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rudimentary

rudimentary

rudimentary Sentence Examples

  • The nervous mechanism thus formed is very rudimentary, but in.

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  • the rudimentary fifth digit.

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  • In addition to this replacement of a single pair of functional teeth in each jaw, it has been discovered that marsupials possess rudimentary tooth-germs which never cut the gum.

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  • The basal cell has less chlorophyll than the others, and is expanded and fixed firmly to the rock on which the plant grows by the basal surface, rh, thus forming a rudimentary rhizoid.

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  • If an aperture for ingress and egress, for purposes of feeding, were left in the wall of such a chamber, there would arise in a rudimentary form what is known as the tubular nest or web; and the next important step was possibly the adoption of such a nest as a permanent abode for the spider., Some spiders, like the Drassidae and Salticidae, have not advanced beyond this stage in architectural industry; but next to the cocoon this simple tubular retreat - whether spun in a crevice or burrow or simply attached to the lower side of a stone - is the most constant feature to be observed in the spinning habits of spiders.

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  • k, 1, p, J affords a means of test ing the conclusion that we have in Lankester's 4 capito-pedal bodies the rudimentary ctenidia.

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  • Specialized species like Mastodon americanus have completely lost the rudimentary premolars.

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  • First hind toe rudimentary, clawless or absent; its metatarsal bone always present.

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  • In others, as the thylacine, it is rudimentary, being shed or absorbed before any of the other teeth have cut the gum, and therefore functionless.

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  • Rudimentary jaws present.

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  • Rudimentary jaws present.

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  • rudimentary cteni Fam.

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  • The seeds are minute and innumerable; they contain a small rudimentary embryo surrounded by a thin loose membraneous coat, and are scattered by means of hygroscopic hairs on the inside of the valves which by their movements jerk out the seeds.

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  • These monkeys are the African representatives of the Indo-Malay langurs (Semnopithecus), with which they agree in their slender build, long limbs and tail, and complex stomachs, although differing by the rudimentary thumb.

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  • Although the scala tympani is so rudimentary, not reaching a higher level than in most of the reptiles, and remaining far below the mammalia, birds do not only hear extremely well, but they distinguish between and " understand " pitch, notes and melodies.

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  • He defined them as possessing radial instead of bilateral symmetry, and as apparently destitute of nervous system and sense organs, as having the circulatory system rudimentary or absent, and the respiratory organs on or coextensive with the surface of the body; he included under this title and definition five classes, - Echinodermata, Acalepha, Entozoa, Polypi and Infusoria.

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  • The observation of the existence of structures, in a rudimentary and apparently useless condition, in one species of a group, which are fully developed and have definite functions in other species of the same group.

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  • The notopodium may be rudimentary or absent and the entire parapodium reduced to the merest ridge or even completely unrepresented.

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  • The observation of the existence of structures, in a rudimentary and apparently useless condition, in one species of a group, which are fully developed and have definite functions in other species of the same group.

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  • With the exception of the aberrant long-snouted phalanger, the members of the family Phalangeridae have the normal number of functional incisors, in addition to which there may be one or two rudimentary pairs in the lower jaw.

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  • (After Spengel.) B, Surface view of a rudimentary ctenidium of Patella excised and viewed as a transparent object.

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  • The capito-pedal organs of Lankester (= rudimentary ctenidia).

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  • The capito-pedal organs of Lankester (= rudimentary ctenidia).

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  • No instance has ever been met with of the complete development of the right tusk associated with a rudimentary condition of the left.

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  • The air-tubes, like the food-canal, are formed by invaginations of the ectoderm, which arise close to the developing appendages, the rudimentary spiracles appearing soon after the budding limbs.

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  • In the lower jaw there are also one or two small and early deciduous premolars; third premolars of both jaws formed on the same type as that of the rat-kangaroos, but relatively much larger; molars rudimentary, tubercular.

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  • Perhaps the most rudimentary form of snare arose from the spinning of threads round the mouth of the tube to hold it in place.

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  • All the mole-rats of the genus Spalax are characterized by the want of distinct necks, small or rudimentary ears and eyes, and short limbs provided with powerful digging claws.

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  • The seigniorial taille, like the servile, had the character of a personal tax (taille personelle), a rudimentary tax on income, every man being taxed according to his wages or other income.

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  • From Australia, where we have the best chance of studying rudimentary religion in some bulk, comes a certain amount of evidence showing that in the two ways just mentioned some inchoate prayer is being evolved.

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  • We may speak, indeed, of the plant as possessed of a rudimentary nervous system, by the aid of which necessary adjustments are brought about.

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  • Here the medusoid, attached by the centre of its ex-umbral surface, has lost its velum and sub-umbral muscles, its sense organs and mouth, though still retaining rudimentary tentacles.

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  • - A, Section in a plane vertical to the surface of the neck of Patella through a, the rudimentary ctenidium (Lankester's organ), and b, the olfactory epithelium (osphradium); c, the olfactory (osphradial) ganglion.

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  • In England the word "snail" in popular language is associated with Gasteropods which inhabit land or fresh water, and which possess large conspicuous spiral shells; terrestrial Gasteropods, in which the shell is rudimentary and concealed, are distinguished as "slugs."

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  • - Idrisi (1154) the world by Abu Jafar Mahommed ben Musa of Khiva, the librarian of the caliph el Mamun (833), declares them to be superior to the maps of Ptolemy or Marinus, but maps of a later date by Istakhri (950) or Ibn al Wardi (1349) are certainly of a most rudimentary type.

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  • In the Testicardines, where no such sliding action of the valves was necessary or possible, no muscles for such an object were required, consequently none took rise from the lateral portions of the valves as in Lingula; but in an extinct group, the Trimerellidae, which seems to be somewhat intermediate in character between the Ecardines and Testicardines, have been found certain scars, which appear to have been produced by rudimentary lateral muscles, but it is doubtful (considering the shells are furnished with teeth, though but rudely developed) whether such muscles enabled the valves, as in Lingula, to move forward and backward upon each other.

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  • Galena occurs in veins in the Cambrian clay-slate, accompanied by copper and iron pyrites, zinc-blende, quartz, calcspar, iron-spar, &c.; also in beds or nests within sandstones and rudimentary limestones, and in a great many other geological formations.

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  • Galena occurs in veins in the Cambrian clay-slate, accompanied by copper and iron pyrites, zinc-blende, quartz, calcspar, iron-spar, &c.; also in beds or nests within sandstones and rudimentary limestones, and in a great many other geological formations.

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  • inclined forwards; canines, upper small or moderate, conical I or o and sharp-pointed; lower absent or rudimentary; premolars variable; molars 3, or 2 i with four obtuse tubercles, sometimes.

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  • The fore-limbs have four toes and a rudimentary thumb, all with claws; the hind limbs are larger, with five distinct toes, united by short webs at their bases.

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  • on the pelagic mollusc Phyllirrhoe, attached to it by the subumbral surface, and its tentacles have become rudimentary or absent.

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  • The study of simple organisms, many of which consist of nothing but a little mass of protoplasm, exhibiting a very rudimentary degree of differentiation, so far as our methods enable us to determine any at all, shows that the duties of existence can be discharged in the absence of any cell-wall.

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  • According to one theory, these rudimentary teeth, together with the one pair of functional teeth in each jaw that has vertical successors, represent the milk-teeth of placental mammals.

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  • The tail is rudimentary, the first hind-toe opposable, the first pair of upper incisors very large, but the second and third either absent or small and placed partially behind the larger pair; and only five pairs of cheek-teeth in each jaw.

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  • If it should be objected that the wings so developed would be rudimentary, and that there would be nothing to encourage their development into perfect functional organs, we may remind the reader that we have already pointed out that imperfect wings of Exopterygota do, even at the present time under certain conditions, become perfect organs; and we may also add that there are, even among existing Endopterygota, species in which the wings are usually vestiges and yet sometimes become perfectly developed.

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  • Mole-rats are easily recognized by the peculiarly flattened head, in which the minute eyes are covered with skin, the wart-like ears, and rudimentary tail; they make burrows in sandy soil, and feed on bulbs and roots.

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  • With the exception of the first lower premolar, the dentit i on is complete; the incisors being normal, but the canine rudimentary, and the last upper molar distinctly triangular.

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  • Hind foot long and narrow, mainly composed of the strongly developed fourth toe, terminating in a conical pointed nail, with a strong pad behind it; the first toe represented by a rudimentary metatarsal; the remaining toes completely developed, with claws, but exceedingly slender; the united second and third reaching a little way beyond the metatarso-phalangeal articulation of the fourth; the fifth somewhat shorter.

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  • On the other hand, there are those who believe that the functional dentition (other than the replacing premolar and the molars) correspond to the milk-dentition of placentals, and that the rudimentary tooth-germs represent a "prelacteal" dentition.

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  • Thus, then, we find that the limpet possesses a symmetrically disposed pair of ctenidia in a rudimentary condition, and justifies its position among Aspidobranchia.

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  • 12), a west Australian creature of the size of a mouse, which may be regarded as representing by itself a sub-family (Tarsipediinae), characterized by the rudimentary teeth, the long and extensile tongue, and absence of a caecum.

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  • For it is almost impossible to prove that any structure, however rudimentary, is useless - that is to say, that it plays no part whatever in the economy; and, if it is in the slightest degree useful, there is no reason why, on the hypothesis of direct creation, it should not have been created.

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  • The entocodon is usually formed, proving the medusoid nature of the bud, but in sporosacs the entocodon may be rudimentary or absent altogether.

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  • I Ernst Haeckel will not allow us to call his system " Ma.t,erialism," because he affirms that the rudiments of matter are also rudimentary " mind stuff " (to use W.

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  • Strengthening tissue of all kinds (and sometimes even the phloem) is more or less rudimentary.

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  • Shell turriculated, with elongated spire; proboscis short; siphon rudimentary.

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  • fatua, glumes hairy and long and one terminal, rudimentary.

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  • The entocodon is usually formed, proving the medusoid nature of the bud, but in sporosacs the entocodon may be rudimentary or absent altogether.

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  • Nevertheless, doubleedged as is the argument from rudimentary organs, there is probably none which has produced a greater effect in promoting the general acceptance of the theory of evolution.

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  • In the embryos of many insects there are projections from the segments of the abdomen similar, to a considerable extent, to the rudimentary thoracic legs.

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  • The ovule is not enclosed in an ovary, and the usually solitary macrospore becomes filled with a prothallus, in the upper part of which are formed several rudimentary archegonia.

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  • Fore feet with two or three of the middle toes of nearly equal size, and provided with strong, sharp, slightly curved claws, the other toes rudimentary.

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  • Tail rudimentary.

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  • The first upper incisor is much larger than the others; canine and first two premolars rudimentary.

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  • Nasal bones large and stout, co-ossified, and standing out freely above the premaxillae, from which they are separated by a deep and wide fissure; the latter small, generally not meeting in the middle line in front, often rudimentary.

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  • In the case of Scorpio this segment is indicated in the embryo by the presence of a pair of rudimentary appendages, carried by a well-marked somite.

