Roots sentence example

roots
  • Grass roots efforts to assist people in need.

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  • If that Alex returned to his roots, there was no reason she couldn't be at his side.

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  • Under the most splendid house in the city is still to be found the cellar where they store their roots as of old, and long after the superstructure has disappeared posterity remark its dent in the earth.

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  • Grabbing the worn roots of an old tree, she climbed out of the pool.

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  • That's Roman wormwood--that's pigweed--that's sorrel--that's piper-grass--have at him, chop him up, turn his roots upward to the sun, don't let him have a fibre in the shade, if you do he'll turn himself t' other side up and be as green as a leek in two days.

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  • Every portion, from its roots to its leaves, serves some useful purpose.

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  • Other forms which correspond to other relations between the roots can be readily deduced from the most general form.

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  • I might have a later text with similar symbols I can use to trace the roots of the writing, Tamer answered.

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  • From this, as well as from various parts of the shoot system, other roots may originate.

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  • Shallow planting, whether of wall trees or standards, is generally to be preferred, a covering of a few inches of soil being sufficient for the roots, but a surface of at least equal size to, the surface of the hole should be covered with dung or litter so as to restrain evaporation and preserve moisture.

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  • The cerebellum receives paths from most, if not from all, of the afferent roots.

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  • Newton discussed the five forms which arise from the relations of the roots of the cubic equation.

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  • If two roots are imaginary the equation is y 2 =(x 2 +a 2) (x - b) and the curve resembles the parabolic branch, as in the preceding case.

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  • If the two middle roots are equal, fig.

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  • Their food consists principally of game, roots and wild fruits.

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  • Parasitic on the roots of the hazel is found the curious leafless Lathraea Squamaria or toothwort.

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  • Examine all plants that are vigorous and healthy; if the roots have matted the " ball " of earth they must be shifted into a larger-sized pot.

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  • If roots have been placed in cellars, attention must be given to ventilation, which can be done by making a wooden box, say 6 by 8 in., to run from the ceiling of the cellar to the eaves of the building above.

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  • The roots of several of these forms are known as Stigmaria.

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  • The tendency of the dunes to drift off on the landward side is prevented by the planting of bent-grass (Arundo arenaria), whose long roots serve to bind the sand together.

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  • In other cases the strands undergo differentiation into an outer layer with blackened, hardened cell-walls and a core of ordinary hyphae, and are then termed rhizomorphs (Armillaria mellea), capable not only of extending the fungus in the soil, like roots, but also of lying dormant, protected by the outer casing.

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  • The simpler mycelia consist of hyphae all alike and thin-walled, or merely differing in the diameter of the branches of various orders, or in their relations to the environment, some plunging into the substratum like roots, others remaining on its surface, and others (aerial hyphae) rising into the air.

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  • Dematophora necatrix on roots, Calyptospora Goeppertiana on stems, Ustilago Scabiosae in anthers, Claviceps purpurea in ovaries, &c. Associated with these relations are the specializations which parasites show in regard to the age of the host.

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  • Many trees are found to have their smaller roots invaded by fungi and deformed by their action, but so far from these being injurious, experiments go to show that this mycorhiza (fungus-root) is necessary for the well-being of the tree.

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  • The nest, generally concealed in a leafy tree or bush, is carefully built, with a lining formed of fine roots neatly interwoven.

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  • It is nowhere abundant, but is found over the northern parts of Europe and Asia, and is a quiet, inoffensive animal, nocturnal and solitary in its habits, sleeping by day in its burrow, and issuing forth at night to feed on roots, beech-mast, fruits, the eggs of birds, small quadrupeds, frogs and insects.

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  • Thus the earth and the roots of grasses absorb the useful matters not only from the water that passes over it, but from that which passes through it.

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  • These fertilizing materials are found stored up in the soil ready for the use of the roots of the plants.

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  • Stagnation of water is inimical to the action of the roots, and does away with the advantageous processes of flowing and percolating currents.

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  • These coming into contact with the roots of plants during their season of active growth, are utilized as direct nourishment for the vegetation.

