How to use Ruler in a sentence
He was the chief ruler of that great city.
My daughter is the ruler of the immortal world, her father said.
All that ruler business was just nonsense, but we are friends forever.
He was a very wise and powerful ruler, and he made his country the greatest of any that was then known.
The first ruler (874) was Nasr I.Advertisement
Jerusalem, like Rome, had the shadow of a mighty name to lend prestige to its ruler; and as residence in Rome was one great reason of the strength of the medieval papacy, so was 1 Before he left, Raymund had played in Jerusalem the same part of dog in the manger which he had also played at Antioch, and had given Godfrey considerable trouble.
The real ruler and the chief officers of the state were members of the Tupou family, from which also the wife of the Tui Tonga was always chosen, whose descendants through the female line had special honours and privileges, under the title of tamaha, recalling the vasu of Fiji.
Civil war dragged on for many years - long after the deaths of the first leaders - but Taufaahau, who became king in 1845 under the name of George Tupou I., proved a strong ruler.
This change of masters brought some relief to the unfortunate Cretans, who at least exchanged the licence of local misrule for the oppression of an organized despotism; and the government of Mustafa Pasha, an Albanian like Mehemet Ali, the ruler of the island for a considerable period (1832-1852), was more enlightened and intelligent than that of most Turkish governors.
In modern usage this term is loosely used for a personal ruler enjoying extraordinary and extra-constitutional power.Advertisement
The throne has descended in the female line since 1844, when Sikandar Begum became ruler.
The sultan Jahan Begum, succeeded on the death of her mother, Shah Jahan Begum, in June 1901, being the only female ruler in India.
Its open advocacy of force attracts warlike races, and the intensity of its influence is increased by the fusion of secular and religious power, so that the Moslem Church is a Moslem state characterized by slavery, polygamy, and, subject to the autocracy of the ruler, by the theoretical.
Here he was anointed king, the first ruler of the southern kingdom.
In the Spartan general Lysander he found a man who was willing to help him, as Lysander himself hoped to become absolute ruler of Greece by the aid of the Persian prince.Advertisement
The emir Abbas worked loyally with the British and proved himself a ruler of remarkable ability and intelligence.
The duchy of Aquitaine required a strong ruler, and the union with Anjou was eminently desirable.
Despite his adoption of these barbarous Byzantine methods, Coloman was a good king and a wise ruler.
The king has been held responsible for the fall of Spain, which was, however, due in the main to internal causes beyond the control of the most despotic ruler, however capable he had been.
The power of the witan varied according to the personality of the reigning king, being considerable under a weak ruler, but inconsiderable under a strong one.Advertisement
The British government, alarmed by Bonaparte's attempt to intrigue with Tippoo Sahib, put forth all its strength in India and destroyed the power of that ambitious ruler.
In short, the First Consul now became the irresponsible ruler of France, governing the country through the ministry, the Council of State and the Senate.
He now grouped together the princes of south and central Germany in the Confederation of the Rhine, of which he was the protector and practically the ruler in all important affairs.
The Greek monk Cosmas Indicopleustes, who visited India about 530, describes the ruler of the country, whom he calls Gollas, as a White Hun king, who exacted an oppressive tribute with the help of a large army of cavalry and war elephants.
He succeeded his father Da'ud as ruler of Khorasan in 1059, and his uncle Togrul Bey as sultan of Oran in 1063, and thus became sole monarch of Persia from the river Oxus to the Tigris.Advertisement
The name was adopted by a ruler who rose to power in the beginning of the 13th century.
In 1095 two brothers, Ridwan and Dekak, ruled in Aleppo and Damascus respectively; but they were at war with one another, and Yagi-sian, the ruler of Antioch, was a party to their dissensions.
But the voices were not heard; and the princes proceeded at once to elect a lay ruler.
They consented to ally themselves with the ruler of Damascus against the sultan of Egypt; but in the battle of Gaza they were deserted by their allies and heavily defeated by Bibars, the Egyptian general and future Mameluke sultan of Egypt.
Archytas may be quoted as an example of Plato's perfect ruler, the philosopher-king, who combines practical sagacity with high character and philosophic insight.Advertisement
God for him is the creator and ruler of the world, but hardly more; he is the master of a vast machine that grinds out human destinies without sympathy with man and without visible regard for what man deems justice - a being to be acknowledged as lord, not one to be loved.
In the latter usage it indicated not that the god was the lord of the worshipper, but rather the possessor of, or ruler in, some place or district.
His high ideas on the subject made him a stern ruler.
As a ruler he showed legislative capacity, and a very commendable wish to provide his kingdoms with a code of laws and a consistent judicial system.
Unhappily for himself and for Spain, he wanted the singleness of purpose required by a ruler who would devote himself to organization, and also the combination of firmness with temper needed for dealing with his nobles.Advertisement
He was at Warsaw when his master died in 1733, and he secured a hold on the confidence of the electoral prince, Frederick Augustus, who was at Dresden, by laying hands on the papers and jewels of the late ruler and bringing them promptly to his successor.
The second ruler of this dynasty, Ratnaraja, was the founder of Ratanpur.
He obtained the throne by murdering his uncle, his cousin and his half-brother, the legitimate heir, but proved a capable and beneficent ruler.
The great bronze head of Augustus Caesar, now in the British Museum, is one of the trophies of this excavation, and is very interesting as being either a trophy of war carried off perhaps from Syene, or was actually set up at Meroe by the independent native ruler in honour of the Emperor.
No ruler was ever more loyal to a conception of duty.Advertisement
As the consort of En -lil, the goddess Nin-lil or Belit belongs to Nippur and her titles as "ruler of heaven and earth," and "mother of the gods" are all due to her position as the wife of Bel.
After the deaths of his two elder brothers, Louis, at his father's command, crowned himself co-emperor at Aix-la-Chapelle on the 11th of September 813, and was formally associated in the government of the Empire, of which he became sole ruler, in the following January.
Lothair and his brother Pippin joined the rebels, and after Judith had been sent into a convent and Bernard had fled to Spain, an assembly was held at Compiegne, when Louis was practically deposed and Lothair became the real ruler of the Empire.
A new cause of trouble arose when the duchy of Burgundy was left without a ruler in November 1361, and was claimed by Charles; but, lacking both allies and money, he was unable to prevent the French king from seizing Burgundy, while he himself returned to Navarre.
Thus the high-priest is not only a high-priest and civil ruler, but also a warrior.Advertisement
The state owes to this ruler the opening up of new railways across the great desert, which was formerly passable only by camels, and the tapping of the valuable coal deposits that occur in the territory.
Pressure from Hungary and Byzantium gradually welded these isolated social units into a single nation, whose ruler was known as the Ban.
