Rubella sentence example

rubella
  • Some prenatal factors known to contribute to growth retardation include a variety of maternal health problems, including toxemia, kidney and heart disease, infections such as rubella and maternal malnutrition.
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  • Rubella, also called German measles or three-day measles, is a highly contagious viral disease that in most children and adults causes mild symptoms of low fever, swollen glands, joint pain, and a fine red rash.
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  • Although rubella causes only mild symptoms in child and adult sufferers, the infection can have severe complications for the fetus of a woman who becomes infected with the virus during the first trimester of pregnancy.
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  • Women should avoid becoming pregnant for three months after taking rubella vaccine, measles vaccine, mumps vaccine, or the combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) as these vaccines may cause problems in the unborn baby.
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  • Autism has also been shown to occur more frequently among individuals who have certain medical conditions, including fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, congenital rubella syndrome, and untreated phenylketonuria.
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  • Parents or adults who travel or live abroad with infants less than 12 months old should have evidence of immunity to rubella and mumps, as well as measles, to avoid becoming infected if the infants are exposed to the diseases.
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  • On February 12, the U.S. Court of Federal Claims Office of Special Masters found that the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine did not cause autism in Michelle Cedillo, Colton Snyder and William Yates Hazelhurst.
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  • It organized trials of poliovirus and measle vaccines and more recently the very successful combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine.
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  • Outcomes Children identify some illnesses eg rubella, chicken pox and some conditions eg boils, tooth decay caused by microorganisms.
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  • You cannot get mumps, measles or rubella from the vaccine.
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  • If a pregnant woman catches rubella in the early stages of pregnancy, her child can be born with congenital rubella syndrome.
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  • In the UK, these include rubella, mumps, measles (usually given together as MMR ), BCG and yellow fever.
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  • We know this from case studies of patients who have had rubella (German measles ).
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  • No woman in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy should have rubella diagnosed on the basis of a positive rubella diagnosed on the basis of a positive rubella-specific IgM alone.
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  • In 1999 there were no cases of congenital rubella in the UK.
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  • Infections during pregnancy, e.g. rubella or encephalitis, can also lead to cp.
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  • If a pregnant woman contracts rubella it can cause serious birth defects to her unborn baby.
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  • Because the rubella vaccine contains a live virus, pregnancy should be avoided for up to 3 months after vaccination.
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  • In the UK, these include rubella, mumps, measles (usually given together as MMR), BCG and yellow fever.
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  • We know this from case studies of patients who have had rubella (German measles).
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  • No woman in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy should have rubella diagnosed on the basis of a positive rubella-specific IgM alone.
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  • None of the clinically diagnosed cases of measles, mumps and rubella formally notified have been confirmed by the salivary antibody test.
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  • This also puts susceptible pregnant women at higher risk and could increase the number of congenital rubella affected pregnancies.
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  • That is why persons who have had measles and rubella vaccination before, are less likely to develop side effects from the MMR vaccine.
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  • None of the infants had received separate measles, mumps and rubella immunisations.
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  • Ms C is an adolescent girl with no evidence of rubella antibodies.
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  • Of 12 recent cases of congenital rubella syndrome, 9 have been in women from ethnic minorities.
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  • Maternal rubella infection in the first eight to ten weeks of pregnancy results in fetal damage in up to 90% of infants.
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  • Should you contract rubella during early pregnancy, it can result in serious damage to your developing baby.
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  • If a woman catches rubella in early pregnancy, it may damage the sight, hearing, heart and brain of the unborn baby.
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  • Fortunei (the S. japonica of gardens), S. rubella is a seedling form.
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  • In children, ITP is usually triggered by a virus infection, most often rubella, chickenpox, measles, cytomegalovirus (CMV), or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
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  • The physician will also exclude other potential causes for the symptoms and rash, including rubella, infectious mononucleosis, bacterial infections such as Lyme disease, allergic reactions, and lupus.
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  • Rubella is a virus that has a seasonal pattern, with epidemics most likely in the spring.
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  • Between 0.1 to 2 percent of newborns are infected with rubella.
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  • Infants born with rubella may already show signs of heart disease, retarded growth, hearing loss, blood disorders, vision problems, or pneumonia.
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  • In suspected cases of toxoplasmosis, rubella, or syphilis, cerebrospinal fluid may be obtained from the infant by spinal tap in order to confirm the diagnosis.
