On the death of the usurper Rudolph (Raoul), Ralph of Burgundy, Hugh the Great, count of Paris, and the other nobles between whom France was divided, chose Louis for their king, and the lad was brought over from England and consecrated at Laon on the 19th of June 936.
Rudolph died at Spires on the 15th of July 1291 and was buried in the cathedral of that city.
In 1858 Garfield had married Miss Lucretia Rudolph, by whom he had seven children.
Louis died in 1294 when these districts passed to his son Rudolph I.
- The original authorities relating to the time and life of Rudolph are found in the Monumenta Germaniae historica.
in 1314, ruled their lands in common, but after some trouble between them Rudolph abdicated in 1317.
In 1549 they spread into Great Poland; in the latter half of the century they opened many voluntary schools, and were joined by many of the nobility; and the result was that by 1609, when Rudolph II.
The lordship, one of the most extensive in the monarchy, was bought by the emperor Rudolph II.
The tragic death of the crown prince Rudolph hushed for a time the strife of tongues, and in the meantime Tisza brought into the ministry Ders6 Szilagyi, the most powerful debater in the House, and Sandor Wekerle, whose solid talents had hitherto been hidden beneath the bushel of an under-secretaryship. But in 1890, during the debates on the Kossuth Repatriation Bill, the attacks on the premier were renewed, and on the 13th of March he placed his resignation in the king's hands.
duke of lower Bavaria from his side, Rudolph compelled the Bohemian king to cede the four provinces in November 1276.
By the treaty of Pavia in this year, Louis granted the Palatinate of the Rhine and the upper Palatinate of Bavaria to his brother's sons, Rudolph II.
Ottakar was then invested with Bohemia by Rudolph, and his son Wenceslaus was betrothed to a daughter of the German king, who made a triumphal entry into Vienna.
To meet this combination Rudolph entered into alliance with Ladislaus IV.
to recognize his election led him to change his policy, and, in 1299, a treaty was made between Albert and Philip IV., king of France, by which Rudolph, the son of the German king, was to marry Blanche, a daughter of the French king.
At length the hostility of the princes was overcome, and in December 1282 Rudolph invested his sons Albert and Rudolph with the duchies of Austria and Styria at Augsburg, and so laid the foundations of the greatness of the house of Habsburg.
These various sources of wealth and influence had rendered Rudolph the most powerful prince in S.W.
In 1273 he was a candidate for the German crown, but was induced to support Rudolph, count of Habsburg, whose eldest daughter, Matilda, he married in this year.
Rudolph II >>
Rudolph was not very successful in restoring internal peace to Germany.
Gerbert, Codex epistolaris Rudolph I.
Rudolph was unable to secure the succession to the German throne for his son, and on his death in 1291, the princes, fearing Albert's power, chose Adolph of Nassau as king.
His attack on Thuringia ended in his defeat at Lucka in 1307, and, in the same year, the death of his son Rudolph weakened his position in eastern Europe.
At his father's death in 1239 Rudolph inherited the family estates in Alsace, and in 1245 he married Gertrude, daughter of Burkhard III.
The disorder in Germany after the fall of the Hohenstaufen afforded an opportunity for Rudolph to increase his possessions.
count palatine of the Rhine and duke of upper Bavaria, had been purchased by betrothing them to two of Rudolph's daughters; so that Ottakar II.
Moravia was subdued and its government entrusted to Rudolph's representatives, while Wenceslaus was again betrothed to one of his daughters.
Rudolph was a tall man with pale face and prominent nose.
The sons of Louis, Rudolph I.
The Greeks were persuaded, thanks to St Bonaventura, to consent to a union with Rome for the time being, and Rudolph of Habsburg renounced at the council all imperial rights in the States of the Church.
Gregory was on his way to Rome to crown Rudolph and send him out on a great crusade in company with the kings of England, France, Aragon and Sicily, when he died at Arezzo on the 10th of January 1276.
The election of Rudolph of Habsburg as German king after a long interregnum, and that of Nicholas III.
Upon these descriptions he was still engaged till death, in 1837, put an end to his labours, when his place as Naumann's assistant for the remainder of the work was taken by Rudolph Wagner; but, from time to time, a few more, which he had already completed, made their posthumous appearance in it, and, in subsequent years, some selections from his unpublished papers were through the care of Giebel presented to the public. Throughout the whole of this series the same marvellous industry and scrupulous accuracy are manifested, and attentive study of it will show how many times Nitzsch anticipated the conclusions of modern taxonomers.
When Robert died in 9 23, he was succeeded by his brother-in-law, Rudolph, duke of Burgundy, and not by his son Hugh, who is known in history as Hugh the Great, duke of France and Burgundy, and whose domain extended from the Loire to the frontiers of Picardy.
Mentioned as early as 717, Mulhausen was raised to the rank of a free town of the empire in 1198, and received very extensive privileges from Rudolph of Hapsburg in 1273.