An unusually able ruler, connected by marriage with the powerful Servian dynasty of Nemanya, and by treaty with the republic of Ragusa, 2 Kulin perceived in the new doctrines a barrier between his subjects and Hungary.
In the same year Bey Shehr and other portions of the Hamid principality were acquired by purchase from their ruler Hussein Bey, as the Karamanian princes were beginning to cast covetous eyes on them; but the Karamanians were unwilling to resign their claims to be heirs of the Seljukian sultans, and not until the reign of Mahommed II.
Ali Bey, the prince at this time, took advantage of Murad's absence in Europe to declare war against him; but the Ottoman ruler returning crushed him at the battle of Konia.Advertisement
The exiled princes took refuge with the Kizil Ahmedli, ruler of Kastamuni, who persuaded the Walachians to rebel against the Turks.
Then, to avenge an insult sustained from the ruler of Egypt, Timur marched southwards and devastated Syria, thence turning to Bagdad, which shared the same fate.
Bayezid had taken advantage of his absence to defeat the ruler of Erzingan, a protege of Timur.
Dissensions among the Cossacks led to the recognition by Turkey of Doroshenko, the hetman of the Sari Kamish, as ruler of the Ukraine; the Zaporog Cossacks, his antagonists, applied for aid to Russia.
But Nadir Kuli Khan came forward as the champion of Shah Tahmasp II., the rightful ruler, and drove the Turks from these provinces, capturing Tabriz.
In Egypt Mehemet Ali had succeeded in establishing himself as quasi independent ruler of the country.
He is second only to the governor or vali pasha in power, and indeed his influence is often greater than that of the official ruler of the vilayet.
Nominally Henry was subordinate to the lord-deputy, Charles Fleetwood, but Fleetwood's departure for England in September 1655 left him for all practical purposes the ruler of Ireland.
France is represented by a resident superior, who presides over the ministerial council and is the real ruler of the country, and by residents exercising supervision in the districts into which the country is split up for the purposes of the French administration.
In his Letter the saint in very strong language urges the Christian subjects of the British king not to have any dealings with their ruler and his bloodthirsty followers until full satisfaction should have been made.
Bohemia obtained a temporary respite when, in 1422, Prince Sigismund Korybutovic of Poland became for a short time ruler of the country.
But the Ulmanis Cabinet was not as yet the sole ruler of Latvia, the Bolsheviks holding Latgalia, and a Russo-German force under Bermondt-Avalov preparing an advance against the Bolsheviks across Latvian territory, plan adopted at a Riga conference on Aug.
In 1822 the relations subsisting between the ruler of Cutch and the British were modified by a new treaty, under which the territorial cessions made by the rao in 1816 were restored in consideration of an annual payment.
He was a tyrannical ruler, and died suddenly in 1522.
Thus Siena was annexed to the Florentine state under the same ruler and became an integral part of the grand-duchy of Tuscany.
As a ruler he was mild and conciliatory.
In 1765 the country was invaded and ravaged by the ruler of Kabul.
In internal politics he became, by degrees, the absolute ruler of the country.
The monkish garb was revealed by Satan to Peter at the baptism, when it was the devil, the ruler of this world, who, so costumed, leaned forward and said, This is my beloved son.
His successor was his kinsman, Charles Theodore, count palatine of Sulzbach, a cadet of the Zweibriicken-Neuburg line, and now with the exception of one or two small pieces the whole of the Palatinate was united under one ruler.
As a ruler of the Church he showed wisdom and courage, and disregarded any effort to influence his policy by clamour.
According to tradition he flourished during the first half of the 8th century B.C. He was a vigorous and energetic ruler and greatly increased the power of Argos.
The resident superior, stationed at Hue, is the representative of France and the virtual ruler of the country.
That his brother retained the throne while James lost it is an ironical demonstration that a more pitiless fate awaits the ruler whose faults are of the intellect, than one whose faults are of the heart.
The island thus became the inner city, the stronghold of the ruler, so that, despite its low level, it is often spoken of as the "acropolis."
Timoleon, having accomplished his work, accepted the position of a private citizen, though, practically, to the end of his life he was the ruler of the Syracusan people.
The ruler of the Umtetwa was a chief who had had in early life an adventurous career and was known as Dingiswayo (the Wanderer).
Such was the position when by his father's death Cetywayo (q.v.) became absolute ruler of the Zulu.
In many cases the state or the ruler has sought to obtain a share in the profits of mining, or even to work mines for the individual profit of the ruler or of the state.
On the other hand, the tendency to maintain peace naturally takes its course towards the strongest ruler, the king, and we witness in Anglo-Saxon law the gradual evolution of more and more stringent and complete rules in respect of the king's peace and its infringements.
The state had grown up around a sanctuary, the god of which was nominally its ruler, the human patesi being his viceregent.
Another Semitic ruler of Kis of the same period was Alusarsid (or Urumus) who " subdued Elam and Barahse."
P Y administrative abilities of his father, and the success of his reign was not commensurate with the vanity of the ruler.
The former at once assumed Magnin - the reins of government and became ruler of Florence in a way neither Cosimo nor Piero had ever attempted; he established his domination by means of balie consisting of the signory, the accoppiatori, and 240 other members, all Mediceans, to be renewed every five years (1471).
Hirsch under the protection of the sultan of Mukalla, the head of the Kaiti family, and practically ruler of all Hadramut, with the exception of the towns of Saiyun and Tarim, which belong to the Kathiri tribe.
The Kharijites who had opposed 'Ali on the ground that he had no right to allow the appeal to arbitration, were defeated at Nahrawan or Nahrwan (658), but those who escaped became fierce propagandists against the Koreish, some claiming that the caliph should be chosen by the Faithful from any tribe of the Arabs, some that there should be no caliph at all, that God alone was their ruler and that the government should be carried on by a council.
In 1517 the Osmanli Turkish sultan Selim conquered Egypt, and having received the right of succession to the caliphate was solemnly presented by the sherif of Mecca with the keys of the city, and recognized as the spiritual head of Islam and ruler of the Hejaz.
Warned by a hurried sign by Hamud that his life was in danger, Mahommed at once attacked Bandar, stabbed him and took possession of the citadel; a general massacre of all members of the house of Ibn Rashid followed, and next day Mahommed appeared with his cousin Hamud in the market-place of Hail, and announced his assumption of the amirship. A strong and capable ruler, he soon established his authority over all northern and western Nejd, and in 1872 the opportunity arrived for his intervention in the east.
At Visconti's instigation Piero Gambacorti, the ruler of the moment, was treacherously assassinated by Jacopo d'Appiano, who succeeded him as tyrant of Pisa, and bequeathed the state to his son Gherardo.
The name of the ruler alluded to is not indeed introduced into the actual text, but "Carolus Inlperator" form the initial letters of the passage dealing with this subject.
