Rubber sentence example

rubber
  • They had the consistency of rubber mats.
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  • Modern Plymouth has varied and important manufactures comprising cordage, woollens, rubber goods, &c. In 1905 the total value of the factory products was $11,115,713, the worsted goods and cordage constituting about nine-tenths of the whole product.
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  • Inside the dairy she shucked her coat and rubber boots, slipping into a pair of western boots she always kept in the barn.
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  • Rubber and some other natural products are exported.
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  • Gum and rubber are the chief forest products.
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  • Want me to get the rubber hose from the car?
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  • Great developments have been made of recent years in the cultivation of rubber in British Malaya.
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  • The mode of collecting the rubber is as follows.
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  • The enormous increase in the commercial demand for rubber and the probability of the continuance of this increase in view of the great variety of purposes to which the material can be applied, has led to great activity in rubber planting in other parts of the world, especially in Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, where the Para rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) has been successfully introduced, and numerous plantations; many of which have not been in existence for more than ten or fifteen years, are now contributing to the world's supply.
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  • " Plantation " Para rubber from Ceylon and the Malay States has brought prices equal to and often exceeding those of fine Para rubber from Brazil.
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  • This is largely due to the improved methods of preparing the rubber practised by the planters of Ceylon and Malaya, which lead to the exclusion of the impurities usually found in " wild " rubber.
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  • Para rubber from Brazil generally contains about 15% of water, whilst " plantation " Para is usually nearly dry and contains 1% of water or less.
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  • It would appear, however, that the finest " wild " Para rubber as a rule possesses greater tensile strength than the " plantation " rubber.
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  • This has been ascribed by some to the presence in " wild " rubber of certain impurities derived either from the latex or introduced during the preparation of the rubber which are thought to enhance the physical properties of the caoutchouc. It is more probable, however,.
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  • It is therefore to be expected that as time goes on the quality of " plantation " rubber will improve, and there would seem to be no reason why it should not eventually be fully equal to that of the " wild " rubber.
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  • In 1909 the total production of rubber is stated to have been about 70,000 tons, of which more than one-half came from tropical America, about one-third from Africa, whilst the remainder was chiefly of Asiatic origin, including " plantation " rubber from Ceylon and Malaya, which amounted to about 3000 tons.
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  • Chiefly owing to the supplies of " wild " rubber which are: still available, comparatively little has been done until recently in establishing plantations either in Africa or in tropical America, but in Asia, including Ceylon, India and Malaya, in which.
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  • Each year should therefore show an increase in the production of plantation rubber.
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  • Among these are the precise extent of demand, the limit of the inevitable fall in price with largely increased production, the cost of labour as increasing amounts are required, and the effect of changed conditions on the output of " wild " rubber and the competition of the new plantations which are being established in tropical America.
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  • There can be little doubt that with a fall in price further uses for rubber would arise, leading to an increased demand, and among them may be mentioned its utilization as a road material.
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  • In Africa the cost of collection is much less, but the rubber is generally of inferior quality.
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  • Having regard to the present cost of producing " plantation " rubber, and to the probability that, apart from a possible increase in the price of labour, this cost is susceptible of further reduction, it may be concluded that rubber production will continue to be profitable even should a considerable fall in market value take place.
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  • Each year, however, the output of " plantation " rubber will show a considerable increase, and it is to be expected that ultimately this will form the chief source of supply, unless unforeseen circumstances should arise to interfere with the development of the plantation industry, which has been vigorously started chiefly with European capital in the tropical possessions of Great Britain, France and Germany.
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  • The best rubber is now obtained from large trees, of which the following are the more important: I.
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  • " Para " rubber, which takes the first position in the market, is derived from species of Hevea, principally Hevea brasiliensis, of which there are enormous forests in the valleys of the Amazon and its tributaries, and also in Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela and Guiana.
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  • In Brazil alone it is stated that the rubber area amounts to at least one million sq.
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  • Partly for this reason and partly because pieces of wood and dirt are apt to be included with the scrap, the market value of Ceara rubber is usually less than that of Para.
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  • India have, however, begun to furnish a better quality of Ceara rubber, which is often prepared in biscuit form.
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  • The " Ule " rubber of Central America and British Honduras originates from Castilloa elastica.
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  • The rubber comes into commerce in thick strips or sheets or as " scrap."
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  • Ule rubber is generally inferior in strength to Para and commands a lower price.
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  • America which furnish rubber of secondary commercial importance are Hancornia speciosa, yielding the Mangabeira rubber of Brazil, and species of Sapium furnishing the Colombian rubber and much of the rubber of Guiana (derived from Sapium Jenmani), which is scarcely inferior to the rubber of Para.
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  • " Rambong " or Assam rubber is the produce of Ficus elastica, commonly known as the indiarubber tree and cultivated in Europe as an ornamental plant.
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  • Although intrinsically of excellent quality, Rambong rubber, owing to the careless method of collection practised by the natives which leads to the inclusion of much impurity, usually fetches a lower price than Para.
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  • Africa and Egypt, but has not proved very successful in Africa as a rubber producer.
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  • It is known as the silk rubber tree, probably on account of the silky hairs which are attached to the seeds.
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  • The rubber is of good quality, though, owing to the method of preparation adopted, the product is often impure and discoloured, and consequently usually brings a lower price than the best rubbers of commerce.
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  • Besides the trees described above, a number of climbing plants or vines belonging to the Apocyanaceae secrete a latex which furnishes rubber of good quality.
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  • These vines are less satisfactory than trees as rubber producers, owing to the readiness with which they are injured and destroyed by careless tapping, and to the difficulty of regulating these methods in the case of vines distributed over enormous areas of forest.
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  • The rubber is obtained by incising the stems of the vines and coagulating the latex by exposure, by admixture with acid vegetable juices or by heating.
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  • Africa also furnish good rubber, as do the Forsteronia gracilis of British Guiana and Forsteronia floribunda of Jamaica.
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  • Among these are species of Willughbeia and Leuconotis, from which much of the rubber exported from Borneo is derived; Parameria glandulifera, common in Siam and Borneo, and Urceola esculenta and Cryptostegia grandiflora, both common in Burma.
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  • Africa, from the tuberous roots of which rubber is extracted by the natives.
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  • It is obtained by breaking up the roots or rhizomes in hot water and separating the rubber, and machines have now been devised for this purpose.
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  • Little is at present known of the large rubber tree of Tonkin (Bleckrodea tonkinensis), the latex of which is stated to furnish excellent rubber.
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  • Para Rubber is so named from the Para province of Brazil, from the principal town of which, also known as Para, most of the rubber is shipped.
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  • This rubber is obtained chiefly from Hevea brasiliensis, Mull.
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  • The genus Hevea was formerly called Siphonia, and the tree named Pao de Xerringa by the Portuguese, from the use by the Omaqua Indians of squirts or syringes made from a piece of pipe inserted in a hollow flask-shaped ball of rubber.