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  • Hansen (10) has recognized that the " praegenital somite " persists in a rudimentary condition, forming a " waist " to the series of somites in the Pedipalpi and Araneae.

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  • The praegenital somite, VII PrG, is still present, but has lost its rudimentary appendages; go, the genital operculum, left half; Km, the left pecten; abp 4 to abp 7, the rudimentary appendages of the lung-sacs.

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  • (After Beecher, from Zittel.) retained as a rudimentary, separate, detached somite in front of the mesosoma, or disappears altogether (excalation).

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  • - One of the Nymphonomorphous Pantopoda, Nymphon hispidum, showing the seven pairs of appendages I to 7; ab, the rudimentary opisthosoma; s, the mouth-bearing proboscis.

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  • In certain derivative forms constituting the family Pallenidae, however, the appendages of the 2nd pair are either rudimentary or atrophied altogether.

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  • - Appendages of the 2nd and 3rd pairs retained and developed, as in the more primitive types of Nymphonomorpha; but those of the 1st pair are either rudimentary, as in the Ascorhynchidae, or atrophied, as in the Colossendeidae.

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  • - Thelyphonus sp. Ventral view of the anterior portion of the body to show the three prosomatic sternal plates a, b, c, and the rudimentary sternal element of the praegenital somite; opisth 1, first somite of the opisthosoma.

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  • It is probable that the algebra of the Egyptians was of a most rudimentary nature, for otherwise we should expect to find traces of it in the works of the Greek geometers, of whom Thales of Miletus (640-546 B.C.) was the first.

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  • It includes no scientific idea, no knowledge of the natural sciences, and neglects even the most rudimentary instruction conveyed in a European education.

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  • The lower jaw projects more or less beyond the upper, the mental barble is small, sometimes rudimentary, the vent is below the posterior half of the first dorsal fin, and there is a dark spot in the axil of the pectoral fin.

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  • In Egypt, however, no traces have at present been found of the industry in a rudimentary condition, and the vases which have been classified as " primitive " bear witness to an elaboration of technique far in advance of the experimental period.

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  • It is true that the use of glass for windows was only gradually extending itself at the time when Roman civilization sank under the torrent of German and Hunnish barbarism, and that its employment for optical instruments was only known in a rudimentary stage; but for domestic purposes, for architectural decoration and for personal ornaments glass was unquestionably much more used than at the present day.

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  • The first front toe was rudimentary, having no phalanges, but the fifth was rather less aborted, although clawless; the other three carried enormous claws, protected by reflected sheaths.

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  • From both the latter it is distinguished by its rudimentary tail, measuring only a couple of inches in length, whence its name of Indris brevicaudatus.

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  • Thus they presented in fact a theodicy, a rudimentary philosophy of religion.

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  • The tail is short or rudimentary, the incisors are short, and the outer surface of the lower jaw is marked by a distinct ridge.

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  • The wings in the male are shorter than the body; in the female they are rudimentary.

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  • Tnis duct (Laurer's canal) is sometimes rudimentary and ends blindly beneath the skin.

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  • p, Lips of redia; q, collar; r, processes serving as rudimentary feet; s, embryos; 1, trabecula crossing body-cavity of redia; u, glandular cells; v, birth-opening; w, w', morulae; y, oral sucker; y', ventral sucker; z, pharynx.

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  • After receiving some rudimentary instruction from his father, the boy was sent to the grammar school of his native town.

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  • They have a cylindrical rigid body, covered with generally smooth and polished scales; a short strong tail; a short rounded or pointed head with narrow mouth; teeth few in number; small or rudimentary eyes; no abdominal scutes or only narrow ones.

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  • Reduction of the ulna from a complete and distinct bone to a comparatively rudimentary state in which it coalesces more or less firmly with the radius.

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  • Outer toes small and rudimentary, or in some cases entirely suppressed; their metacarpal or metatarsal bones never complete.

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  • Ruminating, but the stomach with only three distinct compartments, the maniplies or third cavity of the stomach of the Pecora being rudimentary.

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  • In the fore feet the three inner toes have large claws, while the two outer ones are rudimentary and clawless; in the hind-limbs the first toe is wanting, as in Megatherium, but the second and third are clawed.

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  • These are medium-sized or large antelopes with naked muzzles, narrow sheep-like upper molars, fairly long tails, rudimentary or no face-glands, and pits in the frontal bones of the skull.

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  • by Lord Avebury in his Prehistoric Times) to have no religious belief; it is, however, the better opinion that there are no peoples who are entirely destitute of some rudimentary religious belief.

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  • Irrigation is rudimentary, for no system exists for raising the water of the innumerable canals on to the fields.

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  • BEAR, properly the name of the European brown bear (Ursus arctus), but extended to include all the members of the Ursidae, the typical family of Arctoid carnivora, distinguished by their massive bodies, short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.

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  • These rodents are characterized by the imperfectly rooted cheek-teeth, imperfect clavicles or collar-bones, cleft upper lip, rudimentary first front-toes, smooth soles, six teats and many cranial characters.

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  • To these succeed eight pairs of foliaceous branchial appendages on the front division of the body, followed on the hind division by four pairs of powerful bifurcate swimming feet and two rudimentary pairs, the number, though not the nature, of these appendages being malacostracan.

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  • - In this division the body is partly covered by a broad shield, united in front with the head; the eyes are sessile, the first antennae are small, the second rudimentary or wanting; of the numerous feet, sometimes sixty-three pairs, exceeding the number of segments to which they are attached, the first pair are more or less unlike the rest, and in the female the eleventh have the epipod and exopod (flabellum and sub-apical lobe of Lankester) modified to form an ovisac. Development begins with a nauplius stage.

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  • The " postabdomen," marked off by the two postabdominal setae, usually has teeth or spines, and ends in two denticulate or ciliate claws, or it may be rudimentary, as in Polyphemus.

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  • In these the furcal branches are linear or rudimentary, the shell is without rostral sinus, and, besides distinguishing characters of the second 2ntennae, they have always a branchial plate well developed on the first maxillae, which is inconstant in the other tribe.

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  • cups may be close together or wide apart and the middle one rudimentary.

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  • In the latter case the middle segment almost always carries with it to the hind-body a pair of rudimentary limbs, whence the term Podoplea, meaning species that have a pleon with feet.

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  • - The first segment of the hind-body almost always with rudimentary pair of feet; orifices of the genital organs (symmetrically placed in both sexes) in the following segment; neither the last foot of the fore-body nor the rudimentary feet just mentioned acting as a copulatory organ in the male; both or neither of the first pair of antennae in the male geniculating; cephalic limbs less abundantly articulated and with fewer plumose setae or none, but with hooks and clasping setae.

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  • He has observed that in young specimens of Siren lacertina (the larva is still unknown) the gills are rudimentary and functionless, and that it is only in large adult specimens that they are fully developed in structure and function; he therefore concludes that the sirens are the descendants of a terrestrial type of batrachians, which passed through a metamorphosis like the other members of their class, but that more recently they have adopted a permanently aquatic life, and have resumed their branchiae by reversion.

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  • A medusa with a remarkable habit of life is Mnestra parasites, which is parasitic on the pelagic mollusc Phyllirrhoe, attaching itself to the host by its subumbral surface; its tentacles, no longer required for obtaining food, have become rudimentary.

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  • The armies were very large, an expedition often consisting of several divisions, each numbering eight thousand men; but the tactics of the commanders were quite rudimentary, consisting merely of attack by arrows and javelins at a distance, gradually closing into a hand-to-hand fight with clubs and spears, with an occasional feigned retreat to draw the enemy into an ambuscade.

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  • was of skins of woven aloe and palm fibre, but at the time of the conquest cotton was largely cultivated in the hot lands, spun with a spindle, and woven in a rudimentary loom without a shuttle into the mantles and breech-cloths of the men and the chemises and skirts of the women, garments often of fine texture and embroidered in colours.

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  • are twice as long as the 3to 5-toothed Thus the crop-gizzard unci; c, virgate - mallei rod-like, manubria has the same comand fulcrum very long, unci Ior 2-toothed; bination of structures d forcipate - rami large and used as a foras we find in the ceps, mallei rod-like, unci pointed or evanstomach of higher escent; e, incudate - stout fulcrum, rami Crustacea, with which formingaforceps, mallei evanescent; f, unwe may call it homocinate - unci large, 2-toothed, manubria plastic. The trophi evanescent, incus slender; g, ramate - rami are (I) a median incus subquadrantic, fulcrum rudimentary, manY - shaped, with the ubria evanescent; h,malleo-ramate - mallei (fulcrum) distal fastened by their unci to the rami, manubria foot and the arms (rami) looped, rami large and fulcrum slender.

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  • There may be one, a pair, or rarely more, the outer ones being more or less rudimentary.

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  • Asplanchnopus myrmeleo, showing horseshoe-shaped germarium (left), blind saccate stomach (right), apical bladder, foot, &c.; g, Asplanchna ebbesbornii - the coiled tube at left is a kidney; h, i, incudate jaws of Asplanchna brightwellii and girodii chiefly formed of rami, with the rudimentary mallei parallel and external to them; j, Ascomorpha hyalina.

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  • The Lamellibranchia are mainly characterized by the rudimentary condition of the head, and the retention of the primitive bilateral symmetry, the latter feature being accentuated by the lateral compression of the body and the development of the shell as two bilaterally symmetrical plates or valves covering each one side of the animal.

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  • Previously to Hoek's discovery a brown-coloured investment of the auricles of the heart of the oyster had been supposed to represent the nephridia in a rudimentary state.

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  • Rudimentary cephalic eyes occur in the Mytilidae and in Avicula at the base of the first filament of the inner gill, each consisting of a I pigmented epithelial fossa containing a cuticular lens.

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  • Foot usually rudimentary.

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  • Also some writings are more rudimentary than others on the same subject; and some have the appearance of being first drafts of others.

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  • The first difference then between the Categories and the Metaphysics is in the nature of an attribute; and the theory of inherence in the Categories is nearer to Plato and more rudimentary than the theory of predication in the Metaphysics.

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  • The second difference is still nearer to Plato and more rudimentary, and is in the nature of substance.

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  • These considerations make it probable that the author of all three treatises was Aristotle himself; while the analysis of the treatises favours the hypothesis that he wrote the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia more or less together as the rudimentary first drafts of the mature Nicomachean Ethics.

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  • But the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia are more rudimentary than the Nicomachean Ethics, which as it were seems to absorb them except in the conclusion.

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  • Meanwhile, however, the truth about the Eudemian Ethics in general is that it was an earlier rudimentary sketch written by Aristotle, when he was still struggling, without quite succeeding, to get over Plato's view that there is one philosophical knowledge of universal good, by which not only the dialectician and mathematician must explain the being and becoming of the world, but also the individual and the statesman guide the life of man.

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  • Because, then, it is very like, but more rudimentary and more Platonic, we conclude that the Eudemian is an earlier draft of the Nicomachean Ethics, written by Aristotle when he was still in process of transition from Plato's ethics to his own.

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  • Such rudimentary and imperfect sketches would be quite excusable in a first draft, but inexcusable and incredible after the Nicomachean Ethics had been written.

