Ruled sentence example
I ruled Death's domain for countless millennia.
His descendants were weak men and they too ruled France badly.
In my dream … the aliens … took me … to a planet ruled by spiders!
Connecticut and Rhode Island were ruled out and we began to concentrate on New Hampshire.
Now that she was gone, she only ruled his life if he allowed her.Advertisement
It was the Deidre, the deity who ruled over Death's domain before turning it over to Gabriel.
Here was nestled the town site of Ironton, a bustling community in the last-century days when silver and gold ruled the area.
If he wanted, he could've ruled the earth by now.
In 1283 his father entrusted him with their sole government, and he appears to have ruled them with conspicuous success.
For the next ten years Baldwin ruled his principality with success, if not without severity.Advertisement
Though Conrad was almost immediately assassinated, the crown did not 1 A branch of the line continued in Poitou during the 13th century, and ruled in LaMarche till 1303.
Among the most famous members of the house who ruled in Cyprus three may be mentioned.
Tradition derives the name from Aegina, the mother of Aeacus, who was born in and ruled the island.
In the days that followed, the shooting was ruled justified and Lydia Larkin was cleared of any wrongdoing.
From this point, Xander was able to see most of the city, including the white dome of the palace at its center that marked the home of one of the three Gods that ruled the immortal realm.Advertisement
Curiously, Buddhism itself is ruled by the ghost or shadowy remainder of belief in transmigration - Karma.
Lower Bavaria was ruled by the descendants of Henry I.
The first British governors at Sydney, from 1788, ruled with despotic power.
For five years these high wages ruled; but in 1886 there was a sharp fall, though wages still remained very good.
Until very recently, our world was ruled by kings.Advertisement
Bavaria has been ruled by the Wittelsbachs.
The affairs of a tribe were ruled by a council of men past middle age.
Chief of these were the Rahtors, who ruled at Kanauj; the Chauhans of Ajmere; the Solankis of Anhilwara, in Gujarat; the Gehlots with the Sisodhyias sept, still in Mewar or Udaipur; and the Kachwaha clan, still in Jaipur.
The marriage contract, without which the Code ruled that the woman was no wife, usually stated the consequences to which each party was liable for repudiating the other.
Zenobia seems to have ruled on hehalf of her young son Wahab-allath or Athenodorus as the name is Graecized, who counts the years of his reign from the date of his father's death.Advertisement
During the later part of the Stiirgkh Ministry it is no longer possible to speak of an internal policy, for the military alone ruled.
From 548 the Alamanni were ruled by a succession of dukes who soon made themselves independent; and in 555 a duke of the Bavarians, who exercised his authority without regard for the Frankish supremacy, is first mentioned.
While kings claimed they ruled by a divine right, dictators claimed their right to rule through might.
Once this became known, the question was submitted for arbitration to the king of the Netherlands, who ruled the St. John River to be the border.
They described the activity of individuals who ruled the people, and regarded the activity of those men as representing the activity of the whole nation.Advertisement
The Dark One that ruled Hell since the time-before-time had fallen to a ruthless demon lord whose goal had long been to take over the mortal realm.
You could've ruled the underworld at my side, Gabriel.
The northern portion of the "kingdom of Albania," including Durazzo and Kroia, was ruled by the family of Thopia (1359-1392) and afterwards by that of Kastriota, to which Scanderbeg belonged; the southern portion with Berat, by the Musaki (1368-1476).
The low quotations which ruled for a number Copper of years had a depressing effect upon the industry, and many mines once profitably worked were temporarily closed, but in 1906 there was a general revival.
He punished the rebellious clergy severely, and ruled the church with an absolute hand till his departure from England in 1218.Advertisement
The Breisgau, originally a pagus or gau of the Frankish empire, was ruled during the middle ages by hereditary counts.
At its close the provinces of Italy were placed beneath Greek dukes, controlled by a governor-general, entitled exarch, who ruled in the Byzantine emperors name at Ravenna.
In 890 they established themselves again at Ban, and ruled the Theme of Lombardy by means of an officer entitled Catapan.
And Venice was ruled by a close oligarchy; Florence was passing from the hands of her oligarchs into the power of the Medicean merchants.
The Medici became yearly more indispensable to Florence, the Bentivogli more autocratic in Bologna, the Baglioni in Perugia; and even Siena was ruled by the Petrucci.Advertisement
At this crisis she was ruled by the monk Girolamo Savonarola, who inspired the people with a thirst for freedom, preached the necessity of reformation, and placed himself in direct antagonism to Rome.
He already wore the crown of the Two Sicilies, and ruled the duchy of Milan.
In the pontificate of Clement XIII they ruled the Vatican, and almost succeeded in embroiling the pope with the concerted Bourbon potentates of Europe.
Of the nominally independent states the chief were the kingdom of Sardinia, ruled over by the house of Savoy, and comprising Piedmont, the isle of Sardinia and nominally Savoy and Nice, though the two provinces last named had virtually been lost to the monarchy since the campaign of 1793.
Not only did she govern Lombardy and Venetia directly, but Austrian princes ruled in Modena, Parma and Tuscany; Piacenza, Ferrara and Comacchio had Austrian garrisons; Prince Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, believed that he could always secure the election of an Austrophil pope, and Ferdinand of Naples, reinstated by an Austrian army, had bound himself, by a secret article of the treaty of June 12, 1815, not to introduce methods of government incompatible with those adopted in Austrias Italian possessions.Advertisement
Bath-Agos, the native chieftain who ruled the Okul-Kusai and the cis-Mareb provinces on behalf of Italy, intrigued with Mangash, ras of the trans-Mareb province of Tigr, and with Menelek, to raise a revolt against Italian rule on the high plateau.
Huxley admitted that this contention could not be ruled out as impossible.
Meanwhile in England, which was ruled by Peter des Roches as justiciar, the discontent had been increasing rather than diminishing, and its volume became much larger owing to an event of May 1214.
For a century, from Maximian to Maximus (286-388), it was (except under Julian, who preferred to reside in Paris) the administrative centre from which Gaul, Britain and Spain were ruled, so that the poet Ausonius could describe it as the second metropolis of the empire, or "Rome beyond the Alps."
This prince, a brother of the emperor Henry VII., ruled from 1307 to 1354, and was the real founder of the power of Trier.Advertisement
His superiors, however, obliged him to take the priorship of the convent of Santa Cruz in Segovia, where he ruled for twenty-two years.
For a century and a half from 1228 the successors of Su-ka-pha appear to have ruled undisturbed over a small territory in Lakkimpur and Sibsagar districts.
Having once obtained a foothold in the country, they established their power over the entire valley and ruled with merciless barbarity, until they were expelled by the British in 1824-1825.