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  • In this way as the water sinks down through the porous subsoil or into the subterranean drains oxygen enters and supplies an element which is needed, not only for the oxidation of organic matters in the earth, but also for the direct and indirect nutrition of the roots.

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  • For, though grass will grow even under ice, yet if ice be formed under and around the roots of the grasses the plants may be thrown out by the expansion of the water at the moment of its conversion into ice.

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  • It appears, however, that a very large share of the benefits of water-irrigation is attributable to the mere contact of abundance of moving water, of an even temperature, with the roots of the grass.

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  • The growth is less checked by early frosts; and whatever advantages to the vegetation may accrue by occasional excessive warmth in the atmosphere in the early months of the year are experienced more by the irrigated than by the ordinary meadow grasses by reason of the abundant development of roots which the water has encouraged.

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  • Breeding swine, male and female, run most of their time at pasture and receive a liberal allowance of green food or raw roots.

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  • Food may with advantage be cooked for very young pigs; but, with the exception of potatoes, which should never be given raw, roots and meals are best given uncooked.

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  • Meal mixed with pulped roots for a few hours improves in digestibility, and a sprinkling of salt is an improvement.

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  • Wheat, barley, oats, peas, potatoes and other roots are staple crops, the average yield of wheat being about 20 bushels an acre; cattle are increasing in number and improving in quality, and all branches of dairy farming prosper.

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  • They are often shed throughout life, the successors lying on the inner side, and with their caps partly fitting into the wide open roots of the older teeth.

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  • Owing to the very imperfect notation of sound in the writing, the highly important subject, of the verbal roots and verbal forms was perhaps the obscurest branch of Egyptian grammar when Sethe first attacked it in 1895.

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  • The characteristic triliteral roots of all the Semitic languages seemed to separate them widely from others; but certain traits have caused the Egyptian, Berber and Cushite groups to be classed together as three subfamilies of a Hamitic group, remotely related to the Semitic. The biliteral character of Coptic, and the biliteralism which was believed to exist in Egyptian, led philologists to suspect that Egyptian might be a surviving witness to that far-off stage of the Semitic languages when triliteral roots had not yet been formed from presumed original biliterals; Sethes investigations, however, prove that the Coptic biliterals are themselves derived from Old Egyptian triliterals, and that the triliteral roots enormously preponderated in Egyptian of the earliest known form; that view is, therefore, no longer tenable.

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  • The latter acquired the Semitic language imperfectly from their conquerors; they expressed the verbal conjugations by periphrases, mispronounced the consonants, and so changed greatly, the appearance of the vocabulary, which also would certainly contain a large proportion of native nonSemitic roots.

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  • Egyptian roots consist of consonants and semi-consonants only, the inflexion being effected by internal vowel-change and the addition of consonants or vowels at the beginning or end.

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  • Masculine and feminine nouns of instrument or material are formed from verbal roots by prefixing m; e.g.

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  • Some roots are reduplicated wholly or in part with a frequentative meaning, and there are traces of gemination of radicals.

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  • It had struck deep roots into the habits and feelings of the people, and traces of its survival were distinguishable a whole century after the triumph of the Reformation.

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  • Leaf-buds occasionally arise from the roots, when they are called adventitious; this occurs in many fruit trees, poplars, elms and others.

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  • In many Dicotyledons and most Monocotyledons, the primary root soon perishes, and its place is taken by adventitious roots developed from the stem.

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  • The developing embryo at the end of the suspensor grows out to a varying extent into the forming endosperm, from which by surface absorption it derives good material for growth; at the same time the suspensor plays a direct part as a carrier of nutrition, and may even develop, where perhaps no endosperm is formed, special absorptive "suspensor roots" which invest the developing embryo, or pass out into the body and coats of the ovule, or even into the placenta.

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  • Certain species are regularly found in the intercellular spaces of higher plants; such are species of Nostoc in the thallus of Anthoceros, the leaves of Azolla and the roots of Cycads.

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  • On account of an important difference in the structure of its molars, it is now very generally referred to a distinct genus, under the name of Evotomys glareolus; these teeth developing roots at a certain stage of existence, instead of growing permanently.