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  • Because, then, the Magna Moralia is very like the Nicomachean Ethics, but more rudimentary, nearer to the Platonic dialogues in style and to a less degree in matter, and also like the Eudemian Ethics, we conclude that it is also like that treatise in having been written as an earlier draft of the Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle himself.

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  • In fact, this interesting treatise contains a rudimentary treatment of rational evidences in rhetoric and is therefore earlier than the Rhetoric, which exhibits a developed analysis of these rational evidences as special logical forms. Together, the earlier and the later Rhetoric show us the logic of rhetoric in the making, going on about 34 0, the last date of the Rhetoric to Alexander, and more developed in or after 336 B.C., the last date of the Rhetoric. Nor is this all: the earlier Rhetoric to Alexander and the later Rhetoric show us logic itself in the making.

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  • We cannot write a history of the varied origin of logic, beyond putting the rudimentary logic of the proposition in the De Interpretatione before the less rudimentary theory of categories as significant names capable of becoming predicates in the Categories, and before the maturer analysis of the syllogism in the Analytics.

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  • Order Of The Philosophical Writings Some of Aristotle's philosophical writings then are earlier than others; because they show more Platonic influence, and are more rudimentary; e.g.

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  • the Categories earlier than some parts of the Metaphysics, because under the influence of Platonic forms it talks of inherent attributes, and allows secondary substances which are universal; the De Interpretatione earlier than the Analytics, because in it the Platonic analysis of the sentence into noun and verb is retained for the proposition; the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia earlier than the Nicomachean Ethics, because they are rudimentary sketches of it, and the one written rather in the theological spirit, the other rather in the dialectical style, of Plato; and the Rhetoric to Alexander earlier than the Rhetoric, because it contains a rudimentary theory of the rational evidences afterwards developed into a logic of rhetoric in the Rhetoric and Analytics.

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  • But in the gradual process of composition, by which a work once begun was kept going with the rest, although a work such as the Politics (begun in 357) was begun early, and some works more rudimentary came earlier than others, the general body of writings was so kept together in Aristotle's library, and so simultaneously elaborated and consolidated into a system that it soon becomes impossible to put one before another.

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  • THE Aristotelian Philosophy We have now (r) sketched the life of Aristotle as a reader and a writer from early manhood; (2) have watched him as a Platonist, partly imitating but gradually emancipating himself from his master to form a philosophy of his own; (3) have traced the gradual composition of his writings from Plato's time onwards; (4) have distinguished earlier, more Platonic and rudimentary, from later, more independent and mature, writings; (5) have founded the real order of his writings, not on chronology, nor on tradition, but on his classification of science and learning.

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  • The ears are large, and the tail rudimentary.

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  • A little above the globus major a few scattered tubules are found in children in front of the cord; these form the rudimentary structure known as the organ of Giraldes or paradidymis.

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  • The members of the genus Larix are distinguished from the firs, with which they were formerly placed, by their deciduous leaves, scattered singly, as in Abies, on the young shoots of the season, but on all older branchlets growing in whorl-like tufts, each surrounding the extremity of a rudimentary or abortive branch; they differ from cedars (Cedrus), which also have the fascicles of leaves on arrested branchlets, not only in the deciduous leaves, but in the cones, the scales of which are thinner towards the apex, and are persistent, remaining attached long after the seeds are discharged.

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  • They are best developed in the Pulmonata; in some cases they are very rudimentary and may be destitute of an external opening.

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  • Rodents may be characterized as terrestrial, or in some cases arboreal or aquatic, placental mammals of small or medium size, with a milk and a permanent series of teeth, plantigrade or partially plantigrade, and generally five-toed, clawed (rarely nailed or semi hoofed) feet, clavicles or collar-bones (occasionally imperfect or rudimentary), no canine teeth, and a single pair of lower incisors, opposed by only one similar and functional pair in the upper jaw.

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  • Post-orbital processes of the frontals exist in squirrels, marmots and hares; but in all other genera they are rudimentary or altogether absent; and the zygoma seldom sends upwards a corresponding process, so that the orbit is more or less completely continuous with the temporal fossa.

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  • The caudal vertebrae vary from a rudimentary condition in the guinea-pig to a great size in the jumping-hare and prehensile-tailed porcupines.

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  • The humerus has no supra-condylar foramen, and the forearm bones are distinct; and in most species the fore foot has five digits with the phalanges normally developed, the first toe being but rarely rudimentary or absent.

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  • The genus which is common to the northern parts of both hemispheres is distinguished by the large cheek-pouches and by the absence or rudimentary condition of the claw of the first hind-toe, resembles Tamias in the slender form of the body, but displays great variation in the length of the tail, which may be a mere stump, or comparatively long.

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  • Finally, we have the marmots (Arctomys), which are larger and more heavily built rodents, with short ears, more or less short tails and rudimentary or no cheek-pouches.

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  • Fore-feet with the first toe rudimentary and bearing a flat nail.

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  • The first of these, or Geomyinae, is characterized as follows: Incisors broad; mastoid not appearing on the top of the skull; eyes small; ears rudimentary; limbs short, subequal.

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  • All these "rodentmoles" are thoroughly adapted to a subterranean life, the eyes and ears being small and rudimentary, as is also the tail; while the bodily form is cylindrical, and the front claws are very large and powerful.

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  • In the skull the tympanic bulla is hollow, the pterygoid fossa shallow and the zygomatic arch slender, with a rudimentary jugal bone.

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  • The spiny mice, Acornys (or Acanthomys), of Western Asia, Cyprus and Africa, take their name from the fur being almost entirely replaced by flattened spines, and are further distinguished by the rudimentary coronoid process of the lower jaw.

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  • Among these, the tuco-tucos (Ctenomys) are characterized by their burrowing habits, almost rudimentary ears, small eyes, short tails and the kidneyshaped grinding-surfaces of their cheek-teeth.

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  • He supposes that aesthesis and tropesis, as rudimentary sensation and will, are the very causes of condensation; that they belong to pyknatoms, to ponderables and imponderables, to chemical atoms and molecules.

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  • When he applies sensation and will to nature, and through plants to the lowest animals, he considers their sensation and will to be rudimentary and unconscious.

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  • This type comprised nave and aisles, ending at one end in an apse and two chambers resembling rudimentary transepts, and at the other end in a porch (narthex).

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  • In the fore foot, the three middle toes are subequally developed, the fifth is present, but smaller, and the first is rudimentary, although, in one species at least, all its normal bones are present.

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  • It is probably to this period and these circumstances that we must look for at all events the rudimentary beginnings of the military as well as the religious orders of chivalry.

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  • The species are all characterized by short rudimentary wings, bearing four or five barbless shafts, a few inches long, and apparently useless for purposes of flight, of running, or of defence; and by loosely webbed feathers, short on the neck, but of great length on the rump and back, whence they descend over the body forming a thick hair-like covering.

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  • On the floor of the pharynx or buccal mass is a rudimentary radula, which in many species consists of a single large tooth, bearing two small teeth or a row of teeth.

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  • This typical " envelope and kernel " structure is often only rudimentary.

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  • Stanley a rudimentary state was created, and through the efforts of King Leopold in Europe the International Association was recognized during 1884-1885 by the powers as an independent state.

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  • In the cheekteeth the sectorial or scissor-like cutting function is developed at the expense of the tubercular or grinding, there being only one rudimentary tooth of the latter form in the upper jaw, and none in FIG.

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  • In such theories not only animals and plants but even the smallest particles of matter are regarded as having some rudimentary kind of sensation or "soul," which plays the same part in relation to their objective activities or modifications as the soul does in the case of human beings.

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  • Already in the 7th century B.C., when Hellenism was still in a rudimentary stage, the citizens of the Greek city-states had been known to the courts of Babylon and Egypt as admirable soldiers, combining hardihood with discipline, and Greek mercenaries came to be in request throughout the Nearer East.

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  • Wager speaks with greater reserve, acknowledging, however, the central body to be a nucleus of a rudimentary type, but devoid of nuclear membrane and nucleolus.

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  • Not even Riccia, with its rudimentary sporogonium, has so simple a corresponding stage as Bangia, for, while there is some amount of sterile tissue in Riccia, in Bangia the oospore completely divides to form carpospores.

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  • The spores of the Aglaozonia form are known to give rise to sexual plants, and the oospore of Cutleria has been observed to grow into rudimentary Aglaozonia.

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  • The giraffes (Giraffa) are now an exclusively African genus, and have long legs and neck, and three horns - a single one in front and a pair behind - supplemented in some instances with a rudimentary pair on the occiput.

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  • The lateral toes may be completely absent, but more often are represented by the hoofs alone, supported sometimes by a very rudimentary skeleton, consisting of mere irregular nodules of bone.

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  • Against the Portuguese claim it is argued that the Villancico corresponding to Joao de Lobeiro's poem is an interpolation in the Spanish text, that Portuguese prose was in a rudimentary stage of development at the period when--ex hypothesi - the romance was composed, and that the book was very popular in Spain almost a century before it is even mentioned in Portugal.

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  • Their soft fur, huge staring eyes, rudimentary tails and imperfectly developed index-fingers render lorises easy of recognition.

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  • Both in this species and the slow loris there is a pair of rudimentary abdominal teats in addition to the normal pectoral pair.

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  • In addition to their stout build and long thickly haired tails, marmots are characterized by the absence of cheek-pouches, and the rudimentary first front-toe, which is furnished with a flat nail, as well as by certain features of the skull and cheek-teeth.

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  • The teeth of the cheek-series which are in contact with each other consist of two small premolars (the first almost rudimentary) and three broad molars, constructed generally like those of Camelus.

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  • The lateral hind-toes (that is to say the second and fifth of the typical series) had, however, become rudimentary; although it is probable that the corresponding digits of the forelimb were functional, so that this foot was four-toed.

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  • As a whole, the economic conditions implied are pastoral and agricultural, and are relatively primitive; and the general rudimentary character of the legal ideas appears in the death penalty for the goring ox (Exod.

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  • [OLD Testament History fide divergences of tradition and to assume that more rudimentary or primitive thought was excluded by the admitted development of religious-social ideals.

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  • century was disgraced, in Palestine, by a feverish " scramble " for sacred sites, in which the most rudimentary ethics of Christianity were forgotten in the all-mastering desire to oust rival sects and orders.

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  • B, Rudimentary ovaries of ordinary worker.

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  • sp, Rudimentary spermatheca.

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  • At the beginning of the 5th century B.C. every young Greek of the better sort already received rudimentary instruction, not only in music and gymnastics, but also in reading and writing.

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  • Village communities and trade gilds in towns existed previously, but these were only rudimentary forms of palities.

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  • Among the native industries are mat-weaving, cotton-weaving, silver-working and rudimentary iron and leather working.

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  • But his claims, however great they may be, can in no way conflict with those of Hamilton, whose mode of multiplying couples (in which the " inner " and " outer " multiplication are essentially involved) was produced in 1833, and whose quaternion system was completed and published before Grassmann had elaborated for press even the rudimentary portions of his own system, in which the veritable difficulty of the whole subject, the application to angles in space, had not even been attacked.