An exception must be made of the administration of General Ramon Castilla, who restored peace to Peru, and showed himself to be an honest and very capable ruler.
He was a dissolute ruler, much addicted to drunkenness, and his reign is chiefly notable for the influence enjoyed by his wife Nur Jahan, "the Light of the World."
A further dispute then arose, but in 1410 a treaty was made at Naumburg, when Frederick and his brother William added the northern part of Meissen to their lands; and in 1425 the death of William left Frederick sole ruler.
Disastrous campaigns against the Bulgarians and Arabs afforded her an opportunity of rousing the contempt and hatred of the people against their ruler.
The Slavonic heroic saga of Russia centres round Vladimir of Kiev (980-1015), the first Christian ruler of that country, whose personality is eclipsed by that of Ilya (Elias) of Mourom, the son of a peasant, who was said to have saved the empire from the Tatars at the urgent request of his emperor.
Samuel is a local seer consulted by Saul, and is bidden by Yahweh to see in the youth the future ruler.
Alberto della Scala (died in 1301) was succeeded by his eldest son Bartolomeo, who was confirmed as ruler of Verona by the popular vote, and died in 1304.
For many years there had been trouble between the ruler and the people over the ownership of the extensive crown lands, it being evidently feared at one time that an English prince might renounce the throne and yet claim the lands.
In 1771 Augustus George of Baden-Baden died without sons, and his territories passed to Charles Frederick of Baden-Durlach, who thus became ruler of the whole of Baden.
Although in 1771 Baden was united under a single ruler it did not form a compact territory, and its total area was only about 1350 sq.
He was interested in the development of agriculture and commerce; sought to improve education and the administration of justice, and was in general a wise and liberal ruler.
It occupies the site of Agyrion, an ancient Sicel city which was ruled by tyrants, one of whom, Agyris, was the most powerful ruler in the centre of Sicily.
From that time (1359) till 1378 no single ruler held the whole empire under control, various members of the other branches of the old house of JO assuming the title.
At last in 1378 Toktamish, of the Eastern Kipchaks, succeeded in ousting all rivals, and establishing himself as ruler of eastern and western Kipchak.
In the Religious Peace of Augsburg the principle" cujus regio ejus religio "was accepted; by it a ruler's choice between Catholicism and Lutheranism bound his subjects, but any subject unwilling to accept the decision might emigrate without hindrance.
In 1397 he became burgrave of Nuremberg, and after his father's death in 1398 he shared Ansbach, Bayreuth, and the smaller possessions of the family, with his only brother John, but became sole ruler after his brother's death in 1420.
The disgust aroused by the anti-national policy of Antony, and the danger to the empire which was averted by the result of the battle of Actium, combined with the confidence inspired by the new ruler to reconcile the great families as well as the great body of the people to the new order of things.
Roman history was no longer a record of national glory, stimulating the patriotism and flattering the pride of all Roman citizens, but a personal eulogy or a personal invective, according as servility to a present or hatred of a recent ruler was the motive which animated it.
They occupied the towns and murdered the native ruler who called them in.
He proved a wise and popular ruler, and his early death was much deplored.
He entertained hopes of arranging some form of local government which should sufficiently meet Nationalist hopes; and with this in view appointed an eminent AngloIndian, Sir Antony (afterwards Lord) Macdonnell, who was known to be a decided Home Ruler, to the permanent secretaryship in 1902, giving him at the same time greater authority and wider scope than is usually conferred on a civil servant.
At the head of the Bhutan government there are nominally two supreme authorities, the Dharm raja, the spiritual head, and the Deb raja, the temporal ruler.
Upon the intercession of Teshu Lama, then regent of Tibet, a treaty of peace was concluded in 1774 between the East India Company and the ruler of Bhutan.
Though his main ambition was military glory, he was not a bad ruler of England.
Christian was also the ruler of Iceland, where he was received with great enthusiasm when he visited the island in 1874.
He realized the senate's ideal of the citizen ruler.
He was determined, he said, to be to his subjects such a ruler as he had desired for himself when a subject.
That the emperor had an honest and soldierly satisfaction in his own well-doing is clear; but if he had had anything like the vanity of a Domitian, the senate, ever eager to outrun a ruler's taste for flattery, would never have kept within such moderate bounds.
He regarded the provincial ruler as a kind of officer in command, who ought to be able to discipline his province for himself and only to appeal to the commander-in-chief in a difficult case.
In 768 Pippin divided his dominions between his two sons, and on his death soon afterwards Charles became the ruler of the northern portion of the Frankish kingdom, and was crowned at Noyon on the 9th of October 768.
His plans were ended by his death in 787, and although the empress Irene, the real ruler of the eastern empire, broke off the projected marriage between her son and Rothrude, she appears to have given very little assistance to Adalgis, whose attack on Italy was easily repulsed.
Contemporary accounts lay stress upon the fact that as there was then no emperor, Constantinople being under the rule of Irene, it seemed good to Leo and his counsellors and the " rest of the Christian people " to choose Charles, already ruler of Rome, to fill the vacant office.
All the vigilance of the emperor could not restrain the dishonesty and the cupidity of his servants, and no sooner was the strong hand of their ruler removed than they began to acquire territorial power for themselves.
He was represented as a warrior performing superhuman feats, as a ruler dispensing perfect justice, and even as a martyr suffering for the faith.
Massinissa was an able ruler and a decided benefactor to Numidia.
The Egyptian garrison and many Egyptian civilians, in all 6500 persons, left Harrar between November 1884 and the 25th of April 1885, when a son of the ruler who had been deposed by Egypt was installed as amir, the arrangement being carried out under the superintendence of British officers.
In 1182 the Chandel dynasty was overthrown by Prithwi Raj, the ruler of Ajmer and Delhi, after which the country remained in ruinous anarchy until the close of the 14th century, when the Bundelas, a spurious offshoot of the Garhwa tribe of Rajputs, established themselves on the right bank of the Jumna.
In 1703 a Mussulman convert of the Gond tribe held the country, and in 1743 Raghoji Bhonsla, the Mahratta ruler of Berar, annexed it to his dominions.
He refused to allow his name to be brought forward as a candidate when the Cortes of 1868, after the Revolution, sought for a ruler.
In Hesiod (Theogony, 1013) he is the son of Odysseus and Circe, and ruler of the Tyrsenians; in Virgil, the son of Faunus and the nymph Marica, a national genealogy being substituted for the Hesiodic, which probably originated from a Greek source.
According to Virgil (Aeneid, vii.-xii.), Aeneas, on landing at the mouth of the Tiber, was welcomed by Latinus, the peaceful ruler whose seat of government was Laurentum, and ultimately married his daughter Lavinia.
