How to use Rubidium in a sentence
Rubidium, caesium, thallium, indium and gallium were first discovered by means of this instrument; the study of the rare earths is greatly facilitated, and the composition of the heavenly bodies alone determinable by it.
They are silicates, usually orthosilicates, of aluminium together with alkalis (potassium, sodium, lithium, rarely rubidium and caesium), basic hydrogen, and, in some species magnesium, ferrous and ferric iron, rarely chromium, manganese and barium.
The species lepidolite is largely used for the manufacture of lithium and rubidium salts.
It combines with alkaline chlorides - potassium, rubidium and caesium - to form crystalline plumbichlorides; it also forms a crystalline compound with quinoline.
The solubility of the various alums in water varies greatly, sodium alum being readily soluble in water, whilst caesium and rubidium alums are only sparingly soluble.Advertisement
In modern chemistry alkali is a general term used for compounds which have the property of neutralizing acids, and is applied more particularly to the highly soluble hydrates of sodium and potassium and of the three rarer "alkali metals," caesium, rubidium and lithium, also to aqueous ammonia.
Bunsen, the best source of rubidium and caesium salts is the residue left after extraction of lithium salts from lepidolite.
This residue consists of sodium, potassium and lithium chlorides, with small quantities of caesium and rubidium chlorides.
The platino-chlorides are reduced by hydrogen, and the caesium and rubidium chlorides extracted by water.
In order to separate caesium from rubidium, use is made of the different solubilities of their various salts.Advertisement
Matthiessen, sodium ranks fourth to silver, copper and gold as a conductor of electricity and heat, and according to Bunsen it is the most electropositive metal with the exception of caesium, rubidium and potassium.
The chlorine is not completely precipitated by silver nitrate in nitric acid solution, the ionization apparently not proceeding to all the chlorine atoms. Thallic iodide, T11 3, is interesting on account of its isomorphism with rubidium and caesium tri-iodides, a resemblance which suggests the formula T11 (12) for the salt, in which the metal is obviously monovalent.
The rubidium salts are generally colourless, mostly soluble in water and isomorphous with the corresponding potassium salts.
Rubidium hydroxide, RbOH, is a colourless solid which is formed by the action of rubidium on water, or by the addition of baryta water to a solution of rubidium sulphate.
Rubidium chloride, RbC1, is formed on burning rubidium in chlorine, or on dissolving the hydroxide in aqueous hydrochloric acid.Advertisement
Rubidium nitrate, RbNO 3, obtained by the action of nitric acid on the carbonate, crystallizes in needles or prisms and when strongly heated is transformed into a mixture of nitrite and oxide.
Rubidium carbonate, Rb2C03, formed by the addition of ammonium carbonate to rubidium hydroxide, is a crystalline mass which melts in its water of crystallization when heated.
The salts of the acid are known as the perchlorates, and are all soluble in water; the potassium and rubidium salts, however, are only soluble to a slight extent.
Tutton's investigations of the morphotropic effects of the metals potassium, rubidium and caesium, in combination with the acid radicals of sulphuric and selenic acids, showed that the replacement of potassium by rubidium, and this metal in turn by caesium,was accompanied by progressive changes in both physical and crystallographical properties, such that the rubidium salt was always intermediate between the salts of potassium and caesium (see table; the space unit is taken as a pseudo-hexagonal prism).
The researchers believe the trilobite molecule can be created by manipulating a rubidium BEC with laser pulses or external electromagnetic fields.Advertisement
Within two years of the invention the authors announced the discovery of two metals, rubidium and caesium, closely allied to sodium, potassium and lithium in properties, in the mineral lepidolite and in the Diirkheim mineral water.