Albert was engaged in struggles with his three sons, who took him prisoner in 1288; but he was released the following year by order of the German king Rudolph I.
To save the Austrian provinces of Hungary, the archduke Matthias, setting aside his semi-lunatic imperial brother Rudolph, thereupon entered into negotiations with Bocskay, and ultimately the peace of Vienna was concluded (June 23, 1606), which guaranteed all the constitutional and religious rights and privileges of the Hungarians both in Transylvania and imperial Hungary.
During the reign of Ferdinand, whose consort, Anne, was a Hungarian princess, things were at least tolerable; but under Maximilian (1564-1576) and Rudolph (1576-1612)1612) the antagonism of the Habsburgs towards their Magyar subjects was only too apparent.
In the days of the semi-insane recluse Rudolph things went from bad to worse.
Their results are best summed up in the three schemes of classification which follow below - those of Rudolph Leuckart (1823-1896), Henri Milne-Edwards (1800-1884), and T.
He was instrumental in founding the first chair of Greek, which was filled by his friend Rudolph Agricola, and he also established the university library and a college for students of civil law.
By the Treaty of Pavia in 1329, Louis granted the Palatinate to his nephews Rudolph II.
Rudolph died in 1353, after which Rupert ruled alone until his death in 1390.
The work of Theodor Schwann (1810-1882), Johannes Muller (1809-1875), Rudolph Virchow and Karl Ludwig (1816-1895) in Germany, of R.
At the end of the 16th century Rudolph II.
Rudolph of Habsburg, elected king of the Romans in 1273, having come to terms with Pope Nicholas III., Charles was obliged in 1278 to give up his title of imperial vicar in Tuscany, which he had held during the interregnum following on the death of Frederick II.
A new era of power and splendour begins in 1276, when it became the capital of the Habsburg dynasty, after the defeat of Ottacar by Rudolph of Habsburg.
He married Adelaide, possibly a daughter of Rudolph I., king of Upper Burgundy.
(1584-1598), Theodore Romanov distinguished himself both as a soldier and a diplomatist, fighting against the Swedes in 1J90, and conducting negotiations with the ambassadors of the emperor Rudolph II.
In the interior is the tomb of the German king Gunther of Schwarzburg, who died in Frankfort in 1349, and that of Rudolph, the last knight of Sachsenhausen, who died in 1371.
The citadel was rebuilt by the emperor Conrad II., but the town itself was founded in 1276 by the emperor Rudolph who granted it the rights of a free imperial city.
Count Peter also acquired fresh territories in Vaud, and defeated Rudolph of Habsburg at Chillon.
Albert, who was a Minnesinger, was loyal to the declining fortunes of the Hohenstaufen, and afterwards supported his brother-in-law, Rudolph of Habsburg, in his efforts to obtain the German throne.
He shared in the campaigns of Rudolph and fell in battle in 1298, during the struggle between Adolph of Nassau and Albert of Habsburg (afterwards King Albert I.).
Frederick took a leading part in German affairs, and it is interesting to note that he had a considerable share in securing the election of his uncle, Rudolph of Habsburg, as German king in 1273.
was succeeded in 1298 by his son Rudolph I., who in 1314 gave his vote to Frederick, duke of Austria, in the disputed election for the German throne between that prince and Louis of Bavaria, afterwards the emperor Louis IV.; and when the latter ignored his claims on the margraviate of Brandenburg Rudolph shared in the attempt to depose him, and to elect Charles of Luxemburg, afterwards the emperor Charles IV., as German king.
Rudolph was followed in 1356 by his son Rudolph II., who had fought at the battle of Crecy; and who in turn was succeeded in 1370 by his halfbrother Wenceslaus.
This prince succeeded after some fighting in temporarily obtaining the duchy of Luneburg for his house; he took part in the election of Wenceslaus as German king in 1376; and was followed in 1388 by his eldest son Rudolph III.
Lavish expenditure during the progress of the council of Constance reduced Rudolph to poverty, and on the death in 1422 of his brother Albert III., who succeeded him in 1419, this branch of the Ascanian family became extinct.
From 1358 to 1368, however, the restless ambition of Rudolph, duke of Austria, who acquired Tirol and raised Vienna to the first rank among the cities of Europe, caused Louis great uneasiness.
In 1613 he succeeded his father Rudolph Snell (1546-1613) as professor of mathematics in the university of Leiden.
The importance of Rudolph's reign is negative rather than positive, consisting more in what he did not do than in what he did; although it is questionable whether any ruler could have prevented the religious struggles of Germany and the Thirty Years' War.
Concurrently with the growth of this unrest Rudolph had become increasingly subject to attacks of depression and eccentricity, which were so serious as to amount almost to insanity.