Boni was once the most powerful state of Celebes, all the other princes being regarded as vassals of its ruler, but its history is not known in detail.
Moreover, the mightiest secular ruler was but a poor sinner dependent for his eternal welfare on the Church and its head, the pope, who in this way necessarily exercised an indirect control over the civil government, which even the emperor Henry IV.
They would also have conceded the pope the right to play the role of a secular ruler in his own lands, as did the German bishops, and to dispose of such fiefs as reverted to him.
The principle cujus regio ejus religio was adopted, according to which each secular ruler might choose between the old faith and the Lutheran.
Lothair was a strong and capable ruler, who has been described as the "imitator and heir of the first Otto."
In general he continued his father's policy, and when he died in 1 357 was succeeded by his son, Frederick V., who, after the death of his uncle Albert in 1361, became sole ruler of Nuremberg, Ansbach and Bayreuth.
In spite of the troubled times in which he lived, Frederick was a successful ruler, and introduced a regular system of public finance into his lands.
This Lysanias was the son of Ptolemy Mennaeus, the ruler of an independent state, of which Abilene formed only a small portion.
Though nominally emperor from 912-959, it was not until 945 that Constantine could really be called sole ruler.
Little is known of his early life, which was probably passed at the court of his grandfather Charlemagne, until 815 when he became ruler of Bavaria.
His address to Arcadius (De regno) is full of advice as to the studies of a wise ruler in such perilous times.
Before its conquest by the Egyptians in 1820 its ruler owed allegiance to the kings of Sennar.
The title khan was assumed by Jenghis when he became supreme ruler of the Mongols; his successors became known in Europe as the Great Khans (sometimes as the Chams, &c.) of Tatary or Cathay.
There has been much controversy among historians with regard both to the facts and to the significance of Leisler's brief career as ruler in New York.
Here he, first of known English writers, sets forth a doctrine which, while falling short of the Anabaptist theory that the civil ruler has no standing in the affairs of the Church, in that religion is a matter of the individual conscience before God, yet marks a certain advance upon current views.
Italian warships blockaded and bombarded Turkish ports on the Red Sea coast of Arabia and supplied arms and munitions to the Idrisi of Asir, to the great advantage of that ruler.
In Arabia were the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina, governed by the Sherif of Mecca, a dignitary and ruler of great influence in the Mahommedan world.
Before 1866 the joint stream, including the Werra and the Fulda, changed its ruler no less than thirty-five times on its way to the sea.
The subjugation of the Saxons, who were divided into four main branches, was rendered more difficult by the absence of any common ruler, and of a central power answerable for the allegiance of the separate tribes.
The wisdom was probably to qualify him as a ruler.
When the power of the emperor was weakened, and the idea of a universal ruler was gone, a new test of sovereignty was applied - that of external independence; the true sovereign states were universitates superiorem non recognoscentes.
Among the clearest and most logical exponents of this theory was Hobbes, who in his Leviathan expounded his notion of an agreement by which absolute power was irrevocably transferred to the ruler.
The distinction between real and nominal sovereignty was familiar to medieval writers, who recognized a double sovereignty, and distinguished between (1) the real or practical sovereignty resident in the people, and (2) the personal sovereignty of the ruler (Adolf Dock, Der Souveranitaitsbegrif, &c., p. 13).
As a ruler of a rising great power in search of a seaboard he was the natural adversary of the Venetian republic, which already aimed at making the Adriatic a purely Venetian sea and resented the proximity of the Magyars in Dalmatia.
The next year Tiglath-Pileser entered Babylonia, but it was not until 729 B.C. that the Chaldaean prince Ukin-zer (Chinzirus) was driven from Babylon and Tiglath-Pileser acknowledged as its legitimate ruler.
Just before, the prince, who was still chancellor, had taken a very strong line with regard to a royal marriage in which the queen was keenly interested - the proposal that Prince Alexander of Battenberg, lately ruler of Bulgaria, and brother of the queen's son-in-law, Prince Henry, should marry Princess Victoria, the eldest daughter of the emperor Frederick.
Queen Victoria was a ruler of a new type.
Columba was honoured by his countrymen, the Scots of Britain and Ireland, as much as by his Pictish converts, and in his character of chief ecclesiastical ruler he gave formal benediction and inauguration to Aidan, the successor of Conall, as king of the Scots.
He accompanied that prince to Ireland in 575, and took a leading part in a council held at Drumceat in Ulster, which determined once and for all the position of the ruler of Dalriada with regard to the king of Ireland.
The next ruler was Henry Raspe, who made himself regent on behalf of his nephew Hermann II.
In this war Prince Napoleon commanded the French corps that occupied Tuscany, and it was expected that he would become ruler of the principality, but he refused to exert any pressure upon the inhabitants, who preferred union with the Italian kingdom.
In this application it has lost its original precise sense, and means only the ruler of part of a divided kingdom, or of a district too unimportant to justify a higher title.
It is clear that a man who is to be treated in this way by the congregation is not an official ruler over it.
As a temporal ruler John was devoid of the vigour and firmness of his father, and his union of the papal office - which through his scandalous private life he made a byword of reproach - with his civil dignities proved a source of weakness rather than of strength.
The Tungani troops in Yarkand rose, and (Toth of August 1863)massacred some seven thousand Chinese, while the inhabitants of Kashgar, rising in their turn against their masters, invoked the aid of Sadik Beg, a Kirghiz chief, who was reinforced by Buzurg Khan, the heir of Jahanghir, and Yakub Beg, his general, these being despatched at Sadik's request by the ruler of Khokand to raise what troops they could to aid his Mahommedan friends in Kashgar.
The importance of Rudolph's reign is negative rather than positive, consisting more in what he did not do than in what he did; although it is questionable whether any ruler could have prevented the religious struggles of Germany and the Thirty Years' War.
His education at the Spanish court and an hereditary tendency to insanity, however, made him haughty, suspicious and consequently very unpopular, while even in his best days the temper of his mind was that of a recluse rather than of a ruler.
A born ruler, Casimir introduced a whole series of administrative and economical reforms. He was the especial protector of the cities and the peasants, and, though averse from violent measures, punished aristocratic tyranny with an iron hand.
At the siege of Devanhalli (1749) Hyder's services attracted the attention of Nanjiraj, the minister of the raja of Mysore, and he at once received an independent command; within the next twelve years his energy and ability had made him completely master of minister and raja alike, and in everything but in name he was ruler of the kingdom.
He was far less great as a ruler in the state, showing as a judge a tyrannical spirit both in the star chamber and highcommission court, threatening Felton, the assassin of Buckingham, with the rack, and showing special activity in procuring a cruel sentence in the former court against Alexander Leighton in June 1630 and against Henry Sherfield in 1634.
He removed to Elis, where he built the town of Salmone, and became ruler of the country.