The coming of the Norman ruled that these lands should be neither Saracen nor Greek, nor yet Italian in the same sense as northern Italy, but that they should politically belong to the same group of states as the kingdoms and principalities of feudal Europe.
He became a favourite with Theodoric, the Ostrogoth, who ruled in Rome from 500, and was one of his intimate friends.
At the head of the Church was a body of ten elders, elected by the synod; this synod consisted of all the ministers, and acted as the supreme legislative authority; and the bishops ruled in their respective dioceses, and had a share in the general oversight.
They adopted the Mahommedan religion and founded an empire which in the 17th and 18th centuries ruled over a large part of the eastern Sudan.
Aeacus ruled over his people with such justice and impartiality that after his death he was made judge of the lower world together with Minos and Rhadamanthus.
According to the Historia Brittonum Guffa (Wuffa) was the son of (Guecha) Wehha, who first ruled the East Angles in Britain.
It had to be divided, therefore, into a number of independent principalities, but it continued to be loosely held together by the dynastic sentiment of the descendants of Rurik and by the patriarchal authority - a sort of patria potestas - of the senior member of the family, called the grand-prince, who ruled in Kiev, " the mother of Russian cities."
With the assistance of these two counsellors he held in check the lawless, turbulent nobles, and ruled justly, to the satisfaction of the people, for fourteen years.
At the time of her accession the duchy was ruled by a son of the Polish king Augustus III., and he gave a pretext for aggression by refusing to allow Russian troops returning from the Seven Years' War to pass through his territory.
The Decembrists' abortive attempt at revolution and the Polish insurrection of 1831, which he crushed with great severity, confirmed him in his conviction that Russia must be ruled with a strong hand.
But Suarez is much more moderate on this point than a writer like Mariana, approximating to the modern view of the rights of ruler and ruled.
Robert Reid, who ruled from 1526 to 1540, was its greatest abbot.
After this period Orvieto was peaceably ruled by papal governors, and had practically no history.
Small native princes ruled as vassals of Egypt which, after expelling the Hyksos from its borders, had entered upon a series of conquests as far as the Euphrates.
The Babylonian Jews were practically independent, and the exilarch (reshgalutha) or prince of the captivity was an official who ruled the community as a vassal of the Persian throne.
Adopting the motto, "My strength is the love of my people," he ruled in strict accordance with constitutional principles, though not hesitating to make the fullest use of the royal prerogative when the intervention of the crown seemed to be required by circumstances.
The latter prevailed, and in 1192 established the dual system of government under which the emperor or Mikado ruled only in name, and the real power was in the hands of a hereditary military chief called Shogun.
The first empire, called Maurya,reached its greatest extent in the time of Asoka (264-227 B.C.), who ruled from Afghanistan to Madras.
They succumbed to the Persian dynasty of the Sassanids, who ruled successfully for about four centuries, established the Zoroastrian faith as their state religion, and maintained a creditable conflict with the East Roman empire.
During the greater part of the Mahommedan period Persia has been ruled by troubled and short-lived dynasties.
Originally it seems to have denoted the coast district between the Oder and the Vistula, a territory which was at first more or less dependent on Poland, but which, towards the end of the 12th century, was ruled by two native princes, who took the title of duke about 1170 and admitted the authority of the German king in 1181.
The word "monarchy" has, however, outlived this original meaning, and is now used, when used at all, somewhat loosely of states ruled over by hereditary sovereigns, as distinct from republics with elected presidents; or for the "monarchical principle," as opposed to the republican, involved in this distinction.
By 1260 they ruled the eastern bank of the Vistula from Kulm to its mouth, and the northern shore of the Baltic from the mouth of the Vistula to Konigsberg.
From 1466 to 1526 grand masters of the Order ruled in East Prussia as vassals of Poland.
As wife of Pluto, she sent spectres, ruled the ghosts, and carried into effect the curses of men.
In Asia Minor he was unable to reduce Bithynia or the Persian dynasties which ruled in Cappadocia.
Bonaparte's imperious nature also showed itself in family matters, which he ruled with a high hand.
Even so, Prussia was bereft of half of her territories; those west of the river Elbe went to swell the domains of Napoleon's vassals or to form the new kingdom of Westphalia for Jerome Bonaparte; while the spoils which the House of Hohenzollern had won from Poland in the second and third partitions were now to form the duchy of Warsaw, ruled over by Napoleon's ally, the elector (now king) of Saxony.
There is scarcely anything historical in this account, perhaps not even the name Tiridates, for, according to the older tradition, Arsaces himself ruled for many years.
The next king, whom Justin calls Priapatius, ruled 15 years (about 190-175); his successor, Phraates I., subjected the mountainous tribe of the Mardi (in the Elburz).
But, as Darius said, nobody had the courage to oppose the new king, who ruled for seven months over the whole empire.
Atreus was murdered by Aegisthus, who took possession of the throne of Mycenae and ruled jointly with his father Thyestes.
The church is ruled by the patriarch of Venice, the metropolitan of the province formed by the Veneto.
The direct line ruled in France from 987 to 1238, when, at the death of King Charles IV., it was succeeded by the younger, or Valois, branch of the family.
Considered as holy wars the Crusades must be interpreted by the ideas of an age which was dominated by the spirit of otherworldliness, and accordingly ruled by the clerical power which represented the other world.
A new sultan, Barkiyaroq or Barkiarok, ruled in Bagdad (1094-1104); but in Asia Minor Kilij Arslan held sway as the independent sultan of Konia (Iconium), while the whole of Syria was also practically independent.
In 1095 two brothers, Ridwan and Dekak, ruled in Aleppo and Damascus respectively; but they were at war with one another, and Yagi-sian, the ruler of Antioch, was a party to their dissensions.
The crusading princes were well enough aware of the gulf which divided the caliph of Cairo from the Sunnite princes of Syria; and they sought by envoys to put themselves into connexion with him, hoping by his aid to gain Jerusalem (which was then ruled for the Turks by Sokman, the son of the amir Ortok).
Baldwin de Burgh, the future Baldwin II., ruled in Edessa as the vassal of Baldwin I.
Meanwhile the principality of Antioch, ruled by Tancred, after the departure of Bohemund (1104-1112), and then by Roger his kinsman (1112-1119), was, during the reign of Baldwin I., busily engaged in disputes both with its Christian neighbours at Edessa and Tripoli, and with the Mahommedan princes of Mardin and Mosul.
His successor was Balak, who ruled from 1122 to 1124, and succeeded in capturing in 1123 Baldwin II.
During the greater part of the period between 1130 and 11 54 the policy of Damascus was guided by the vizier Muin eddin Anar, who ruled on behalf of the descendants of the atabeg Tughtigin.
In diplomacy he proved fully the equal of all - white or black - with whom he had to deal, while he ruled with a rare combination of vigour and moderation over the nation which he had created.
