Rousseau Sentence Examples
Rousseau was also employed to paint architectural subjects and landscapes in the palace of Hampton Court, where many of his decorative panels still exist.
The infant was entrusted to the wife of a glazier named Rousseau who lived close by.
At any rate, Rousseau quitted the Hermitage in the winter of 1757-58, and established himself at Montlouis in the neighbourhood.
He, too, was a disciple of Rousseau, believed in the education of nature, and allowed his Sophie to wander at her own sweet will.
The extreme republicans, anticipating Rousseau, put forward the Agreement of the People.Advertisement
Camille sharply replied that he would answer with Rousseau, - "burning is not answering," and a bitter quarrel thereupon ensued.
The temper of the times, a vague discontent with the established order of things, and some political enthusiasm imbibed from the writings of Rousseau, are the best reasons which can now be assigned for Gallatin's desertion of home and friends.
Rousseau, a fervid panegyric showing a good deal of talent but no power of criticism.
He availed himself of the reviving interest in legitimism and Catholicism which was represented by Bonald and Joseph de Maistre, of the nature worship of Rousseau and Bernardin de Saint Pierre, of the sentimentalism of Madame de Stael, of the medievalism and the romance of Chateaubriand and Scott, of the maladie du siecle of Chateaubriand and Byron.
He stayed at Cambrai for some time, where European diplomatists were still in full session, journeyed to Brussels, where he met and quarrelled with Jean Baptiste Rousseau, went on to the Hague, and then returned.Advertisement
Rousseau, and the former was, in the guise of a criticism or rather panegyric of English ways, an attack on everything established in the church and state of France.
He was much carried away at this time by the idea of a radical reform of social life in Livonia, which (after the example of Rousseau) he thought to effect by means of a better method of school-training.
Belgium The Journal encyclopedique (1756-1793) founded by P. Rousseau, made Liege a propagandist centre for the philosophical party.
But he early taught his son to read, and seems to have laid the foundation of the flighty sentimentalism in morals and politics which Rousseau afterwards illustrated with his genius.
Even then Rousseau did not settle at once in the anomalous but to him charming position of domestic lover to this lady, who, nominally a converted Protestant, was in reality, as many women of her time were, a kind of deist, with a theory of noble sentiment and a practice of libertinism tempered by good nature.Advertisement
However, she welcomed Rousseau kindly, thought it necessary to complete his education, and he was sent to the seminarists of St Lazare to be improved in classics, and also to a music master.
Here in summer, and in the town during winter, Rousseau led a delightful life, which he has delightfully described.
But Rousseau did not like teaching and was a bad teacher, and after a visit to Les Charmettes, finding that his place there was finally occupied, he once more went to Paris in 1741.
It was not, however, till 1749 that Rousseau made his mark as a writer.
It is agreed that the idea was suggested when Rousseau went to pay a visit to Diderot, who was in prison at Vincennes for his Lettre sur les aveugles.Advertisement
Francueil gave Rousseau a valuable post as cashier in the receiver-general's office.
Rousseau, however, never saw any of the alleged children; and Mrs Macdonald has shown good cause for believing that their existence was a myth, an imposition on Rousseau's credulity, invented by Therese and her mother to make the tie more binding.
During a visit to Geneva in 1754 Rousseau saw his old friend and love Madame de Warens (now reduced in circumstances and having lost all her charms), while after abjuring his abjuration of Protestantism he was enabled to take up his freedom as citizen of Geneva, to which his birth entitled him and of which he was proud.
Here too arose the obscure triangular quarrel between Diderot, Rousseau and Frederick Melchior Grimm, which ended Rousseau's sojourn at the Hermitage.
The supposition least favourable to Rousseau is that it was due to one of his numerous fits of half-insane petulance and indignation at the obligations which he was nevertheless always ready to incur.Advertisement
Voltaire's strong point was not forgiveness, and, though Rousseau no doubt exaggerated the efforts of his "enemies," he was certainly henceforward as obnoxious to the philosophe coterie as to the orthodox party.
Castil-Blaze has accused Rousseau of extensive plagiarisms (or worse) in Le Devin du village and Pygmalion, but apparently without sufficient cause.
Rousseau found a true and firm friend.
The council of Geneva had joined in the condemnation of Emile, and Rousseau first solemnly renounced his citizenship, and then, in the Lettres de la montagne (1763), attacked the council and the Genevan constitution unsparingly.