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  • Maternal infections and illnesses such as glandular disorders, rubella, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus infection may cause mental retardation.
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  • Rubella causes severe birth defects (including heart defects, cataracts, deafness, and mental retardation) if a pregnant woman contracts it during the first three months of pregnancy.
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  • It has been associated with mothers who had German measles (rubella) while pregnant.
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  • The occurrence of some infections during pregnancy, including viral infections such as rubella (German measles), can cause congenital cardiovascular defects.
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  • Several maternal-fetal infections are known to increase the risk for CP, including rubella (German measles, now rare in the United States), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and toxoplasmosis.
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  • Rubella is spread through contact with fluid droplets expelled from the nose or throat of an infected person.
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  • A person infected with the rubella virus is contagious for about seven days before any symptoms appear and continues to be able to spread the disease for about four days after the appearance of symptoms.
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  • Rubella has an incubation period of 12 to 23 days.
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  • Although rubella is generally considered a childhood illness, people of any age who have not been vaccinated or previously caught the disease can become infected.
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  • Having rubella once or being immunized against rubella normally gives lifetime immunity.
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  • For this reason vaccination is highly effective in reducing the number of rubella cases.
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  • Women of childbearing age who do not have immunity against rubella should be particularly concerned about getting the disease.
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  • Rubella infection during the first three months of pregnancy can cause a woman to miscarry or cause her baby to be born with birth defects.
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  • Although it has been practically eradicated in the United States, rubella is still common in less developed countries because of poor immunization penetration, creating a risk to susceptible travelers.
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  • Some countries have chosen to target rubella vaccination to females only and outbreaks in foreign-born males have occurred on cruise ships and at U.S. summer camps.
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  • Although rubella was once a common childhood illness, its occurrence has been drastically reduced since vaccine against it became available in 1969.
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  • According to statistics for 1964-1965, prior to routine rubella immunization in the United States, there were 2,100 newborn deaths and 11,250 miscarriages attributed to rubella infection of pregnant women.
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  • In addition, about 20,000 infants were born with birth defects attributable to rubella infection in utero.
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  • In the 20 years following the introduction of the vaccine, reported rubella cases dropped 99.6 percent.
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  • In 2000, there were only 152 reported cases of rubella infection and seven reported cases of congenital rubella.
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  • Rubella is caused by the rubella virus (Rubivirus).
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  • The first visible sign of rubella is a fine red rash that begins on the face and rapidly moves downward to cover the whole body within 24 hours.
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  • The rash lasts about three days, which is why rubella is sometimes called the three-day measles.
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  • It is quite common to get rubella and not show any symptoms (subclinical infection).
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  • However, severe complications may arise in the unborn children of women who get rubella during the first three months of their pregnancy.
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  • The most common birth defects resulting from congenital rubella infection are eye defects such as cataracts, glaucoma, and blindness; deafness; congenital heart defects; and mental retardation.
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  • Taken together, these conditions are called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS).
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  • The rash caused by the rubella virus and the accompanying symptoms are so similar to other viral infections that it is impossible for a physician to make a confirmed diagnosis on visual examination alone.
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  • The only sure way to confirm a case of rubella is by isolating the virus with a blood test or in a laboratory culture.
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  • A blood test is done to check for rubella antibodies.
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  • When the body is infected with the rubella virus, it produces both immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to fight the infection.
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  • A blood test can be used either to confirm a recent infection (IgG and IgM) or determine whether a person has immunity to rubella (IgG only).
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  • The lack of antibodies indicates that a person is susceptible to rubella.
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  • All pregnant women should be tested for rubella early in pregnancy, whether they have a history of vaccination.
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  • Babies born with suspected CRS are isolated and cared for only by people who are sure they are immune to rubella.
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  • Complications from rubella infection are rare in children, pregnant women past the twentieth week of pregnancy, and other adults.
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  • Unborn children exposed to rubella early in pregnancy are also more likely to be miscarried, stillborn, or have a low birth weight.
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  • Vaccination is the best way to prevent rubella and is normally required by law for children entering school.
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  • Rubella vaccine is usually given in conjunction with measles and mumps vaccines in a shot referred to as MMR (mumps, measles, and rubella).
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  • As of 2004, however, accidental rubella vaccinations during pregnancy had not clearly been associated with the same risk as the natural infection itself.
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  • While rubella infection in an older child or adult is rarely complicated, the risks of not immunizing a child against rubella are highest in the unborn.