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  • The body is broad and depressed, the neck short, the head large and flat, the eyes small and the tail rudimentary and hidden in the fur.

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  • Moral feeling, indeed, existed and was denoted by " Aidos "; but the numerous meanings of this word - shame, veneration, pity - show how rudimentary the idea was.

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  • Science, he reminds us, is based on final inexplicabilities; and its attempts by theories of evolution to find an historical origin for humanity in rudimentary matter show a misconception of the problem.

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  • The theories of construction remained rudimentary until early in the 19th century, when the Gota (q.v.) canal was opened.

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  • The canines are absent or rudimentary in the lower, and often deciduous at an early age in the upper jaw.

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  • The canines are rudimentary and often wanting.

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  • Molars with quadrate crowns and a blunt conical cusp at each corner, the last notably smaller than the rest, sometimes rudimentary or absent.

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  • Attention has accordingly been directed to the deeply-staining granules mentioned above, and the term chromatin-granules has been applied to them, and they have been considered to represent a rudimentary nucleus.

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  • The upper teeth are rudimentary and buried in the gum.

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  • Clark.) Rudimentary tentacle of the tentaculocyst.

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  • interior of which the pigment-cells secrete a gelatinous substance forming a rudimentary vitreous body.

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  • The head is somewhat rudimentary and without eyes, but bears two dorsal appendages produced into numerous long filaments.

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  • The vascular system is very rudimentary.

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  • The larvae are white, fleshy, apodal grubs, with a series of tubercles along each side of the body; the head is round, and bears strong jaws, and sometimes rudimentary ocelli.

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  • The angles, moreover, made by the wing with the horizon during the down and up strokes are at no two intervals the same, but (and this is a wing of the martin, where the bones of the pinion are short, and in some respects rudimentary, the primary and secondary feathers are greatly developed, and banked up in such a manner that the wing as a whole presents the same curves as those displayed by the insect's wing, or by the wing of the eagle, where the bones, muscles and feathers have attained a maximum development.

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  • The lowest coccygeal vertebrae of man remain as a rudimentary tail.

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  • The employment of mechanical instruments, of which instances of monkeys using sticks and stones furnish the only rudimentary traces among the lower animals, is one of the often-quoted distinctive powers of man.

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  • Parental tenderness and care for the young are strongly marked among the lower animals, though so inferior in scope and duration to the human qualities; and the same may be said of the mutual forbearance and defence which bind together in a rudimentary social bond the families and herds of animals.

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  • Philosophy seeking knowledge for its own sake; morality, manifested in the sense of truth, right, and virtue; and religion, the belief in and communion with superhuman powers ruling and pervading the universe, are human characters, of which it is instructive to trace, if possible, the earliest symptoms in the lower animals, but which can there show at most only faint and rudimentary signs of their wondrous development in mankind.

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  • The homologies between man and other animals which both schools try to account for; the explanation of the intervals, with apparent want of intermediate forms, which seem to the creationists so absolute a separation between species; the evidence of useless " rudimentary organs," such as in man the external shell of the ear, and the muscle which enables some individuals to twitch their ears, which rudimentary parts the evolutionists claim to be only explicable as relics of an earlier specific condition, - these, which are the main points of the argument on the origin of man, belong to general biology.

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  • It is true that to some extent these means of utterance are common to the lower animals, the power of expressing emotion by cries and tones extending far down in the scale of animal life, while rudimentary gesture-signs are made by various mammals and birds.

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  • The Australian black-fellow or the forest Indian of Brazil, who may be taken as examples of the lowest modern savage, had, before contact with whites, attained to rudimentary stages in many of the characteristic functions of civilized life.

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  • His weapons, tools and other appliances such as the hammer, hatchet, spear, knife, awl, thread, net, canoe, &c., are the evident rudimentary analogues of what still remains in use among Europeans.

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  • - Lateral metacarpals as in Rangifer; antlers rather small, without a brow-tine or sub-basal snag, dichotomously forked, with the upper or posterior prong again forking; tail rudimentary; vomer not dividing posterior nasal aperture of skull.

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  • The smallest of all deer is the Chilian pudu (Padua pudu), a creature not much larger than a hare, with almost rudimentary antlers.

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  • The perianth is represented by very rudimentary, small, fleshy scales arising below the ovary, called lodicules; they are elongated FIG.

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  • whilst the remaining members of the perianth are in a rudimentary condition.

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  • Education, of a rudimentary character, is given by the clergy.

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  • In the genus Cycas the female flower is peculiar among cycads in consisting of a terminal crown of separate leaf-like carpels several inches in length; the apical portion of each carpellary leaf may be broadly triangular in form, and deeply dissected on the margins into narrow woolly appendages like rudimentary pinnae.

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  • - Solitary corals with rudimentary septa, and the calicle filled with vesicular endotheca.

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  • The crumen or suborbital face-gland, which is so largely developed and probably performs the same office in some antelopes and deer, is present, although in a comparatively rudimentary form, in most species, but is absent in others.

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  • Fat-rumped sheep, Ovis steatopyga, are common to Africa and Asia, and are piebald with rudimentary horns, and a short hairy coat, being bred entirely for their milk and flesh.

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  • As a rule, the teeth of the two sides of the jaws are alike in number and character, except in cases of accidental or abnormal variation, and in the tusks of the narwhal, in which the left is of immense size, and the right rudimentary.

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  • (ab or the horse and the dog may be cited as instances where the single caecum is of large size, this being especially the case of the former, where it is of enormous dimensions; in human beings, on the other hand, the caecum is rudimentary, and best known in connexion with " appendicitis."

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  • There are five toes to all the feet, but the first in the fore-feet is rudimentary, and furnished with a flat nail.

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  • 3, C); at the base of the cone an outgrowth of the axis like a rudimentary leaf sheath (the annulus) is present.

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  • The Rotifera are characterized by the retention of what appears in Molluscs and Chaetopods as an embryonic organ, the velum or ciliated prae-oral girdle, as a locomotor and foodseizing apparatus, and by the reduction of the muscular parapodia to a rudimentary or non-existent condition in all present surviving forms except Pedalion.

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  • of these facts is given by saying FP, Rudimentary frontal pro that the Onychophora are " deutercesses perhaps repre ognathous " - that is to say, that senting the prostomial the buccal somite carrying the mantentacles of Polychaeta.

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  • En s, The rudimentary sixth endite (exopodite of higher Crustacea).

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  • They may have rudimentary exopodites, and may or may not have branchial filaments or lamellae developed on their posterior faces.

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  • It appears from observation of the embryo that whilst the first prosthomere of Centipedes has its appendages reduced and represented only by eye-patches (as in Arachnida, Crustacea and Hexapoda), the second has a rudimentary antenna, which disappears, whilst the third carries the permanent antennae, which accordingly correspond to the second antennae of Crustacea, and are absent in Hexapoda.

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  • The somites of the abdomen all may carry rudimentary appendages in the embryo, and some of the hinder somites may retain their appendages in a modified form in adult life.

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  • This energetic prince, who disregarded the limits placed to his authority by the rudimentary constitution, by paying a large sum of money, induced the emperor Rudolph II.

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  • The fragments that remain of the moral treatises of Democritus are sufficient, perhaps, to convince us that the turn of Greek philosophy in the direction of conduct, which was actually due to Socrates, would have taken place without him, though in a less decided manner; but when we compare the Democritean ethics with the post-Socratic system to which it has most affinity, Epicureanism, we find that it exhibits a very rudimentary apprehension of the formal conditions which moral teaching must fulfil before it can lay claim to be treated as scientific.

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  • Another type s, Rudimentary stamens.

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  • Many of the species have medium or even long tails, while some are nearly double the size of the typical representative of the group. All, however, have large cheek-pouches, whence the name of pouched marmots, by which they are sometimes called; and they have the first fronttoe rudimentary, as in marmots.

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  • The ulna is rudimentary, being represented by little more than the olecranon.

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  • The muscles therefore which perform these functions in other quadrupeds are absent or rudimentary.

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  • They are evidently rudimentary structures which it is suggested may represent glands (Lydekker, Proc. Zool.

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  • The canines are either rudimentary or absent in the female.

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  • The anterior premolars are quite rudimentary, sometimes not developed at all, and generally fall by the time the animal attains maturity, so that there are but six functional cheek teeth, - three that have predecessors in the milk-dentition, and hence are considered as premolars, and three molars, but otherwise, except the first and last of the series, not distinguishable in form or structure.

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  • g =24, - the canines and first or rudimentary premolars having apparently no predecessors.

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  • tr, Tracheae, showing rudimentary spiral fibre; tr.c, Cells resembling those lining the tracheal pits, which occur at intervals along the course of the tracheae; tr.o, Tracheal stigma; tr.p, Tracheal pit.

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  • The spines in the neighbourhood of the tail form a tuft sufficient to hide that almost rudimentary organ.

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  • Stamens occasionally become sterile by the degeneration or non-development of the anthers, when they are known as staminodia, or rudimentary stamens.

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  • In the Ecaudata also, the tibia and fibula coalesce into one bone, and two or three small bones on the inner side of the tarsus form what has been regarded as a rudimentary digit or "prehallux."

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  • The tongue is rudimentary in the perennibranchiate Caudata, well developed, and often protrusile, in the Salamandridae and most of the Ecaudata, totally absent in the Aglossa.

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  • The larynx, which is rudimentary in most of the Caudata and in the Apoda, is highly developed in the Ecaudata, and becomes the instrument of the powerful voice with which many of the frogs and toads are provided.

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  • This has been regarded by some anatomists as a rudimentary ovary.

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  • Interesting more for its historic value than the film's rudimentary artistic accomplishments.

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  • But what are we to say about the rudimentary and variable vertebrae of the terminal portion of the tail, forming the os coccyx?

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  • It breaks through the ground in an arched form, with the rudimentary cotyledons closed or in contact.

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  • It was converted into a rudimentary studio by draping heavy black curtains on the walls to deaden the noise from the passing trains.

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  • At that time, the CPI consisted of barely a few dozen cadres with only a rudimentary grasp of Marxism and Bolshevik functioning.

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  • hoist a rudimentary sail from the shower head?

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  • marine mammals is rudimentary.

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  • The human ovary holds a fixed number of rudimentary eggs - follicles - which form in the fourth month of pregnancy.

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  • oxalis corniculata: A and B the almost rudimentary pulvini of the cotyledons of two rather old seedlings, viewed as transparent objects.

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  • rudimentary at the moment.

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  • rudimentary to say the least... .

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  • rudimentary grasp of modern dance.

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  • rudimentary organs has been discussed and illustrated in my former works (24.

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  • rudimentary understanding of them requires an openness to looking in many different ways.

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  • rudimentary knowledge of trees knows that you do not prune them by chopping all the branches off.

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  • rudimentary lighting capability is supported, but the image produced still looks like a plot.

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  • rudimentary form, are some things I might say.

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  • Obviously I use my languages every day albeit at a fairly rudimentary level.

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  • Compared with the examination suggested in the MMM course, this was all pretty rudimentary, I did not even know the species!

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  • The accommodation has been in rather rudimentary mountain chalets.