The introduction is an elaborate treatise on the science of history and the development of society, and the autobiography contains the history, not only of the author himself, but of his family and of the dynasties which ruled in Fez, Tunis and Tlemcen during his lifetime.
The situation of the Acropolis, dominating the surrounding plain and possessing easy communication with the sea, favoured the formation of a relatively powerful state - inferior, however, to Tiryns and Mycenae; the myths of Cecrops, Erechtheus and Theseus bear witness to the might of the princes who ruled in the Athenian citadel, and here we may naturally expect to find traces of massive fortifications resembling in some degree those of the great Argolid cities.
The earliest settlement on the Acropolis was doubtless soon increased by groups of dwellings at its base, inhabited by the dependents of the princes who ruled in the stronghold.
The Sicilian kings ruled Athens by viceroys till 1385, when the Florentine Nerio Acciajuoli, lord of Corinth, defeated the Catalonians and seized the city.
Governor Miguel de la Torre, who ruled the island with vice-regal powers during the second period of Ferdinand's absolutism, sternly repressed all attempts at liberalism, and made the island the resort for loyal refugees from the Spanish mainland.
Of these the most important was that of the Haihayas of Ratanpur, a family which, settled from time immemorial in the Nerbudda valley, had towards the close of the 10th century succeeded the Pandava dynasty of Maha Kosala (Chhattisgarh) and ruled, though from the 16th century onwards over greatly diminished territories, until its overthrow by the Mahrattas in 1745.
The first of these is mentioned in 1398, when Narsingh Rai, raja of Kherla, is said by Ferishta to have ruled all the hills of Gondwana.
Thus the prominent school of criticism which appraised Wagner in the 10th century by his approximation to Darwin and Herbert Spencer, appraises him in the aoth by his approximation to Bernard Shaw; with the absurd result that Gatterdammerung is ruled out as a reactionary failure.
Whilst the Antigonid kingdom remained practically whole till the Roman conquest ended it in 168 B.C., and the house of Ptolemy ruled in Egypt till the death of Cleopatra in 30 B.C., the Seleucid Empire perished by a slow process of disruption.
Native princes probably ruled in Persis before 166, though the district was at least nominally subject to Antiochus IV.
At Milan Lodovico Sforza (il Moro) ruled, nominally as regent for the youthful duke Gian Galeazzo, but really with a view to making himself master of the state.
This second writer singles out three of the Maccabean priest kings for attack, the first of whom he charges with every abomination; the people itself, he declares, is apostate, and chastisement will follow speedily - the temple will be laid waste, the nation carried afresh into captivity, whence, on their repentance, God will restore them again to their own land, where they shall enjoy the blessedness of God's presence and be ruled by a Messiah sprung from Judah.
At first he ruled that part of the Visigothic kingdom which lay to the south of the Pyrenees, his brother Liuva or Leova governing the small part to the north of these mountains; but in 572 Liuva died and Leovigild became sole king.
The divisions shown above were adopted on the 21st of December 1827, the legations being ruled by a cardinal and the delegations by a prelate.
Among the governors of the 19th century Miguel Tacon, governor in 1834-1839, a forceful and high-handed soldier, deserves mention, especially in the annals of Havana; he ruled as a tyrant, made many reforms as regarded law and order, and left Havana, in particular, full of municipal improvements.
From 1299 to 1322 the country was ruled by the Croatian princes, Paul and Mladen Subic, who, though vassals of Hungary, reunited the provinces of Upper and Lower Bosnia, created by the Hungarians in order to prevent the growth of a dangerous national unity.
In 1413 Mahommed defeated Mussa, and thus remained sole heir to Bayezid's throne; in seven or eight years he succeeded Mahom- in regaining all the territories over which his father med 1., had ruled, whereas Timur's empire fell to pieces 1413-1421.
This continued until the new sultan had acquired age and experience; but, nine years after his accession, he successfully crushed the military rebels, and thereafter ruled with a severity amounting to bloodthirsty cruelty.
These inspectorates are ruled by two superior officials or governors responsible to the director of the board in Copenhagen.
At the end of the 7th century the dynasty of S'rutavarman ceased to rule over the whole of Cambodia, which during the next century was divided into two portions ruled over by two sovereigns.
Again, in the time of Philip of Macedon we find Cersobleptes, who ruled the south-eastern portion of the country, exercising an important influence on the policy of Athens.
The king and nobles of the district endowed him with estates till he was at last able to build a church, over which Alcuin afterwards ruled.
It is not likely, as many scholars have thought, that Akkad was ever used geographically as a distinctive appellation for northern Babylonia, or that the name Sumer denoted the southern part of the land, because kings who ruled only over Southern Babylonia used the double title "king of Sumer and Akkad," which was also employed by northern rulers who never established their sway farther south than Nippur, notably the great Assyrian conqueror Tiglath pileser III.
This kingdom was to be ruled over by a Messiah sprung not from Judah but from Levi, that is, from the reigning Maccabean family.
Four kings named Battus, alternating with four named Arcesilaus, ruled in Cyrene till the fall of the dynasty about 450 B.C.
Pythagoras established himself here between 540 and 530 B.C. and formed a society of 300 disciples (among whom was Milo), who acquired considerable influence with the supreme council of l000 by which the city was ruled.
Henry, who already ruled lower Lusatia and the new and smaller Saxon east mark, was succeeded in 1103 by his cousin Thimo, and in 1104 by his son Henry II., whose claim on the mark was contested by Thimo's son Conrad.
About this time he sold his portion of Meissen to his nephew Frederick Tutta, who held the title of margrave and ruled the greater part of the mark until his death in 1291.
From this latter Frederick's death in 1349 until 1381 the lands of the family were ruled by his three sons jointly; but after the death of his eldest son Frederick III.
Next, it must be carefully remembered that the early church was, in a sense hard for us even to understand, ruled and edified by the direct action of the Holy Spirit.
Stephen Bathory, voivode of Transylvania and count of the Szeklers, for instance, ruled Transylvania like a Turkish pasha, and threatened to behead all who dared to complain of his exactions; " Stinking carrion," he said, was better than living Szeklers.
Subsequently he ruled gratings on a layer of gold-leaf attached to glass, or on a layer of grease similarly supported, and again by attacking the glass itself with a diamond point.
Suppose two similar and accurately ruled transparent gratings to be superposed in such a manner that the lines are parallel.
In these instruments the lines are ruled upon a spherical surface of speculum metal, and mark the intersections of the surface by a system of parallel and equidistant planes, o; of which the middle member passes through the centre of the sphere.
This, is all put in the latter half of the 7th century B.C. Herodotus says that the Scyths ruled Media for twenty-eight years, and were then massacred or expelled.
He found an ignorant and corrupt society ruled by an immoral yet fanatical monarch.