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  • Congenital rubella is a serious, life-changing condition, and adherence to immunization recommendations is crucial to the public health.
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  • The vaccine preparation (MMR) is usually given as part of a combination injection that helps protect against measles, mumps, and rubella.
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  • Secondary encephalitis may occur with measles, chickenpox, mumps, rubella, and EBV.
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  • If they have not already had rubella, women should be vaccinated before becoming pregnant.
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  • Avoiding the use of vaccines made from live viruses (measles, poliovirus, mumps, rubella).
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  • Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)-Viral illness caused by a togavirus of the genus Rubivirus.
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  • When rubella infection occurs during pregnancy, fetal infection is likely and often causes congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), resulting in miscarriages, stillbirths, and severe birth defects.
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  • Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR vaccine)-These are given by injection in two doses.
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  • The rubella virus can cause labyrinthitis in infants prior to birth.
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  • Perinatal transmission of group beta streptococcus causes neonatal infection in one to five out of every 1,000 live births, and rubella (German measles), 0.02 out of every 1,000 live births.
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  • Rubella is a virus that causes German measles, an illness that includes rash, fever, and symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection.
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  • Most people are exposed to rubella during childhood and develop antibodies to the virus so they never get it again.
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  • Rubella infection during early pregnancy can pass through the placenta to the developing infant and cause serious birth defects, including heart abnormalities, mental retardation, blindness, and deafness.
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  • Pregnant women are usually tested for antibodies to rubella, which would indicate that they have been previously exposed to the virus and, therefore, would not develop infection during pregnancy if exposed.
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  • Some healthcare providers may recommend giving the mother an injection of immune globulin (to boost the immune system to fight off the virus) if she is exposed to rubella early in the pregnancy.
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  • Exposure to rubella early in pregnancy poses a high risk that the infant will have serious birth defects.
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  • Women who have not been previously exposed to rubella are usually vaccinated immediately after the first pregnancy to protect infants of future pregnancies.
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  • Environmental exposures that can increase the chance for a baby to be affected by PDA include fetal exposure to rubella before birth, preterm delivery, and birth at a high altitude location.
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  • Rubella is also caused by a virus, but the disease is mild and last only a short time.
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  • Sometimes the rash that appears on the face is the first noticeable sign of a rubella infection.
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  • Children and adults may can have rubella more than once; 3 to 10 percent of those who have had rubella and 14 to 18 percent of those immunized become infected on exposure to the virus.
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  • In fact, some 25 to 50 percent of rubella infections are asymptomatic.
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  • Because the risk of serious disease from infection with either mumps or rubella in infants is low, mumps and rubella vaccines should not be given to infants younger than 12 months old.
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  • However, parents of an infant less than 12 months of age should be immune to mumps and rubella so they will not expose the infant or become infected if the infant becomes ill.
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  • The risk for serious disease from either mumps or rubella infection among infants is low.
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  • An infant less than six months of age is usually protected against measles, mumps, and rubella by maternal antibodies.
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  • If a woman is found to not have immunity, it will be recommended that she avoid contact with infected individuals during her pregnancy and receive a vaccination against rubella after she gives birth.
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  • Antibodies to German measles (also called rubella) and chickenpox.
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  • German measles (Rubella) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are examples of maternal infections that may cause birth defects in the unborn child.
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  • The panic led to many parents in both the UK and the USA choosing not to vaccinate their children for measles, mumps and rubella or many other required childhood vaccinations.
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  • At one time, proponents of a link between autism and vaccines believed that the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination was the most likely autism trigger for many autistic children.
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  • The study's results suggested that the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine played a role in the development of the gastrointestinal disorder and autism.
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  • Perhaps the most well-known environmental suspect is the MMR (measles, mumps and rubella) vaccine.
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  • The MMR vaccine is a single inoculation that protects children from measles, mumps and rubella.
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  • The controversy started in the 1990s when a UK doctor published a study indicating that there might be a link between the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism.
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  • In most cases, onset of symptoms was after measles, mumps, and rubella immunisation (sic).
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  • The combined vaccine for measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) was claimed to cause autism or bowel disorders in some children.
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  • It is recommended that babies receive a single-dose injection of Varivax between the ages of 12 and 18 months, usually at the same time that they receive their first measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine.
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  • In other cases, a mother's illness may cause congenital malformations; an example is rubella, which can cause heart defects, deafness, developmental delays, and other problems in a fetus if the mother contracts it during pregnancy.
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