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  • Below, in very rudimentary form, are some things I might say.

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  • Suspect ours is quite rudimentary compared to yours - finding some appropriate Read codes has been an issue.

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  • Look how many years it took to get even rudimentary safety devices into cars.

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  • However, our understanding of the climate system remains rudimentary.

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  • The passion of the story and the woman's struggle seems rudimentary with an ending like that.

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  • And it gradually disappears or becomes rudimentary as soon as its function is no longer necessary to the organism.

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  • Shared Firewall Services This service provides rudimentary filtering of traffic by port number.

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  • 28 a to the dimensions characteristic of elephants, with the loss of the lower incisors (or with temporary retention of rudimentary ones), while at the same time a true elephant-like trunk must have been developed by the shortening of the lower lip and the prolongation of the combined upper lip and nose.

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  • Specialized species like Mastodon americanus have completely lost the rudimentary premolars.

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  • It is beyond dispute, however, that the game, at any rate in a rudimentary form, was played in the 13th century.

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  • In others, as the thylacine, it is rudimentary, being shed or absorbed before any of the other teeth have cut the gum, and therefore functionless.

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  • in which no such deciduous tooth, even in a rudimentary state, has been discovered.

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  • In addition to this replacement of a single pair of functional teeth in each jaw, it has been discovered that marsupials possess rudimentary tooth-germs which never cut the gum.

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  • According to one theory, these rudimentary teeth, together with the one pair of functional teeth in each jaw that has vertical successors, represent the milk-teeth of placental mammals.

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  • On the other hand, there are those who believe that the functional dentition (other than the replacing premolar and the molars) correspond to the milk-dentition of placentals, and that the rudimentary tooth-germs represent a "prelacteal" dentition.

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  • Nearly allied is the Australian family Dasyuridae, characterized by the presence of only four pairs of upper incisors, the generally small and rudimentary condition of the first hind toe, which can but seldom be opposed to the rest, and the absence of prehensile power in the tail; the pouch being either present or absent, and the fore feet always five-toed.

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  • First hind toe rudimentary, clawless or absent; its metatarsal bone always present.

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  • Fore feet with two or three of the middle toes of nearly equal size, and provided with strong, sharp, slightly curved claws, the other toes rudimentary.

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  • Hind feet long and narrow; the first toe rudimentary or absent; the second and third very slender and united in a common integument; the fourth very large, with a stout elongated conical claw; the fifth smaller than the fourth (see fig.

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  • Hind foot long and narrow, mainly composed of the strongly developed fourth toe, terminating in a conical pointed nail, with a strong pad behind it; the first toe represented by a rudimentary metatarsal; the remaining toes completely developed, with claws, but exceedingly slender; the united second and third reaching a little way beyond the metatarso-phalangeal articulation of the fourth; the fifth somewhat shorter.

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  • the rudimentary fifth digit.

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  • The tail is rudimentary, the first hind-toe opposable, the first pair of upper incisors very large, but the second and third either absent or small and placed partially behind the larger pair; and only five pairs of cheek-teeth in each jaw.

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  • Tail rudimentary.

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  • The first upper incisor is much larger than the others; canine and first two premolars rudimentary.

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  • In the lower jaw there are also one or two small and early deciduous premolars; third premolars of both jaws formed on the same type as that of the rat-kangaroos, but relatively much larger; molars rudimentary, tubercular.

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  • With the exception of the aberrant long-snouted phalanger, the members of the family Phalangeridae have the normal number of functional incisors, in addition to which there may be one or two rudimentary pairs in the lower jaw.

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  • inclined forwards; canines, upper small or moderate, conical I or o and sharp-pointed; lower absent or rudimentary; premolars variable; molars 3, or 2 i with four obtuse tubercles, sometimes.

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  • 12), a west Australian creature of the size of a mouse, which may be regarded as representing by itself a sub-family (Tarsipediinae), characterized by the rudimentary teeth, the long and extensile tongue, and absence of a caecum.

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  • Messrs Spencer and Gillen appear to think that such rudimentary idea of an All-Father as has, it is thought, been detected among the blackfellows is an exotic growth fostered by contact with missionaries.

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  • I Ernst Haeckel will not allow us to call his system " Ma.t,erialism," because he affirms that the rudiments of matter are also rudimentary " mind stuff " (to use W.

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  • on the pelagic mollusc Phyllirrhoe, attached to it by the subumbral surface, and its tentacles have become rudimentary or absent.

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  • Here the medusoid, attached by the centre of its ex-umbral surface, has lost its velum and sub-umbral muscles, its sense organs and mouth, though still retaining rudimentary tentacles.

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  • The innumerable cases of structures, which are rudimentary and apparently useless, in species, the close allies of which possess well-developed and functionally important homologous structures, are readily intelligible on the theory of evolution, while it is hard to conceive their raison.

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  • For it is almost impossible to prove that any structure, however rudimentary, is useless - that is to say, that it plays no part whatever in the economy; and, if it is in the slightest degree useful, there is no reason why, on the hypothesis of direct creation, it should not have been created.

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  • Nevertheless, doubleedged as is the argument from rudimentary organs, there is probably none which has produced a greater effect in promoting the general acceptance of the theory of evolution.

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  • The catkins of the poplars differ from those of the nearly allied willows in the presence of a rudimentary perianth, of obliquely cup-shaped form, within the toothed bracteal scales; the male flowers contain from eight to thirty stamens; the fertile bear a onecelled (nearly divided) ovary, surmounted by the deeply cleft stigmas; the two-valved capsule contains several seeds, each furnished with a long tuft of silky or cotton-like hairs.

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  • He defined them as possessing radial instead of bilateral symmetry, and as apparently destitute of nervous system and sense organs, as having the circulatory system rudimentary or absent, and the respiratory organs on or coextensive with the surface of the body; he included under this title and definition five classes, - Echinodermata, Acalepha, Entozoa, Polypi and Infusoria.

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  • The ovule is not enclosed in an ovary, and the usually solitary macrospore becomes filled with a prothallus, in the upper part of which are formed several rudimentary archegonia.

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  • The basal cell has less chlorophyll than the others, and is expanded and fixed firmly to the rock on which the plant grows by the basal surface, rh, thus forming a rudimentary rhizoid.

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  • the cell or cells which attach - the plant to the substratum often have a peculiar form, containing chlorophyll aod constituting a rudimentary fixing organ or rhizoid (fig.

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  • The study of simple organisms, many of which consist of nothing but a little mass of protoplasm, exhibiting a very rudimentary degree of differentiation, so far as our methods enable us to determine any at all, shows that the duties of existence can be discharged in the absence of any cell-wall.

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  • We may speak, indeed, of the plant as possessed of a rudimentary nervous system, by the aid of which necessary adjustments are brought about.

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  • The nervous mechanism thus formed is very rudimentary, but in.

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  • Ecology and Physiology.Whilst our knowledge of the nature and effect of habitat is still in a very rudimentary condition, much progress has been made in recent years in the study of plant communities; but even here the questions insolved in relating the facts of the distribution of plant communities to the i Humboldt and Bonpland, Essai sur la giographie des plantes (Paris, 1807).

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  • Strengthening tissue of all kinds (and sometimes even the phloem) is more or less rudimentary.

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  • Although the scala tympani is so rudimentary, not reaching a higher level than in most of the reptiles, and remaining far below the mammalia, birds do not only hear extremely well, but they distinguish between and " understand " pitch, notes and melodies.

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  • From Australia, where we have the best chance of studying rudimentary religion in some bulk, comes a certain amount of evidence showing that in the two ways just mentioned some inchoate prayer is being evolved.

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  • The seeds are minute and innumerable; they contain a small rudimentary embryo surrounded by a thin loose membraneous coat, and are scattered by means of hygroscopic hairs on the inside of the valves which by their movements jerk out the seeds.

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  • The notopodium may be rudimentary or absent and the entire parapodium reduced to the merest ridge or even completely unrepresented.

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  • Near to each rudimentary ctenidium Spengel has discovered an olfactory patch or osphradium (consisting of modified epithelium) and an olfactory nerve-ganglion (fig.

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  • - A, Section in a plane vertical to the surface of the neck of Patella through a, the rudimentary ctenidium (Lankester's organ), and b, the olfactory epithelium (osphradium); c, the olfactory (osphradial) ganglion.

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  • (After Spengel.) B, Surface view of a rudimentary ctenidium of Patella excised and viewed as a transparent object.

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  • k, 1, p, J affords a means of test ing the conclusion that we have in Lankester's 4 capito-pedal bodies the rudimentary ctenidia.

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  • Thus, then, we find that the limpet possesses a symmetrically disposed pair of ctenidia in a rudimentary condition, and justifies its position among Aspidobranchia.

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  • rudimentary cteni Fam.

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  • Shell turriculated, with elongated spire; proboscis short; siphon rudimentary.

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  • In the embryos of many insects there are projections from the segments of the abdomen similar, to a considerable extent, to the rudimentary thoracic legs.

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  • The air-tubes, like the food-canal, are formed by invaginations of the ectoderm, which arise close to the developing appendages, the rudimentary spiracles appearing soon after the budding limbs.

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  • If it should be objected that the wings so developed would be rudimentary, and that there would be nothing to encourage their development into perfect functional organs, we may remind the reader that we have already pointed out that imperfect wings of Exopterygota do, even at the present time under certain conditions, become perfect organs; and we may also add that there are, even among existing Endopterygota, species in which the wings are usually vestiges and yet sometimes become perfectly developed.

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  • Bird), but then included, with many others, according to the irrational, vague and rudimentary notions of classification of the time, in what was termed the family " Muscicapinae."

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  • These monkeys are the African representatives of the Indo-Malay langurs (Semnopithecus), with which they agree in their slender build, long limbs and tail, and complex stomachs, although differing by the rudimentary thumb.

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  • If an aperture for ingress and egress, for purposes of feeding, were left in the wall of such a chamber, there would arise in a rudimentary form what is known as the tubular nest or web; and the next important step was possibly the adoption of such a nest as a permanent abode for the spider., Some spiders, like the Drassidae and Salticidae, have not advanced beyond this stage in architectural industry; but next to the cocoon this simple tubular retreat - whether spun in a crevice or burrow or simply attached to the lower side of a stone - is the most constant feature to be observed in the spinning habits of spiders.

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  • Perhaps the most rudimentary form of snare arose from the spinning of threads round the mouth of the tube to hold it in place.

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  • The fore-limbs have four toes and a rudimentary thumb, all with claws; the hind limbs are larger, with five distinct toes, united by short webs at their bases.

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  • In England the word "snail" in popular language is associated with Gasteropods which inhabit land or fresh water, and which possess large conspicuous spiral shells; terrestrial Gasteropods, in which the shell is rudimentary and concealed, are distinguished as "slugs."

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  • fatua, glumes hairy and long and one terminal, rudimentary.

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  • All the mole-rats of the genus Spalax are characterized by the want of distinct necks, small or rudimentary ears and eyes, and short limbs provided with powerful digging claws.

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  • Mole-rats are easily recognized by the peculiarly flattened head, in which the minute eyes are covered with skin, the wart-like ears, and rudimentary tail; they make burrows in sandy soil, and feed on bulbs and roots.