They were for some time ruled by a Portuguese, Joao Albasini, who had adopted native customs. Since 1873 Swiss Protestant missionaries have lived among then and many of the Shangaans are Christians and civilized.
The first count was Hermann I., who ruled from 945 to 996, and although the office was not hereditary it appears to have been held mainly by his descendants until the death of Count Hermann III.
The Palatinate was ruled by Louis of Bavaria on behalf of his son until 1228, when it passed to Otto who ruled until his death in 12J3.
Rudolph died in 1353, after which Rupert ruled alone until his death in 1390.
The family is the base of the social system in Annam and is ruled by its head, who is also priest and judge.
Annam is ruled in theory by its emperor, assisted by the " comat " or secret council, composed of the heads of the six ministerial departments of the interior, finance, war, ritual, justice and public works, who are nominated by himself.
Upon the reoccupation of Rome by the French after Mentana, Antonelli again ruled supreme, but upon the entry of the Italians in 1870 was obliged to restrict his activity to the management of foreign relations.
The Ingwavu'ma magistracy, like Tongaland, formed no part of the dominions of the Zulu kings, but was ruled by independent chiefs until its annexation by Great Britain in 1895.
He ruled from the Pongolo river on the north to the Umkomanzi river on the south, and inland his power extended to the foot of the Drakensberg; thus his territory coincided almost exactly with the limits of Zululand and Natal as constituted in 1903.
Greeks, White Huns, Samanidae of Bokhara, Ghaznevides, Mongols, Timur and Timuridae, down to Saddozais and Barakzais, have ruled both sides of this great alpine chain.
For 7 years Tukulti-In-aristi ruled at Babylon with the old imperial title of " king of Sumer and Akkad."
Up to certain points no difference of opinion exists upon the dates to be assigned to the later kings who ruled in Babylon and in Assyria.
Bonif ace died in 1052, and in the following year the margraviate passed to his daughter, the famous The countess Matilda, who ruled for forty years and played a prominent part in the history of Italy in that period.
His territories were then divided between his sons and his condottieri, and Florence, ever keeping her eye on Pisa, now ruled by Gabriele Maria Visconti, made an alliance with Pope Boniface IX., who wished to regain Perugia and Bologna.
The next year that city, then ruled by Giovanni Gambacorti, was besieged by the Florentines, who blockaded the mouth of the Arno.
The Medici dynasty ruled in Tuscany until the death of Gian Gastone in 1737, when the grand-duchy was assigned to Francis, duke of Lorraine.
According to these the country came to be ruled by queens named Candace.
On the whole he ruled well, his difficult position serving as some restraint upon his natural inclinations.
This change did not occur, however, without some modification of the Roman customs. The comitatus made contributions of its own to future feudalism, to some extent to its institutional side, largely to the ideas and spirit which ruled in it.
In the first of these ruled the Makarib, who seem to have been priest-kings.
Details of their history are not known, but they seem to have gained power at one time even over the aakhmids of Hira; and to have ruled over Bahrein as well as Yemama until the battle of Shi'b ul Jabala, when they lost this province to Hira.
During his twenty years' reign Jebel Shammar became a model state, where justice and security ruled in a manner before unheard of.
Even in Oman their hold on the country was limited to Muscat and the adjacent ports, while the interior was ruled by the old Yariba (Ya-`aruba) dynasty from their capital at Rustak.
The conqueror, 'Oqba-bin-Nafa, founded the city of Kairwan (673) which was the residence of the governors of "Ifrigiyah" under the Omayyads and thereafter the capital of the Aghlabite princes, the conquerors of Sicily, who ruled in merely nominal dependence on the Abbasids.
When the seat of the Fatimite Empire was removed to Egypt, the Zirites, a house of the Sanhaja Berbers, ruled as their lieutenants at Mandia, and about 1050 Mo`izz the Zirite, in connexion with a religious movement against the Shiites, transferred his very nominal allegiance to the Abbasid caliphs.
Each was ruled by a viceroy, under whom were the " huaranca-camayocs," or officers ruling over thousands, and inferior officers, in regular order, over Soo, 500, 50 and so men.
The country was then ruled by the judges of the Audiencia, and a formidable insurrection broke out, headed by Francisco Hernandez Giron, with the object of maintaining the right of the conquerors to exact forced service from the Indians.
Don Andres Hurtado de Mendoza, marquis of Canete, entered Lima as third viceroy of Peru on the 6th of July 1555, and ruled with an iron hand for six years.
His successor, the licentiate Lope Garcia de Castro, who only had the title of governor, ruled from 1564 to 1569.
After a minute personal inspection of every province in Peru, he, with the experienced aid of the learned Polo de Ondegardo and the judge of Matienza, established the system under which the native population of Peru was ruled for the two succeeding centuries.
General Bolivar ruled Peru with dictatorial powers for more than a year, and though there were cabals against him there can be little doubt of his popularity.
By that line they were sold in 1384, with Thun, to the town of Bern, whose bailiffs ruled in the castle till 1798.
Savonarola's party was apparently annihilated by his death, but, when in 1529-1530 Florence was exposed to the horrors predicted by him, the most heroic defenders of his beloved if ungrateful city were Piagnoni who ruled their lives by his precepts and revered his memory as that of a saint.
The longer Christina ruled, the more anxious for the future fate of her empire grew the men who had helped to build it up. Yet she gave fresh privileges to the towns; she encouraged trade and manufactures, especially the mining industries of the Dales; in 1649 she issued the first school ordinance for the whole kingdom; she encouraged foreign scholars to settle in Sweden; and native science and literature, under her liberal encouragement, flourished as they had never flourished before.
Idris, founder of the Idrisite dynasty of Fez, left his brother Suleiman in possession of Agadir, and the city was ruled by the Beni-Suleiman until 931, when it fell into the hands of the Fatimites.
Yarmorasen, who died in 1282, founded the dynasty of the Abd-el-Wahid, who ruled the greater part of what now constitutes Algeria.
He ruled with a stern sway for nearly half a century, but the brilliance of his court, his encouragement of the fine arts and his decoration of the city with sumptuous edifices, to some extent compensated the Bolognese for the loss of their liberty.
From the date of the bull to the close of the Empire Frankfort retained the position of " Wahlstadt," and only five of the two-and-twenty monarchs who ruled during that period were elected elsewhere.
The territories of Zela and Megalopolis were divided between Lycomedes, the high-priest of Zela and Ateporix, who ruled the principality of Carana (later Sebastopolis).
The bishops of Eichstatt were princes of the Empire, subject to the spiritual jurisdiction of the archbishops of Mainz, and ruled over considerable territories in the Circle of Franconia.
During the middle ages the district which now forms the grand-duchy of Baden was ruled by various counts, prominent among whom were the counts and dukes of Zahringen.
His ancestors had also ruled in Egypt as caliphs of the BeniFatimites for a number of years, at a period coeval with the Crusades.