As a presumptive ruler of England she was, like Cecil, and for that matter the future archbishop Parker also, too shrewd to commit herself to passive or active resistance to the law; and they merely anticipated Hobbes in holding that the individual committed no sin in subordinating his conscience to the will of the state, for the responsibility for the law was not his but the state's.
The emir of Bokhara is an autocratic ruler, his power being limited only by the traditional custom (sheriat) of the Mussulmans.
The fundamental idea that Yahweh guides His people by the word of revelation is older than the separation of special classes of theocratic organs; Moses, indeed, is not only prophet and priest, but judge and ruler.
It was included in the maritime province of northern Abyssinia, which was governed by a viceroy who bore the title of Bahar-nagash (ruler of the sea).
Alone were the Creator, the Former, the Ruler, the Feathered Serpent, they who give being and whose name is Gucumatz.
In the Zapotec district the Wiyatao or high-priest of Zopaa was a divine ruler before whom all prostrated themselves with faces to the ground; he was even too sacred to allow his foot to touch the earth, and was only seen carried in a litter.
Among the later viceroys the Conde de Revillagigedo (1789-1794) deserves mention as a progressive ruler who developed commerce and improved administration, and took the first, but very imperfect, census, on which Humboldt based his estimate of the population in 1803 at 5,840,000.
In a ruler of his character it is not surprising that the Revolution and its developments had produced an unconquerable suspicion of constitutional principles and methods, which the Liberal agitations in Germany tended to increase.
In spite of this, he went to Italy in 1132 in the train of the king, and his services there were rewarded, in 1134, by the investiture of the north mark, which was again without a ruler.
The result was as usual, and Mahmud, having committed Khwarizm to a new ruler, one of Mamun's chief officers, returned to his capital.
He is god of omens and ruler of the omen birds; but the hawk is not his messenger, for he never leaves his house; stories are, however, told of his attending feasts in human form and flying away in hawk form when all was over.
One of the most formidable of his opponents was Toktamish, who after having been a refugee at the court of Timur became ruler both of the eastern Kipchak and the Golden Horde, and quarrelled with Timur over the possession of Khwarizm.
Twice a year, in spring and autumn,' a Chinese ruler goes in state to the imperial college in Pekin, and presents the appointed offerings before the spirit-tablets of Confucius and of the worthies who have been associated with him in his temples.
The real ruler at Bagdad was a Turk named Basasiri, lieutenant of the last Buyid, Malik-ar-Rahim.
Rukneddin was only a nominal ruler, the real power being in the hands of his minister, Mu - in ed-din Suleiman, who in 1267 procured an order of the Mongol Khan Abaka for his execution.
He was a man of extravagant and luxurious tastes, and, although he greatly improved the city of Dresden, he cannot be called a good ruler.
It may be that his early death, during the great plague of 1350, at the siege of Gibraltar, only averted a desperate struggle with his legitimate son, though it was a misfortune in that it removed a ruler of eminent capacity, who understood his subjects well enough not to go too far.
But his double position as ruler both north and south of the eastern Pyrenees distracted his policy.
In 1689 George William was one of the claimants for the duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg, which was left without a ruler in that year; and after a struggle with John George III., elector of Saxony, and other rivals, he was invested with the duchy by the emperor Leopold I.
Like those of the other districts of Germany, the estates of the different provinces which formed the kingdom of Hanover had met for many years in an irregular fashion to exercise their varying and ill-defined authority; and, although the elector Ernest Augustus introduced a system of administrative councils into Celle, these estates, consisting of the three orders of prelates, nobles and towns, together with a body somewhat resembling the English privy council, were the only constitution which the country possessed, and the only check upon the power of its ruler.
The revolution of that year compelled George's brother and successor, William, to dismiss Count Munster, who had been the actual ruler of the country, and to name his own brother, Adolphus Frederick, duke of Cambridge, a viceroy of Hanover; one of the viceroy's earliest duties being to appoint a commission to draw up a new constitution.
His designs were unsuccessful, and during the reign of Theodosius II., son of Arcadius (who died in 408), Dalmatia was transferred to the dominion of the eastern ruler.
Mahadji, who undertook to open negotiations with the other belligerents, was recognized as an independent ruler, and a British resident was established at his court.
Though nominally a deputy of the peshwa he was now ruler of a vast territory, including the greater part of Central India and Hindustan proper, while his lieutenants exacted tribute from the chiefs of Rajputana.
He now found a new friend in the Swiss adventurer, Francois Lefort, a shrewd and jovial rascal, who not only initiated him into all the mysteries of profligacy (at the large house built at Peter's expense in the German settlement), but taught him his true business as a ruler.
Peter's claim to greatness rests mainly on the fact that from first to last he clearly recognized the requirements of the Russian nation and his own obligations as its ruler.
He was so honest and well-meaning that he might have made a good ruler in quiet times.
This division contains the palace of the ruler of Tiryns, a building which shows careful and skilful construction, elaborate decoration, and a well-arranged plan, suitable to the wants1 of a wealthy autocratic chief, who lived in a manner which partly recalls the luxury of an Oriental king, and also resembled the feudal state of a medieval baron, surrounded by a crowd of vassals.
In the course of a year the drastic measures of this born ruler made this state the safest country in Europe.
In the neighbourhood stood the small fortress of Napoli, erected by the ruler of Taurida some hundred years before the Christian era, and it existed until the end of the 3rd century.
Disquieted by some forcible attempts on Rudolph II.'s part to suppress Protestantism in certain parts of the country, and mistrusting a formal guarantee of religious liberty which was given to them in 1609, the Silesians joined hands with the Bohemian insurgents and renounced their allegiance to their Austrian ruler.
Defeated at the general election at Pontefract, he was returned as a Home Ruler (one of the few Liberals who adopted this policy before Mr Gladstone's conversion) in 1886 for South Edinburgh, and was home secretary in the ministry of 1886.
Her title to be considered a great reforming ruler is by no means equally clear.
As a ruler, Catherine professed a great contempt for system, which she said she had been taught to despise by her master Voltaire.
The Turkish wars show the weak side of Catherine as a ruler.
It then remained feudatory to Delhi till 1365, when it was captured by the ruler of Mewar.
Charles's chief claim to remembrance is that he was the first ruler to adopt the system of hiring his soldiers out to foreign powers as mercenaries, as a means of improving the national finances.
The prophets had an ethical conception of Yahweh; the sin of His own people and of other nations called for His intervention in judgment as the moral ruler of the world.
During the reign of Peisistratus he is said to have visited Athens, on which occasion he related the fable of The Frogs asking for a King, to dissuade the citizens from attempting to exchange Peisistratus for another ruler.
Frederick, however, was not an unpopular ruler, and by making Prussia into a kingdom he undoubtedly advanced it several stages towards its future greatness.