Is the ferment of the peoples of the west at the end of the eighteenth century and their drive eastward explained by the activity of Louis XIV, XV, and XVI, their mistresses and ministers, and by the lives of Napoleon, Rousseau, Diderot, Beaumarchais, and others?
She was to a considerable extent selftaught; and her love of reading made her acquainted first with Plutarch - a passion for which author she continued to cherish throughout her life - thereafter with Bossuet, Massillon, and authors of a like stamp, and finally with Montesquieu, Voltaire and Rousseau.
His first works, Theorie des lois criminelles (1781) and Bibliotheque philosophique du legislateur (1782), were on the philosophy of law, and showed how thoroughly Brissot was imbued with the ethical precepts of Rousseau.
To this period belongs his first crude literary effort, a polemic against a Genevese pastor who had criticized Rousseau.
The love-sick mood and romantic temperament of the young Irishman found congenial soil in the wild surroundings of unexplored Canadian forests, and the enthusiasm thus engendered for the "natural" life of savagery may have been already fortified by study of Rousseau's writings, for which at a later period Lord Edward expressed his admiration.
To Kant's lectures and conversations he further owed something of his large interest in cosmological and anthropological problems. Among the writers whom he most carefully read were Plato, Hume, Shaftesbury, Leibnitz, Diderot and Rousseau.
Herder was thus an evolutionist, but an evolutionist still under the influence of Rousseau.
In 1736 Madame de Warens, partly for Rousseau's health, took a country house, Les Charmettes, a, short distance from Chambery.
Up to this time - that is to say, till his thirty-third year - Rousseau's life, though continuously described by himself, was of the kind called subterranean, and the account of it must be taken with considerable allowances.
But he made himself happy with her, and (according to Rousseau's account, the accuracy of which has been questioned) five children were born to them, who were all consigned to the foundling hospital.
Here he wrote La Nouvelle Heloise; here he indulged in the passion which that novel partly represents, his love for Madame d'Huodetot, sister-in-law of Madame d'Epinay, a lady young and amiable, but plain, who had a husband and a lover (St Lambert), and whom Rousseau's devotion seems to have partly pleased and partly annoyed.
Hitherto Rousseau's behaviour had frequently made him enemies, but his writings had for the most part made him friends.
Rousseau's reputation was now higher than ever, but the term of the comparative prosperity which he had enjoyed for nearly ten years was at hand.
Therese travelled separately, and was entrusted to the charge of James Boswell, who had already made Rousseau's acquaintance.
The publication of a spiteful letter (really by Horace Walpole, one of whose worst deeds it was) in the name of the king of Prussia made Rousseau believe that plots of the most terrible kind were on foot against him.
Finally he quarrelled with Hume because the latter would not acknowledge all his own friends and Rousseau's supposed enemies of the philosophe circle to be rascals.
Many of the best-known stories of Rousseau's life date from this last time, when he was tolerably accessible to visitors, though clearly half-insane.
There is little doubt that for the last ten or fifteen years of his life, if, not from the time of his quarrel with Diderot and Madame d'Epinay, Rousseau was not wholly sane - the combined influence of late and unexpected literary fame and of constant solitude and discomfort acting upon his excitable temperament so as to overthrow the balance, never very stable, of his fine and acute but unrobust intellect.
But Rousseau had not, like Montesquieu, a position which guaranteed him from serious danger; he was not wealthy like Helvetius; he had not the wonderful suppleness and trickiness which even without his wealth would probably have defended Voltaire himself; and he lacked entirely the "bottom" of Freron and Diderot.
If Rousseau had held his tongue, he might have stood lower as a man of letters; he would pretty certainly have stood higher as a man.
In religion Rousseau was undoubtedly what he has been called above - a sentimental deist; but no one who reads him with the smallest attention can fail to see that sentimentalism was the essence, deism the accident of his creed.
In politics, on the other hand, Rousseau was a sincere and, as far as in him lay, a convinced republican.
Moreover, in some minor branches of politics and economics Rousseau was a real reformer.
But it is as a literary man pure and simple - that is to say, as an exponent rather than as an originator of ideas - that Rousseau is most noteworthy, and that he has exercised most influence.
And, as literature since his time has been chiefly differentiated from literature before it by the colour and tone resulting from this combination, Rousseau may be said to hold, as an influence, a place almost unrivalled in literary history.
See also the latter's Rousseau et ses amis (1865).
Works on Rousseau are innumerable.
Mrs Frederika Macdonald, in her Jean Jacques Rousseau (1906), makes out a good case for regarding Mme.
