CHAMOIS, the Franco-Swiss name of an Alpine ruminant known in the German cantons as Gemse, and to naturalists as Rupicapra tragus or R.
A peculiar form of baboon, Cynopithecus, and the singular ruminant, Anoa, found in Celebes, seem to have no relation to Asiatic animals, and rather to be allied to those in Africa.
MUSK-OX, also known as musk-buffalo and musk-sheep, an Arctic American ruminant of the family Bovidae, now representing a genus and sub-family by itself.
In common with an allied ruminant from the same district, previously described as Euceratherium, it seems probable that Preptoceras is related on the one hand to the musk-ox, and on the other to the Asiatic takin, while it is also supposed to have affinities with the sheep. If these extinct forms really serve to connect the takin with the musk-ox, their systematic importance will be very great.
BOVIDAE, the name of the family of hollow-horned ruminant mammals typified by the common ox (Bos taurus), and specially characterized by the presence on the skulls of the males or of both sexes of a pair of bony projections, or cores, covered in life with hollow sheaths of horn, which are never branched, and at all events after a very early stage of existence are permanently retained.
As already stated, there is a possibility of this latter ruminant being allied both to the takin and the musk-ox.
ROCKY MOUNTAIN GOAT, or White Goat (Oreamnus montanus), a North American hollow-horned ruminant of the family Bovidae, distinguished by its white colour.
Australia has no apes, monkeys or baboons, and no ruminant beasts.
The stomach varies in form from the simple oval bag of the squirrels to the complex ruminant like organ of the lemmings.
The dorcas gazelle is still common in the south of Tunisia; but perhaps the most interesting ruminant is the magnificent udad, or Barbary sheep, which is found in the sterile mountainous regions of south Tunisia.
The East African gerenuk, or Waller's gazelle (Lithocranius walleri), of which two races have been named, is a very remarkable ruminant, distinguished not only by its exceedingly elongated neck and limbs, but also by the peculiar hooked form of the very massive horns of the bucks, the dense structure and straight profile of the skull, and the extreme slenderness of the lower jaw.
In the latter respect this ruminant resembles the takin (Budorcas) of Tibet, which, as already mentioned, has horns recalling those of the white-tailed gnu.
It is probable that the milk of ruminants possesses certain physical and physiological distinctions from that of non-ruminant animals, which will account for the virtues attributed to the milk of the ass and mare.
Haedus, a kid), properly the name of the well-known domesticated European ruminant (Capra hircus), which has for all time been regarded as the emblem of everything that is evil, in contradistinction to the sheep, which is the symbol of excellence and purity.
In this ruminant, which is of a dark-brown colour, the relatively smooth black horns diverge outwards in a manner resembling those of the bharal among the sheep rather than in goat-fashion; and, in fact, this tur, which has only a very short beard, is so bharal-like that it is commonly called by sportsmen the Caucasian bharal.
OKAPI, the native name of an African ruminant mammal (Ocapia johnstoni), belonging to the Giraffidae, or giraffe-family, but distinguished from giraffes by its shorter limbs and neck, the absence of horns in the females, and its very remarkable type of colouring.
The Bovidae are thus brought into nearer relationship with the American prongbuck (the only living ruminant which sheds its horn-cover in the adult condition) than has generally been supposed.
From deposits of the same age in Greece, Samos and elsewhere have been obtained skulls and other remains of Palaeotragus or Samotherium, a ruminant closely allied to Ocapia, the males of which were armed with a very similar pair of dagger-shaped horns.
Matthew shows, however, that the skeleton of Merycodus, as the extinct ruminant is called, differs markedly from that of all deer.
TAKIN, the Mishmi name of a remarkable hollow-horned ruminant (Budorcas taxicolor), the typical representative of which inhabits the Mishmi Hills, in the south-east corner of Tibet, immediately north of the Assam Valley, while a second form is found further east, in the Moupin district.
The German Schaf), a name originally bestowed in all probability on the familiar domesticated ruminant (Ovis aries), but now extended to include its immediate wild relatives.