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  • The trees are not generally tapped until they are ten to fifteen years old, as young trees yield inferior rubber.
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  • The latex usually furnished about 30% of rubber.
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  • To obtain the rubber, the latex is usually treated in the following manner.
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  • The creosote and other products from the smoke no doubt act antiseptically and prevent to a large extent the subsequent putrefaction of the proteids retained by the coagulated rubber.
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  • Each layer of rubber is allowed to become firm before forming another; a practised hand can make 5 or 6 lb in an hour.
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  • In some districts a stout stick is substituted for the paddle, on which the rubber as it coagulates is wound cylindrically.
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  • The rubber thus prepared is the finest that can be obtained.
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  • The flat rounded cakes of rubber made in this manner are known in the London market as " biscuits.
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  • The yield of rubber varies, but it is stated on an average to be Io lb of rubber per tree, and if carefully tapped one tree will yield this amount for many years in succession.
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  • Ever since plantations of Hevea have been made on an increasing scale in the Straits Settlements, the Federated Malay States and in Ceylon, and at the present time rubber plantations form the principal industry in these colonies.
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  • A large number of plantations in British Malaya and Ceylon are now actively exporting increasing quantities of rubber.
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  • It may be estimated that between one and two million acres of land in the different countries referred to have been already appropriated for rubber plantations.
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  • In many plantations besides catch crops (cassava, sesame, ground-nuts, &c.) other crops, such as tea, coffee, cocoa and tobacco, are grown with rubber.
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  • It is improbable, except in the early stages of the rubber tree, that this procedure will succeed; the rubber will ultimately dominate the position to the detriment and ultimate extinction of the other crop, whilst the growth of the rubber tree will be retarded.
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  • The experience of planters in general is in favour of the complete removal of weeds from a rubber plantation.
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  • These disadvantages are at their maximum when the rubber trees are quite young.
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  • Another disadvantage of uncovered soil in a plantation of young rubber trees is that the ground under the heat of a tropical sun rapidly loses its moisture.
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  • One of the most important subjects in connexion with rubber plantations is the method to be adopted in tapping the trees for latex.
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  • The cost of clearing forest land and planting with rubber in Ceylon is estimated at about 100 Rs.
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  • The point of next importance is the coagulation of the latex so as to produce rubber in the form and of the quality required by the manufacturer.
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  • It is, however, important to remember that rough as these native methods are they result in the production of rubber which commands the highest price.
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  • The coagulated rubber separates as a mass of spongy caoutchouc. If the coagulation has been effected in shallow dishes, the rubber is obtained in a thin cake of similar shape known as a " biscuit."
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  • The rubber thus formed is washed and dried.
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  • The coagulated rubber separated from the watery fluid is cut up into small pieces and passed through the grooved rollers of the washing machine, from which it issues in sheets, long crinkled ribbons or " crepe," which are then dried in hot air chambers or in a vacuum dryer, by which means the water is dissipated at a lower temperature.
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  • In order to prevent decomposition of any proteid impurity which may remain incorporated with the rubber, the freshly coagulated rubber is sometimes cured in the smoke of burning wood or a small quantity of an antiseptic such as creosote is added during coagulation.
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  • Plantation rubber comes into commerce in the form of the crinkled ribbons known as crepe, in sheets or biscuits, and sometimes in large blocks made by compressing the crepe rubber.
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  • Block rubber is considered to possess certain advantages in securing a constant proportion of water, and in being satisfactory for transport.
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  • The best condition and form in which to export rubber cannot be regarded as settled.
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  • The probabilities are that in the end the production of a rubber as nearly as possible free from water and impurities and of constant composition will be realized as best meeting the requirements of the modern manufacturer.
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  • In the present transition stage of rubber production it is necessary for the manufacturer in Europe to wash all rubber.
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  • He receives both the wild rubber containing variable quantities of impurity and the purer plantation rubber, the latter, however, in much smaller amount.
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  • As soon as the output of plantation rubber of constant composition has reached much larger dimensions it is probable that the manufacturer will be able to dispense with washing.
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  • This will operate to the advantage of plantation rubber and against the wild rubber, so long as the latter is not exported in a purer condition.
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  • Ceara rubber is also exported in the form of lumps and cakes.
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  • The annual yield of rubber is rather more than 1 lb per tree.
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  • The latex coagulates readily, especially if churned or if diluted with water, when a purer rubber is obtained.
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  • Africa the tree flourishes, but it is under trial as a rubber producer.
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  • The pure Ceara rubber, as for example the " biscuits " prepared in Ceylon, is of excellent quality, scarcely if at all inferior to Para.
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  • The cultivation and collection of the rubber being troublesome, it is unlikely to be attended to in those countries in which Hevea is successful.
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  • The loss of Nicaragua rubber in drying is estimated at 15%.
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  • The Castilloa tree appears to be suitable for cultivation only in districts where the Para rubber would grow equally well.
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  • The tree is ready for tapping at about the same age as Hevea and the average yield of rubber is about the same.
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  • Since the latex " creams " readily the rubber can be separated from the latex by centrifugalizing, and its quality and market value thus enhanced.
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  • Much of the native Castilloa rubber is of inferior quality.
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  • Several other species of Castilloa than C. elastica are known to furnish rubber, but little has been recorded as to their advantages.
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  • African (Ire or Irai or Lagos) rubber tree, which belongs to the Apocynaceae, a natural order which includes the Landolphia vines as well as other rubber producers.
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  • The watery portion of the latex soaks into the trunk, and the soft spongy rubber which remains is kneaded and pressed into lumps or balls.
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  • In some districts the collected milk is heated alone or diluted with water, to coagulate the rubber, but if heated alone an inferior rubber is apt to result owing to overheating.
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  • The yield of rubber is stated as a rule to be less than that of Para.
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  • Funtumia africana furnishes a very inferior rubber, which is highly resinous.
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  • Ficus elastica is the tree which produces Rambong or Assam rubber.
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  • It has been found that although the tree grows well in many different countries and different localities, it only furnishes a satisfactory yield of rubber in mountainous districts, such as those of Assam and certain parts of Ceylon and Java.
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  • The trees are tapped when about ten years old, and as a rule annually furnish from 5-10 lb of rubber per tree.
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  • The rubber, if of good quality, sells at prices only slightly inferior to that of Para.
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  • In addition to the trees described above there are numerous plants of some importance as rubber producers.
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  • Among these may be mentioned the Landolphia vines, which are still the chief source of African rubber.
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  • Among other shrubs and vines which yield rubber of fair quality may be mentioned Willughbeia edulis and Urceola elastica and Parameria glandulifera, which occur in Burma and Malaya.
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  • The Sapiums of Colombia and Guiana are large trees resembling Hevea, and certain species furnish good rubber, especially the Sapium Jenmani of Guiana.
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  • It is about the size of an ordinary apple tree, with small leaves like the willow, and a drooping habit like a weeping birch, and has an edible fruit like a yellow plum called " mangaba," for which, rather than for the rubber, the tree is cultivated in some districts.