In 1604, after a war with Turkey had been in progress since 1593, many of the Hungarians rebelled against Rudolph and chose Stephen Bocskay as their prince.
In April 1606 they declared Rudolph incapable of ruling, and recognized one of his younger brothers, the archduke Matthias, afterwards emperor, as their head; and in the following June Matthias, having already with the emperor's reluctant consent taken the conduct of affairs into his own hands, made peace by granting extensive concessions to the rebellious Hungarians, and concluded a treaty with the sultan in November of the same year.
Then shaking off his lethargy Rudolph prepared to renew the war with the Turks; a move which Matthias met by throwing himself upon the support of the national party in Hungary.
Rudolph now sought the aid of the princes of the empire, and even of the Protestants; but he had met with no success in this direction when trouble arose in Bohemia.
A short reconciliation with Matthias was followed by further disorder in Bohemia, which was invaded by Rudolph's cousin, the archduke Leopold (1586-1632).
Rudolph died at Prague, his usual place of residence, on the 10th of January 1612, and was succeeded as emperor by Matthias.
Rudolph was a clever and cultured man, greatly interested in chemistry, alchemy, astronomy and astrology; he was a patron of Tycho Brahe and Kepler, and was himself something of a scholar and an artist.
The sources for the life and times of Rudolph II.
Rudolph Of The Franks >>
of Brabant, whom he married in 1274, he had three children: Louis, count of Evreux; Margaret, who married in 1299 Edward I., king of England; and Blanche, who married Rudolph III., duke of Austria.
The emperor Rudolph II.
On the 23rd of May 1611 Matthias, brother of the emperor, assumed the Bohemian crown in Prague, compelling Rudolph to take refuge in the citadel, where he died on the 20th of January following.
Its privileges were confirmed by King Rudolph I.
Karl Rudolph Konig >>
He refused to acknowledge his victorious riyal, Rudolph of Habsburg, and urged the pope to adopt a similar attitude, while the new king claimed the Austrian duchies.
Placing Ottakar under the ban of the empire, Rudolph besieged Vienna and compelled Ottakar in November 1276 to sign a treaty by which he gave up Austria and the neighbouring duchies, retaining for himself only Bohemia and Moravia.
Two years later the Bohemian king tried to recover his lost lands; he found allies and collected a large army, but he was defeated by Rudolph and killed at Diirnkrut on the March on the 26th of August 1278.
Adelheid) (931-999), queen of Italy and empress, was the daughter of Rudolph II.
On the death of Rudolph in 937, his widow married Hugh, king of Italy, to whose son Lothair Adelaide was at the same time betrothed.
(1288-1342), king of Hungary, the son of Charles Martell of Naples, and Clemencia, daughter of the emperor Rudolph, was known as Charles Robert previously to being enthroned king of Hungary in 1309.
He opposed the aggrandizing projects of the Angevins, intervened in Germany with a view to terminating the Great Interregnum, and sought a necessary counterpoise to Capetian predominance in an alliance with Rudolph of Habsburg, who had become an emperor without imperilling the papacy.
Though remaining leagued with the Angevins in southern Italy, they dared to look to Germany and Rudolph of Habsburg to help them in their efforts to add to the papal dominion a part of northern Italy and, in particular, Tuscany.
Disquieted by some forcible attempts on Rudolph II.'s part to suppress Protestantism in certain parts of the country, and mistrusting a formal guarantee of religious liberty which was given to them in 1609, the Silesians joined hands with the Bohemian insurgents and renounced their allegiance to their Austrian ruler.
Napoleone obtained the title of imperial vicar from Rudolph of Hapsburg.
He supported Rudolph, count of Habsburg, in his efforts to secure the German throne in 1273, married the new king's daughter Mechtild, and aided him in campaigns in Bohemia and elsewhere.
For some years after Louis' death in 1294 his sons Rudolph I.
and Louis, afterwards the emperor Louis IV., ruled their duchy in common; but as their relations were never harmonious a division of Upper Bavaria was made in 1301, by which Rudolph received the land east of the Isar together with the town of Munich, and Louis the district between the Isar and the Lech.
It was not long, however, before this arrangement led to war between the brothers, the outcome of which was that in 1317, three years after he had been chosen German king, Louis compelled Rudolph to abdicate, and for twelve years ruled alone over the whole of Upper Bavaria.
But in 1329 a series of events induced him to conclude the treaty of Pavia with Rudolph's sons, Rudolph and Rupert, to whom he transferred the Palatinate of the Rhine, which had been in the possession of the Wittelsbach family since 1214, and also a portion of Upper Bavaria north of the Danube, which was afterwards called the Upper Palatinate.
In southern Europe little is heard of it in this version, though Rudolph Botoreus, parliamentary advocate of Paris (Comm.
The chief church is the Martini-kerk, with a high tower (43 2 ft.) dating from 1477, and an organ constructed by the famous scholar and musician Rudolph Agricolo, who was born near Groningen in 1443.