David was a weak and incapable ruler, without a spark of his father's patriotic spirit.
Lacking often the protection of a strong ruler, the Lombard cities had been accustomed to act together for mutual defence, and in 1093 Milan, Lodi, Piacenza and Cremona formed an alliance against the emperor Henry IV., in favour of his rebellious son Conrad.
On the death of Gustavus III., Charles, now duke of Sudermania, acted as regent of Sweden till 1796; but the real ruler of the country was the narrow-minded and vindictive Gustaf Adolf Reuterholm, whose mischievous influence over him was supreme.
The geographical position of electoral Saxony hardly less than her high standing among the German Protestants gave her ruler much importance during the Thirty Years' War.
In 1898 he appointed his father commander-in-chief of the Servian army, and from that time, or rather from his return to Servia in 1894 until 1900, ex-king Milan was regarded as the de facto ruler of the country.
When Charles Martel became the virtual ruler of the Frankish realm he brought the Bavarians into strict dependence, and deposed two dukes successively for contumacy.
Moreover, during the early years of the reign of Charlemagne, Tassilo gave decisions in ecclesiastical and civil causes in his own name, refused to appear in the assemblies of the Franks, and in general acted as an independent ruler.
Restored in 985, Henry proved himself a capable ruler by establishing internal order, issuing important laws and taking measures to reform the monasteries.
The third brother, Albert, who had been educated for the church, joined his brother in 1465, and when Sigismund abdicated two years later became sole ruler in spite of the claims of his two younger brothers.
To make head, however, against the victorious advance of Parma, before whose arms all the chief towns of Brabant and Flanders, Bruges, Ghent, Brussels and lastly - after a valiant defence - Antwerp itself had fallen, it was necessary to look for the protection of a foreign ruler.
In Aquitaine he gave his brother Charibert the administration of the counties of Toulouse, Cahors, Agen, Perigueux, and Saintes; but at Charibert's death in 632 Dagobert became sole ruler of the whole of the Frankish territories south of the Loire.
He consulted the older and graver Laurentius Andreae, who told him how "Doctor Martinus had clipped the wings of the pope, the cardinals and the big bishops," which could not fail to be pleasing intelligence to a monarch who was never an admirer of episcopacy, while the rich revenues of the church, accumulated in the course of centuries, were a tempting object to the impecunious ruler of an impoverished people.
The cardinal arch- Peace of g duke Ferdinand, governor-general from 1634-1641, was a capable ruler, and by his military skill prevented in a succession III.
To the motley commonwealth thus formed he acted not merely as ruler, but also as physician, teacher and priest.
The tax probably originated in a tribute levied by a conqueror or ruler upon his subjects, and perhaps the custom of dedicating a tenth of the spoils of war to the gods led to the religious extension of the term, the original offerings to deity being "firstfruits."
He was very successful in the government of the kingdom, and after Richard's last visit he was practically the ruler of England.
For a few days Primus was virtually ruler of Rome, and the senate bestowed upon him the rank and insignia of a consul.
In the time of Augustus by far the most powerful ruler in Germany was Maroboduus, king of the Marcomanni.
The virtual independence of these German tribes lasted until the union of Austrasia and Neustria in 687, an achievement mainly due to the efforts of Pippin of Heristal, who soon became the actual, though not the nominal, ruler of the Frankish realm.
Although not yet a single people, the German tribes had now for the first time a ruler whose authority was confined to their own lands, and from this time the beginnings of national life may be traced.
For the time, feudalism in truth meant that lands and offices were held on condition of service; the kinf was the genuine ruler, not only of freemen, but of the highest vassals in the nation.
But the evidence tends to show that at first at least they had no wish for this honor, and would have preferred their ruler to devote himself entirely to his own people.
In Saxony the people were quickly forgetting their hereditary connection with the successors of Henry the Fowler; in Bavaria, after the death of Duke Henry in 995, the nobles, heedless of the royal power, returned to the ancient German custom and chose Henrys son Henry as their ruler.
On the north was Denmark ruled by Canute the Great; on the east was the wide Polish state whose ruler, Boleslaus, had just taken the title of king; and on the south-east was Hungary, which under its king, St Stephen, was rapidly becqming an organized and formidable power.
In 1046 he entered Italy at the head of an army which secured for him greater respect than had been given tc any German ruler since Charlemagne, and at Sutri and in Romc he deposed the three rival popes.
But soon he was compelled to share his duties with Adalbert, archbishop of Bremen, and a year or two later Adalbert became virtually the ruler of Germany, leaving Anno to attend to affairs in Italy.
Rudolph had all the sympathies and prejudices of the noble class, and the supreme object of his life was not to increase the power of the state but to add to the greatness of his !Iabsburg own family, a policy which was perhaps justified by family, the condition of the German kingdom, the ruler of which had practically no strength save that which he derived from his hereditary lands.
Nothing more was needed to unite together all the emperors foes, including Pope Clement VI., who, like his predecessors, had rejected the advances of Louis; but in 1345, before the gathering storm broke, the emperor took possession of the counties of Holland, Zealand and Friesland, which had been left without a ruler by the death of his brother-in-law, Count William IV.
As king of Bohemia Charles was an enlightened and capable ruler, but he was indifferent towards Germany, although this country never stood in more urgent needof a strong and beneficent sovereign.
The Golden Bull, promulgated in January 1356 and again after some tedious negotiations in December of the same year, fixed the number of electors at seven, SaxeWittenberg and not Saxe-Lauenburg obtaining the Saxon vote, and the vote of the Wittelsbachs being given to the ruler of the Rhenjsh Palatinate and not to the duke of Bavaria.
He was by far the most important ruler of the time, and the peoples under his direct sway were still adherents of the old faith.
However, having given to the electors assurances of his fidelity to the Roman Church, he was chosen king in November 1562, and became ruler of Germany on his fathers death nearly two years later.
An Austrian ruler, even when he spoke only in the name of Austria, derived authority from the fact that as emperor he represented many of the greatest memories of European history.
It was therefor resolved that, although a German country might be under tb same ruler as non-German lands, it could not be so joined ti them as to form with them a single nation.
Flinders Petrie then pointed out a group of kings named on scarabs of peculiar type, which, including Khyan, he attributed to the period between the Old Kingdom and the New, while others were in favour of assigning them all to the Hyksos, whose appellation seemed to be recognizable in the title Hek-khos, "ruler of the barbarians," borne by Khyan.
He had distinguished himself in various military enterprises and diplomatic negotiations in the course of an active career, and although over seventy years old and of very weak sight (the story that he had been made blind by the emperor Manuel Comnenus while he was at Constantinople is a legend), he proved a most energetic and capable ruler.