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  • Only a small quantity of this rubber comes to England, and it is not much valued, being a " wet " rubber.
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  • In two or three minutes coagulation takes place, and the rubber is then exposed to the air on sticks, and allowed to drain for eight days.
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  • Pernambuco rubber, as is the case with most rubbers coagulated by saline solutions, contains a large quantity of water.
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  • Like the Forsteronia floribunda of Jamaica it yields rubber of good quality.
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  • Rubber is chiefly composed of the soft, solid, elastic substance known as caoutchouc. It is usually assumed that this substance is present as such in the latex.
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  • The watery liquid known as rubber milk or latex is an emulsion consisting chiefly of a weak watery solution of proteids, carbohydrates and salts holding the liquid globules in suspension.
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  • In connexion with the production of rubber the most important factor is the proportion of caoutchouc it contains.
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  • In a good rubber this ranges from 70-90% and over.
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  • The proteids should be as far as possible removed during the preparation of the rubber, as these substances are chiefly responsible for the objectionable smell and colour of " native " rubbers, and their presence leads to subsequent change in the commercial material.
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  • All crude rubber contains more or less proteid, and in the opinion of some technical experts its presence even affords strength to the material, but this cannot be accepted as proved.
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  • The dissolved salts (potassium, sodium, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, &c.) of the latex are generally nearly entirely absent from the wellprepared rubber.
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  • Of considerable importance to the value of the rubber is the absence of the resinous constituents which are present in greater or smaller proportion in all latices.
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  • The presence of more than a small percentage of resin in the latex leads to the production of rubber containing much resin, which seriously depreciates its commercial value for most purposes.
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  • The percentage of resin in a good rubber should be as small as possible, and should in any case be less than to %.
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  • There is no feasible method at present known of preventing the inclusion of the resin of the latex with the rubber during coagulation, and although the separation of the resin from the solid caoutchouc by means of solvents is possible, it is not practicable or profitable commercially.
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  • The chemical analysis of crude rubber is an important guide to its value.
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  • At present, however, the methods of analysis usually employed are not sufficiently delicate to afford all the necessary information as to the intrinsic value of the higher grades of rubber, and do not go much beyond the exclusion of inferior rubber.
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  • The tests of the physical properties of crude rubber usually applied to determine its value in the market are also very rough and cannot be relied upon.
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  • The development of the rubber industry has now reached a stage at which more exact methods of determining the chemical composition and physical properties (strength and elasticity) of rubber are required.
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  • At present the caoutchouc present in crude rubber is usually estimated indirectly, and it is possible that what generally passes as caoutchouc may be in some instances a mixture of similar chemical substances, which if separated would be found to differ in those physical properties on which the technical value of rubber depends.
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  • It may therefore be said that caoutchouc has been already artificially or synthetically prepared, and the possibility of producing synthetic rubber cheaply on a commercial scale remains the only problem.
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  • At present the change of isoprene into caoutchouc is mainly of scientific interest in indicating possibilities with regard to the conversion of the liquid globules of the latex into rubber and to the formation of rubber by plants.
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  • The question as to whether synthetic rubber will ever be produced cheaply on a commerical scale is therefore the important one for those who are largely interested in the rubber-planting industry.
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  • Its settlement will depend in part on the cost of producing rubber from plants, which from their point of view it is to the interests of planters to reduce as far as possible.
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  • The best solvents for rubber are carbon bisulphide, benzol and mineral naphtha, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform.
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  • These liquids, either alone or mixed, are employed in making the rubber solutions used for technical purposes.
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  • Sulphur when warmed with caoutchouc combines with it, and on this fact the vulcanization of rubber depends, and also the production, with an excess of sulphur, of the hard black material known as vulcanite or ebonite.
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  • There is some evidence that " tackiness " may be induced by a kind of fermentation which takes place in crude rubber.
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  • Rubber slowly absorbs oxygen when exposed to air and light, the absorption of oxygen being accompanied by a gradual change in the characteristic properties of rubber, and ultimately to the production of a hard, inelastic, brittle substance containing oxygen.
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  • Ozone at once attacks rubber, rapidly destroying it.
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  • If ozone is passed into a solution of rubber in chloroform the caoutchouc combines with a molecule of ozone forming a compound of the empirical composition C 5 H 8 O 8.
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  • In the industrial working of indiarubber, the various impurities present in the crude " wild rubber (bark, dirt and the principal impurities derived from the latex, except resin) are removed by the following process: The lumps of crude caoutchouc are first softened by the prolonged action of hot water, and then cut into slices by means of a sharp knife - generally by hand, as thus any large stones or other foreign substances can be removed.
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  • Solid impurities speedily become crushed, and are carried away by the water, while the rubber takes the form of an irregular sheet perforated by numerous holes.
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  • In the future this washing of " wild " rubber may be conducted in the tropics, thus furnishing the manufacturer with rubber which, like " plantation " rubber, need not be subjected to this process in the factory.
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  • The washed product contains in its pores a notable proportion of water, which is removed by hanging the rubber for some days in a warm room.
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  • Some of the rubber having been placed in the annular space between the inner cylinder and the outer casing, the former is made to revolve; and the continued kneading action to which the rubber is subjected works it into a solid mass, something like a gigantic sausage.
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  • To convert the masticated rubber into rectangular blocks, it is first softened by heat, and then forced into iron boxes or moulds.
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  • Most articles made of cut sheet rubber would, however, be of very limited utility were they not hardened or vulcanized by the action of sulphur or some compound of that element.
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  • If an article made of cut sheet be immersed for a few minutes in a bath of melted sulphur, maintained at a temperature of 120 0 C., the rubber absorbs about one-tenth of its weight of that element, and, although somewhat yellowish in colour from the presence of free sulphur, it is still unvulcanized, and unaltered as regards general properties.
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  • When a manufactured article has been saturated with sulphur in the melted sulphur bath, the heat necessary for vulcanization may be obtained either by highpressure steam, by heated glycerin, or by immersion in a sulphur bath heated to about 140° C. In this last case absorption of the sulphur and its intimate combination with the rubber occur simultaneously.
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  • Another method of vulcanizing articles made from cut sheet rubber consists in exposing them to the action of chloride of sulphur.
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  • Another very excellent method of vulcanizing cut sheet goods consists in placing them in a solution of the polysulphides of calcium at a temperature of 140° C. Rubber employed for the manufacture of cut sheets is often coloured by such pigments as vermilion, oxide of chromium, ultramarine, orpiment, antimony, lamp black, or oxide of zinc, incorporation being effected either by means of the masticator or by a pair of rollers heated internally by steam, and so geared as to move in contrary directions at unequal FIG.
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  • Most of the rubber now manufactured is not combined with sulphur when in the form of sheets, but is mechanically incorporated with about one-tenth of its weight of that substance by means of the mixing rollers - any required pigment or other matter, such as whiting or barium sulphate, being added.