The event which threw the greatest lustre upon this reign was the acquisition of the kingdom of Burgundy, or Aries, which was bequeathed to Conrad by its king, Rudolph III., the uncle of his wife, Gisela.
Rudolph died in 1032, and in 1033 Conrad was crowned king at Peterlingen, being at once recognized by the German-speaking population.
assumed the duties of government soon after the fall of Adalbert and quickly made enemies of many of the chief princes, including Otto of Nordheim, the powerful duke of Bavaria, Rudolph, duke of Swabia, and rule.
Although the pope forgave him, the German princes, resolved not to miss the chance which-fortune had given them, met in March 1077, and deposed him, electing Rudolph, duke of Swabia, as his successor.
When this struggle began it may be said in general that Henry was supported by the cities and the lower classes, while Rudolph Henry IV.
However, the fortune of war soon turned, and in October 1080 Rudolph of Swabia was defeated and slain.
Meanwhile in Germany Henrys opponents had chosen Herrnann, count of Luxemburg, king in succession to Rudolph of Swabia.
bad given the duchy of Swabia when its duke Rudolph became his rival.
to the election of Rudolph of Habsburg in 1273 is generally called the Great Interregnum, and it was used by the princes to extend Th their territories and to increase their authority.
In September 1273 the electors met and raised to the throne a Swabian noble, Rudolph, count of Habsburg, who proved to possess more energy than they had imagined possible.
Rudolph had been able to give his whole attention to this enterprise owing to the good understanding which had been reached between.
Rudolph has often been called the restorer of the German kingdom, but he has little real claim to this honorable title.
Rudolph, however, almost invariably favored the princes and not the towns.
Rudolph had all the sympathies and prejudices of the noble class, and the supreme object of his life was not to increase the power of the state but to add to the greatness of his !Iabsburg own family, a policy which was perhaps justified by family, the condition of the German kingdom, the ruler of which had practically no strength save that which he derived from his hereditary lands.
Four years after the fall of Ottakar he obtained from the princes a tardy and reluctant assent to the granting of Austria, Styria and Carniola to his own sons, Rudolph and Albert.
Thus Rudolph made himself memorable as the real founder of the house of Habsburg.
It was in vain that Rudolph sought to obtain the succession to the crown for one of his sons; the electors would not take a step which might endanger their own rights, and nearly a year after the kings death in July 1291 they ~ chose Adolph, count of Nassau, and not Rudolphs surviving son Albert, as their sovereign.
Like his father Rudolph, the new king made it the principal Albert!
Maximilians successor was his son, Rudolph II., who had been chosen king of the Romans in.
This peace was concluded not by Rudolph, but by his brother, the archduke Matthias, who owing to the emperors mental incapacity had just been declared by his kinsman the head of the house of Habsburg.
Rudolph resented this indignity very greatly, and until his death in January 1612 the relations between the brothers were very strained, but this mainly concerns the history of Hungary and of Bohemia, which were sensibly affected by the fraternal discord.
These devoted missionaries of the church gave their attention mainly to the young, and,during the reign of Rudolph II.
A minister, Rudolph Todt, and Rudolph Meyer criticized the moral and economic doctrines of Liberalism; his writings led to the foundation of the ChristlichSoziale-Arbeilerverein, which for a few years attained considerable notoriety under the leadership of Adolph Stocker.
In 1273 Rudolph, count of Habsburg, became German king, and his attention soon turned to Ottakar, whose power menaced the occupant of the German throne.
Finding some support in Austria, Rudolph questioned the title of the Bohemian king to the three duchies, and sought to recover the imperial lands which had been in the possession of the emperor Frederick II.
War was the result, and in November 1276 Ottakar submitted to Rudolph, and renounced the duchies of Austria, Styria and Carinthia.
For some time the three duchies were administered by Rudolph in his capacity as head of the Empire, of which they formed part.
The younger Rudolph took no part in the government of Austria and Styria, which was undertaken by Albert, until his election as German king in 1298.
After Albert became German king, his two elder sons, Rudolph and Frederick, were successively associated with him in the government, and after his death in 1308, his four younger sons shared at one time or another in the administration of Austria and Styria.
The most noteworthy of these was Duke Rudolph IV., a son-in-law of the emperor Charles IV., who showed his interest in learning by founding the university of IV olph Vienna in 1365.
Rudolph's chief aim was to make Austria into an independent state, and he forged a series of privileges the purport of which was to free the duchy from all its duties towards the Empire.
and Otto, and in 1363 Rudolph IV.
Like his emperor ancestor, Rudolph, he had to conquer the lands over Maxi- which his descendants were destined to rule, and by milian t arranging a treaty of succession to the kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia, he pointed the way to power and empire in eastern Europe.
