Its geographical range was formerly very extensive, and included Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, Transylvania, Galicia, the Caucasus as far as the Caspian, southern Russia, Italy, Spain, Greece, Rumania, Bulgaria, Servia, and portions of central and northern Asia.
TECUCI (Tecuciu), the capital of the Tecuci department of Rumania, picturesquely situated among wooded hills, on the right bank of the river Berlad, and at the junction of railways from Bacau, Bcrlad and Galatz.
WALACHIA, or Wallachia, a former principality of southeastern Europe, constituting, after its union with Moldavia on the 9th of November 1859, a part of Rumania.
Dr Leche also institutes a comparison between the skeletons of the wild and the tame Bactrian camel with the remains of certain fossil Asiatic camels, namely, Camelus knoblochi from Sarepta, Russia, and C. alutensis from the Aluta valley, Rumania.
In Austria, Germany, Italy, Rumania and Russia the number of pharmacies is limited according to the population.
CALARASHI (Caldrasi), the capital of the Jalomitza department, Rumania, situated on the left bank of the Borcea branch of the Danube, amid wide fens, north of which extends the desolate Baragan Steppe.
and from Prussia, Austria and Rumania on the W.
to embrace Poland, and separating Russia from Prussia, Austrian Galicia and Rumania.
The Pruth rises in Austrian Bukovina, and separates Russia from Rumania; it enters the Danube, which flows along the Russian frontier for 100 m.
As protector Nicholas of the Orthodox Christians he espoused the cause of L and the the rayahs in Greece, Servia and Rumania.
CURTEA DE ARGESH (Rumanian, Curtea de Arges; also written Curtea d'Argesh, Curtea d'Ardges, Argish and Ardjish), the capital of the department of Argesh, Rumania; situated on the right bank of the river Argesh, where it flows through a valley of the lower Carpathians; and on the railway from Pitesci to the Rothenthurm Pass.
The city is one of the oldest in Rumania.
The cathedral of Curtea de Argesh, by far the most famous building in Rumania, stands in the grounds of a monastery, 12 m.
These were dismantled in accordance with the treaty of Paris (1856), by which Izmail was made over to Rumania.
The story of the Jews in Russia and Rumania remains a black spot on the European record.
In Rumania, despite the Berlin Treaty, the Jews are treated as aliens, and but a small number have been naturalized.
It is situated on the river Suczawa, which forms there the boundary between Bukovina and Rumania.
RAMNICU SARAT (Rimnicu Sarat), the capital of the department of Ramnicu Sarat, Rumania; on the railway from Buzeu to Focshani, and on the left bank of the Ramnicu, a tributary of the Sereth.
A Russian traveller, Peter Kalm, in his work on America, published in 1748, showed on a map the oil springs of Pennsylvania, and about the same time Raicevich referred to the " liquid bitumen " of Rumania.
France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Rumania, Turkey-in-Europe, Styria, Slavonia, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Lower Austria, Wurttemberg, Brandenberg, West Prussia, Crimea, Kuban, Terek, Kutais, Tiflis, Elizabetpol, Siberia, Transcaspia, Mesopotamia, Persia, Assam, Burma, Anam, Japan, Philippine Islands, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Algeria, Egypt, British Columbia, Alaska, Washington, California, Colorado, Texas, Louisiana, Barbados, Trinidad, Venezuela, Peru, South Australia, Victoria, New Zealand.
France, Spain, Greece, Rumania, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Bavaria, Elsass, Rhenish Bavaria, Hesse, Saxony, Crimea, Daghestan, Tiflis, Baku, Alaska, California, Florida.
The former of Systems. is not only employed in the United States, but is in use in Upper Burma, Java, Rumania and elsewhere.
The XpovcKOV Teel, ' (composed in Greek verse some time after 1300, apparently by an author of mixed Frankish and Greek parentage, and translated into French at an early date under the title "The Book of the Conquest of Constantinople and the Empire of Rumania") narrates in a prologue the events of the Fourth (as indeed also of the First) Crusade.
by Rumania, Turkey and Bulgaria; S.
Rumania joined the Russians, and in Europe no effective opposition was encountered by the invaders until the assaults on Plevna and the Shipka Pass, where the valiant resistance of the Turks won for them the admiration of Europe.
It also contributed towards the conclusion of an entente between Turkey and Rumania in the summer of 1910.
Both of these powers were interested in preventing any possible accession of territory to the Bulgarian kingdom; and Rumania (q.v.) had for many years been a formidable opponent of Hellenism among the Macedonian Vlachs.
Greece and Crete were thus confronted with what was in effect a defensive alliance between Turkey and Rumania.
ANTHIM THE IBERIAN, a notable figure in the ecclesiastical history of Rumania.
A Georgian by birth, he came to Rumania early in the second half of the 17th century, as a simple monk.
He was also the first to introduce Oriental founts of type into Rumania, and he printed there the first Arabic missal for the Christians of the East (Ramnicu, 1702).