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  • The roots of this eschatological fancy are to be sought perhaps still deeper in a purely mythological and speculative expectation of a battle at the end of days between God and the devil, which has no reference whatever to historical occurrences.

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  • Now it is possible that the whole conception of Antichrist has its final roots in this already complicated myth, that the form of the mighty adversary of God is but the equivalent in human form of the devil or of the dragon of chaos.

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  • Luther was the greatest religious genius which the 16th century produced, and the roots of the movement in which he was the central figure must be sought for in the popular religious life of the last decades of the 15th and opening decades of the i 6th centuries - a field which has been neglected by almost all his biographers.

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  • At Woolwich he remained until 1870, and although he was not a great success as an elementary teacher, that period of his life was very rich in mathematical work, which included remarkable advances in the theory of the partition of numbers and further contributions to that of invariants, together with an important research which yielded a proof, hitherto lacking, of Newton's rule for the discovery of imaginary roots for algebraical equations up to and including the fifth degree.

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  • The constant abundance of food, stable amount of water, innumerable hidingplaces in the mud, under the banks, amongst the reeds and roots of the floating islands which are scattered all over them, - all these points are inducements or attractions so great that the creatures remain in their paradise and consequently retain all those larval features which are not directly connected with sexual maturity.

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  • To prevent their growing lanky, they should be kept with their heads almost touching the glass; and as the pots get filled with roots they must be shifted into others, 7 or 8 in.

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  • In the low brushwood scattered over portions of the dreary plains of the Kandahar table-lands, we find leguminous thorny plants of the papilionaceous sub-order, such as camel-thorn (Hedysarum Alhagi), Astragalus in several varieties, spiny rest-harrow (Ononis spinosa), the fibrous roots of which often serve as a tooth-brush; plants of the sub-order Mimosae, as the sensitive mimosa; a plant of the rue family, called by the natives lipdtd; the common wormwood; also certain orchids, and several species of Salsola.

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  • The vacoa or vacois, (Pandanus utilis) is largely grown, the long tough leaves being manufactured into bags for the export of sugar, and the roots being also made of use; and in the few remnants of the original forests the traveller's tree (Urania speciosa), grows abundantly.

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  • Many of the roots and vegetables of Europe have been introduced, as well as some of those peculiar to the tropics, including maize, millet, yams, manioc, dhol, gram, &c. Small quantities of tea, rice and sago, have been grown, as well as many of the spices (cloves, nutmeg, ginger, pepper and allspice),' and also cotton, indigo, betel, camphor, turmeric and vanilla.

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  • In habits it is chiefly nocturnal, and by preference carnivorous, feeding on birds and the smaller quadrupeds, in pursuit of which it climbs trees, but it is said also to eat fruits, roots and other vegetable matters.

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  • The Eastern Question, though its roots are set far back in history - in the ancient contest between the political and intellectual ideals of Greece and Asia, and in the perennial rivalry of the powers for the control of the great trade routes to the East - dates in its modern sense from the treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji in 1774, which marked the definitive establishment of Russia as a Black Sea power and formed the basis of her special claims to interfere in the affairs of the Ottoman empire.

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  • The jhils supply the villages with wild rice, the roots and seeds of the lotus, and the singhara water-nut.

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  • In his Treatise of Algebra (1685) he distinctly proposes to construct the imaginary roots of a quadratic equation by going out of the line on which the roots, if real, would have been constructed.

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  • He has given by means of it a simple proof of the existence of n roots, and no more, in every rational algebraic equation of the nth order with real coefficients.

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  • Broadly speaking, it is the sum of an individual's bodily, mental and spiritual growth; having its roots, as it were, spread over many lives, past and future.

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  • In 1747 he published an account of experiments undertaken with the definite view of obtaining true sugar from indigenous plants, and found that for this purpose the first place is taken by beetroot and carrot, that in those plants sugar like that of cane exists ready formed, and that it may be extracted by boiling the dried roots in alcohol, from which it is deposited on cooling.