The accession of Rudolph (1576-1612), 76-1612), a fanatical The reign of Spanish Catholic, changed the situation entirely.
Rudolph Under him the Jesuits were encouraged to press on H.
As archduke of Styria he had crushed out Protestantism in that duchy, and having been elected king of Bohemia in 1618 1 Rudolph V.
1138) in his chronicles of the abbey of St Trond (Gesta Abbatum Trudonensium) but this is no more than a rhetorical flourish, and the title of "archduke palatine" (Pfalz-Erzherzog) was, in fact, assumed first by Duke Rudolph IV.
He won considerable fame as a mercenary in many of the feuds of the time, and on the 5th of May 1292 was chosen German king, in succession to Rudolph I., an election due rather to the political conditions of the time than to his personal qualities.
Princes and towns did homage to him, but his position was unstable, and the allegiance of many of the princes, among them Albert duke of Austria, son of the late king Rudolph, was merely nominal.
It was intended for the installation of Beethoven's friend, the archduke Rudolph, as archbishop of Olmiitz; and, though not ready until two years after that occasion, it shows the most careful consideration of the meaning of a church service, no doubt of altogether exceptional length and pomp, but by no means impossible for its unique occasion.
The bronze tomb of Rudolph of Swabia in Merseburg Cathedral (1080) is another fine work of the same school.
Rudolph, Bulletin of Bibliography, No.14 (Boston, 1904); E.
The union held its own, chiefly along the maritime outskirts of the Empire, rather against the will of king and emperor, but nevertheless Rudolph of Habsburg and several of his successors issued new charters to Lubeck.
Kepler, who examined Porta's account of his concave and convex lenses by desire of his patron the emperor Rudolph, declared that it was perfectly unintelligible.
He concluded a concordat with Rudolph of Habsburg in May 1278, by which the Romagna and the exarchate of Ravenna were guaranteed to the pope; and in July he issued an epochmaking constitution for the government of Rome, which forbade foreigners taking civil office.
In 1226 Colmar became an imperial city, and the civic rights (Stadtrecht) conferred on it in 1274 by Rudolph of Habsburg became the model for those of many other cities.
of England, and the German king Rudolph of Habsburg.
(Berlin, 1869); Rudolph Sohm, Kirchenrecht (1892); Duchesne, Les Origines du culte chretien (4th ed., Paris, 1908); Bouix, De papa (Paris, 1869); Vacant, Etudes the'ologiques sur les constitutions du concile du Vatican (Paris, 1895); Barbier de Montault, Le Costume et les usages ecclesiastiques (Paris, 1897).
RUDOLPH WAGNER (1805-1864), German anatomist and physiologist, was born on the 30th of June 1805 at Bayreuth, where his father was a professor in the gymnasium.
In science, nearly all the important work has been done by foreigners, among whom are Charles Darwin, Claude Gay, Eduard Pdppig, Rudolph A.
According to P. Rudolph (Eder's Jahrb.
glasses of high refractive index, and achromatic systems from such crown glasses, with flint glasses of lower refractive index, are called the " new achromatts," and were employed by P. Rudolph in the first " anastigmats " (photographic objectives).
Rudolph of Ems about 1220 expanded it into a long poem of 16,000 lines, celebrating the victory of Christian over heathen teaching.
Among its numerous monuments is one to Rudolph of Swabia, the rival of the emperor Henry IV.
In 1273 Rudolph, count of Habsburg, was elected king of the Romans.
As Rudolph immediately claimed as vacant fiefs of the Empire most of the lands held by Ottakar, war was inevitable.
He was therefore unable to resist the German king, and was obliged to surrender to him all his lands except Bohemia and Moravia, and to recognize Rudolph as his overlord.
In 1278 Ottakar invaded the Austrian duchies, now under the rule of Rudolph, but was defeated and killed at the battle of Durnkrut on the Marchfeld.
The country was at last pacified through the intervention of Rudolph of Habsburg, and at the age of twelve Wenceslas became nominal ruler of the country.
Albert, king of the Romans, declared that Bohemia was a vacant fief of the Empire, and, mainly by intimidation, induced the Bohemians to elect his son Rudolph as their sovereign; but Rudolph died after a reign of only one year.
This date is memorable, as it marks the permanent accession of the Habsburg dynasty to the Bohemian throne, though the Austrian archdukes Rudolph and Albert had previously been rulers of Bohemia for short periods.
The results of the diet of 1575 were on the whole favourable to the estates, and they seem to have taken this view, for almost immediately afterwards they recognized Maximilian's eldest son Rudolph as his successor and consented to his being crowned king of Bohemia.
Maximilian died in the following year, and Rudolph succeeded him without any opposition.
The events of the last years of the reign of Rudolph have the greatest importance for Bohemian history, but the earlier part of his reign requires little notice.