VASLUI, the capital of the department of Vaslui, Rumania; on a hill at the confluence of the Berlad and Vaslui rivers, and on the railway from Jassy to Galatz.
TIRGU JIU (often incorrectly written Tergu Jiu), the capital of the department of Gorjiu, Rumania; situated among the lower slopes of the Carpathians, on the left bank of the river Jiu, and at the terminus of a branch railway which joins the main Walachian line between Turnu Severin and Craiova.
by Austria (Bukovina) and Rumania; S.
by Rumania, Servia, Bosnia and Austria (Dalmatia); W.
From the Transylvanian counties there is an emigration to Rumania and the Balkan territories of 4000 or 5000 persons yearly.
Large numbers of horses are exported annually, principally to Austria, Germany, Italy, France and Rumania.
The neighbouring Balkan states - Rumania and Servia - follow, and the United Kingdom receives somewhat more than 2% of the exports, while supplying about 1.5% of the imports.
'RAMNICUVALCEA(Rimnicu' Valcea), or Rymnik, an episcopal city and the capital of the department of Valcea, Rumania; situated at the foot of the Carpathians, on the right bank of the river Olt, and on the railway from Caracal to Hermannstadt in Transylvania.
Fiume, he declared, must be the outlet, not of Italy, but " of Hungary, Bohemia, Rumania and Yugoslavia."
12 1918 the Serbs were allowed to occupy Temesvar and most of the Banat, the east of which is overwhelmingly Rumanian and which was claimed in its entirety by Rumania, in right of her treaty of Aug.
At the Paris Conference Rumania's enforced conclusion of peace with Germany was treated as absolving the Allies from obligations which were admitted in the parallel case of the Italian treaty: and the necessity of a partition on mainly ethnographic lines was from the first admitted.
The special commission, after hearing the views of Trumbic and Bratianu, recommended a line which as nearly as possible balanced the Serb and Rumanian minorities left to Rumania and Yugoslavia respectively, and secured to the latter the essentially Serb districts of Torontal county: but at the instance of the French this line was modified to include Vrsac (Versecz) and Bela Crkva (Weisskirchen) in Yugoslavia.
This has the disadvantage that while the Serbs are stronger than any other single race in the two towns, their cession involved the loss of many purely Rumanian villages by Rumania, and also her loss of the important railway line connecting Temesvar southward with the Danube.
The Treaty of Trianon satisfied the most essential claims of Yugoslavia, by dividing the whole Banat (save a small Magyar triangle opposite the city of Szeged) between her and Rumania, and by assigning to her the whole Backa (except Baja and district), part of the Baranya (forming the angle between Drave and Danube) and the Medjumurje (between Drava and Mur).
14 1920: Czechoslovakia and Rumania April 23 1921: Yugoslavia and Rumania June 7 1921), and the anti-Habsburg agreement concluded with Italy simultaneously with the Treaty of Rapallo (Nov.
TIRGU OCNA (Rumanian also Targul Ocna), a town of Rumania, on the left bank of the river Trotosh, an affluent of the Sereth, and on a branch railway which crosses the Ghimesh Pass into Transylvania.
Outside the town stands the largest prison in Rumania; beyond this are the mines, worked, since 1870, by convicts, who receive a small wage.
TURNU MAGURELE, the capital of the department of Teleorman, Rumania; 22 m.
These cakes, sold as food for cattle, fetch as much as £4 per ton in Rumania, where four or five beetroot factories are now at work.
The exports go mainly to Austria-Hungary, Rumania, Italy, Egypt, the United Kingdom and the United States.
BASSARAB or Bassaraba, the name of a dynasty in Rumania, which ruled Walachia from the dawn of its history until 1658.
It is, however, a fact that the first appearance of the Bassarabs as rulers (knyaz, ban or voivod) is in the western part of Rumania (originally called Little Walachia), and also in the southern parts of Transylvania - the old dukedoms of Fogarash and Almash, which are situated on the right bank of the Olt (Aluta) and extend south to Severin and Craiova.
Mateiu Bassarab (1633-1654) established the first printing-press in Rumania, and under his influence the first code of laws was compiled and published in Bucharest in 1654.
See RUMANIA: Language and Literature.
With the exception of the extreme southern and south-eastern ramifications, which belong to Rumania, the Carpathians lie entirely within Austrian and 2 The name is derived from the Slavonic word Chrb, which means mountain-range.
The Carpathians separate Hungary and Transylvania from Lower Austria, Moravia, Silesia, Galicia, Bukovina and Rumania, while its ramifications fill the whole northern part of Hungary, and form the quadrangular mass of the Transylvanian plateau.
Unlike the other wings of the great central system of Europe, the Carpathians, which form the watershed between the northern seas and the Black Sea, are surrounded on all sides by plains, namely the great Hungarian plain on the south-west, the plain of the Lower Danube (Rumania) on the south, and the Galician plain on the north-east.