It occupies the site of Agyrion, an ancient Sicel city which was ruled by tyrants, one of whom, Agyris, was the most powerful ruler in the centre of Sicily.
The struggle with Jacobinism was over, and he could have no hesitation in supporting resistance to a successful general who ruled by the sword, and who pursued a policy of perpetual aggression.
He ruled ten years, quarrelled almost continuously with the Jews - whom Sejanus, diverging from the Caesar tradition, is said to have disliked - and in A.D.
It was later ruled by the Ostrogoths (5th century) and the Lombards (6th century) after the conquest of whom by the Franks (774) Trent became part of the kingdom of Italy.
His son Jagiello ultimately ascended the Polish throne, and was the founder of the dynasty which ruled Poland for nearly 200 years.
Thus in 4 4 8 B.C. Athens was not only mistress of a maritime empire, but ruled over Megara, Boeotia, Phocis, Locris, Achaea and Troezen, i.e.
All those parts of Peloponnese and the islands which in historic times were " Dorian " are ruled by recently established dynasties of " Achaean " chiefs; the home of the Asiatic Dorians is simply " Caria "; and the geographical " catalogue " in Iliad ii.
Through the fact, however, that from 1501 onwards the Lithuanians and the Poles were ruled over by one sovereign and from 1569 onwards had a common legislature, the former, though ever anxious to break away, gradually sank into a state of dependence.
His murderer, Ptolemy of Alorus, ruled as regent for the young Perdiccas, Amyntas's second son.
For two years he ruled in Edessa (1098 - I zoo), marrying an Armenian wife, and acting generally as the intermediary between the crusaders and the Armenians.
Now again he maintained with great warmth of conviction that his views were in close accordance with Scripture and the Anglican standards, but the council, without specifying any distinct "heresy" and declining to submit the case to the judgment of competent theologians, ruled otherwise, and he was deprived of his professorships.
The founder of the present ruling family was Anand Rao Punwar, a descendant of the great Paramara clan of Rajputs who from the 9th to the 13th century, when they were driven out by the Mahommedans, had ruled over Malwa from their capital at Dhar.
In the meanwhile his son Oddone married Adelaide, eldest daughter and heiress of Odelrico Manfredi, marquess of Susa, a descendant of Arduino of Ivrea, king of Italy, who ruled over the counties of Turin, Auriate, Asti, Bredulo, Vercelli, &c., corresponding roughly to modern Piedmont and part of Liguria (1045).
When Amadeus succeeded to the throne these were divided into the county of Savoy (his own territory), the princi pality of Piedmont ruled by his nephew Philip, prince of Achaea (a title acquired through his wife, Isabella of Villehardouin, heiress of Achaea and the Morea), and Vaud ruled by his brother Louis.
Under Louis Savoy began to decline, for he was indolent, incapable, and entirely ruled by his wife, Anne of Lusignan, daughter of the king of Cyprus, an ambitious and intriguing woman; she induced him to fit out an expensive expedition to Cyprus, which brought him no advantage save the barren title of king of Cyprus, Jerusalem and Armenia.
The tyranny was succeeded by an oligarchy based upon a graduated money qualification, which ruled with a consistency equalling that of the Venetian Council, but pursued a policy too purely commercial to the neglect of military efficiency.
It is ruled by a governor, and, along with Timor (East Indies), constitutes a bishopric, to which belong also the Portuguese Christians in Malacca and Singapore.
From the inscriptions found at Tello, it appears that Lagash was a city of great importance in the Sumerian period, some time probably in the 4th millennium B.C. It was at that time ruled by independent kings, Ur-Nina and his successors, who were engaged in contests with the Elamites on the east and the kings of Kengi and Kish on the north.
Under the government of Herat, however, there are a very large number of tribes, ruled over by separate and semi-independent chiefs, and belonging probably to different nationalities.
Ecclesiastically, Tirol is ruled by the archbishop of Salzburg and his two suffragans, the bishops of Trent and of Brixen.
Locally it is ruled by an Imperial governor (the Statthalter) who resides at Innsbruck, where, too, meets annually the local legislature or Diet (the Landtag), composed (according to the constitution of 1861) of 68 members; the archbishop of Salzburg, the bishops of Trent and Brixen, and the rector of the university of Innsbruck sit in person, while the great ecclesiastical corporations send four deputies, the chambers of commerce of Innsbruck, Trent and Rovereto each one, the nobles ten, the towns 13, and the peasants 34.
From that time onwards till 1665 Tirol was generally entrusted to a cadet of the Austrian house, who ruled first at Meran, and from about 1420 at Innsbruck, as a nearly independent prince; but since 1665 the province has been governed from Vienna.
Several of these additions were due to the archduke Maximilian, who ruled Tirol from 1490 onwards, becoming emperor in 1493 and dying in 1519.
After his return to Susa, Bagoas ruled the court and the upper satrapies, while Mentor restored the authority of the empire everywhere in the west.
On his father's death in 912 he became duke of Saxony, which he ruled with considerable success, defending it from the attacks of the Sla y s and resisting the claims of the German king Conrad I.
The founder of her town life and the creator of her army, he ruled in harmony with her nobles and secured her frontiers from attack.
In 1192 (some writers say in 1255) the city became an imperial free city, but the bishop and his chapter practically ruled it till the time of the Reformation.
She held her position from 1670 to 1679 and then gave place to the still more famous Madame de Maintenon, who ruled, however, not as mistress but as wife.
Nearly a quarter of a century later Prester John appears upon the scene, in the character of a Christian conqueror and potentate who combined the characters of priest and king, and ruled over vast dominions in the Far East.
This personage was said to be of the ancient race of the Magi mentioned in the Gospel, to rule the same nations that they ruled, and to have such wealth that he used a sceptre of solid emerald.
He mentions, however, a brother of this John called Unc who ruled over the Crit and Merkit (or Kerait and Mekrit, two of the great tribes of Mongolia), whose history he associates with that of Jenghiz Khan.
Friar Odoric, about 1326, visited the country still ruled by the prince whom he calls Prester John; "but," he says, "as regards him, not one-hundredth part is true that is told of him."
After the death of the elector Frederick in 1464, Albert and Ernest ruled their lands together, but in 1485 a division was made by the treaty of Leipzig, and Albert received Meissen, together with some adjoining districts, and founded the Albertine branch of the family of Wettin.
His descendants ruled the county, first in the male and then in the female line, until the death of the emperor Sigismund in 1437.
The earliest dynasty recorded to have ruled in Bundelkhand were the Garhwas, who were succeeded by the Parihars; but nothing is known of either.
He made a business-like little notebook, ruled off spaces for the thirteen virtues and the seven days of the week, " determined to give a week's strict attention to each of the virtues successively.