As Rudolph had been educated in Spain it was at first thought that he would treat the Bohemian church reformers with great severity.
Rudolph was a great patron of the arts, and he greatly contributed to the embellishment of Prague, which, as it was his favourite residence, became the centre of the vast Habsburg dominions.
In 1600 the mental condition of Rudolph became so seriously impaired that the princes of the house of Habsburg thought it necessary to consider the future of the state, particularly as Rudolph had no legitimate descendants.
Matthias, the eldest of his brothers, came to Prague and pointed out to Rudolph the necessity of appointing a coadjutor, should he be incapacitated from fulfilling his royal duties, and also of making arrangements concerning the succession to the throne.
These suggestions were indignantly repelled by Rudolph, whose anger was greatly increased by a letter of Pope Clement VIII.
It is probable that the fear that the pope might make good the threats contained in this letter induced Rudolph, who had hitherto been indifferent to matters of religion, to become more subservient to the Roman church.
Under this influence, Rudolph in 1602 issued a decree which renewed obsolete enactments against the Bohemian Brethren that had been published by King Vladislav in 1508.
He, however, advised the estates to vote the supplies that King Rudolph had demanded.
Strife again broke out between Rudolph and his treacherous younger brother Matthias, who used the religious and political controversies of the time for the purpose of supplanting his brother.
The formal cause of the rupture between the two princes was Rudolph's refusal to sanction a treaty of peace with Turkey, which Matthias had concluded as his brother's representative in Hungary.
The Hungarians accepted Matthias as their ruler, and when his forces entered Moravia the estates of that country had, by Charles, lord of Zerotin, also renounced the allegiance of Rudolph.
The estates met at Prague in March 1608, and, though again submitting their demands concerning ecclesiastical matters to Rudolph, authorized him to levy troops for the defence of Bohemia.
Rudolph formally ceded to Matthias the government of Hungary, Moravia, and Upper and Lower Austria, but retained his rights as king of Bohemia.
Rudolph had declined to discuss all religious matters during the time that the troops of his brother occupied part of Bohemia.
Rudolph never forgave the treachery of his brother, and was secretly negotiating (at the time when he again appeared as champion of Catholicism) with Christian of Anhalt, the leader of the German Protestants.
They were therefore not intimidated when Rudolph, vacillating as ever, suddenly assumed a most truculent attitude.
They finally asked for redress of several grievances caused by the misrule of Rudolph.
Finally - on the 9th of July 1 609 - Rudolph signed the famed " Letter of Majesty " which gave satisfaction to all the legitimate demands of the Bohemian Protestants.
In the " Letter of Majesty " Rudolph recognized the Confessio Bohemica.
In 1611 the peace of Bohemia was again disturbed by the invasion of the archduke Leopold of Austria, bishop of Passau, who probably acted in connivance with his cousin King Rudolph.
Mainly at his instigation the estates now formally deposed Rudolph, who survived his dethronement only a few months, and died on the 20th of January 1612.
This was a direct infringement of the agreement concluded by the Romanist and Utraquist estates on the day on which King Rudolph had signed the Letter of Majesty.
In 1278 Rudolph of Habsburg made them imperial princes.
See the Historiae of Rudolph Glaber, edited by M.
He resolved to appeal to the emperor, rode to Prague, won over Rudolph by his singular address, and, richly supplied with funds, reappeared in Transylvania as imperial governor.
Rudolph the Black), c. 1290-1688.
The eldest son of Hugh and Adela was count Raoul (Rudolph) I.
The importance of the city of Prague greatly increased during the reign of Rudolph II.
That sovereign chose Prague as his permanent residence and it thus became - as Rudolph, besides being king of Bohemia, was also German emperor, king of Hungary and ruler of the hereditary Habsburg lands - the centre of his vast domains.
The Hradcany was for a time the residence of Rudolph, crown prince of Austria, and it is also occupied by the emperor of Austria during his visits to Prague.
up the valley is Mayerling, a hunting-lodge, where the crown prince Rudolph of Austria was found dead in 1889.
of Zahringen as an allodial possession, but afterwards came into the hands of Rudolph of Habsburg.
No other mention has been found in any of the numerous Swiss or Austrian chronicles till we come to the book De Helvetiae origine, written in 1538 by Rudolph Gwalther (Zwingli's son-in-law), when the hero is still nameless, being compared to Decius or Codrus, but is said to have been killed by his brave act.
Fischer and C. Rudolph, Ber., 1882, 15, p. 1500), or by heating orthoand para-aminoacetophenone with zinc chloride to 90° C. (0.
The opening on the 25th of March 1609 of the question of the succession of John William the Good, duke of Cleves, of Jiilich and of Berg, led Henry, in spite of his own hesitations and those of his German allies, to declare war on the emperor Rudolph II.
This energetic prince, who disregarded the limits placed to his authority by the rudimentary constitution, by paying a large sum of money, induced the emperor Rudolph II.