I,151,210 II 1 Czechs, Magyars, Sla y s Bohemia 77,247 01 Hungary 256,347 2.5 Poland 141,908 Rumania 10,377 0.1 Russia 500,797 0 I Total Europe 9,197,014 88.9 3.6 Grand Total 10,339,539 Total Swiss-Switzerland Greeks-Greece Turks-Turkey Europe, not specified 135,736 7,325 3,411 294 North America All other countries 77 6, 071 7.5 366,454 100 0 1'4 4.8 9.5 A very important transformation has taken place in the proportionate number coming from different countries during the last half of the 19th century.
In 1866 Prince Charles of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was chosen prince of Rumania, becoming king in 1881.
PIATRA (PEATRA), the capital of the department of Neamtzu Rumania, situated on the left bank of the river Bistritza, where it cuts a way through the Carpathian foothills.
His friendliness for Russia did not, however, prevent him from strengthening the position of Austria as against Russia in the Balkan Peninsula by the establishment of a closer political and commercial understanding with Servia and Rumania.
The prospect of revenge upon her enemies of the Second Balkan War - Serbia, Greece and Rumania - and of attaining her large territorial ambitions at their expense, proved sufficient, after prudent hesitation, to attract Bulgaria to the side of Germany.
Coupled with similar action on the part of Bulgaria it isolated Russia and Rumania from the Western Powers, and was a potent influence in producing the collapse of the Russian Empire.
In these operations no Turkish troops took part, but in 1916 Turkish divisions had to fight in the great invasion of Rumania.
- The status of certain states, such as Bulgaria and Rumania and the late South African Republic, were peculiar.
Among the Rumanians, who inhabited three states (Austria, Hungary and Rumania), the desire long prevailed for union within the monarchy, and Austria would only have had to stretch out her hand to them; but the Magyars would not have it.
TURNU SEVERIN, the capital of the department of Mehedintzi, Rumania, on the main Walachian railway, and on the left bank of the river Danube, below the Iron Gates cataracts.
KISHINEV (Kishlanow of the Moldavians),a town of south-west Russia, capital of the government of Bessarabia, situated on the right bank of the Byk, a tributary of the Dniester, and on the railway between Odessa and Jassy in Rumania, 120 m.
South of these ranges lie fertile and well-watered plains and lowlands extending to the borders of Austria, Hungary and Rumania.
On the other hand there are some 500,000 Czechoslovaks in Austria, 450,000 in Hungary, more than 200,000 in Yugoslavia and Rumania, and over 800,000 in America.
Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Rumania became bound together in the Little Entente by a treaty of alliance (Convention with Yugoslavia dated Aug.
13 1920, with Rumania April 23 1921), positive in so far as it aimed at the establishment and maintenance of peace, security and normal economic conditions in central Europe, and defensive in so far as it was directed against all attempts at reaction menacing the existence of the new states.
In respect of Hungary Czechoslovakia was at one with Yugoslavia and Rumania in holding that a Habsburg restoration would be a casus belli.
of Rumania, widely known by her literary name of "Carmen Sylva," was born on the 29th of December 1843.
She first met the future king of Rumania at Berlin in 1861, and was married to him on the 15th of November 1869.
She fostered the higher education of women in Rumania, and established societies for various charitable objects.
See Rumania: History; also M.
FALTICHENI (Faltirenf), the capital of the department of Suceava, Rumania, situated on a small right-hand tributary of the Sereth, among the hills of north-west Moldavia, and 2 m.
MOLDAVIA, a former principality of south-eastern Europe, constituting, after its union with Wallachia on the 9th of November 1859, a part of Rumania.
NEAMTZU (Neamtu), a town in Rumania, situated among the lower slopes of the Carpathian Mountains, and on the left bank of the river Neamtzu, an affluent of the Moldova.
CONSTANTZA (Constants), formerly known as Kustendji or Kustendje, a seaport on the Black Sea, and capital of the department of Constantza, Rumania; 140 m.
When the Dobrudja was ceded to Rumania in 1878, Constantza was partly rebuilt.
Furnished with ample means, the Russian monks neglect no opportunity of adding to their possessions on the holy mountain; their encroachments are resisted by the Greek monks, whose wealth, however, was much diminished by the secularization of their estates in Rumania(1864).
„ Rumania, May 27, 1905.
"Extra hard" yarns are sent to Rumania and other Near Eastern markets, and Russia, as the average price indicates, buys sparingly of very fine yarns.
TULCEA, or Ttltcha, the capital of the department of Tulcea, Rumania, on the right bank of the Danube, 42 m.
Besides Grottaferrata, there are Catholic Basilian monasteries in Poland, Hungary, Galicia, Rumania; and among the Melchites or Uniat Syrians.
The Order of the Star of Rumania was founded in 1877, and the Order of the Crown of Rumania in 1881, both in five classes, for civil and military merit; the ribbon of the first is red with blue borders, of the second light blue with two silver stripes.