For two years Espartero ruled Spain in accordance with his Radical and conciliatory dispositions, giving special attention to the reorganization of the administration, taxation and finances, declaring all the estates of the church, congregations and religious orders to be national property, and suppressing the diezma, or tenths.
From 1692 the land has been undivided with the exception of a brief period from 1805 to 1812, when Waldeck and Pyrmont were ruled by two brothers.
In Strabo's time they appear to have been ruled by a single king, though previously there were twenty-six, each one ruling over a community distinct only in point of language.
In the Lebanon both the Christian clans and the Druses are ruled by hereditary amirs.
Educated for the Church, he became elector and archbishop in 1515, and ruled his electorate with vigour and intelligence, taking up at first an attitude of hostility towards the reformers and their teaching.
He died about 1200; and his sons, Conrad and Frederick, ruled their lands in common until 1227, when an important division took place.
Dying in 1332, Frederick was succeeded by his son, John II., who, after one of his brothers had died and two others had entered the church, ruled his lands in common with his brother Albert.
These principalities were ruled by the sons and descendants of the elector Albert Achilles from 1486 to 1603; and, after reverting to the elector of Brandenburg, by the descendants of the elector John George from 1603 to 1791.
Each was ruled by a viceroy.
From 1358 to 1412 it was ruled by Hungary; it subsequently formed part of the Venetian dominions.
The history of Berar belongs generally to that of the Deccan, the country falling in turn under the sway of the various dynasties which successively ruled in southern India, the first authentic records showing it to have been part of the Andhra or Satavahana empire.
In 604 we find Essex in close dependence upon Kent, being ruled by Saberht, sister's son of iEthelberht, under whom the East Saxons received Christianity.
But in a city ruled by a tyrant this outlet was wanting; no political life worthy of the name existed.
He was led from these ideas to think that there should be no government in the Church separate from the civil government which ruled the commonwealth.
Later stories say that Thetis snatched his body from the pyre and conveyed it to the island of Leuke, at the mouth of the Danube, where he ruled with Iphigeneia as his wife; or that he was carried to the Elysian fields, where his wife was Medea or Helen.
Bern kept the south-west portion (Zofingen, Aarburg, Aarau, Lenzburg, and Brugg), but some districts, named the Freie Amter or "free bailiwicks" (Mellingen, Muri, Villmergen, and Bremgarten), with the county of Baden, were ruled as "subject lands" by all or certain of the Confederates.
In 1423 Meissen and Thuringia were united with Saxe-Wittenberg under Frederick of Meissen, and gradually the name of Saxony spread over all the lands ruled by this prince and his descendants.
These two sons succeeded to their father's possessions in 1464, and for twenty years ruled together peaceably.
In 1640 his three surviving sons ruled the duchies of Weimar, Eisenach and Gotha.
Harald now ruled the country until 1136, when he was murdered by Sigurd SlembiDiakn, another bastard son of Magnus Barefoot.
During his minority the empire was ably ruled by the praetorian prefect Anthemius and Pulcheria, who became her brother's guardian in 414.
Marat had seen that England was at this time being ruled by an oligarchy using the forms of liberty, which, while pretending to represent the country, was really being gradually mastered by the royal power.
It appears to have been united with Meissen for some time, and this was certainly the case from 1046 to 1067, when both countries were ruled by William and Otto, counts of Weimar.
It was taken from the Milanese in 1512 by the Swiss who ruled it till 1798, when it became part of the canton of Lugano in the Helvetic Republic, and in 1803 part of that of Tessin or Ticino, then first erected.
His wife, Maria Luisa of Parma, his first cousin, a thoroughly coarse and vicious woman, ruled him completely, though he was capable of obstinacy at times.
But at that date the city obtained its independence, and is now ruled by a town council of 41 members, and an executive of 5 members, the election in each case being made direct by the citizens, and the term of office being 4 years.
From that date till 1864 the Radicals ruled the state, their head, Fazy, being an able man, though extravagant and inclined to absolutism.
The Democratic party (liberal-conservative) ruled from 1865 to 1870, and did much to improve the finances of the state.
The Democrats ruled from 1878 to 1880, and introduced the "Referendum" (1879) into the cantonal constitution, but, their policy of the separation of church and state having been rejected by the people at a vote, they gave way to the Radicals.
Since the emperor ruled the Church there was no longer any question of independence far the bishops, least of all for the patriarch in Constantinople; they were in every respect subordinate to the emperor.
All this meant a mighty exaltation of the Church, which ruled the minds of men as she had hardly ever done before.
First Valdemar aimed at the recovery of Zealand, which was actually partitioned among a score of Holstein mortgagees who ruled their portions despotically from their strong castles, and sucked the people dry.
Having formed part of the Frankish realm, it was ruled after 1204 jointly by, the dukes of Brabant and the prince-bishops.
From 1028 onwards it was ruled by local counts, the vassals of the bishops, but after Tirol fell into the hands of the Habsburgers (1363) their power grew at the expense of that of the bishops.
Like all other cities of Central Asia, it has changed hands repeatedly, and was from 1864-1877 the seat of government of the Amir Yakub Beg, surnamed the Atalik Ghazi, who established and for a brief period ruled with remarkable success a Mahommedan state comprising the chief cities of the Tarim basin from Turfan round along the skirt of the mountains to Khotan.
The country was converted to Buddhism and probably ruled by Indo-Scythian or Kushan kings.
In default of male issue, Casimir left the Polish throne to his nephew, Louis of Hungary, who ruled the country (1370-1382) through his mother, Queen Elizabeth, Wladislaus Lokietek's daughter.
Kiejstut ruled the western portion of the land where the Teutonic Knights were a constant menace, while Olgierd drove the Tatar hordes out of the southeastern steppes, and compelled them to seek a refuge in the Crimea.
By this time, however, the prudent Jagiello had become convinced that Lithuania was too strong to be ruled by or from Poland, and yet not strong enough to stand alone, and by the compact of Vilna (January 18, 1401,1401, confirmed by the compact of Radowo, March 10) he surrendered the whole grand duchy to Witowt, on the understanding that the two states should have a common policy, and that neither of them should elect a new prince without the consent of the other.
For the next eighteen months Chmielnicki ruled the Ukraine like a sovereign prince.
The absence in him of the qualities that fit a man to rule made his court the arena of intriguing factions, which in reality ruled France during his reign of fifteen years.
With the foundation of the order of Cluny in the 10th century there appeared the conventual prior who ruled as head of a monastery, but was subject in some degree to the archiabbas of the mother-house of Cluny.
In the order of St John of Jerusalem a priory was a group of commanderies ruled by a "grand prior."
Algeria was considered as a kind of great military fief, and the officers who ruled there commonly took the side of the native chieftains against the civil population.
After Agrippa's death Judaea was once more governed by procurators, of whom Cuspius Fadus and Tiberius Alexander ruled from A.D.