Rousseau is, of course, the great Genevese of the 18th century.
Geneva is well supplied with charitable institutions, hospitals, &c. Among other remarkable sights of the city may be mentioned the great hydraulic establishment (built 1882-1899) of the Forces Motrices du Rhone (turbines), the singular monument set up to the memory of the late duke of Brunswick who left his fortune to the city in 1873, and the tie Jean-Jacques Rousseau now connected with the Pont des Bergues.
The house occupied by Rousseau is No.
Rousseau his father was a rich parvenu, who brought his son at an early age to Paris, where the latter spent most of his life.
Rousseau is supposed to have drawn his portrait in the virtuous atheist Wolmar of the Nouvelle Heloise.
For further particulars as to his life and doctrines see Grimm's Correspondance litteraire, &c. (1813); Rousseau's Confessions; Morellet's Memoires (1, 821); Madame de Geniis, Les Diners du Baron Holbach; Madame d'Epinay's Memoires; Avezac-Lavigne, Diderot et la societe du Baron d'Holbach (1875), and Morley's Diderot (1878).
In the last third of the 18th century two important movements came into play, the " naturalism " of Rousseau and the " new humanism."
While The " new Rousseau sought his ideal in a form of education and human- of culture that was in close accord with nature, the German apostles of the new humanism were convinced that they had found that ideal completely realized in the old Greek world.
Smith's letter to the editors is specially interesting for its account of the Encyclopedie and its criticism of Rousseau's pictures of savage life.
Here he studied Bayle and Voltaire, and became an ardent disciple of Rousseau.
To every Salon Houdon was a chief contributor; most of the leading men of the day were his sitters; his busts of d'Alembert, Prince Henry of Prussia, Gerbier, Buffon (for Catharine of Russia) and Mirabeau are remarkable portraits; and in 1778, when the news of Rousseau's death reached him, Houdon started at once for Ermenonville, and there took a cast of the dead man's face, from which he produced the grand and life-like head now in the Louvre.
Failing to obtain currency for his radical'propaganda, he retired to his native province, and there established a school (the Risshi-sha) for teaching the principles of government by the people, thus earning for himself the epithet of "the Rousseau of Japan."
The solitary incident of note in this period of his life is the ridiculous quarrel with Rousseau, which throws much light upon the character of the great sentimentalist.
Hume certainly did his utmost to secure for Rousseau a comfortable retreat in England, but his usually sound judgment seems at first to have been quite at fault with regard to his protege.
The quarrel which all the acquaintances of the two philosophers had predicted soon came, and no language had expressions strong enough for Rousseau's anger.
Among these may be mentioned Pierre Gassendi, who revived and codified the doctrine in the 17th century; Moliere, the comte de Gramont, Rousseau, Fontenelle and Voltaire.
Their son, Duke Philip Charles Francis, was killed in 1691 fighting against the Turks, and was succeeded by Leopold (1754), a distinguished soldier of the War of the Spanish Succession, and patron of Rousseau and Voltaire.
He was a disciple, not of Machiavelli, but of Rousseau; and his scattered dominions, divided by innumerable divergences of racial and class prejudice, and enncumbered with traditional institutions to which the people clung with passionate conservatism, he regarded as so much vacant territory on which to build up his ideal state.
His house, over which the comtesse de Boufflers presided, was the resort of many men of letters, and he was a patron of Jean Jacques Rousseau.
Rousseau, who was jealously sparing of his praises, addressed to him, in his Nouvelle Heloise, a fine panegyric; and when a stranger flatteringly told Voltaire he had come to see a great man, the philosopher asked him if he had seen Abauzit.
A few theological, archaeological and astronomical articles from his pen appeared in the Journal Helvetique and elsewhere, and he contributed several papers to Rousseau's Dictionnaire de musique (1767).
The strict military discipline of the school lay heavily on Schiller, and intensified the spirit of rebellion, which, nurtured on Rousseau and the writers of the Sturm and Drang, burst out in the young poet's first tragedy; but such a school-life had for a poet of Schiller's temperament advantages which he might not have known had he followed his own inclinations; and it afforded him glimpses of court life invaluable for his later work as a dramatist.
The unwieldiness of the plot and its inconsistencies show, too, that Schiller had not yet mastered the new form of drama; but Don Carlos at least provided him with an opportunity of expressing ideas of political and intellectual freedom with which, as the disciple of Rousseau, he was in warm sympathy.