BUCHAREST (Bucuresci), also written Bucarest, Bukarest, Bukharest, Bukorest and Bukhorest, the capital of Rumania, and chief town of the department of Ilfov.
The older houses are of brick, overlaid with white or tinted plaster, and ornamented with figures or foliage in terra-cotta; but owing to the great changes of temperature in Rumania, the plaster soon cracks and peels off, giving a dilapidated appearance to many streets.
BRAILA (in Rumanian Braila, formerly Ibraila), the capital of the department of Braila, Rumania; situated amid flat and dreary country on the left bank of the river Danube, about zoo m.
Conventuals: Jassy (Rumania).
During the early Tertiary age it belonged to the Sarmatian Ocean, which reached from the middle Danube eastwards through Rumania, South Russia, and along both flanks of the Caucasus to the Aralo-Caspian region, and westwards had open communication with the great ocean, as indeed the ancient geographers Eratosthenes, Strabo and Pliny believed it still had in their day.
CAMPULUNG (also written Campu Lung and Kimpulung), the capital of the department of Muscel, Rumania, and the seat of a suffragan bishop; situated among the outlying hills of the Carpathian Mountains, at the head of a long well-wooded glen traversed by the river Tirgului, a tributary of the Argesh.
These were followed by similar treaties with Rumania and Servia, and in 1894, after a period of sharp customs warfare, with Russia.
As these would inevitably bring about a large increase in the importation of corn from Rumania and Russia, a great agitation was begun in agricultural circles, and the whole influence of the Conservative party was opposed to the treaties.
CRAIOVA, or Krajova, the capital of the department of Doljiu, Rumania, situated near the left bank of the river Jiu, and on the main Walachian railway from Verciorova to Bucharest.
A compact with the Turks, made in 1370 and renewed in the next century, saved Ragusa from the fate of its more powerful neighbours, Servia and Byzantium, besides enabling the Ragusan caravans to penetrate into Hungary, Croatia, Bosnia, Servia, Bulgaria and Rumania.
by Russia and Rumania, S.
Next in importance comes Great Britain, afterwards India, Italy, the United States of America, Russia, France, Switzerland, Rumania, the Balkan states and South America in about the order named.
The chief objects of the government in recent years have been to maintain Austro-Hungarian trade and influence in the Balkan states by the building of railways, by the opening of the Danube for navigation, and by commercial treaties with Rumania, Servia and Bulgaria; since the abdication of King Milan especially, the affairs of Servia and the growth of Russian influence in that country have caused serious anxiety.
In 1887 a further increase of duties was laid on corn (this was at the desire of Hungary as against Rumania, for a vigorous customs war was being carried on at this time) and on woollen and textile goods.
GIURGEVO (Giurgiu), the capital of the department of Vlashca, Rumania; situated amid mud-flats and marshes on the left bank of the Danube.
The rich corn-lands on the north are traversed by a railway to Bucharest, the first line opened in Rumania, which was built in 1869 and afterwards extended to Smarda.
Thus Giurgevo, besides having a considerable trade with the home ports lower down the Danube, is the headquarters of commerce between Bulgaria and Rumania.
and by Rumania on the E.
The Aluta (Alt or Olt) rises not far from the Maros, but takes a southerly direction and pierces the Carpathians at the Roteturm pass, to enter Rumania; its principal tributaries in Transylvania are the Vargyas, the Homorod, the Cibin and the Burzen.
The Montenegrin frontier laid down at San Stefano was considerably curtailed, Dulcigno, the district north-east of the Tara, and other territories being restored to Turkey; in addition to Nish, Servia received the districts of Pirot and Vranya on the east instead of the Ibar valley on the west; the Dobrudja, somewhat enlarged, was ceded to Rumania' which surrendered southern Bessarabia to Russia.
The complete independence of the principalities of Servia,Rumania and Montenegro was recognized.
Rumania was proclaimed a kingdom in that year, Servia in 1882.
The movement was favourably regarded by King Charles of Rumania and Prince Alexander of Bulgaria.
SULINA, a town in Rumania, at the mouth of the Sulina branch of the Danube.
Sulina is the only free port on the Danube, and is much used for the transhipment into seagoing vessels of grain which is brought down the river in large lighters from Rumania, Russia, Bulgaria, Servia and AustriaHungary.
The town contains the only English church in Rumania.
Alexandria, Rumania >>
- As regards the past history of the group, remains of fossil species of Camelus have been obtained from the superficial deposits of various parts of Russia, Rumania, and Siberia, and others from the Lower Pliocene of northern India; the molar teeth of these latter presenting the additional column referred to above as distinguishing those of the llamas from those of modern camels.
It possesses a tobacco factory, candle-works and brick-kilns, and is an important river port, vessels discharging here their cargoes of corn, wine, wool, cattle, flour and tallow, to be conveyed by land to Odessa and to Yassy in Rumania.
by Rumania, W.
Between Russia and Turkey it interposed, in effect,a barrier of independent (Rumania, Servia) and quasi-independent (Bulgaria) states, erected with the counsel and consent of collective Europe.