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  • The mixed rubber thus obtained is readily softened by heat, and can be very easily worked into any desired form or rolled into sheets by an apparatus known as the calendering machine.
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  • Of late years a considerable amount of seamless tubing has been made, much in the same way as lead piping, by forcing the mixed rubber through a die, and curing as above.
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  • Before it is put in, the article is roughly put together, and the expansion of the included air forces the rubber into contact with the internal surface of the mould, or a little carbonate of ammonia is enclosed.
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  • Belting intended for driving machinery is built up of canvas which has been thoroughly frictioned with the soft mixed rubber, and is cured by placing it in a kind of press kept by means of steam at a dry heat of about 140° C. Packing for the stuffing boxes of steam engines is similarly prepared from strips of rubber and friotioned canvas, as also are the so-called insertion sheets, in which layers of rubber alternate with canvas or even wire gauze.
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  • Double texture goods are made by uniting the rubber surfaces of two pieces of the coated material.
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  • Air goods, such as cushions, beds, gas bags, and so forth, are made of textile fabrics which have been coated with mixed rubber either by the spreading process above described, or by means of heated rollers, the curing being then effected by steam heat.
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  • The manufacture of overshoes and fishing boots is an analogous process, only the canvas base is more thickly coated with a highly pigmented rubber of low quality.
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  • Vulcanization is then effected by steam heat, and, the preparation on the cloth being softened by water, the sheet of rubber is readily removed.
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  • The manufacture of springs, valves and washers does not require any very special notice, these articles being generally fashioned out of mixed rubber, and vulcanized either in moulds or in powdered French chalk.
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  • In order to make spongy or porous rubber, some material is incorporated which will give off gas or vapour at the vulcanizing temperature, - such as carbonate of ammonia, crystallized alum, and finely ground damp sawdust.
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  • It will thus be seen that for nearly all practical purposes, including tires, vulcanized rubber mixed with mineral matter is employed.
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  • Such articles contain varying proportions of rubber (12-60%), about 1-2% of combined sulphur, and from 25-70% of mineral matter.
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  • When the vulcanization of rubber is carried too far, from the presence of a very large proportion of sulphur and an unduly long action of heat, the caoutchouc becomes hard, horn-like, and often black.
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  • Rubber hardened by over-vulcanization is largely manufactured under the name of ebonite or vulcanite.
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  • It is usually made by incorporating about 40% of sulphur with purified Borneo rubber by means of the usual mixing rollers, shaping the required articles out of the mass thus obtained, and heating for six, eight or ten hours to from 135° to 150°.
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  • A kind of vulcanite which contains a large proportion of vermilion or other mineral pigment is used, under the name of dental rubber, for making artificial gums and supports for artificial teeth.
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  • Palm-oil, timber, rubber, yams and shea-butter are the chief articles of trade.
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  • The principal manufactures are cordage and twine, agricultural implements, engines, pianos, boots and shoes, cotton and woollen goods, carpets and rugs, rubber goods, flour and machinery.
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  • Among the manufactures are rubber goods, chemicals, iron castings, woollen goods, cutlery, &c. The value of the factory products increased from $8,886,676 in 1900 to $11,009,573 in 1905, or 23.9%.
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  • The prominence of the rubber industry here is due to Charles Goodyear, who in 1821 entered into partnership with his father Amasa Goodyear for the manufacture of hardware.
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  • Vulcanized rubber overshoes were first made in Naugatuck, and in 1843 the Goodyear's Metallic Rubber Shoe Company was established here.
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  • The local industries include the manufacture of rubber goods, brewing, quarrying and iron-founding.
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  • A small island, Hog Island, is included in the township. The principal village, also known as Bristol, is a port of entry with a capacious and deep harbour, has manufactories of rubber and woollen goods, and is well known as a yacht-building centre, several defenders of the America Cup, including the "Columbia" and the "Reliance," having been built in the Herreshoff yards here.
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  • The exports cover a wide range of agricultural, pastoral and natural productions, including coffee, rubber, sugar, cotton, cocoa, Brazil nuts, mate (Paraguay tea), hides, skins, fruits, gold, diamonds, manganese ore, cabinet woods and medicinal leaves, roots and resins.
    0
    0
  • Coffee and rubber, however, represent from 80 to 90% of the official valuation of all exports.
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  • According to a summary for the six years 1901 to 1906, derived from official sources and published in the annual Retrospecto of the Jornal do Commercio, of Rio de Janeiro, the values of the imports and exports for those years (exclusive of coin), reduced to pounds sterling at the average rate of exchange (or value of one milreis) for each year, were as follows: - Nearly 761% of the exports of 1906 were of coffee and rubber, the official valuations of these being: coffee 2 45,474,5 2 5 milreis gold (27,615,884), and rubber (including manigoba and mangabeira), 12 4,941,433 milreis gold (£14,055,911).
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  • The exportation for 1906 was 69,761,123 lb of Hevea, 5,871,968 lb of manicoba, and 1,440,131 lb of mangabeira rubber, the whole valued at 12 4,9 1,433 milreis gold.
    0
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  • In the case of gastric dilatation from pyloric obstruction great relief may be afforded by washing out the viscus by means of a long rubber tube, a funnel, and a jug of hot water, as originally suggested by Adolf Kussmaul.
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    0
  • The principal products are rubber, cacao and nuts; cattle are raised on the elevated plains of the north, while curing fish and collecting turtle eggs for their oil give occupation to many people on the rivers.
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    0
  • Besides rice, the products of the countryinclude tea, tobacco, cotton, cinnamon, precious woods and rubber; coffee, pepper, sugar-canes and jute are cultivated to a minor extent.
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  • Among other forest trees of economic importance are the silk-cotton tree (Bombax ceiba), the Palo de vaca, or cow-tree (Brosimum galactodendron), whose sap resembles milk and is used for that purpose, the Inga saman, the Hevea guayanensis, celebrated in the production of rubber, and the Altalea speciosa, distinguished for the length of its leaves.
    0
    0
  • The principal exports were coffee, cacau, divi-divi, rubber, hides and skins, cattle and asphalt.
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    0
  • The forest products, whose collection and preparation form regular industries, are rubber (called Gaucho or goma), tonka beans, vanilla, copaiba, chique-chique, sarsaparilla, divi-divi, dye-woods, cabinet-woods and fibres.
    0
    0
  • The rubber forests are on the Orinoco and its tributaries of the Guiana highlands.
    0
    0
  • Rubber plantations have also been laid out, principally by American companies, the Castilloa elastica doing well.
    0
    0
  • The exports include cattle, hides, coffee, rubber, fruit and salt.
    0
    0
  • The principal exports are rubber, sugar, ground-nuts and oil seeds, beeswax, chromite (from Rhodesia), and gold (from Manica).
    0
    0
  • In addition to teak, which provides the bulk of the revenue, the most valuable woods are sha or cutch, india rubber, pyingado, or ironwood for railway sleepers, and padauk.