His descendants ruled in the country until about 1500, when it was overrun by the Uzbeg Tatars, under Abulkhair or Ebulkheir Khan, the founder of the Shaibani dynasty, with which the history of Bokhara properly commences.
During the first years of his reign he was both popular and prosperous, and ruled the people excellently well.
During his stay in the city of Mexico his thoughts were seriously directed towards religion, and, eventually entering the Presbyterian communion, he ruled every subsequent action of his life by his faith.
Catalonia was subsequently ruled by French counts, who soon, however, made themselves independent of France.
The Society has been ruled by twenty-five generals and four vicars from its foundation to the present day (1910).
Gnosticism is to a great extent dominated by the idea that it is above all and in the highest degree important for the Gnostic's soul to be enabled to find its way back through the lower worlds and spheres of heaven ruled by the Seven to the kingdom of light of the supreme deity of heaven.
Centeotl, the goddess of the allnourishing maize, was patroness of the earth and mother of the gods, while Mictlanteuctli, lord of dead-land, ruled over the departed in the dim under-world.
During these three centuries, after a brief but most unsatisfactory experience of government by audiencias (1521-1535), sixty-four viceroys ruled over New Spain.
Its viceroy ruled over districts differing in status and with over- New pain.
A new Congress, having resolved itself into a constituent assembly, followed up this Centralist policy (Dec. 30, 1836) by framing a new constitution, the Siete Leyes or Seven Laws, which converted the states into departments, ruled by governors appointed by the central authority, and considerably reduced popular representation.
Native dynasties ruled from 735 to the 15th century, when the region was conquered by the Turks and became Mahommedan.
Although under strong British influence the country was nevertheless ruled by its own chiefs, among whom the best-known in the middle of the 19th century were Montsioa, chief of the Barolong, and Sechele, chief of the Bakwena and the friend of Livingstone.
The rulers of these provinces bore the title of Satrap (Kshatrapa or Chhatrapa) and were apparently subordinate to a king who ruled over the valley of Kabul and the Punjab.
Peter thus never governed his empire, which, however, was ruled for a time by his wife, Yolande, who had succeeded in reaching Constantinople.
The Roman province of Galatia, constituted 25 B.C., included the greater part of the country ruled by Amyntas, viz.
Henry Draper's most important contributions to science were made in spectroscopy; he ruled metal gratings in 1869-1870, made valuable spectrum photographs after 1871, and proved the presence of oxygen in the sun in a monograph of 1877.
When he grew up Aegisthus slew Atreus, and ruled jointly with his father over Mycenae, until they were deposed by Agamemnon on his return from exile.
An ascetic, who practised the whole cycle of medieval austerities, he was determined that Canada should be ruled by the church, and he desired for New France a Puritanism as strict as that of New England.
But freights had come down by 1900 to half the rates predicated by Caird; indeed, during a portion of the interval they ruled very close to zero, as far as steamer freights from America were concerned.
During his father's lifetime he ruled Moravia, but when in 1248 some discontented Bohemian nobles acknowledged him as their sovereign, trouble arose between him and his father, and for a short time Ottakar was imprisoned.
Whether there was an historic Arthur has been much debated; undoubtedly for many centuries after the appearance of Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Britonum (circ. 1136), the statements therein recorded of a mighty monarch, who ruled over Britain in the 5th-6th centuries, and carried his conquests far afield, even to the gates of Rome, obtained general, though not universal, credence.
This valiant prince saved the empire from destruction and conquered Erzerum, which had been ruled during a considerable time by a separate dynasty, and was now given in fief to his brother, Mughit ud-din Toghrul Shah.
On this occasion he was fortunate enough to take prisoner the'Comnenian prince (Alexius) who ruled the independent empire of Trebizond, and he compelled him to purchase his liberty by acknowledging the supremacy of the Seljuks, by paying tribute, and by serving in the armies of the sultan.
From 1377 to 1396 Gorlitz was a separate duchy ruled by John, a son of the emperor Charles IV., and, like Lower Lusatia, Upper Lusatia owned the authority of Matthias Corvinus from 1469 to 1490, both districts passing a little later with the kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia to the German king, Ferdinand I.
Alphonso founded nothing, and after his conquest of Naples in 1442 ruled by his mercenary soldiers, and no less mercenary men of letters.
His Spanish possessions were ruled for him by his brother John.
The special feature of the institute was that the abbess ruled the monks as well as the nuns.
Guidubaldo was the last duke of the Montefeltro line; at his death in 1508 he bequeathed his coronet to Francesco Maria della Rovere, nephew of Julius II., and for about a century Urbino was ruled by its second dynasty of the Della Rovere family.
When Christian Louis died George William succeeded him in Luneburg-Celle; but the duchy was also claimed by a younger brother, John Frederick, a cultured and enlightened prince who had forsaken the Lutheran faith of his family and had become a Roman Catholic. Soon, however, by an arrangement John Frederick received Calenberg and Grubenhagen, which he ruled in absolute fashion, creating a standing army and modelling his court after that of Louis XIV., and which came on his death in 1679 to his youngest brother, Ernest Augustus (1630-1698), the Protestant bishop of Osnabruck.
The resolving power in the case of gratings is simply mn, where m is the order of spectrum used, and n the total number of lines ruled on the grating.
He was determined that, at whatever cost, hardship and inconvenience, Russia should be ruled by Russians, not by foreigners; and before his death he had the satisfaction of seeing every important place in his empire in the hands of capable natives of his own training.
On the death of the chief who ruled Hawaii at that time there succeeded one named Kamehameha (1736-1819), who appears to have been a man of quick perception and great force of character.
During these early years Bedford ruled France wisely and at first with success, but he could not prevent the mischief which Humphrey of Gloucester caused both at home and abroad.
York after a struggle secured the protectorship, and for the next year ruled England.
Two causes coincided to produce the step. On the one hand a forward policy then ruled at Rome, leading to annexations in various lands.
In the 5th century there were five provinces, Britannia Prima and Secunda, Flavia and Maxima Caesariensis and (for a while) Valentia, ruled by praesides and consulares under a vicarius, but the only thing known of them is that Britannia Prima included Cirencester.
Each Roman municipality ruled itself and a territory perhaps as large as a small county which belonged to it.
Bede declares that Oswald ruled over "all the peoples and provinces of Britain, which includes four languages, those of the Britons, Picts, Scots and Angles."
It was taken by the Seljuks, Aidin and Mentesh, late in the 13th century, and about 1390, when ruled by Isa Bey, a descendant of the first-named, acknowledged Ottoman suzerainty.
At its inception the Latin kingdom of the Holy Land was within a little of becoming an ecclesiastical principality, ruled by a patriarch under the authority of the pope.
Henceforward quiet prevailed, and Boniface ruled as a stern master in Rome.