The disintegration of the Ottoman Empire has been regulated by the Great Powers, or some of them, in the treaties of London, 1832, 1863, 1864, and of Constantinople, 1881, with reference to Greece; and by the treaties of Paris, 1856; London, 1871; Berlin, 1878;1878; London, 1883, with reference to Montenegro, Rumania, Servia, Bulgaria and the navigation of the Danube.
In Greece and Rumania it is exceptionally high, and in some Oriental or semi-Oriental countries it is said to give place to a deficit, though in the latter case the returns are probably not trustworthy.
The United States produces roughly 50, Bulgaria and Rumania each 4 o and Servia 10 million gallons.
The average yield of Bulgaria and Rumania is probably some 30 to 40 million gallons for each country, but in some years it is much larger.
Thus in 1896 Rumania produced no less than 101 million gallons and Bulgaria 81 million gallons.
BABADAG, or Babatag, a town in the department of Tulcea, Rumania; situated on a small lake formed by the river Taitza among the densely wooded highlands of the northern Dobrudja.
Oncken (1800-1884) formed the first church in Hamburg in 1834, and thereafter Baptist churches were formed in other countries as follows:- Denmark (1839), Holland and Sweden (1848), Switzerland (1849), Norway (1860), Austria and Rumania (1869), Hungary (1871), and Bulgaria (1884).
PLOESCI (Ploescii), the capital of the department of Prahova, Rumania; at the southern entrance of a valley among the Carpathian foothills, through which flows the river Prahova; and at the junction of railways to Buzeu, Bucharest and Hermannstadt in Transylvania.
by the Tyras (Dniester), thus corresponding in the main to the modern Rumania and Transylvania.
The Sturdza family has been long and intimately associated with the government first of Moldavia and afterwards of Rumania.
In 1899 he was elected leader of the party in succession to Bratianu and was four times prime minister (see RUMANIA: History).
CALAFAT, a town of Rumania in the department of Doljiu; on the river Danube, opposite the Bulgarian fortress of Vidin.
patent fuel is largely sent to South America, whence return cargoes of mineral ores and grain are obtained, while Germany, France, Italy, Rumania, the United States and the Far East are the chief customers for tinplates.
Carol), king of Rumania (1839-), second son of Prince Karl Anton of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, was born on the 10th of April 1839.
He was a captain in the 2nd regiment of Prussian Dragoon Guards when he was elected domn or prince of Rumania on the 10th of April 1866, after the compulsory abdication of Prince Alexander John Cuza.
The sympathy of Rumania with France in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, and the consequent interruption of certain commercial undertakings, led to a hostile movement against Prince Charles, which, being fostered by Russia, made him resolve to abdicate; and it was with difficulty that he was persuaded to remain.
As a consequence of the prince's vigorous action the independence of Rumania, which had been proclaimed in May 1877, was confirmed by various treaties in 1878, and recognized by Great Britain, France and Germany in 1880.
On the 26th of March 1881 he was proclaimed king of Rumania, and, with his consort, was crowned on the 22nd of May following.
For a detailed account of his reign, see Rumania.
Further, Rumania was on the point of intervening in order to secure herself against the consequences of Bulgarian aggrandisement, and the internal politics of Turkey became more confused than ever.
At this stage, indeed, bolder strategy was hardly required, for already Rumania had declared war on Bulgaria and had begun an unopposed march on Sofia, while the Turks at Chatalja and Bulair, ignoring the Treaty of London, reoccupied Adrianople without firing a shot.
The old outlines, however, are effaced wherever the Christian races have emancipated themselves from the Turkish rule, and the national churches of Greece, Servia and Rumania have reorganized themselves on a new basis.
OLTENITZA (Oltenita), a town of Rumania, on the left bank of the river Argesh, 33 m.
HUSHI (Rumanian Husi), the capital of the department of Falciu, Rumania; on a branch of the Jassy-Galatz railway, 9 m.
SINAIA, a town of Rumania, about 12 m.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia related to Rumania.
RUMANIA, or Roumania [Romania], a kingdom of southeastern Europe, situated to the north-east of the Balkan Peninsula,' and on the Black Sea.
Rumania begins on the seaward side with a band of territory called the Dobrudja; and broadens westward into the form of a blunted crescent, its northern horn being called Moldavia, its southern Walachia.
Along the inner edge of this crescent run the Carpathian Mountains, also called, towards their western extremity, the Transylvanian Mountains or Transylvanian Alps; and the frontier which marks off Rumania from Hungary is drawn along their crests.
The Danube (q.v.) enters Rumania through the Verciorova or Kazan 2 Pass.
Sturdza showed that Rumania should not be included in the Balkan Peninsula, where it is placed by many writers and cartographers.
Apart from the Dobrudja, the whole of Rumania is included in the northern basin of the lower Danube.
For about 155 days in each year, Rumania suffers from the bitter north-east wind (trivets) which sweeps over south Russia; while a scorching west or southwest wind (austru) blows for about 126 days.