A long time afterwards it appeared, thanks to his collaborator, Claude Bernard Rousseau, under the title of Histoire et recherches des antiquites de la ville de Paris (1724), but remodelled, with the addition of long and dull dissertations which were not by Sauval.
His theories had a deep and broad basis in English whiggism; and though he may well have found at least confirmation of his own ideas in French writers - and notably in Condorcet - he did not read sympathetically the writers commonly named, Rousseau and Montesquieu; besides, his democracy was seasoned, and he was rather a teacher than a student of revolutionary politics when he went to Paris.
Both his collegiate and editorial duties stimulated his critical powers, and the publication in the two magazines, followed by republication in book form, of a series of studies of great authors, gave him an important place as a critic. Shakespeare, Dryden, Lessing, Rousseau, Dante, Spenser, Wordsworth, Milton, Keats, Carlyle, Thoreau, Swinburne, Chaucer, Emerson, Pope, Gray - these are the principal subjects of his prose, and the range of topics indicates the catholicity of his taste.
If any one was ever awake to the joys of living it was the minnesinger, troubadour or goliard, and the world had to wait until Rousseau and Burns before its external beauty was discovered, or at least deeply appreciated, by any but a few Dutch artists.
The natural condition of society, natural law, natural religion, the poetry of nature, gained a singular hold, first on the English philosophers from Hume onwards, and then (through Rousseau chiefly) on the general drift of thought and action in Europe.
He was, however, no longer alone; Diaz, Eugene Tourneux, Rousseau, and other men of note supported him by their confidence and friendship, and he had by his side the brave Catherine Lemaire, his second wife, a woman who bore poverty with dignity and gave courage to her husband through the cruel trials in which he penetrated by a terrible personal experience the bitter secrets of the very poor.
His fame extended, and at the exhibition of 1867 he received a medal of the first class, and the ribbon of the Legion of Honour, but he was at the same moment deeply shaken by the death of his faithful friend Rousseau.
His prose writings, which include prefaces to the works of Kellgren and Lidner, and an eloquent argument against Rousseau's theory of the injurious influence of art and letters, rank with the best of the period.
Here and there Fenelon carries his philanthropy to lengths curiously prophetic of the age of Rousseau - fervid denunciation of war, belief in nature and fraternity of nations.
Rousseau (1870) which had appeared in the Revue des deux mondes.
Rousseau, though not an active assailant of Christianity, could have claimed kindred with the nobler deists.
They had a great influence on Rousseau, who left elaborate examinations of some of them, and reproduced not a few of their ideas in his own work.
The distinctive note of the school is seen in the work of Rousseau and of Millet, each of whom, after spending his early years in Paris, made his home in Barbizon.
They both died at Barbizon - Rousseau in 1867 and Millet in 1875.
In those troubled times Rousseau and Millet unburdened their souls to their friends, and their published lives contain many letters, some extracts from which will express the ideals which these artists held in common, and show clearly the true and firmly-based foundation on which their art stands.
Rousseau wrote, " It is good composition when the objects represented are not there solely as they are, but when they contain under a natural appearance the sentiments which they have stirred in our souls..
He studied closely the works of Charles Bonnet, and the political ideas of Rousseau and Voltaire.
Rousseau, whose famous discourse on the evils of civilization had appeared six years before, would have read Burke's ironical vindication of natural society without a suspicion of its irony.
Napoleon, who had begun life as a disciple of Rousseau, confirmed the wisdom of the philosophy of Burke when he came to make the Concordat.
So far, the Stoic " nature " seems in danger of being as revolutionary as Rousseau's.
Rousseau (Contrat social) held that in the pre-social state man was unwarlike and even timid.
But this mission helped to make him an object of suspicion to the other members of the Committee of Public Safety, and especially to Robespierre, who as a deist and a fanatical follower of the ideas of Rousseau, hated Herault, the follower of the naturalism of Diderot.
Whilst some, like Voltaire and the Physiocrats, representatives of the privileged classes and careless of political rights, wished to make use of the omnipotence of the prince to accomplish desirable reforms, or, like Montesquieu, adversely criticized despotism and extolled moderate governments, other, plebeiaris like Rousseau, proclaimed the theory of the social contract and the sovereignty of the people.
Voltaire said that it was full of commonplaces, and that what was original was false or problematical; Rousseau declared that the very benevolence of the author gave the lie to his principles; Grimm thought that all the ideas in the book were borrowed from Diderot; according to Madame du Deffand, Helvetius had raised such a storm by saying openly what every one thought in secret; Madame de Graffigny averred that all the good things in the book had been picked up in her own salon.