    0
    0
  • For a few isolated purposes, however, it is desirable to use a glass which has not been touched upon either surface and thus preserves the lustre of its " fire polish " undiminished; this can be attained in crown-glass but not in sheet, since one side of the latter is always more or less marked by the rubber used in the process of flattening.
    0
    0
  • A few strokes of such a rubber are sufficient to produce a decidedly " polished " appearance, but prolonged rubbing under considerable pressure and the use of a polishing paste of a proper consistency are required in order to remove the last trace of pitting from the surface.
    0
    0
  • At first, the oil was manufactured principally for combustion in the Read-Holliday lamp and for dissolving rubber, but the development of the coal-tar colour industry occasioned a demand for benzols of definite purity.
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  • Cocoa, rice and cotton were also increasingly cultivated and the fall in the value of rubber led to a much larger collection of copal, the amount exported, 2,139 tons in 1911, being 8,719 in 1916.
    0
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  • During that period rubber fell from being 77% to 15 in value of the exports of produce of the colony, though the quantity exported-3,000-4,000 tons - was about the same.
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  • Leather and rubber goods, gold, silver and aluminium wares, machinery, wall-paper, and stained glass are also among other of its staple products.
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    0
  • Among its products are cotton goods, especially mercerised goods, for the manufacture of which it has one of the largest plants in the country; rubber, thread, elastic fabrics, suspenders and buttons.
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  • In the vast untrodden forests farther east there are timber trees of many kinds, incense trees, a great wealth of rubber trees of the Hevea genus, numerous varieties of beautiful palms, sarsaparilla, vanilla, ipecacuanha and copaiba.
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  • There are small ports, or trading posts, on all the large rivers, and occasional steamers are sent to them with supplies and to bring away rubber and other forest products.
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    0
  • The natural products of Peru include rubber, cabinet woods in great variety, cinchona or Peruvian bark and other medicinal products, various fibres, and guano.
    0
    0
  • There are two Forest kinds of rubber supplied by the Peruvian montana products.
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  • As the species from which Ceara rubber is obtained (Hancorina speciosa) is found in Bolivia, it is probable that this is also a source of the Peruvian caucho.
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  • Owing to the export tax on rubber (8 cents per kilogram on jebe and 5 cents on caucho) it is probable that the official statistics do not cover the total production, which was returned as 2539 metric tons in 1905, valued at £913,989.
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  • The neck of the retort, or side tube of the flask, is connected to the condenser c by an ordinary or rubber cork, according to the nature of the substance distilled; ordinary corks soaked in paraffin wax are very effective when ordinary or rubber corks cannot be used.
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  • The river furnishes considerable water-power; and among the city's most important manufactures are rubber and elastic goods (value, 1905, $ 1 3,39 6, 974; 8 3.9% of the total of this industry in the state and 21 � 3% of the total for the United States, Akron ranking first among the cities of the country in this industry), printing and publishing product (value, 1905, $ 2, 8 34,639), foundry and machine-shop product (value, 1905, $2,367,764), and pottery, terra-cotta and fire-clay (value, 1905, $1,718,033; nearly twice the value of the output in 1900, Akron ranking fourth among the cities of the United States in this industry in 1905).
    0
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  • The top is fitted with a rubber stopper, or in some forms with a stop-cock, while a little way down there is a bent delivery tube (b).
    0
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  • To use the apparatus, the long tube is placed in a vapour bath (c) of the requisite temperature, and after the air within the tube is in equilibrium, the delivery tube is placed beneath the surface of the water in a pneumatic trough, the rubber stopper pushed home, and observation made as to whether any more air is being expelled.
    0
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  • The rubber stopper is removed and the experimental substance introduced, and the stopper quickly replaced to the same extent as before.
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  • The vaporizing bulb A has fused about it a jacket B, provided with a condenser c. Two side tubes are fused on to the neck of A: the lower one leads to a mercury manometer M, and to the air by means of a cock C; the upper tube is provided with a rubber stopper through which a glass rod passes - this rod serves FIG.
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  • It is here we find the Landolphia Florida, which yields the best rubber.
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  • From the forests are obtained rubber, copal, bark, various kinds of fibre, and timber (teak, mahogany, &c.).
    0
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  • The chief exports are sisal fibre, rubber, hides and skins, wax, ivory, copra, coffee, ground-nuts and cotton.
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    0
  • Some Baganda chiefs have started cotton, rubber and cocoa plantations, the botanic department assisting in this enterprise.
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    0
  • Path and Funtumia rubber trees are also cultivated by the department.
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    0
  • The articles exported were ivory, rubber, skins and hides, and livestock (for consumption in East Africa).
    0
    0
  • Among the new industries are sugar and coffee plantations, while cotton, ground-nuts and rubber figure increasingly among the exports, cotton and cottonseed being of special importance.
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  • In textiles - cottons, worsteds, woollens and carpets - in boots and shoes, in rubber foot-wear, in fine writing paper, and in other minor products, it is the leading state of the country.
    0
    0
  • Vulcanized rubber is a Massachusetts invention.
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    0
  • By means of a piece of stretched rubber tubing, this crucible is supported in the mouth of an ordinary funnel which is connected with an exhausting apparatus; and water holding in suspension fine scrapings of asbestos, purified by boiling with strong hydrochloric acid and washing with water, is run through it, so that the perforated bottom is covered with a layer of felted asbestos.
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  • The crucible is then removed from the rubber support, weighed and replaced; the liquid is filtered through in the ordinary way; and the crucible with its contents is again removed, dried, ignited and weighed.
    0
    0
  • Among the manufactures of the borough are sterling silver articles, plated and britannia ware, brass ware, rubber goods, cutlery and edge tools.
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  • Abijean (Abidjan), on the north side of the lagoon opposite Port Bouet is the starting-point of a railway to the oil and rubber regions.
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  • Assini is an important centre for the rubber trade of Ashanti.
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  • The forests are rich in palm-tree products, rubber and mahogany, which constitute the chief articles of export.
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  • The rubber goes almost exclusively to England, as does also the mahogany.
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  • Besides machine shops and shipbuilding facilities, the important industries are the weaving of hats and hammocks, and the preparation of salt fish; and there is a considerable export of rubber and straw hats.
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  • The change in pitch through motion of the source may be illustrated by putting a pitch-pipe in one end of a few feet of rubber tubing and blowing through the other end while the tubing is whirled round the head.
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  • - The name "Costa Rica," meaning "rich coast," is well deserved; for, owing to the combination of ample sunshine and moisture with a wonderfully fertile soil, almost any kind of fruit or flower can be successfully cultivated; while the vast tracts of virgin forest, which remain along the Atlantic slopes, contain an abundance of cedar, mahogany, rosewood, rubber and ebony, with fustic and other precious dye-woods.
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  • Among the well-known forest products of this zone are arnotto, jalap, ipecacuanha, sarsaparilla, rubber, orchids and a great variety of gums.