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  • No instance has ever been met with of the complete development of the right tusk associated with a rudimentary condition of the left.

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  • - Idrisi (1154) the world by Abu Jafar Mahommed ben Musa of Khiva, the librarian of the caliph el Mamun (833), declares them to be superior to the maps of Ptolemy or Marinus, but maps of a later date by Istakhri (950) or Ibn al Wardi (1349) are certainly of a most rudimentary type.

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  • With the exception of the first lower premolar, the dentit i on is complete; the incisors being normal, but the canine rudimentary, and the last upper molar distinctly triangular.

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  • Nasal bones large and stout, co-ossified, and standing out freely above the premaxillae, from which they are separated by a deep and wide fissure; the latter small, generally not meeting in the middle line in front, often rudimentary.

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  • In the Testicardines, where no such sliding action of the valves was necessary or possible, no muscles for such an object were required, consequently none took rise from the lateral portions of the valves as in Lingula; but in an extinct group, the Trimerellidae, which seems to be somewhat intermediate in character between the Ecardines and Testicardines, have been found certain scars, which appear to have been produced by rudimentary lateral muscles, but it is doubtful (considering the shells are furnished with teeth, though but rudely developed) whether such muscles enabled the valves, as in Lingula, to move forward and backward upon each other.

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  • The seigniorial taille, like the servile, had the character of a personal tax (taille personelle), a rudimentary tax on income, every man being taxed according to his wages or other income.

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  • In the case of Scorpio this segment is indicated in the embryo by the presence of a pair of rudimentary appendages, carried by a well-marked somite.

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  • Hansen (10) has recognized that the " praegenital somite " persists in a rudimentary condition, forming a " waist " to the series of somites in the Pedipalpi and Araneae.

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  • The praegenital somite, VII PrG, is still present, but has lost its rudimentary appendages; go, the genital operculum, left half; Km, the left pecten; abp 4 to abp 7, the rudimentary appendages of the lung-sacs.

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  • (After Beecher, from Zittel.) retained as a rudimentary, separate, detached somite in front of the mesosoma, or disappears altogether (excalation).

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  • - One of the Nymphonomorphous Pantopoda, Nymphon hispidum, showing the seven pairs of appendages I to 7; ab, the rudimentary opisthosoma; s, the mouth-bearing proboscis.

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  • In certain derivative forms constituting the family Pallenidae, however, the appendages of the 2nd pair are either rudimentary or atrophied altogether.

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  • - Appendages of the 2nd and 3rd pairs retained and developed, as in the more primitive types of Nymphonomorpha; but those of the 1st pair are either rudimentary, as in the Ascorhynchidae, or atrophied, as in the Colossendeidae.

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  • - Thelyphonus sp. Ventral view of the anterior portion of the body to show the three prosomatic sternal plates a, b, c, and the rudimentary sternal element of the praegenital somite; opisth 1, first somite of the opisthosoma.

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  • It is probable that the algebra of the Egyptians was of a most rudimentary nature, for otherwise we should expect to find traces of it in the works of the Greek geometers, of whom Thales of Miletus (640-546 B.C.) was the first.

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  • After his elevation he wrote an abridgment for his monks of IEthelwold's De consuetudine monachorum, 5 adapted to their rudimentary ideas of monastic life; a letter to Wulfgeat of Ylmandun 6; an introduction to the study of the Old and New Testaments (about io08, edited by William L'Isle in 1623); a Latin life of his master i z Ethelwold 7; a pastoral letter for Wulfstan, archbishop of York and bishop of Worcester, in Latin and English; and an English version of Bede's De Temporibus.8 The Colloquium, 9 a Latin dialogue designed to serve his scholars as a manual of Latin conversation, may date from his life at Cernel.

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  • It includes no scientific idea, no knowledge of the natural sciences, and neglects even the most rudimentary instruction conveyed in a European education.

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  • The lower jaw projects more or less beyond the upper, the mental barble is small, sometimes rudimentary, the vent is below the posterior half of the first dorsal fin, and there is a dark spot in the axil of the pectoral fin.

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  • In Egypt, however, no traces have at present been found of the industry in a rudimentary condition, and the vases which have been classified as " primitive " bear witness to an elaboration of technique far in advance of the experimental period.

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  • It is true that the use of glass for windows was only gradually extending itself at the time when Roman civilization sank under the torrent of German and Hunnish barbarism, and that its employment for optical instruments was only known in a rudimentary stage; but for domestic purposes, for architectural decoration and for personal ornaments glass was unquestionably much more used than at the present day.

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  • The first front toe was rudimentary, having no phalanges, but the fifth was rather less aborted, although clawless; the other three carried enormous claws, protected by reflected sheaths.

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  • From both the latter it is distinguished by its rudimentary tail, measuring only a couple of inches in length, whence its name of Indris brevicaudatus.

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  • Thus they presented in fact a theodicy, a rudimentary philosophy of religion.

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  • The tail is short or rudimentary, the incisors are short, and the outer surface of the lower jaw is marked by a distinct ridge.

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  • The wings in the male are shorter than the body; in the female they are rudimentary.

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  • Tnis duct (Laurer's canal) is sometimes rudimentary and ends blindly beneath the skin.

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  • p, Lips of redia; q, collar; r, processes serving as rudimentary feet; s, embryos; 1, trabecula crossing body-cavity of redia; u, glandular cells; v, birth-opening; w, w', morulae; y, oral sucker; y', ventral sucker; z, pharynx.

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  • After receiving some rudimentary instruction from his father, the boy was sent to the grammar school of his native town.

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  • They have a cylindrical rigid body, covered with generally smooth and polished scales; a short strong tail; a short rounded or pointed head with narrow mouth; teeth few in number; small or rudimentary eyes; no abdominal scutes or only narrow ones.

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  • high at the shoulder), the typical representative of a genus (Capreolus) in which the antlers lack a brow-tine and belong to what is characterized as the forked type, while the tail is rudimentary (see DEER).

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  • Reduction of the ulna from a complete and distinct bone to a comparatively rudimentary state in which it coalesces more or less firmly with the radius.

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  • Outer toes small and rudimentary, or in some cases entirely suppressed; their metacarpal or metatarsal bones never complete.

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  • Ruminating, but the stomach with only three distinct compartments, the maniplies or third cavity of the stomach of the Pecora being rudimentary.

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  • In the fore feet the three inner toes have large claws, while the two outer ones are rudimentary and clawless; in the hind-limbs the first toe is wanting, as in Megatherium, but the second and third are clawed.

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  • These are medium-sized or large antelopes with naked muzzles, narrow sheep-like upper molars, fairly long tails, rudimentary or no face-glands, and pits in the frontal bones of the skull.

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  • by Lord Avebury in his Prehistoric Times) to have no religious belief; it is, however, the better opinion that there are no peoples who are entirely destitute of some rudimentary religious belief.

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  • Irrigation is rudimentary, for no system exists for raising the water of the innumerable canals on to the fields.

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  • BEAR, properly the name of the European brown bear (Ursus arctus), but extended to include all the members of the Ursidae, the typical family of Arctoid carnivora, distinguished by their massive bodies, short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.

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  • These rodents are characterized by the imperfectly rooted cheek-teeth, imperfect clavicles or collar-bones, cleft upper lip, rudimentary first front-toes, smooth soles, six teats and many cranial characters.

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  • To these succeed eight pairs of foliaceous branchial appendages on the front division of the body, followed on the hind division by four pairs of powerful bifurcate swimming feet and two rudimentary pairs, the number, though not the nature, of these appendages being malacostracan.

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  • - In this division the body is partly covered by a broad shield, united in front with the head; the eyes are sessile, the first antennae are small, the second rudimentary or wanting; of the numerous feet, sometimes sixty-three pairs, exceeding the number of segments to which they are attached, the first pair are more or less unlike the rest, and in the female the eleventh have the epipod and exopod (flabellum and sub-apical lobe of Lankester) modified to form an ovisac. Development begins with a nauplius stage.

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  • The " postabdomen," marked off by the two postabdominal setae, usually has teeth or spines, and ends in two denticulate or ciliate claws, or it may be rudimentary, as in Polyphemus.

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  • In these the furcal branches are linear or rudimentary, the shell is without rostral sinus, and, besides distinguishing characters of the second 2ntennae, they have always a branchial plate well developed on the first maxillae, which is inconstant in the other tribe.

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  • cups may be close together or wide apart and the middle one rudimentary.

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  • In the latter case the middle segment almost always carries with it to the hind-body a pair of rudimentary limbs, whence the term Podoplea, meaning species that have a pleon with feet.

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  • - The first segment of the hind-body almost always with rudimentary pair of feet; orifices of the genital organs (symmetrically placed in both sexes) in the following segment; neither the last foot of the fore-body nor the rudimentary feet just mentioned acting as a copulatory organ in the male; both or neither of the first pair of antennae in the male geniculating; cephalic limbs less abundantly articulated and with fewer plumose setae or none, but with hooks and clasping setae.

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  • He has observed that in young specimens of Siren lacertina (the larva is still unknown) the gills are rudimentary and functionless, and that it is only in large adult specimens that they are fully developed in structure and function; he therefore concludes that the sirens are the descendants of a terrestrial type of batrachians, which passed through a metamorphosis like the other members of their class, but that more recently they have adopted a permanently aquatic life, and have resumed their branchiae by reversion.

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  • A medusa with a remarkable habit of life is Mnestra parasites, which is parasitic on the pelagic mollusc Phyllirrhoe, attaching itself to the host by its subumbral surface; its tentacles, no longer required for obtaining food, have become rudimentary.

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  • The armies were very large, an expedition often consisting of several divisions, each numbering eight thousand men; but the tactics of the commanders were quite rudimentary, consisting merely of attack by arrows and javelins at a distance, gradually closing into a hand-to-hand fight with clubs and spears, with an occasional feigned retreat to draw the enemy into an ambuscade.

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  • was of skins of woven aloe and palm fibre, but at the time of the conquest cotton was largely cultivated in the hot lands, spun with a spindle, and woven in a rudimentary loom without a shuttle into the mantles and breech-cloths of the men and the chemises and skirts of the women, garments often of fine texture and embroidered in colours.

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  • are twice as long as the 3to 5-toothed Thus the crop-gizzard unci; c, virgate - mallei rod-like, manubria has the same comand fulcrum very long, unci Ior 2-toothed; bination of structures d forcipate - rami large and used as a foras we find in the ceps, mallei rod-like, unci pointed or evanstomach of higher escent; e, incudate - stout fulcrum, rami Crustacea, with which formingaforceps, mallei evanescent; f, unwe may call it homocinate - unci large, 2-toothed, manubria plastic. The trophi evanescent, incus slender; g, ramate - rami are (I) a median incus subquadrantic, fulcrum rudimentary, manY - shaped, with the ubria evanescent; h,malleo-ramate - mallei (fulcrum) distal fastened by their unci to the rami, manubria foot and the arms (rami) looped, rami large and fulcrum slender.

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  • There may be one, a pair, or rarely more, the outer ones being more or less rudimentary.