The chief reason for this prosperity was the growth of trade along the Danube, which stimulated the foundation, or the growth, of towns, and brought considerable riches to the ruler.
Albert appears to have been rather an arbitrary ruler.
In these ways Maximilian proved himself a capable and energetic ruler, although his plans for making Austria into a kingdom, or an electorate, were abortive.
It was left for his brother Ferdinand, a ruler of consummate wisdom (1556-1564) " to establish the modern Habsburg-Austrian empire with its exclusive territorial interests, its administrative experiments, its intricacies of religion and of race."
Composed of a congeries of nationalities which included Czechs, Magyars, Ruthenes, Rumanians, Germans, Italians, Flemings and other races, and with territories separated by many miles, the Habsburg dominions required from their ruler patience, tolerance, administrative skill and a full knowledge of the currents of European diplomacy.
The situation needed all the statesmanship of the new ruler, Leopold II.
The Coalition gained an absolute majority and the Independence party became the strongest political group. Nevertheless the various adherents of the dual system retained an actual majority in the Chamber and prevented the Independence party from attempting to realize its programme of reducing the ties between Hungary and Austria to the person of the joint ruler.
These " capitulations " obliged the Coalition government to carry on a dualist policy, although the majority of its adherents became, by the general election of May 1906, members of the Kossuth or Independence party, and, as such, pledged to the economic and political separation of Hungary from Austria save as regards the person of the ruler.
Under his rule the city at once sprang to the first place in Sicily, and he was the first Siceliot ruler who held dominion over two Greek cities, Acragas and Himera.
Conqueror of southern Italy, he turned his thoughts yet further, and became the first ruler of Sicily to stretch forth his hands towards the eastern peninsula.
Agathocles in his old age took a wife of the house of Ptolemy; he gave his daughter Lanassa to Pyrrhus, and established his power east of Hadria, as the first Sicilian ruler of Corcyra.
Alike more daring and more cruel than any ruler before him, he made the island the seat of a greater power than any of them.
Partly in this character, partly as direct sovereign, he was virtual ruler of a large part of eastern Sicily.
The towns and districts left without a ruler by no means designed to throw off the authority of the overlord; they sought the good will of Pope Martin.
In 1822, however, Ismail and his chief followers were treacherously burnt to death at Shendi by order of the mek (ruler) of the town, in revenge for the cruelties committed by the Egyptians.
In the former he was from the first the leader of a powerful party, and gradually became the autocratic ruler of Arabia; in the latter he was only the despised preacher of a small congregation.
The ruler of Zaria, while professing friendliness, was, however, unable or unwilling to restrain the rulers of Kontagora and Nupe from aggression.
They were of two classes, the " Alkalis' Court," presided over by trained Mahommedan jurists, and " Judicial Councils," under the leading chiefs and natives presided over by the emir or other native ruler.
Mariette, who was appointed by the viceroy Said Pasha at the instance of the French government, succeeded in making his office effective and permanent, in spite of political intrigues and the whims of an Oriental ruler; he also secured a building on the island of Bulak (Bulaq) for a viceregal museum in which the results of his explorations could be permanently housed.
The GodsThe end of the pre-dynastic period, in which we dimly descry a number of independent tribes in constant warfare with one another, was marked by the rise of a united Egyptian state with a single Pharaonic ruler at its head.
So too in Abydos, his later home, Osiris was identified with Khante-Amentiu (Khentamenti, Khentamenthes), the chief of those who are in the West, a name that was given to a vaguely-conceived but widely-venerated divinity ruler of the dead.
In a shrine sits Osiris, the ruler and judge of the dead, accompanied by forty-two assessors; and before him stands the balance on which the heart of the deceased man is to be weighed against Truth; Thoth stands behind and registers the result.
Rameses III., however, was not a great ruler.
Abd alMalik, the country suffered from famine, and under this ruler it was unable to recover.
During his absence his son Abbs revolted in Egypt; on the news of his fathers return he fled to Barca, whence he endeavoured to conquer the Aghlabite dominions in the Maghrib; he was, however, defeated by the Aghlabite ruler, and returned to Barca, where he was again defeated by his fathers forces and taken prisoner.
The Buyid ruler, who was now slinreme nt Ba2dsd, nermitte,d the Tkshlil to remsin in possession of his viceroyalty, but shortlya after receiving this confirmation he died at Damascus in 946.
Aziz attempted without success to enter into friendly relations with the Buyid ruler of Bagdad, A1/4od addaula, who was disposed to favor the Alids, but caused the claim of the Fatimites to descend from Ali to be publicly refuted.
The third governor, Abmad Pasha, hearing that orders for this execution had come from Constantinople, endeavoured to make himself an independent ruler and had coins struck in his own name.
In September 1848 Ibrahim was acknowledged by the Porte as ruler of the pashalik, but he died in the November (i.) Mehemet Ali, b.
Then come a Danish ruler Sigeric, followed by Hardegon, son of Swein, coming from Norway.
This great ruler, who had to fight, year after year, against foreign and domestic foes, could, nevertheless, always find time to promote the internal prosperity of his much afflicted country.
Under such a ruler law and order were speedily reestablished.
Again, the king was the ruler of the realm, but over a very large portion of it he had but a slight control.
As a ruler he is the link between his great father and his still greater son.
Swedish historians have been excusably indulgent to the father of their greatest ruler.
Though not perhaps a great, he was, in the fullest sense of the word, a good ruler.
He was a thoroughly absolute ruler, his so-called ministers being mere clerks whose business was to give effect to his will.
About the same time he commenced, at the desire of the ruler of the neighbouring Shirvan, his second romantic poem, the famous Bedouin love-story of Laila and Majnun, which has so many points in common with Ariosto's Orlando Furioso, and finished it in the short space of four months.
The truth seems to be that Justinian was not a great ruler in the higher sense of the word, that is to say, a man of large views, deep insight, a capacity for forming just such plans as the circumstances needed, and carrying them out by a skilful adaptation of means to ends.
Later they acquiesced in the election of Simon to the high-priesthood with the condition "until there should arise a faithful prophet"; but some of them remonstrated against the combination of the sacred office with the position of political ruler in the person of John Hyrcanus as contrary to the precedent set by Moses at his death.
He not only patronized art and science, but continued as ruler the intercourse with scholars which he had cultivated in his youth.
The noble statuette of Cheops in ivory, found in the stone chamber of the temple, gives the only portrait of this greatest ruler.
His aims in some respects anticipated those of his Tudor successors, but he would have accomplished them on medieval lines as a constitutional ruler.
His dazzling achievements as a general have obscured his more sober qualities as a ruler, and even the sound strategy, with which he aimed to be master of the narrow seas.
In the neighbourhood are the ruins of the old castle, the seat of the ruler of the former kingdom from which Galicia derived its Polish name.