Insect life is somewhat less remarkable; but besides a distinctive genus of Orthoptera (Jaquetia Hospodar), there are several kinds of weevils (Curculionidae) said to be peculiar to Rumania.
The mineral wealth of Rumania lies chiefly in the mountains.
Rumania has long been noted for its mineral springs.
That, in 1900, Rumania ranked third,' after the United States and Russia, among the grain-growing countries of the world, is due partly to the fertile soil, whose chemical constituents are the same as in the " black earth " region of Russia, though even 'The relative importance of Rumania was afterwards lessened by the development of wheat-culture in Canada, Argentina and elsewhere.
Among the wine-producing countries of Europe, Rumania stood fifth in 1900, despite the ravages of phylloxera, old-fashioned culture, lack of storage and other drawbacks.
On the upland fruit farms, although apples, pears, medlars, cherries, plums, peaches, apricots and melons thrive, the chief attention is given to damsons, from which is extracted a mild spirit (tsuica), highly esteemed throughout Rumania.
The forests of Rumania were long either neglected or exploited in the most reckless fashion.
By the Land Act of 1889, the state domains, amounting to nearly one-third of the total area of Rumania (originally the property of the church and the convents, confiscated by Prince Cuza in 1866), were distributed among the peasantry.
In 1908 the chief consumers of Rumanian goods were (in order) Belgium, Great Britain and Italy; the chief exporters to Rumania were Germany, Austria-Hungary, Great Britain and France.
Apart from the General Bank of Rumania (capital £200,000), which is owned by a syndicate mainly of Germans, the largest credit establishments belong to the state.
But after 1878 the Russian silver rouble was rated so highly as to drive the native coins out of circulation; and in 1889 Rumania joined the Latin Monetary Union and adopted a gold standard.
Until the 19th century, traffic was carried on in Rumania chiefly by means of ox-wagons, over the roughest of roads.
Besides the junctions at Suczawa and Verciorova, the Rumania system meets the Hungarian through the Gyimes, Rothenthurm and Vulkan Passes; the Russian by lines from Jassy and Galatz to Kishinev in Bessarabia; the Bulgarian and Servian by means of numerous] ferries.
Rumania has no canals, and the canalization of its rivers is impeded by drought and floods.
In 1908 the ports of Rumania were entered by 32,888 vessels of 9,269,000 tons, of which 3 0, 5 0 4 of 6,529,000 tons belonged to the river (Danubian) trade.
The merchant navy of Rumania comprised about 495 vessels of 145,000 tons, including 88 steamers.
The population of Rumania numbered 5,912,520 in 1899, and about 6,850,000 in ' 1910.
The bitter feeling against them in Rumania is not so much due to religious fanaticism as to the fear that if given political and other rights they will gradually possess themselves of the whole soil.
In many towns in northern Moldavia the Jews are in a majority, and their total numbers in Rumania are about 300,000, i.e.
In 1866, Prince Charles of HohenzollernSigmaringen was chosen prince of Rumania by a constituent assembly elected under universal suffrage.
For purposes of local government, Rumania is divided into 32 departments, each controlled by a prefect, and subdivided into sub-prefectures and communes.
Rumania (1828-56), when magistrates were made irremovable, and new tribunals created, including a petty court in each rural commune.
The State Church of Rumania, which is governed by a Holy Synod, professes the Orthodox Oriental creed.
It was subsequently decided to consecrate the holy oil in Rumania instead of procuring it from Russia or Constantinople; but the Greek patriarch protested.
The metropolitan archbishop of Bucharest, officially styled metropolitan primate of Rumania, presides over the Holy Synod; the other members being the metropolitan of Jassy (primate of Moldavia), the six bishops of Ramnicu Valcea, Roman, Hushi, Buzeu, Curtea de Argesh and the Lower Danube (Galatz); together with eight bishops in partibus, their coadjutors.
The sequestration of the monastic estates, which in 1864 covered nearly one-third of Rumania, was due to flagrant abuses.
The history of primitive civilization in Rumania can be traced back to the Neolithic Age; numerous remains of this period have been found at Vodastra in the Romanatzi department.
Tocilescu, Das Monument von Adam Klissi, Vienna, 1895.) Few monuments were left by the barbarian invaders who ravaged Rumania from the 3rd century to the 14th save some vestiges of Gothic culture at Buzeu, and at Petroasa, close by.
Samuelson, Rumania, Past and Present (London, 1882); G.
Beuger, Rumania in 1900 (trans.
- The earliest record of the lands which constitute the kingdom of Rumania begins with the period immediately preceding their conquest by the Romans.
With the r3th century, at latest, begins the authentic political history of the Vlachs in Rumania, but it is not the history of a united people.
the two principalities were finally united under the name of Rumania.
The subjoined history of the country is arranged under the four headings: Walachia, Moldavia, the Danubian Principalities and Rumania, in order to emphasize this historical development.