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  • This investigation is also memorable because he detected the minute sugar-crystals in the roots by the help of the microscope, which was thus introduced as an adjunct to chemical inquiry.

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  • Curiously veined veneers are obtained from the roots; and the root-shoots are largely employed in the making of crates, coalcorves or baskets, hurdles, withs and bands, whip-handles and other objects.

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  • He stalked off into the forest, away from the castle and cliff.  Toby clambered through the brush and trees after him, the angel's footsteps loud where Rhyn's were silent.  Rhyn found a deer path and followed it until he reached a snowy meadow.  Crossing it, he continued to look for a place to stash the angel where the kid wouldn't freeze to death.  After another hour of walking, he found a small pocket in the roots of a massive tree.

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  • Katie pulled up the sleeve of her soaked sweater and nicked her arm.  She set down the knife and squeezed out a few drops of blood, watching as they landed on the roots.

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  • Claire jogged to one of the trees and lifted a small satchel from its roots.

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  • In this respect the Asiatic species differs very widely from its African relative, whose nutriment is largely composed of boughs and roots.

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  • The most important of these are the greater tolerance by the African animal of sunlight, and the hard nature of its food, which consists chiefly of boughs and roots.

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  • It grows in marshes, ditches, pools and drains in meadows, and sometimes obstructs the flow of water with its dense matted roots.

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  • From this the young escape and make their way through the earth to new roots.

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  • This is found especially in plants which during certain hours of the day are unable to cover the water lost through transpiration by the supply coming from the roots.

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  • The so-called anomalous cambiums in roots follow the same lines as those of the stem.

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  • A peculiar modification of periderm is formed by the phellogen in the submerged organs (roots or stems) of many aquatic or marsh-loving plants.

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  • In other cases, a similar formation of spongy but dead periderm tissue may occur for the same purpose in special patches, called pneumatodes, on the roots of certain trees living in marshy places, which rise above the soil in order to obtain air.

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  • The interest with which we regard the latter no longer turns upon the details of the structuie of its trunk, limbs and roots, to which the living substance of the more superficial parts was subordinated.

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  • The water of the soil, which in well-drained soil is met with in the form of delicate films surrounding the particles of solid matter, is absorbed into the plant by the delicate hairs borne by the young roots, the entry being effected by a process of modified osmosis.

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  • Fixation of Nitrogen.Another, and perhaps an even more important, instance of symbiotic association has come to the front during the same period, it is an alliance between the plants of the Natural Order Leguminosae and certain bacterium-like forms which find a home within the tissues of their roots.

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  • They are supplied with a regular system of conducting vascular bundles communicating with those of the roots.

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  • The yellowing and subsequent casting of leaves, for instance, is a very general symptom of disease in plants, and may be induced by drought, extremes of temperature, insufficient or excessive illumination, excess of water at the roots, the action of parasitic Fungi, insects, worms, &c., or of poisonous gases, and so forth; and extreme caution is necessary in.

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  • The Vertebrata come within the scope of our subject, chiefly as destructive agents which cause wounds or devour young shoots and foliage, &c. Rabbits and other burrowing animals injure roots, squirrels and birds snip off buds, horned cattle strip off bark, and so forth.

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  • They may occur on all parts, buds, leaves, stems or roots, as shown by the numerous species of Cynips on oak, Phylloxera on vines, &c. The local damage is small, - but the general injury to assimilation, absorption and other functions, may be important if the numbers increase.

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  • The so-called eelworms (Nematodes) may do immense damage on roots and in the grains of cereals, and every one knows how predatory slugs and snails are.

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  • Schinzia, which forms galllike swellings on the roots of rushes; Gymnosporangium, causing excrescences on juniper stems; numerous leaf Fungi such as Puccinia, Aecidium, Sep/one, &c., causing yellow, brown or black spots on leaves; or Ustilago in the anthers of certain flowers.

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  • This wood is in great part already dead substance, but the mycelium gradually invades the vessels occupied with the transmission of water up the trunk, cuts off the current, and so kills the tree; in other cases such Fungi attack the roots, and so induce rot and starvation of oxygen, resulting in fouling.