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    0
  • The exports include gold, silver, copper, coffee, henequen or sisal, ixtle and other fibres, cabinet woods, chicle, rubber and other forest products, hides and skins, chickpeas, tobacco and sugar.
    0
    0
  • An indirect result of the industrial development of Mexico, which began during the last quarter of the 19th century, has been an increased interest in agriculture, and especially in undertakings requiring large investments of capital, such as coffee, sugar and rubber plantations.
    0
    0
  • The production of rubber is becoming an important industry, large plantations having been set with both Hevea and Castilloa rubber trees.
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  • The natural and forest products of Mexico include the agave and yucca (ixtle) fibres already mentioned; the " ceibon " fibre derived from the silk-cotton tree (Bombax pentandria); rubber and vanilla in addition to the cultivated products; palm oil; castor beans; ginger; chicle, the gum extracted from the " chico-zapote " tree (Achras sapota); logwood and other dye-woods; mahogany, rosewood, ebony, cedar and other valuable woods; " cascalote " or divi-divi; jalap root (Ipomaea); sarsaparilla (Smilax); nuts and fruits.
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    0
  • For the smaller sizes, rubber brakes are sometimes used and, for the very smallest, the fingers either bare or protected by linen bands.
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  • The exports also include hides, mangabeira rubber, piassava fibre, diamonds, cabinet woods and rum.
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  • Besides rubber, it yields many valuable dye-woods and cabinet-woods, such as cedar, mahogany and logwood.
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  • The exports during the same period had an average value of £1,528,000, and ranked as follows in order of value: coffee (£1,300,000), timber, hides, rubber, sugar, bananas, cocoa.
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  • The leading imports in 1909 were as follows, indicating in each case, when not evidently unnecessary, the value of finished manufactures and of unmanufactured materials: Silk (manufactured, $32,963,162; unmanufactured, $75,512,401); hides and skins, other than fur skins ($103,758,277); sugar and molasses ($91,535,466); fibres, vegetables and textile grasses (manufactured, $33,511,696; unmanufactured, $54,860,698); coffee ($86,524,006); chemicals ($86,401,432); cotton (manufactured, $68,380,780; raw and waste, $1 5,421,854); rubber (manufactured, $1,462,541, unmanufactured, $83,682,013); wool (manufactured, $22,058,712; unmantifactured, $55,530,366); and wood (manufactured, $43,620,591; unmanufactured, $13,584,172).
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  • Berlin is a flourishing manufacturing town, and contains a beet sugar refinery, automobile, leather, furniture, shirt and collar, felt, glove, button and rubber factories.
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  • Rubber and palm oil are natural forest products of the coastal zone.
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  • The silk to be opened is placed on a latticed sheet or feeder, and thus slowly conveyed to a series of rollers or porcupines (rollers set with rows of projecting steel pins), which hold the silk firmly while presenting it to the action of a large receiving drum, covered with a sheet of vulcanized rubber, set all over with fine steel teeth.
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  • In 1909, on six large rubber plantations, mostly on the windward side of the island of Maui, there were planted 444,450 ceara trees, 66,700 hevea trees, and 600 castilloa trees.
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  • Rubber trees have been planted with some success, particularly on the eastern part of the island of Maui; they were not tapped for commercial use until 1909.
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  • A volatile product obtained by the destructive distillation of rubber.
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  • A dangerous bar at the mouth of the river permits the entrance only of the smaller coasting steamers, but the port is an important commercial centre, and exports considerable quantities of cotton, hides, manicoba, rubber, fruit, and palm wax.
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  • Flanged joints are made to bolt together on washers of vulcanized rubber.
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  • The neighbouring country is devoted principally to raising horses, mules and cattle; and in addition to hides and leather, it exports rubber and other forest products.
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  • The rubber was smeared with amalgam.
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  • The function of the apron is to prevent the escape of electrification from the glass during its passage from the rubber to the collecting points.
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  • To these lianas (species of which yield one kind of the rubber of commerce) is due largely the weird aspect of the forest.
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  • The vegetable products do not differ greatly from those found on the Gold Coast; the most important commercially is the rubber tree (Funtumia elastica).
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  • Rice is the staple crop; there are promising plantations of coffee and rubber.
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  • Among Fairfield's manufactures are chemicals, wire and rubber goods.
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  • Erie is the commercial centre of a large and rich grape-growing and agricultural district, has an extensive trade with the lake ports and by rail (chiefly in coal, iron ore, lumber and grain), and is an important manufacturing centre, among its products being iron, engines, boilers, brass castings, stoves, car heaters, flour, malt liquors, lumber, planing mill products, cooperage products, paper and wood pulp, cigars and other tobacco goods, gas meters, rubber goods, pipe organs, pianos and chemicals.
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  • Diamonds are now employed not only for faceting precious stones, but also for cutting and drilling glass, porcelain, &c,; for fine engraving such as scales; in dentistry for drilling; as a turning tool for electric-light carbons, hard rubber, &c.; and occasionally for finishing accurate turning work such as the axle of a transit instrument.
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  • The Shawsheen river supplies power for a considerable manufacturing industry (twine, woollens and rubber goods being manufactured) in the villages of Andover, Ballardville and Frye.
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  • Cotton and rubber are found in considerable quantities, and fields of maize, corn, rice and sugarcane bear witness to the fertility of the soil.
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  • Rubber is collected from the Landolphia and various species of Ficus.
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  • The best-known of these companies, the St d-Kamerun, holds a concession over a large tract of country by the Sanga river, exporting its rubber, ivory and other produce via the Congo.
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  • They took a quantity of goods on trust, visited the tribes in the forest, and bartered for ivory, rubber and other produce.
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  • Much rubber ware is also manufactured.
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  • The principal products are rubber shoes (at the village of Fells), skirts (at the village of Wyoming), and leather and silverware (at Melrose Highlands).
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  • Rubber vines, mahogany, ebony and many valuable timber trees are found in the forest zone.
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  • Rubber, ebony and other timber, cocoa and gum copal, come next in importance.
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  • The exports include sugar, rum, cotton, hides, skins, rubber, wax, fibres, dyewoods, cacau, mandioca flour, pineapples and other fruits.
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  • Besides rubber, the forests produce a great variety of cabinet and construction woods, ivory-nuts (from the " tagua " palm, Phytelephas macrocarpa), " toquilla " fibre (Carludovica palmata) for the manufacture of so-called Panama hats, cabbage palms, several species of cinchona, vanilla and dyewoods.
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  • Forest Products.-The forest and other natural products include rubber, cinchona bark, ivory-nuts, mocora and toquilla fibre for the manufacture of hats, hammocks, &c., cabaya fibre for shoes and cordage, vegetable wool (Bombax ceiba), sarsaparilla, vanilla, cochineal, cabinet woods, fruit, resins, &c. The original source of the Peruvian bark of commerce, the Cinchona calisaya, is completely exhausted, and the " red bark " derived from C. succirubra, is now the principal source of supply from Ecuador.