To this fact the surprisingly rapid progress of Rumania, as compared with the Balkan States, may very largely be attributed.
On their meeting in September they at once proceeded to vote with unanimity the union of the two principalities into a single state under princi- the name of Romania (Rumania), to be governed by a foreign prince elected from one of the reigning dynasties of Europe, and having a single representative assembly.
E.; X.) (5) Rumania.
Acting on the advice of Bismarck, the prince asked for a short leave of absence, resigned his commission in the Prussian army on crossing the frontier, and hastened down the Danube to Rumania, under a feigned name and with a false passport.
Rumania was to remain part of the Ottoman empire within the limits fixed by the capitulations and the treaty of Paris.
Much excitement was aroused in Rumania by the outbreak of the war between Prussia and France.
On the 7th of December he wrote confidentially to the sovereigns whose representatives had signed the treaty of Paris, suggesting that the future of Rumania should be regulated by a European congress.
This threw the responsibility of payment on Rumania, and was a severe blow to the prince, 'For biographical details, see Charles, king of Rumania; and Elizabeth, queen of Rumania.
January 1872 the chambers passed a law by which Rumania undertook to pay the railway coupons.
It was the first occasion in Rumania that the same chamber had sat for the whole constitutional period of four years, and also the first time that the same ministry had opened and closed the same parliament.
But the re-opening of the Eastern Question was destined to bring to a climax the great struggle of Rumania for existence and independence, and temporarily to throw into the The shade all domestic questions.
Russia had shown symptoms of anger against Rumania for not having taken up a decided attitude in the approaching struggle, and the Russian ambassador Ignatiev had some months previously threatened that his government would seize Rumania as a pledge as soon as the Turks occupied Servia and Montenegro.
de Nelidov, to negotiate on the part of the Russian government for the passage of their army through Rumania, the other Ali Bey, to arrange on behalf of the sultan a combination with Rumania against Russia.
Negotiations with Russia were continued, and Bratianu was sent to Constantinople to put pressure upon Turkey to secure certain rights and privileges which would practically have made Rumania independent, except that it would still have paid a fixed tribute; but the conference of the powers assembled at that capital came to a definite end on the i 9th of January 1877, when the Turkish government declined every proposal of the conference.
A secret convention was signed between Russia and Rumania on the 16th of April, by which Rumania allowed free passage to the Russian armies, the tsar engaging in return to maintain its political rights and to protect its integrity, while all matters of detail connected with the passage of the Russian troops were to be regulated by a special treaty.
The Ottoman government immediately broke off diplomatic relations with Rumania, and on the 11th of May the chambers passed a resolution that a state of war existed with Turkey.
They stipulated that Rumania should be independent and receive an increase of territory.
Rumania was to be indemnified at the expense of Turkey by the delta of the Danube and the Dobrudja as far as Constantza.
The motive assigned was that this territory had not been ceded to Rumania, but to Moldavia, and had been separated from Russia by.
The treaty of Berlin in dealing with Rumania decided to recognize its independence, subject to two conditions: First (Art.
xliv.), that absolute freedom of worship should be granted to all persons in Rumania; that no religious beliefs should be a bar to the enjoyment of any political rights; and, further, that the subjects of all the powers should be treated in Rumania on a footing of perfect equality.
declared that the islands forming the delta of the Danube, the Isle of Serpents, and the province of Dobrudja, as far as a line starting from the east of Silistria and terminating on the Black Sea south of Mangalia, should be added to Rumania.
Other articles defined the international position of Rumania, while Article liii.
Bratianu wrote with some truth that the Great Powers by sacrificing Rumania were able to obtain more concessions for themselves from Russia, and Lord Beaconsfield was constrained to admit that " in politics ingratitude is often the reward of the greatest services.
The down that " only Christians can become citizens of Jewish Rumania " - in other words, all Jews were excluded from the rights of citizenship; and as no foreigner could own land in Rumania outside the towns, no Jew could become a country proprietor.
Public opinion in Rumania rendered it almost impossible for any government to carry out the wishes of the Berlin tribunal.
It was further decided to admit to naturalization the 883 Jewish soldiers who had served in the war; but with all other Jews individual naturalization was required, and this was hedged about by so many difficulties, a special vote of the legislature being required, with a two-thirdsmajority in each individual case, that although the compromise thus effected was accepted by the powers, the actual result was that, from 1880 to 1884, out of 385 persons who were naturalized in Rumania, only 71 were Rumanian Jews.
As the process of naturalization has never been accelerated, the 300,000 Jews said to inhabit Rumania are still regarded as foreigners; and although liable to military service and to the payment of taxes, are unable to own rural land or possess electoral or other civil rights.
Italy was the first of the Powers to notify its recognition of Rumanian independence (December 1879); but Bismarck succeeded in prevailing on the Western Powers not Estab- to give official recognition until Rumania should have purchased the railways from their German owners.
Early in 1881 it was generally felt that the time had arrived for Rumania to be created a kingdom.