Later the brothers Nasir ad-Daula and Saif ad-Daula ruled over Mesopotamia and North Syria respectively.
During the Venetian period it was ruled first by the Da Corogna family and after 1456 by the Gazzadini, who were expelled by the Turks in 1617.
The language is much ruled by laws of euphony, which have been strictly formulated by native grammarians.
The descendants of the first made themselves masters of Gung-t'ang, Lugyalwa, Chyipa, Lhatse, Langlung and Tsakor, where they severally ruled as petty chiefs.
The descendants of Kyide spread themselves over the Mu, Jang, Tanag, Yarulag and Gyaltse districts, where they also ruled .as petty princes.
The immediate successor of Gedundub, who ruled from 1475 to 1541, had appointed a special officer styled depa to control the civil administration of the country.
The mere fact that Catherine II., a small German princess without hereditary claim to the throne, ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796 amid the loyalty of the great mass of the people, and the respect and admiration of her neighbours, is sufficient proof of the force of her character.
The Argonauts landing soon after found only women in the island, ruled over by Hypsipyle, daughter of the old king Thoas.
Elulaeus IX., in Assyrian Lull, who ruled under the name of Pylas, was king of Tyre, Sidon, and other cities at this time (c. 725-690), and at the beginning of his reign suffered from an invasion by Shalmaneser IV.
During Nebuchadrezzar's time, as we have seen, a republic took the place of the monarchy at Tyre, and the government was administered by a succession of suffetes (judges); they held office for short terms, and in one instance two ruled together for six years.
Thrasydaeus, son of Theron of Agrigentum, seems to have ruled the city oppressively, but an appeal made to Hiero of Syracuse, Gelon's brother, was betrayed by him to Theron; the latter massacred all his enemies and in the following year resettled the town.
From 874 the counts of Barcelona ruled as independent monarchs.
During Sigismund's absence from Sweden that realm was to be ruled by seven Swedes, six to be elected by the king and one by Duke Charles, his Protestant uncle.
Acting on this principle he ruled frivolously, and with a wanton indulgence of whims. In 1820 his misrule provoked a revolt, and he remained in the hands of insurgents till he was released by foreign intervention in 1823.
Otto Visconti, archbishop of Milan (1262), the victor of Desio, became lord of Milan, and founded the house of Visconti, who ruled the city - except from 1302 to 13 10 - till 1447, giving twelve lords to Milan.
Each tetrarchy was divided into five provinces, ruled by five chiefs called apo-ulmen; and each province into nine districts, governed by as many ulmen, who were subject to the apo-ulmen, as the latter were to the toquis.
At the time of the Roman invasion it seems to have paid a nominal homage to Mithradates the Great and to have been ruled over by Machares, his second son.
The Bavarians soon came under the dominion of the Franks, probably without a serious struggle; and were ruled from 555 to 788 by dukes of the Agilolfing family, who were possibly of Frankish descent.
The country was ruled by Gerold, a brother-in-law of Charlemagne, till his death in a battle with the Avars in 799, when its administration was entrusted to Frankish counts and assimilated with that of the rest of the Carolingian empire, while its condition was improved by the measures taken by Charlemagne for the intellectual progress and material welfare of his realm.
For the defence of Bavaria the mark of Carinthia had been erected on the southeastern frontier, and during the reign of Louis the Child this was ruled by Liutpold, count of Scheyern, who possessed large domains in Bavaria.
The first of these divisions was made in 1255 between Louis II and Henry I, the sons of Duke Otto II, who for two years after their father's death had ruled Bavaria jointly; and by it Louis obtained the western part of the duchy, afterwards called Upper Bavaria, and Henry secured eastern or Lower Bavaria.
It was not long, however, before this arrangement led to war between the brothers, the outcome of which was that in 1317, three years after he had been chosen German king, Louis compelled Rudolph to abdicate, and for twelve years ruled alone over the whole of Upper Bavaria.
When he died in February 1290 Lower Bavaria was ruled by his three sons, Otto III., Louis III.
Prussia, however, refused to approve of any coup d'etat; the parliament, chastened by the consciousness that its life depended on the goodwill of the king, moderated its tone; and Maximilian ruled till his death as a model constitutional monarch.
In the Chronicle the title is given to Ecgbert, king of the English, "the eighth king that was Bretwalda," and retrospectively to seven kings who ruled over one or other of the English kingdoms. The seven names are copied from Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica, and it is interesting to note that the last king named, Oswiu of Northumbria, lived 150 years before Ecgbert.
We know that Peisistratus ruled by controlling the archonship, which was always held by members of his family, and the archonship of Isagoras was clearly an important party victory; we know further the names of three important men who held the office between Cleisthenes' reform and the Persian War (Hipparchus, Themistocles, Aristides) from which we infer that the office was still the prize of party competition.
It is a curious coincidence that the sister of each of the three great cenobitical founders, Pachomius, Basil and Benedict, was a nun and ruled a community of nuns according to an adaptation of her brother's rule for monks.
He ruled these kingdoms for five years and died in 865.
At first the bishop ruled through his burgrave, advocate, and nominated jurats (scabini, Scheen).
It is remarkable, however, that though Bernstorff ruled Denmark for twenty years he never learnt Danish.
During his residence, the first principal of Magdalen Hall, John Hussee, was succeeded by John Wilkinson, who ruled in the interest of the Calvinistic party in the university.
He was carried for safety into Spain, which country and Provence were thenceforth ruled by his maternal grandfather, Theodoric the Ostrogoth, acting through his vicegerent, an Ostrogothic nobleman named Theudis.
According to Wilson, in his Glossary of Indian Terms, the Baghelas, who give their name to this tract of country, are a branch of the Sisodhyia Rajputs who migrated eastward and once ruled in Gujarat.
After the battle of Chacabuco O'Higgins was entrusted with the administration of Chile, and he ruled the country firmly and well, maintaining the close connexion with the Argentine, co-operating loyally with San Martin in the preparation of the force for the invasion of Peru, and seeking, as far as the confusion and embarrassments of the time allowed, to improve the welfare of the people.
From the middle of the 14th to the middle of the 16th century a large part of Behar was ruled by a line of Brahman tributary kings; and in the 15th century another Hindu dynasty ruled in Champaran and Gorakhpur.
For three years (665-668) he ruled his monastery at Ripon in peace, though acting as bishop in Mercia and Kent during vacancies in sees there.
Clovis was descended from Chlogio, or Clodion, who had ruled over a branch of the Salian Franks from 427 to 447, and whose successors, following his example, had secured an The w/lrs.
This was the first of the many partitions which effectually divided the kingdom of the Franks into an eastern and a western portion, that is to say, into divisions which eventually became Germany and France respectively, and the district ruled by Theuderich was almost identical with that which afterwards bore the name of Austrasia.