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  • The principal exports are cacao, rubber, coffee, tobacco, hides, cotton, Panama hats, cinchona bark and ivory nuts, the value of all exports for the year 1905 being 14,148,877 sucres, in a total of 18,565,668 sucres for the whole republic. In 1908 the exports were: cacao, about 64,000,000 lb, valued at $6,400,000; hides, valued at $135,000; rubber, valued at $235,000; coffee, valued at $273,000; and vegetable ivory, valued at $102,000.
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  • Among the town's manufactures are silk and woollen goods, paper, electric elevators, electric lamps, rubber goods, safety pins, hats, cream separators, brushes and novelties.
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  • Various kinds of rubber vine are found.
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  • Rubber vines and trees are abundant, but in some districts their number has been considerably reduced by the ruthless methods adopted by native collectors of rubber.
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  • The chief exports are coffee, rubber, wax, palm kernels and palm-oil, cattle and hides and dried or salt fish.
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  • Perforated and otherwise prepared rubber, as well as wire-woven material, are also largely utilized for door and floor mats.
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  • The dense forests also contain many varieties of lianas or rubber vines, huge bombax and bamboos.
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  • The chief products are rubber, brought from the interior, and palm oil and palm kernels, obtained in the coast regions.
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  • The rubber is mainly exported to England, the palm products to Germany, and the ground-nuts to France.
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  • The average annual value of the trade for the period 1900-1907 was about £1,250,000, the annual export of rubber alone being worth £400,000 or more.
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  • Gutta, rubber, rattans, mangrove-bark, edible nuts, guano, edible birds'-nests, &c., are all valuable articles of export.
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    0
  • Rubber is collected in the forests, and plantations have been formed.
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  • The purchaser undertook to introduce settlers from northern Europe, to import cattle for the improvement of the Nicaraguan breed, to plant rubber and vanilla, and to provide schools for agricultural instruction.
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  • The principal exports are (in order of value) coffee, bananas, gold, rubber, cattle and hides, dye-woods and cabinet woods.
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  • There are other factories for machinery, patent medicines, boots and shoes, perfumery and cosmetics, hosiery and rubber heels.
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  • Lowell was the home of the inventor of rubber heels, Humphrey O'Sullivan.
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  • The latter include great quantities of shea as well as palm-oil and rubber.
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  • He asserted that the glass globe, when rubbed, attracted the electrical fire, and took it from the rubber, the same globe being disposed, when the friction ceases, to give out its electricity to any body which has less.
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  • John Canton (1718-1772) made the important contribution to knowledge that electricity of either sign could be produced on nearly any body by friction with appropriate substances, and that a rod of glass roughened on one half was excited negatively in the rough part and positively in the smooth part by friction with the same rubber.
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  • Rubber is grown in government plantations and is also brought in by the hill tribes; while lac, mustard and potatoes are also produced.
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  • The natural vegetable productions are important, and include manigoba or Ceara rubber, carnahuba wax and fibre, caju wine and ipecacuanha.
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  • They were to issue regulations for the proper construction of houses and villages, to exercise an active censorship over published price-lists and printed notes of invitation and visiting cards, as well as seals and rubber stamps.
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  • Of the Apocynaceae the rubber plants are the most important.
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    0
  • The wealth of the country consists, however, chiefly in its indigenous trees of economic value - the oil-palm, the kola-nut tree and various kinds of rubber plants, chiefly the Landolphia owariensis.
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    0
  • Its place has been taken to some extent by the extraction of rubber.
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    0
  • Next to palm products the most valuable articles exported are kola-nuts - which go largely to neighbouring French colonies - rubber and ginger.
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    0
  • Here, and also in the upper Limpopo valley, cotton, tobacco, and rubber vines are found.
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    0
  • These thioantimonites are used in the vulcanizing of rubber and in the preparation of matches.
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    0
  • 10 20' S., and designated a straight line to the source of the Javary as the frontier, which gave to Brazil a large area of territory; but when the valuable rubber forests of the upper Purus became known the Brazilians invaded them and demanded another modification of the boundary line.
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  • The most prominent and profitable of these is that of rubber-collecting, which was begun in Bolivia between 1880 and 1890, and which reached a registered annual output of nearly 35 oo metric tons just before Bolivia's best rubber forests were transferred to Brazil in 1903.
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  • The revenues are derived principally from duties and fees on imports, excise taxes on spirits, wines, tobacco and sugar, general, mining taxes and export duties on minerals (except silver), export duties on rubber and coca, taxes on the profits of stock companies, fees for licences and patents, stamp taxes, and postal and telegraph revenues.
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  • The dispute with Brazil over the rich Acre rubberproducing territory was accentuated by the majority of those engaged in the rubber industry being Brazilians, who resented the attempts of Bolivian officials to exercise authority in the district.
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  • Thus, a shallow tin vessel, such as the lid of a biscuit box, may be levelled and filled with tap-water through a rubber hose.
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  • The upper end is contracted and is fitted with a rubber tube under the control of a pinch-cock.
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    0
  • Water is sucked up from a vessel of moderate size, the rubber is nipped, and by a quick motion the tube and vessel are separated, preferably by a downward movement of the latter.
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  • Rubber and medicinal products are also exported.
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    0
  • The Guapay is navigable for small boats in high water, and also the lower courses of the other rivers named, but they are of little service except in the transport of rubber.
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  • The values of the other leading manufactures in 1905 were as follows: products of foundry and machine shops, $49,425,385; iron and steel 2 (including products of blast furnaces and rolling mills), $23,667,483; wire (exclusive of copper wire), $11,103,959; petroleum refining, $46,608,984; tanned, curried and finished leather, $21,495,329 (5th in the United States in 1900 and 1905); malt liquors, $ 1 7,44 6, 447; slaughter-house products and packed meats, $17,238,076; electrical machinery, supplies and apparatus, $13,803,476 (5th in the United States in 1900 and in 1905); chemicals, $13,023,629; rubber belting and hose, $9,915,742; jewelry, $9,303,646 (4th in the United States in 1900 and in 1905); tobacco, cigars and cigarettes, $8,331,611.
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    0
  • The Fondation controlled the most valuable rubber region in the Congo, and in that region the natives appeared to be treated with the utmost severity.
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    0
  • The American Congo Company was granted a rubber concession in the Kasai basin.
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  • The fears excited by this letter that King Leopold desired to restrict Belgium's liberty of action in the Congo State when the latter should become a Belgian colony were not diminished by the announcement in November 1906 of four new concessions, conferring very extensive rights on railway, mining and rubber companies in which foreign capital was largely interested.
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  • This" government within a government "was secured in all its privileges, its profits as heretofore being appropriated to allowances to members of the royal family and the maintenance and development of" works of public utility "in Belgium and the Congo, those works including schemes for the embellishment of the royal palaces and estates in Belgium and others for making Ostend" a bathing city unique in the world."The state was to have the right of redemption on terms which, had the rubber and ivory produce alone been redeemed, would have cost Belgium about £8,50o,000.