To refute this charge, the ministry proposed the elevation of the Rumanian principality into the kingdom of Rumania.
Another popular opposition cry was " Rumania for the Rumanians.
27 a Rumania was now comparatively, but not entirely, free from fears of serious foreign complications.
His administration lasted until the 31st of December 1904, and averted the impending bankruptcy of Rumania by a policy of strict retrenchment.
Rumania was little affected by the political changes in the Balkan Peninsula (1908-10) coincident with the Turkish revolution, the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the Dual Monarchy, the proclamation of Bulgarian independence and the erection of Montenegro into a kingdom.
- No scientific history of Rumania was published up to the 20th century, but the task of collecting and editing original documents was partially carried out by the Rumanian Academy and by private students, especially after 1880.
For a general history of Rumania, see V.
the so-called Daco-Rumanian, spoken by the vast majority of Rumans over the whole of Rumania, in Transylvania, Bukovina, the Banat, Bessarabia, and some districts of Servia and Bulgaria bordering on the Danube.
(X.) Literature The intellectual development of Rumania has never until modern times been affected by Latin culture, but it has been profoundly influenced first by Slavonic literature, then by the Greek or Byzantine literature, and last, by the Western, notably French and Italian novels.
We have therefore in the first period a medieval literature transplanted to Rumania and consisting of translations from the Slavonic. The reason of the change from Slavonic into Rumanian is to be sought in the influence the Reformation had among the Rumanian inhabitants of Transylvania.
Turning from the Bible to homilies and the liturgy, we find the ancient collections of homilies in Rumania to be due to the same proselytizing movement.
In addition to the activity of the Reformers in Transylvania, there was also a Roman Catholic propaganda in Rumania, and the Orthodox Church found it necessary to convoke a synod in Jassy for the purpose of formulating anew its own dogmatic standpoint.
The Slavonic Nomokanon, which rests on Greek legislation and embodies the canonical and civil law, had previously been used in Rumania.
The Phanariote period has been described as one of total decay; the political degradation of Rumania was thought to be reflected in its spiritual life.
With a view probably to counteract the literary activity in Rumania, the bishops P. P. Aaron and Ioan Bobb were indefatigable in the translation of Latin writers.
Sincai worked for nearly forty years at his monumental History of Rumania, which the Hungarian censor did not allow to be printed on account of its nationalist and anti-Magyar tendencies.
1818), who was more than any other man both the representative of an epoch fast vanishing and the harbinger of the new spirit that was stirring young Rumania.
A contemporary of his earlier period, Paris Mumuleanu (1794-1837), wrote his Rost de poezie (1820) under Greek influence, but afterwards passed under the spell of Maior and Tzikindea, whose Latin propaganda he was one of the first to advocate in Rumania.
- The agitation for the transliteration of the alphabet, the elimination of all non-Latin words from the language and the ostracism of the old literature, completely crippled all literary activity, first in Transylvania and then in Rumania.
In Moldavia where the knowledge of the old chroniclers had not entirely died out and disturbing philological influences were not so acutely felt, we find the vigorous writings of Mihail Cogalniceanu - one of the leading spirits of the 19th century, the greatest mind and the real founder of Rumania.
There existed in Rumania another set of literary monuments at least as old as any of the books hitherto enumerated, but which appealed to a wider circle.
To the first belong the oldest books, such as the History of Alexander the Great, which was known in Rumania in the 17th century.
Of similar oriental origin is the Dream of Mamer, the interpretation of which goes back to the Panchatantra, and must have reached Rumania early in the 18th century, probably in Slavonic. The history of Syntippa and the Seven Masters has also become a popular book.
The history of Bertoldo, which, though of Italian origin, reached Rumania through a Greek translation, belongs to the same cycle of rustic wisdom and cunning, and is the last representative of an old series of legends clustering round the figures of Solomon and Ashmodai, or Solomon and Markolph.
Carried away by the Russians in his early youth, he settled in Rumania, learned Church music, and became one of its best exponents, married four times, had an adventurous life, but lived among the people for whom he wrote and composed his tunes.
Far larger than the secular is the religious popular literature; it comprises many apocryphal tales from the Old and the New Testaments, and not a few of the heretical tales circulated by the various sects of Asia Minor and Thracia, which percolated into Rumania through the medium of Slavonic. A brief enumeration of the chief tales must suffice.
Thus also the popular songs of Rumania, the " doine," the " hora," the " cantece," " colinde," " legende," i.e.
In recent times a kind of stagnation seems to have overtaken Rumania, and although attempts have been made to place the intellectual life of the nation on a sounder basis, the work of transition from the past to the present has hitherto absorbed more energy than appears necessary.
By the treaty of Berlin, in 1878, the Russians rewarded their Rumanian allies with this land of mountains, fens and barren steppes, peopled by Turks, Bulgarians, Tatars, Jews and other aliens; while, to add to the indignation of Rumania, they annexed instead the fertile country of Bessarabia, largely inhabited by Rumans.
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