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  • Asplanchnopus myrmeleo, showing horseshoe-shaped germarium (left), blind saccate stomach (right), apical bladder, foot, &c.; g, Asplanchna ebbesbornii - the coiled tube at left is a kidney; h, i, incudate jaws of Asplanchna brightwellii and girodii chiefly formed of rami, with the rudimentary mallei parallel and external to them; j, Ascomorpha hyalina.

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  • The Lamellibranchia are mainly characterized by the rudimentary condition of the head, and the retention of the primitive bilateral symmetry, the latter feature being accentuated by the lateral compression of the body and the development of the shell as two bilaterally symmetrical plates or valves covering each one side of the animal.

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  • Previously to Hoek's discovery a brown-coloured investment of the auricles of the heart of the oyster had been supposed to represent the nephridia in a rudimentary state.

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  • Rudimentary cephalic eyes occur in the Mytilidae and in Avicula at the base of the first filament of the inner gill, each consisting of a I pigmented epithelial fossa containing a cuticular lens.

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  • Foot usually rudimentary.

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  • Also some writings are more rudimentary than others on the same subject; and some have the appearance of being first drafts of others.

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  • The first difference then between the Categories and the Metaphysics is in the nature of an attribute; and the theory of inherence in the Categories is nearer to Plato and more rudimentary than the theory of predication in the Metaphysics.

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  • The second difference is still nearer to Plato and more rudimentary, and is in the nature of substance.

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  • These considerations make it probable that the author of all three treatises was Aristotle himself; while the analysis of the treatises favours the hypothesis that he wrote the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia more or less together as the rudimentary first drafts of the mature Nicomachean Ethics.

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  • But the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia are more rudimentary than the Nicomachean Ethics, which as it were seems to absorb them except in the conclusion.

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  • Meanwhile, however, the truth about the Eudemian Ethics in general is that it was an earlier rudimentary sketch written by Aristotle, when he was still struggling, without quite succeeding, to get over Plato's view that there is one philosophical knowledge of universal good, by which not only the dialectician and mathematician must explain the being and becoming of the world, but also the individual and the statesman guide the life of man.

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  • Because, then, it is very like, but more rudimentary and more Platonic, we conclude that the Eudemian is an earlier draft of the Nicomachean Ethics, written by Aristotle when he was still in process of transition from Plato's ethics to his own.

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  • It treats the same subjects, but always in a more rudimentary manner; and its remarks are always such as would precede rather than follow the masterly expositions of the Nicomachean Ethics.

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  • Such rudimentary and imperfect sketches would be quite excusable in a first draft, but inexcusable and incredible after the Nicomachean Ethics had been written.

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  • Because, then, the Magna Moralia is very like the Nicomachean Ethics, but more rudimentary, nearer to the Platonic dialogues in style and to a less degree in matter, and also like the Eudemian Ethics, we conclude that it is also like that treatise in having been written as an earlier draft of the Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle himself.

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  • In fact, this interesting treatise contains a rudimentary treatment of rational evidences in rhetoric and is therefore earlier than the Rhetoric, which exhibits a developed analysis of these rational evidences as special logical forms. Together, the earlier and the later Rhetoric show us the logic of rhetoric in the making, going on about 34 0, the last date of the Rhetoric to Alexander, and more developed in or after 336 B.C., the last date of the Rhetoric. Nor is this all: the earlier Rhetoric to Alexander and the later Rhetoric show us logic itself in the making.

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  • We cannot write a history of the varied origin of logic, beyond putting the rudimentary logic of the proposition in the De Interpretatione before the less rudimentary theory of categories as significant names capable of becoming predicates in the Categories, and before the maturer analysis of the syllogism in the Analytics.

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  • Order Of The Philosophical Writings Some of Aristotle's philosophical writings then are earlier than others; because they show more Platonic influence, and are more rudimentary; e.g.

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  • the Categories earlier than some parts of the Metaphysics, because under the influence of Platonic forms it talks of inherent attributes, and allows secondary substances which are universal; the De Interpretatione earlier than the Analytics, because in it the Platonic analysis of the sentence into noun and verb is retained for the proposition; the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia earlier than the Nicomachean Ethics, because they are rudimentary sketches of it, and the one written rather in the theological spirit, the other rather in the dialectical style, of Plato; and the Rhetoric to Alexander earlier than the Rhetoric, because it contains a rudimentary theory of the rational evidences afterwards developed into a logic of rhetoric in the Rhetoric and Analytics.

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  • But in the gradual process of composition, by which a work once begun was kept going with the rest, although a work such as the Politics (begun in 357) was begun early, and some works more rudimentary came earlier than others, the general body of writings was so kept together in Aristotle's library, and so simultaneously elaborated and consolidated into a system that it soon becomes impossible to put one before another.

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  • THE Aristotelian Philosophy We have now (r) sketched the life of Aristotle as a reader and a writer from early manhood; (2) have watched him as a Platonist, partly imitating but gradually emancipating himself from his master to form a philosophy of his own; (3) have traced the gradual composition of his writings from Plato's time onwards; (4) have distinguished earlier, more Platonic and rudimentary, from later, more independent and mature, writings; (5) have founded the real order of his writings, not on chronology, nor on tradition, but on his classification of science and learning.

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  • The ears are large, and the tail rudimentary.

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  • The clitoris is the representative of the penis, and consists of two corpora cavernosa which posteriorly diverge to form the crura clitoridis, and are attached to the ischium; the organ is about an inch and a half long, and ends anteriorly in a rudimentary glans which is covered by the junction of the labia minora; this junction forms the prepuce of the clitoris.

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  • A little above the globus major a few scattered tubules are found in children in front of the cord; these form the rudimentary structure known as the organ of Giraldes or paradidymis.

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  • The members of the genus Larix are distinguished from the firs, with which they were formerly placed, by their deciduous leaves, scattered singly, as in Abies, on the young shoots of the season, but on all older branchlets growing in whorl-like tufts, each surrounding the extremity of a rudimentary or abortive branch; they differ from cedars (Cedrus), which also have the fascicles of leaves on arrested branchlets, not only in the deciduous leaves, but in the cones, the scales of which are thinner towards the apex, and are persistent, remaining attached long after the seeds are discharged.

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  • They are best developed in the Pulmonata; in some cases they are very rudimentary and may be destitute of an external opening.

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  • Rodents may be characterized as terrestrial, or in some cases arboreal or aquatic, placental mammals of small or medium size, with a milk and a permanent series of teeth, plantigrade or partially plantigrade, and generally five-toed, clawed (rarely nailed or semi hoofed) feet, clavicles or collar-bones (occasionally imperfect or rudimentary), no canine teeth, and a single pair of lower incisors, opposed by only one similar and functional pair in the upper jaw.

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  • Post-orbital processes of the frontals exist in squirrels, marmots and hares; but in all other genera they are rudimentary or altogether absent; and the zygoma seldom sends upwards a corresponding process, so that the orbit is more or less completely continuous with the temporal fossa.

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  • The caudal vertebrae vary from a rudimentary condition in the guinea-pig to a great size in the jumping-hare and prehensile-tailed porcupines.

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  • The humerus has no supra-condylar foramen, and the forearm bones are distinct; and in most species the fore foot has five digits with the phalanges normally developed, the first toe being but rarely rudimentary or absent.

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  • Squirrels of this and the' other arboreal groups have the bodily form slender and agile, the tail long and bushy, the ears well developed, pointed and often tufted; the feet adapted for 1 ' climbing, the anterior pair with four toes and a rudimentary thumb, and the posterior pair with five toes, all the toes having long, curved and short-pointed claws (see Squirrel).

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  • The genus which is common to the northern parts of both hemispheres is distinguished by the large cheek-pouches and by the absence or rudimentary condition of the claw of the first hind-toe, resembles Tamias in the slender form of the body, but displays great variation in the length of the tail, which may be a mere stump, or comparatively long.

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  • Finally, we have the marmots (Arctomys), which are larger and more heavily built rodents, with short ears, more or less short tails and rudimentary or no cheek-pouches.

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  • Fore-feet with the first toe rudimentary and bearing a flat nail.

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  • The first of these, or Geomyinae, is characterized as follows: Incisors broad; mastoid not appearing on the top of the skull; eyes small; ears rudimentary; limbs short, subequal.

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  • All these "rodentmoles" are thoroughly adapted to a subterranean life, the eyes and ears being small and rudimentary, as is also the tail; while the bodily form is cylindrical, and the front claws are very large and powerful.

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  • In the skull the tympanic bulla is hollow, the pterygoid fossa shallow and the zygomatic arch slender, with a rudimentary jugal bone.

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  • The spiny mice, Acornys (or Acanthomys), of Western Asia, Cyprus and Africa, take their name from the fur being almost entirely replaced by flattened spines, and are further distinguished by the rudimentary coronoid process of the lower jaw.

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  • short or obsolete tail and rudimentary clavicles.

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  • Among these, the tuco-tucos (Ctenomys) are characterized by their burrowing habits, almost rudimentary ears, small eyes, short tails and the kidneyshaped grinding-surfaces of their cheek-teeth.

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  • He supposes that aesthesis and tropesis, as rudimentary sensation and will, are the very causes of condensation; that they belong to pyknatoms, to ponderables and imponderables, to chemical atoms and molecules.

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  • When he applies sensation and will to nature, and through plants to the lowest animals, he considers their sensation and will to be rudimentary and unconscious.

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  • This type comprised nave and aisles, ending at one end in an apse and two chambers resembling rudimentary transepts, and at the other end in a porch (narthex).

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  • In the fore foot, the three middle toes are subequally developed, the fifth is present, but smaller, and the first is rudimentary, although, in one species at least, all its normal bones are present.

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  • The Cyprinidae' are divided into four subfamilies: - Catostosninae (mostly from North America, with a few species from China and eastern Siberia), in which the maxillary bones take a share in the border of the mouth, and the pharyngeal teeth are very numerous and form a single, comb-like series; Cyprininae, the great bulk of the family, more or less conforming to the type of the carp; Cobitinae, or loaches (Europe, Asia, Abyssinia), which are dealt with in a separate article (see LoAcH); and the Homalopterinae (China and south-eastern Asia), mountain forms allied to the loaches, with a quite rudimentary air-bladder.

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  • It is probably to this period and these circumstances that we must look for at all events the rudimentary beginnings of the military as well as the religious orders of chivalry.

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  • The species are all characterized by short rudimentary wings, bearing four or five barbless shafts, a few inches long, and apparently useless for purposes of flight, of running, or of defence; and by loosely webbed feathers, short on the neck, but of great length on the rump and back, whence they descend over the body forming a thick hair-like covering.

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  • On the floor of the pharynx or buccal mass is a rudimentary radula, which in many species consists of a single large tooth, bearing two small teeth or a row of teeth.

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  • This typical " envelope and kernel " structure is often only rudimentary.

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  • Stanley a rudimentary state was created, and through the efforts of King Leopold in Europe the International Association was recognized during 1884-1885 by the powers as an independent state.