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    0
  • The value of the rubber exported, which in 1886 was only £600o, had risen in 1900 to £1,158,000.
    0
    0
  • The revenue from this source, obtained almost entirely from rubber and ivory, had risen in 1891 to £52,000, in 1896 to £235,000, in 1900 to £448,000, and in 1905 to £660,000.
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    0
  • In 1843 General John C. Fremont with Kit Carson and three others explored the Great Salt Lake in a rubber boat.
    0
    0
  • The most important of the trees introduced since 1900 are various kinds of rubber, including Para (Hevea Brasiliensis), which grows well.
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    0
  • Owing to increased competition, and in some degree to careless harvesting, there was a great fall in prices after 1900, and the Seychellois, though still producing vanilla in large quantities, paid greater attention to the products of the coconut palm - copra, soap, coco-nut oil and coco-nuts - to the development of the mangrove bark industry, the collection of guano, the cultivation of rubber trees, the preparation of banana flour, the growing of sugar canes, and the distillation of rum and essential oils.
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  • The imports include wheat flour, rice, barley, prepared foods, sugar, coal, kerosene, beer, wines and liquors, railway equipment, machinery and general hardware, fence wire, cotton and other textiles, drugs, lumber, cement, paper, &c., while the exports comprise coffee, bananas, hides and skins, tobacco, precious metals, rubber, cabinet woods, divi-divi, dye-woods, vegetable ivory, Panama hats, orchids, vanilla, &c.
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    0
  • The late Sir Benjamin Baker, F.R.S., suggested that the stresses might be measured by experiments with elastic models, and among others, experiments were carried out by Messrs Wilson and Gore a with indiarubber models of plane sections of dams (including the foundations) who applied forces to represent the gravity and water pressures in such a manner that the virtual density of the rubber was increased many times without interfering with the proper ratio between gravity and water pressure, and by this means the strains produced were of sufficient magnitude to be easily measured.
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    0
  • The Peruvian government has sought to open a trade route between the Rio Ucayali and the rich rubber districts of the Mayutata.
    0
    0
  • Of the rubber production of the Amazon basin, the state of Path gives about 35%.
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  • There may be 500,000 or 600,000, or more; for the immigration during recent years from the other parts of Brazil has been large, due to the rubber excitement.
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  • Agriculture is the principal occupation of the people; the chief products are Indian corn, wheat, coffee, sugar, rubber, cotton, cacao, tobacco, indigo and a great variety of tropical fruits.
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  • It consists of two vertical tubes provided with feet and connected at the bottom by flexible rubber tubing.
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  • To use a pipette, the absorbing liquid is brought to the outlet of the capillary by tilting or by squeezing a rubber ball fixed to the wide end, and the liquid is maintained there by closing with a clip. The capillary is connected with the measuring tube by a fine tube previously filled with water.
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  • The principal manufactures are slaughtering and meat-packing products, foundry and machine-shop products, rubber boots and shoes, rubber belting and hose, printing and publishing products, carpentering, pianos and organs, confectionery and furniture.
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  • Cattle and forest products, including rubber and coca, are exported to a limited extent.
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  • Besides bananas the largest exports are hides, rubber, coco-nuts, limes, native curios and quaqua bark.
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  • After the British occupation, an extensive trade developed in oil, kernels, timber, ivory, rubber, &c. In the rubber and timber industries great strides have been made.
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  • The forest products of the state include rubber, resins, cabinet and dyewoods, deerskins, orchilla and ixtle fibre.
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  • Rubber was obtained mostly from virgin forest, but ceara, ficus and other trees were planted.
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  • Rubber, coffee, wax, sugar and palm-kernels, dried fish and whale oil are the chief exports.
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  • Coffee, gold, mahogany, rubber and cattle are largely exported; and more than half the foreign trade of Nicaragua passes through this port, which has completely superseded the roadstead of Realejo, now partly filled with sandbanks, but from 1550 to 1850 the principal seaport of the country.
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  • The agricultural products include cotton, coffee, tobacco and cereals, and the forests produce rubber, vanilla and various textile fibres.
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  • The rearing of cattle and the dressing of hides, the collection of rubber and bee culture are important industries.
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  • About 1870 india-rubber began to be exported in considerable quantities, and cattle, rubber and hides continue staple products.
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  • Ground-nuts (Arachis hypogaea), rubber, beeswax, palm kernels, rice, cotton, and millet are the chief productions.
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  • The collection of rubber was started about 1880, but the trade has not assumed large proportions.
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  • In 1907 the value of the rubber exported was £4602.
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  • As regards treatment, the stomach must be washed out with warm water by means of a soft rubber tube, an emetic being also administered.
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  • Hides, and skins, mangabeira rubber, cabinet woods, castor beans and rum are also exported.
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  • The forest contains valuable sylvan products, and there are great possibilities for the cultivation of rubber.
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  • The Gaslight and Coke Company's works at Beckton are in the parish, and also extensive rubber works.
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  • Rubber is obtained from the Bahr-el-Ghazalwhere there are Para and Ceara rubber plantations - and in the Sobat district.
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  • The chief products of the Sudan for export are gum, ivory, ostrich feathers, dates and rubber.
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  • Among Batavia's manufactures are harvesters, ploughs, threshers and other agricultural implements, firearms, rubber tires, shoes, shell goods, paper-boxes and inside woodwork.
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  • Among the city's manufactures are wagons and carriages, furniture, wooden-ware, veneering, sash and doors, ladders, lawn swings, rubber goods, flour, foundry products and agricultural machinery.
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  • Then come in rank of product value for 1905: foundry and machine shop products (1905) $20,189384, (1900) $18,991,079; cotton goods; silk and silk goods; ammunition (1905) $ 1 5,394,4 8 5, - bei ng 77.2% of the value of all ammunition made in the United States, - (1900) $9,823,712; and rubber boots and shoes (1905) $12,829,346, (1900) $11,999,038.
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  • Wilson developed the sewing machine; that Charles Goodyear discovered the process of vulcanising rubber; that Samuel Colt began the manufacture of the Colt fire-arms; and it was from near New Haven that Eli Whitney went to Georgia where he invented the cotton gin.
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  • In an old fashioned Mead black marble composition book, secured with a rubber band, I found what I believed to be a summary of all those settings.
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  • Usually this involves standing behind a lead screen or wearing a lead rubber apron.
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  • Early rubber bumper models being particularly attractive for around £ 3000.
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  • Made from 100% coconut fiber with anti-slip rubber backing, Shoe Max mats are destined to become design classics... .
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  • Onto the plate is a dense foam backing topped with a flexible rubber face.
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  • I'll unwind the world like a rubber band on a golf ball 's insides every morning, put it back together every night.
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  • Instantly, the rubber bands are shown to be inextricably linked.
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  • Popular items for the stags include stag antlers, blow up dolls, handcuffs, inflatable sheep, rubber boobs & bare bum shorts.
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  • Good walking boots are more the norm rather than rubber boots for