He was at home in Voltaire and Rousseau, but had little or no acquaintance with the French sensational philosophy.
Every one wished to see what Rousseau had seen, to experience the same ecstasy.
Rousseau, tho he thought he was liberating the people, was in fact profoundly illiberal.
Nancy IRESON You have quoted Rousseau in your own paintings.
There is a healthy sprinkling of references to influential intellects of the past, from Rousseau to Adam Smith.
Rousseau's Confessions was the favourite book of both (as it was of Emerson), but George Eliot was never converted by the high priest of sentimentalism into a belief in human perfectibility and a return to nature.
He could only carry the picturesque sentimentalism of Rousseau, Bernardin de Saint Pierre and Chateaubriand a little farther, and clothe it in language and verse a little less antiquated than that of Chenedolle and Millevoye.
He undoubtedly instigated D'Alembert to include a censure of the prohibition in his Encyclopedic article on "Geneva," a proceeding which provoked Rousseau's celebrated Lettre a D'Alembert sur les spectacles.
Rousseau's father Isaac was a watchmaker; his mother, Suzanne Bernard, was the daughter of a minister; she died in childbirth, and Rousseau, who was the second son, was brought up in a haphazard fashion, his father being dissipated, violenttempered and foolish.
This was in 1732, and Rousseau, who for a time had unimportant employments in the service of the Sardinian crown, was shortly in- stalled by Madame de Warens, whom he still called Maman, as amant en titre in her singular household, wherein she diverted herself with him, with music and with chemistry.
She had little beauty, no education or understanding, and few charms that his friends could discover, besides which she had a detestable mother, who was the bane of Rousseau's life.
Rousseau says he thought of the paradox on his way down; Morellet and others say that he thought of treating the subject in the ordinary fashion and was laughed at by Diderot, who showed him the advantages of the less obvious treatment.
But Rousseau's shyness or his perversity (as before, probably both) made him disobey the command.
He was lionized in London to his heart's content and discontent, for it may truly be said of Rousseau that he was equally indignant at neglect and intolerant of attention.
He finished his Confessions, wrote his Dialogues (the interest of which is not quite equal to the promise of their curious sub-title, Rousseau juge de Jean Jacques), and began his Reveries du promeneur solitaire, intended as a sequel and complement to the Confessions, and one of the best of all his books.
Unfortunately for the consistency of historical writing, the view taken of Rousseau's biography affects those of Grimm, Diderot, Mme.
Rousseau, guests who, while enjoying the intellectual pleasure of their host's conversation, were not insensible to his excellent cuisine and costly wines.
Thus it will be seen that both historically and philosophically the doctrine of Malthus was a corrective reaction against the superficial optimism diffused by the school of Rousseau.
Thus in a time of trouble ever memorable to him after the birth of their first child who was delicate, when they had to change the wet nurse three times and Natasha fell ill from despair, Pierre one day told her of Rousseau's view, with which he quite agreed, that to have a wet nurse is unnatural and harmful.
Was it a Jew who inspired Rousseau with the eighteenth century idea of the sameness of man according to nature?
In her self-revelations she followed Rousseau, her first master in style, but while Rousseau in his Confessions darkened all the shadows, George Sand is the heroine of her story, often frail and faulty, but always a woman more sinned against than sinning.
Though her husband was a patron of Rousseau, she herself had narrowly escaped the guillotine, and had only half imbibed the ideas of the Revolution.
She has all the abandon of an Italian improvisatore, the simplicity of a Bernardin de St Pierre without his mawkishness, the sentimentality of a Rousseau without his egotism, the rhythmic eloquence of a Chateaubriand without his grandiloquence.
In 1760 the elder Rousseau established here the famous press of the Encyclopaedists.
Curiously enough the cottage, a stone building, built by the same duke for Jean Jacques Rousseau, still stands in the park, while the ducal residence was burnt down by the sans-culottes.
While young Rousseau went to Rome, where he spent some years in painting the ancient ruins, together with the surrounding landscapes.
Besides being a painter in oil and fresco Rousseau was an etcher of some ability; many etchings by his hand from the works of the Caracci and from his own designs still exist; they are vigorous, though coarse in execution.
But the reprints and editions of Crusoe have been innumerable; it has been often translated; and the eulogy pronounced on it by Rousseau gave it special currency in France, where imitations (or rather adaptations) have also been common.
It is the kernel of the theories of Hobbes, Rousseau, Filmer and Locke.