He gained the confidence of Tiberius, and, supported by the praetorians, whom he concentrated in a camp on the Viminal Hill, became virtually ruler of Rome.
We can see now that the very event which seemed, in the eyes of the world, to be the most striking proof of the success of the new movement, the conversion and strenuous support, in the 3rd century B.C., of Asoka, the most powerful ruler India had had, only hastened the decline.
General Alfaro, however, appealed to arms, ejected Garcia from office, and made himself ruler with practically dictatorial powers.
From the middle of the 16th century to the end of the 17th century the ruler of Tunisia was also called dey, a title frequently used during the same period by the sovereigns of Tripoli.
And while the originally Jewish idea led straight to the conception, set forth in Revelation, of the Roman empire or its ruler as Antichrist, here, on the contrary, it is probably the Roman empire that is the power which still retards the reign of Antichrist.
The less it became possible, as time went on, to believe that Nero yet lived and would return as a living ruler, the greater was the tendency for his figure to develop into one wholly infernal and daemonic. The relation to the Parthians is also gradually lost sight of; and from being the adversary of Rome, Nero becomes the adversary of God and of Christ.
He was a good and successful ruler, and his death by an arrow wound, after a brilliant victory over the duke of Brabant near Baesweller (August 1371), was a loss to his country.
It was, undoubtedly, a great and heroic achievement for the ruler of a petty state like Gelderland thus to assert and maintain his independence for a long period against the overwhelming power of the house of Austria.
When pederasty became common in Greece, an attempt was made to justify it and invest it with dignity by referring to the rape of the beautiful boy by Zeus; in Crete, where the love of boys was reduced to a system, Minos, the primitive ruler and law-giver, was said to have been the ravisher of Ganymede.
After his death Ebroin became sole and absolute ruler of the Franks, imposing his authority over Burgundy and subduing the Austrasians, whom he defeated in 678 at Bois-du-Fay, near Laon.
Chagrined at not himself becoming king after his father's death, he headed a revolt against the new ruler of the Servians.
In 657 he became the nominal ruler of the three Frankish kingdoms, but was deprived of Austrasia in 663, retaining Neustria and Burgundy until his death.
Semendria was the residence of that Servian ruler and the capital of Servia from 1430 to 1459.
Although the national God was at once a transcendent ruler of the universe and also near at hand to man, the unconscious religious feeling found an outlet, not only in the splendid worship at Jerusalem, but in the more immediate intercessors, divine agencies, and the like; and when Judaism left its native soil the local supernatural beings revived - as characteristically as when the old placenames threw off their Greek dress - and they still survive, under a veneer of Mahommedanism, as the modern representatives of the Baals of the distant past.'
The abortive Second Crusade (1147), led by the kings of France and Germany, came to aid the rapidly weakening Latin kingdom after their failure to hold Edessa against Nureddin, the ruler of northern Syria.
They were driven westward by pressure of the Tatars, and in 1228 had been called by the ruler of Damascus to his aid.
Polygamy is general in upper Bagirmi, where some traces of a matriarchal stage of society linger, one small state being called Beled-el-Mra, "Women's Land," because its ruler is always a queen.
As a ruler of Saxony Augustus was economical and enlightened.
On the other hand, Tait was not successful in dealing with matters which called for the higher gifts of a ruler, and especially in his relations with (a) the liberal trend in modern thought, and (b) the Catholic revival.
A ruler imposed upon a free people by foreign arms is always unpopular; he is unable to stand alone; and his foreign auxiliaries soon find themselves obliged to choose between remaining to uphold his power, or retiring with the probability that it will fall after their departure.
All these circumstances combined to render the new regime weak and unpopular, since there was no force at the ruler's command except foreign troops to put down disorder or to protect those who submitted, while the discontented nobles fomented disaffection and the inbred hatred of strangers in race and religion among the general Afghan population.
It has been said that the declared object of this policy had been to maintain the independence and integrity of Afghanistan, to secure the friendly alliance of its ruler, and thus to interpose a great barrier of mountainous country between the expanding power of Russia in Central Asia and the British dominion in India.
The province of Kandahar was severed from the Kabul dominion; and the sirdar Shere Ali Khan, a member of the Barakzai family, was installed by the British representative as its independent ruler.
The result was that whereas in former times the forces of an Afghan ruler consisted mainly of a militia, furnished by the chiefs of tribes who held land on condition of military service, and who stoutly resisted any attempt to commute this service for money payment, the amir had at his command a large standing army, and disposed of a substantial revenue paid direct to his treasury.
He was a kind-hearted and popular, but weak, ruler.
Zafar Khan, the first of the Ahmedabad kings, acted as an independent ruler from the time of his first appointment as governor of Gujarat in 1391.
Akbar was then the undisputed ruler of a larger portion of India than had ever before acknowledged the sway of one man.
In 1664 Shaista Khan, the brother of the empress Nur Jahan, became viceroy of Bengal, and though a strong and just ruler from the native point of view, was not favourable The to the foreign traders.
Lord Auckland forthwith resolved upon the hazardous plan of placing a more subservient ruler upon the throne of Kabul.
His policy of annexing each native state on the death of its ruler without natural heirs produced a general feeling of insecurity of tenure among the, princes, and gave offence to the.
Under Alphonso, surnamed "the Magnanimous," Sicily was once more united to Naples and a new era was inaugurated, for the king was at once a brilliant ruler, a scholar and a patron of letters.
Heracles, whom Zeus had originally intended to be ruler of Argos, Lacedaemon and Messenian Pylos, had been supplanted by the cunning of Hera, and his intended possessions had fallen into the hands of Eurystheus, king of Mycenae.
A decisive battle was fought with Tisamenus, son of Orestes, the chief ruler in the peninsula, who was defeated and slain.
Walad Michael,the hereditary ruler of Bogos, fought as ally of King John at Gundet and of the Egyptians at Gura.
Being proclaimed sole ruler of Portugal in 1128, he defeated his mother's troops near Guimaraes, making her at the same time his prisoner.
In 445 Bleda died, and two years afterwards Attila, now sole ruler, undertook one of his most important expeditions against the Eastern empire; on this occasion he pushed southwards as far as Thermopylae, Gallipoli and the walls of Constantinople; peace was cheaply purchased by tripling the yearly tribute (which accordingly now stood at 2 100 pounds of gold, or £84,000 sterling) and by the payment of a heavy indemnity.
The Orthodox Church has canonized the ruler who gave his whole life for Russia and the Orthodox faith.
Moawiya was a born ruler, and Syria was, as we have seen, the best administered province of the whole empire.
Ali was a valiant man, but had no great talent as a ruler.
He therefore proclaimed the caliph of Damascus as sole ruler of the whole peninsula.