However, the sudden death of Charles Alexander in March 1737 put an abrupt end to these plans, and the regent, Charles Rudolph of Wurttemberg-Neuenstadt, had Oppenheimer hanged.
Boleslaus, duke of the Poles, took the title of king, and assumed a threatening attitude; Rudolph III., king of Burgundy or Arles, who had arranged that the emperor Henry II.
The emperor then visited southern Italy, where by mingling justice with severity he secured respect for the imperial authority; and returned to Germany to find Ernest of Swabia, the younger Conrad, and their associates again in arms. One cause of this rising was the claim put forward by Ernest to the Burgundian succession, as King Rudolph was his great-uncle.
But his efforts were unsuccessful, and in 1028 the revolt was suppressed; while in the meantime the emperor had met Rudolph of Burgundy at Basel, and had secured for himself a promise of the succession.
They first elected Robert, count of Paris (923), and then after his death in a successful battle near Soissons against Charles the Simple, Rudolph of Burgundy, his son-in-law.
But Herbert of Vermandois, one of the successful combatants at ~~udo1ph of Soissons, coveted the countship of Laon, which Rudolph refused him; and he thereupon proclaimed Charles the Simple, who had confided his cause to him, as king once more.
Seeing his danger Rudolph ceded the countship to Herbert, and Charles was relegated to his prison until his death in 929.
After unsuccessful wars against the nobles of the South, against the Normans, who asserted that they were bound to no one except Charles the Simple, and against the Hungarians (who, now the Normans were pacified, were acting their part in the East), Rudolph had a return of good fortune in the years between 930 and 936, despite the intrigues of Herbert of Vermandois.
It was on this occasion that he offered the throne of Transylvania to the emperor Rudolph II., in exchange for the duchy of Oppeln.
To counter this stroke and to support the Saxon claim, the emperor Rudolph II.
Her fingers were cold inside the gloves and her nose probably looked like Rudolph's.
YOUNG BOY: (singing) Rudolph the red-nosed reindeer had a very shiny nose CHILDREN: Like a light bulb!
Rudolph's driving the packed sleigh and reindeers hard.
(c. 1250-1308), German king, and duke of Austria, eldest son of King Rudolph I., the founder of the greatness of the house of Habsburg, was invested with the duchies of Austria and Styria, together with his brother Rudolph, in 1282.
in 12 99, but in 1306 he secured the crown of Bohemia for his son Rudolph on the death of King Wenceslaus III.
Another son, James Rudolph Garfield (b.
Rudolph was crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle on the 24th of October 1273, and the feast which followed has been described by Schiller in Der Graf von Hapsburg.
To win the approbation of the pope Rudolph renounced all imperial rights in Rome, the papal territory and Sicily, and promised to lead a new crusade; and Pope Gregory X., in spite of Ottakar's protests, not only recognized Rudolph himself, but persuaded Alphonso X.
Rudolph's attention was next turned to his new possessions in Austria and the adjacent countries.
Robert was killed in the battle of Soissons, but the victory remained with his party, who elected Rudolph, duke of Burgundy, king.
The enmity towards him of the later BÃ¡thory princes of Transylvania, who confiscated his estates, drove him to seek protection at the imperial court (1599); but the attempts of the emperor Rudolph II.
The melancholy state of the country consequent upon the persecutions of Rudolph I., Ferdinand II.
1874) Luitpold Albert Rudolph (b.
As a Rosicrucian Wollner dabbled in alchemy and other mystic arts, but he also affected to be zealous for Christian orthodoxy, imperilled by Frederick II.'s patronage of "enlightenment," and a few months before Frederick's death wrote to his friend the Rosicrucian Johann Rudolph von Bischoffswerder (1741-1803) that his highest ambition was to be placed at the head of the religious department of the state "as an unworthy instrument in the hand of Ormesus" (the prince of Prussia's Rosicrucian name) "for the purpose of saving millions of souls from perdition and bringing back the whole country to the faith of Jesus Christ."
In Hungary itself a large party was in favour of the Germans, but the civil wars which raged between the two factions from 1276 to 1278 did not prevent Ladislaus, at the head of 20,000 Magyars and Kumanians, from co-operating with Rudolph of Habsburg in the great battle of Durnkri t (August 26th, 1278), which destroyed, once for all, the empire of the Pfemyslidae.
Rudolph new emperor had little of his father s tolerant spirit,, ,,~ and - under his feeble and erratic rule religious and political considerations alike tended to increase the disorder in.
Some opposition was offered to this scheme; but the perseverance of the king overcame all difficulties, and one of the most important events in European history took place on the 27th of December 1282, when Rudolph invested his sons, Rudolph and Albert, with the duchies of Austria and Styria.
In both kingdoms Rudolph had failed to assert his sovereign power except in fitful attempts to extirpate heresy.
