexion reference may be made to patches or lines of long and generally white hairs situated on the back of certain ruminants, which are capable of erection during periods of excitement, and serve, apparently, as " flags " to guide the members of a herd in flight.
Other epidermic appendages are the horns of ruminants and rhinoceroses - the former being elongated, tapering, hollow caps of hardened epidermis of fibrous structure, fitting on and growing from conical projections of the frontal bones and always arranged in pairs, while the latter are of similar structure, but without any internal bony support, and situated in the middle line.Advertisement
In the herbivorous modification, as seen in three distinct phases in the horse, the kangaroo, and in ruminants, the incisors are generally well developed in one or both jaws, and have a nipping action, either against one another or against a toothless hard pad in the upper jaw; while the canines are usually small or absent, at least in the upper jaw, but in the lower jaw may be approximated and assimilated to the incisors.
The anterior part of the palate is composed of mucous membrane tightly stretched over the flat or slightly concave bony layer which separates the mouth from the nasal passages, and is generally raised into a series of transverse ridges, which sometimes, as in ruminants, attain a considerable development.
An African origin has also been suggested for the hollow-horned ruminants (Bovidae); and if this were substantiated it would explain the abundance of that family in Africa and the absence from the heart of that continent of the deer-tribe.
Whether its birthplace was in Africa or to the north, it is, however, clear that the hollow-horned ruminants are essentially an Old World group, which only effected an entrance into North America at a comparatively recent date, and never succeeded in reaching South America.
They are exceedingly timid, and therefore wary and difficult of approach; like many other ruminants, however, their curiosity sometimes overcomes their timidity, so as to bring them within range of the hunter's rifle.Advertisement
The odontoid process of the axis is wide, flat, and hollowed above, as in the ruminants.
The SSC also considered the safety of dicalcium phosphate derived from the bones of ruminants.
The main areas of research include rinderpest, peste des petits ruminants, vesicular stomatitis, and HIV.
By 1896 large numbers of cattle and wild ruminants were dying on both banks of the Zambesi River.
This would allow Ghanaian vets to determine the epidemiology of Cowdria infection in domestic ruminants kept under different husbandry systems.Advertisement
The Syrian steppe used to provide up to 60% of the diet for the country's small ruminants.
Characteristic for cows is their fluid dung, in contrast to the solid dung of other ruminants like sheep or deer.
Still they were fortunate enough to kill two of the large American ruminants, seldom met with in such elevated latitudes.
All the exotic ruminants appear to be linked to the BSE epidemic via the consumption of contaminated feed.
Export potential Airborne Peste des petits ruminants - an emerging plague?Advertisement
Two other disease complexes of adult ruminants related to energy metabolism have been identified.
A decision on the continued use of synthetic vitamins A, D and E for ruminants will be made in the Autumn.
Possibly the Arctic musk-ox (Ovibos) may be connected with the takin by means of certain extinct ruminants, such as the North American Pleistocene Euceratherium and the European Pliocene Criotherium (see Chamois, Goral, Serow, Rocky Mountain Goat and Takin).
It is the only species of its genus, and typifies a subfamily, Rupicaprinae, of hollowhorned ruminants in some degree intermediate between antelopes and goats (see ANTELOPE).
The main source of methane is ruminants fed on low quality, fibrous diets.Advertisement
Little is known, however, of the nature of immune response in ruminants infected with T.evansi.
The Syrian steppe used to provide up to 60% of the diet for the country 's small ruminants.
The practice of feeding grass rather than grains to cattle recognizes that these animals are ruminants.
The cannon-bones are remarkably short and wide, and in this respect differ from those of all allied ruminants, except the Tibetan takin.
Gerenuk are browsing ruminants, and, in Somaliland, are found in small family-parties, and feed more by browsing on the branches and leaves of trees and shrubs than by grazing.