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  • In the cheekteeth the sectorial or scissor-like cutting function is developed at the expense of the tubercular or grinding, there being only one rudimentary tooth of the latter form in the upper jaw, and none in FIG.

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  • In such theories not only animals and plants but even the smallest particles of matter are regarded as having some rudimentary kind of sensation or "soul," which plays the same part in relation to their objective activities or modifications as the soul does in the case of human beings.

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  • Already in the 7th century B.C., when Hellenism was still in a rudimentary stage, the citizens of the Greek city-states had been known to the courts of Babylon and Egypt as admirable soldiers, combining hardihood with discipline, and Greek mercenaries came to be in request throughout the Nearer East.

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  • Wager speaks with greater reserve, acknowledging, however, the central body to be a nucleus of a rudimentary type, but devoid of nuclear membrane and nucleolus.

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  • Not even Riccia, with its rudimentary sporogonium, has so simple a corresponding stage as Bangia, for, while there is some amount of sterile tissue in Riccia, in Bangia the oospore completely divides to form carpospores.

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  • The spores of the Aglaozonia form are known to give rise to sexual plants, and the oospore of Cutleria has been observed to grow into rudimentary Aglaozonia.

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  • The giraffes (Giraffa) are now an exclusively African genus, and have long legs and neck, and three horns - a single one in front and a pair behind - supplemented in some instances with a rudimentary pair on the occiput.

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  • The lateral toes may be completely absent, but more often are represented by the hoofs alone, supported sometimes by a very rudimentary skeleton, consisting of mere irregular nodules of bone.

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  • Against the Portuguese claim it is argued that the Villancico corresponding to Joao de Lobeiro's poem is an interpolation in the Spanish text, that Portuguese prose was in a rudimentary stage of development at the period when--ex hypothesi - the romance was composed, and that the book was very popular in Spain almost a century before it is even mentioned in Portugal.

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  • Their soft fur, huge staring eyes, rudimentary tails and imperfectly developed index-fingers render lorises easy of recognition.

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  • Both in this species and the slow loris there is a pair of rudimentary abdominal teats in addition to the normal pectoral pair.

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  • In addition to their stout build and long thickly haired tails, marmots are characterized by the absence of cheek-pouches, and the rudimentary first front-toe, which is furnished with a flat nail, as well as by certain features of the skull and cheek-teeth.

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  • The teeth of the cheek-series which are in contact with each other consist of two small premolars (the first almost rudimentary) and three broad molars, constructed generally like those of Camelus.

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  • The lateral hind-toes (that is to say the second and fifth of the typical series) had, however, become rudimentary; although it is probable that the corresponding digits of the forelimb were functional, so that this foot was four-toed.

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  • As a whole, the economic conditions implied are pastoral and agricultural, and are relatively primitive; and the general rudimentary character of the legal ideas appears in the death penalty for the goring ox (Exod.

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  • [OLD Testament History fide divergences of tradition and to assume that more rudimentary or primitive thought was excluded by the admitted development of religious-social ideals.

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  • century was disgraced, in Palestine, by a feverish " scramble " for sacred sites, in which the most rudimentary ethics of Christianity were forgotten in the all-mastering desire to oust rival sects and orders.

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  • B, Rudimentary ovaries of ordinary worker.

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  • sp, Rudimentary spermatheca.

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  • At the beginning of the 5th century B.C. every young Greek of the better sort already received rudimentary instruction, not only in music and gymnastics, but also in reading and writing.

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  • Village communities and trade gilds in towns existed previously, but these were only rudimentary forms of palities.

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  • Among the native industries are mat-weaving, cotton-weaving, silver-working and rudimentary iron and leather working.

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  • But his claims, however great they may be, can in no way conflict with those of Hamilton, whose mode of multiplying couples (in which the " inner " and " outer " multiplication are essentially involved) was produced in 1833, and whose quaternion system was completed and published before Grassmann had elaborated for press even the rudimentary portions of his own system, in which the veritable difficulty of the whole subject, the application to angles in space, had not even been attacked.

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  • The body is broad and depressed, the neck short, the head large and flat, the eyes small and the tail rudimentary and hidden in the fur.

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  • Moral feeling, indeed, existed and was denoted by " Aidos "; but the numerous meanings of this word - shame, veneration, pity - show how rudimentary the idea was.

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  • a, Olfactory ciliated pit on animal's left side, its wall confluent with substance of nerve tube; b, pigment spot (rudimentary eye) on anterior termination of nerve tube; c, first pair of nerves in section; d, fin ray;, e, myotome; f, notochord; g, space round myotome (?artifact or coelom); h, subchordal canal (?

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  • Rudimentary teaching in reading, occasionally writing, and the first principles of Lutheran faith are given in the maternal house, or in " maternal schools," or by ambulatory schools under the control of the clergy, who make the necessary examination in the houses of every parish.

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  • In a great degree prairie-marmots, of which there are several species in North America, ranging as far south as Mexico, are intermediate between marmots and sousliks (see SousLIK), having the cheekpouches much smaller than in the latter, and the first front-toe, which is rudimentary in marmots and sousliks, well developed.

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  • Science, he reminds us, is based on final inexplicabilities; and its attempts by theories of evolution to find an historical origin for humanity in rudimentary matter show a misconception of the problem.

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  • The theories of construction remained rudimentary until early in the 19th century, when the Gota (q.v.) canal was opened.

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  • The genus Struthio forms the type of the group of Ratite birds, characterized chiefly by large size, breast-bone without a keel, strong running legs, rudimentary wings and simple feathers (see Bird).

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  • The canines are absent or rudimentary in the lower, and often deciduous at an early age in the upper jaw.

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  • The canines are rudimentary and often wanting.

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  • Molars with quadrate crowns and a blunt conical cusp at each corner, the last notably smaller than the rest, sometimes rudimentary or absent.

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  • Attention has accordingly been directed to the deeply-staining granules mentioned above, and the term chromatin-granules has been applied to them, and they have been considered to represent a rudimentary nucleus.

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  • The upper teeth are rudimentary and buried in the gum.

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  • Clark.) Rudimentary tentacle of the tentaculocyst.

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  • interior of which the pigment-cells secrete a gelatinous substance forming a rudimentary vitreous body.

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  • The head is somewhat rudimentary and without eyes, but bears two dorsal appendages produced into numerous long filaments.

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  • The vascular system is very rudimentary.

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  • The larvae are white, fleshy, apodal grubs, with a series of tubercles along each side of the body; the head is round, and bears strong jaws, and sometimes rudimentary ocelli.

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  • The angles, moreover, made by the wing with the horizon during the down and up strokes are at no two intervals the same, but (and this is a wing of the martin, where the bones of the pinion are short, and in some respects rudimentary, the primary and secondary feathers are greatly developed, and banked up in such a manner that the wing as a whole presents the same curves as those displayed by the insect's wing, or by the wing of the eagle, where the bones, muscles and feathers have attained a maximum development.

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  • The lowest coccygeal vertebrae of man remain as a rudimentary tail.

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  • The employment of mechanical instruments, of which instances of monkeys using sticks and stones furnish the only rudimentary traces among the lower animals, is one of the often-quoted distinctive powers of man.

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  • Parental tenderness and care for the young are strongly marked among the lower animals, though so inferior in scope and duration to the human qualities; and the same may be said of the mutual forbearance and defence which bind together in a rudimentary social bond the families and herds of animals.

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  • Philosophy seeking knowledge for its own sake; morality, manifested in the sense of truth, right, and virtue; and religion, the belief in and communion with superhuman powers ruling and pervading the universe, are human characters, of which it is instructive to trace, if possible, the earliest symptoms in the lower animals, but which can there show at most only faint and rudimentary signs of their wondrous development in mankind.

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  • The homologies between man and other animals which both schools try to account for; the explanation of the intervals, with apparent want of intermediate forms, which seem to the creationists so absolute a separation between species; the evidence of useless " rudimentary organs," such as in man the external shell of the ear, and the muscle which enables some individuals to twitch their ears, which rudimentary parts the evolutionists claim to be only explicable as relics of an earlier specific condition, - these, which are the main points of the argument on the origin of man, belong to general biology.

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  • It is true that to some extent these means of utterance are common to the lower animals, the power of expressing emotion by cries and tones extending far down in the scale of animal life, while rudimentary gesture-signs are made by various mammals and birds.

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  • The Australian black-fellow or the forest Indian of Brazil, who may be taken as examples of the lowest modern savage, had, before contact with whites, attained to rudimentary stages in many of the characteristic functions of civilized life.

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  • His weapons, tools and other appliances such as the hammer, hatchet, spear, knife, awl, thread, net, canoe, &c., are the evident rudimentary analogues of what still remains in use among Europeans.

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  • - Lateral metacarpals as in Rangifer; antlers rather small, without a brow-tine or sub-basal snag, dichotomously forked, with the upper or posterior prong again forking; tail rudimentary; vomer not dividing posterior nasal aperture of skull.

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  • The smallest of all deer is the Chilian pudu (Padua pudu), a creature not much larger than a hare, with almost rudimentary antlers.

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  • The perianth is represented by very rudimentary, small, fleshy scales arising below the ovary, called lodicules; they are elongated FIG.

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  • whilst the remaining members of the perianth are in a rudimentary condition.

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  • Education, of a rudimentary character, is given by the clergy.

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  • In the genus Cycas the female flower is peculiar among cycads in consisting of a terminal crown of separate leaf-like carpels several inches in length; the apical portion of each carpellary leaf may be broadly triangular in form, and deeply dissected on the margins into narrow woolly appendages like rudimentary pinnae.

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  • - Solitary corals with rudimentary septa, and the calicle filled with vesicular endotheca.

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  • The crumen or suborbital face-gland, which is so largely developed and probably performs the same office in some antelopes and deer, is present, although in a comparatively rudimentary form, in most species, but is absent in others.

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  • Fat-rumped sheep, Ovis steatopyga, are common to Africa and Asia, and are piebald with rudimentary horns, and a short hairy coat, being bred entirely for their milk and flesh.

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  • As a rule, the teeth of the two sides of the jaws are alike in number and character, except in cases of accidental or abnormal variation, and in the tusks of the narwhal, in which the left is of immense size, and the right rudimentary.

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  • (ab or the horse and the dog may be cited as instances where the single caecum is of large size, this being especially the case of the former, where it is of enormous dimensions; in human beings, on the other hand, the caecum is rudimentary, and best known in connexion with " appendicitis."

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  • There are five toes to all the feet, but the first in the fore-feet is rudimentary, and furnished with a flat nail.

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  • 3, C); at the base of the cone an outgrowth of the axis like a rudimentary leaf sheath (the annulus) is present.

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  • The Rotifera are characterized by the retention of what appears in Molluscs and Chaetopods as an embryonic organ, the velum or ciliated prae-oral girdle, as a locomotor and foodseizing apparatus, and by the reduction of the muscular parapodia to a rudimentary or non-existent condition in all present surviving forms except Pedalion.

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  • of these facts is given by saying FP, Rudimentary frontal pro that the Onychophora are " deutercesses perhaps repre ognathous " - that is to say, that senting the prostomial the buccal somite carrying the mantentacles of Polychaeta.

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