The "Archidux Austriae, seu Austriae inferioris" is spoken of by Abbot Rudolph (d.
(c. 1120-1152), who married Alix of Guyenne, sister of the queen, Eleanor, and had by her three children: Raoul (Rudolph) II., the Leper (count from 1152-67); Isabelle, who possessed from 1167 to 1183 the countships of Vermandois, Valois and Amiens conjointly with her husband, Philip of Alsace, count of Flanders; and Eleanor.
Fischer and C. Rudolph, Ber., 1882, 15, p. 1500), or by heating orthoand para-aminoacetophenone with zinc chloride to 90Ã‚° C. (0.
1864), who married Rudolph, crown prince of Austria, in 1881, and after his death in 1889 married, against her father's wishes, Elemer, Count Lonyay, in 1900; and Clementine (b.
Every year Santa Claus takes a journey over the world in a sleigh drawn by a strong and rapid steed called "Rudolph."
YOUNG BOY: (singing) Rudolph the red-nosed reindeer had a very shiny nose CHILDREN: Like a light bulb !
These criticisms anticipated Rudolph Haym 's polemic in Hegel und seine Zeit (1857).
Rudolph 's driving the packed sleigh and reindeers hard.
Kids who love Rudolph may fall in love with this adorable Christmas tale.
What Christmas book collection would be complete without Rudolph the Red-Nose Reindeer?
Expressive Design Group has a version of Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer that allows you to record a personalized reading of the story.
The final page plays the song, "Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer" by Burl Ives.
The names of the reindeer light up, and of course, so does Rudolph's nose.
Little Saint Nick and Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer.
Chapter 21, section 16, in Rudolph's Pediatrics, 21st ed. Edited by Colin D.
Rudolph. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003, pp. 1735-39.
Rudolph's Pediatrics, 21st ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003, pp. 24-34, 36.
Rudolph's Pediatrics, 21st ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
In Rudolph's Pediatrics, 21st ed. Edited by C.
D. Rudolph, et al. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.
Rudolph's Pediatrics. 21st ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
The feeling of melancholy and loss associated with tango was epitomized in 1917 by Carlos Gardel in Mi Noche Triste In 1921, tango first hit the silver screen danced by Hollywood star Rudolph Valentino.
Both Mikhail Baryshnikov and Rudolph Nureyev wanted to dance with Balanchine after their defections but were already much too celebrated to comfortably fit into the company.
Vitamin World was founded by Arthur Rudolph in New York in 1960 and has now grown to some 550 retail stores nationwide.
Founder Arthur Rudolph sought to create a company that would manufacture and sell vitamins directly to the consumer, thus keeping prices low by cutting out the distributor.
Rudolph and Frosty's Christmas in July is a fun cartoon that describes how Frosty the Snowman and his family receive magic amulets to keep them from melting until the Fourth of July.
Marine Santa Hummer - Santa, decked out in a USMC tattoo, drives a hummer with Rudolph to deliver gifts around the world.
Put a sticky note on their back with the name of a holiday character, such as Rudolph, Santa, or Frosty the Snowman.
The Thomas Kinkade Light of St. Nicholas Wreath and the Rudolph's Christmas Town wreath are stunning centerpieces for any holiday display.
Puzzles: Dress up games, mazes, hidden object games, and jigsaw puzzles featuring penguins, elves, Santa, Rudolph, snowmen, and other seasonal images are fun Christmas puzzles for all ages.
Santa's whereabouts are tracked by a sophisticated series of satellite tracking stations and interactive radar beacons that focus on Rudolph's intensely bright nose.
Autry had had a major hit in 1949 with "Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer."
Stand-by songs like Frosty the Snowman and Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer.
Rudolph's Awesome Yule-Rule - Rudolph explains to his son why Christmas comes only once a year.
Genuine Hotrod has Santa and Rudolph cruisin' in style.
A "Bloody" Virgin Mary, Rudolph With Rabies, Decapitated Caroler and a burned tree were in attendance, as well as a hapless husband electrocuted while putting up lights.
Since no one can resist an infant during the merriest time of the year, why not add to your child's cuteness by having him don an angel, candy cane or Rudolph costume?
In addition, you could also purchase a Rudolph bunting that comes with a red nose embroidered on the headpiece.
The Los Angeles Pet Cemetery: Many famous pets call the Los Angeles Pet Cemetery home, but none is said to be more active than Rudolph Valentino's Great Dane, Kabar.
Towards the close of the 14th century all the separate portions had come by inheritance or bequest into the hands of Rudolph IV.
New York City mayor Rudolph Giuliani proclaimed October 4th to be Bulova Day, in recognition of Bulova's 125th anniversary.
Larry Rudolph - Better known for managing Britney Spears career, Rudolph is the Co-President of the L.A. store along with Jeff Boz.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.