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  • Plcotrachelus causes the invaded Pilobolus to swell up, and changes the whole course of its cell metabolism, and similarly with Plasmodiophora in the roots of turnips, and many other cases.

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  • The poison must not be strong enough to injure the roots, leaves, &c., of the host-plant, or allowed to act long enough to bring about such injury.

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  • Yellowing is a common sign of water-logged roots, and if accompanied by wilting may be due to drought.

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  • Over-transpiration in bright wintry weather, when the roots are not absorbing, often results in yellowing.

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  • In other cases the presence of insects, Fungi or poisons at the roots may be looked for.

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  • The nodules on the roots of leguminous plants are induced by the presence of a minute organism now known to do no injury to the plant.

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  • Such phenomena are nut uncommon in towns, where trees with their roots under pavement or other impervious covering do well for a time, but suddenly fail to supply the crown sufficiently with water during some hot summer.

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  • Helophytes.These are marsh plants which normally have ii, leir roots in soaking soil but whose branches and foliage are more less aerial.

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  • Root-hairs give an enlarged superficial area to the roots of plants, and thus are related to the procuring of water.

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  • Doubtless, the excess of any soluble mineral salt or salts interferes with the osmotic absorption of the roots; and although calcium carbonate is insoluble in pure water, it is slightly soluble in water containing carbon dioxide.

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  • He considered, for instance, that stems, leaves, roots and flowers differ as they do because the plastic substances entering into their structure are diverse.

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  • Menahem's system of bi-literal and uni-literal roots was violently attacked by Dunash ibn Labrat, and as violently defended by the author's pupils.

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  • Among these was Judah IJayyuj of Cordova, the father of modern Hebrew grammar, who first established the principle of tri-literal roots.

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  • The dace is a lively, active fish, of gregarious habits, and exceedingly prolific, depositing its eggs in May and June at the roots of aquatic plants or in the gravelly beds of the streams it frequents.

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  • The vegetable-feeders attack leaves, herbaceous or woody stems and roots; frequently different parts of a plant are attacked in the two active stages of the life-history; the cockchafers, for example, eating leaves, and their grubs gnawing roots.

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  • Beetles and larvae are frequently carnivorous in habit, hunting for small insects under stones, or pursuing the soft-skinned grubs of beetles and flies that bore in woody stems or succulent roots.

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  • Several of the elaterid larvae, however, gnaw roots and are highly destructive to farm crops.

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  • They feed by burrowing in the roots and stems of plants.

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  • They feed in wood or spend an underground life devouring roots or animal excrement.

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  • Among the vegetable-feeding chafers we usually find that while the perfect insect devours leaves, the larva lives underground and feeds on roots.

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  • The larvae of the beautiful, elongate, metallic Donaciae live in the roots and stems of aquatic plants, obtaining thence both food and air.

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  • The roots of this conception belong to pre-exilian times, in which the " word " of divine denunciation was regarded as a quasi-material thing.

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  • The hornbeam thrives well on stiff, clayey, moist soils, into which its roots penetrate deeply; on chalk or gravel it does not flourish.

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  • The knees are of a soft spongy texture and act as breathing organs, supplying the roots with air,, which they would otherwise be unable to obtain when submerged.

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  • The planting of eucalyptus trees is out of favour at present, but it appears to have been successful in Portugal, not from any prophylactic virtues in the plant, but through the great absorption of moisture by its deep roots, which tends to dry the subsoil.

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  • The vowels play no part in differentiating the roots, for the vowels are practically the same in the corresponding forms of every root.

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  • They derive this moisture from the air by means of aerial roots, developed from the stem and bearing an outer spongy structure, or velamen, consisting of empty cells kept open by spiral thickenings in the wall; this sponge-like tissue absorbs dew and rain and condenses the moisture of the air and passes it on to the internal tissues.

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  • The pear-stock, having an inclination to send its roots down deeper into the soil, is the best for light dry soils, as the plants are not then so likely to suffer in dry seasons.

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  • This is effected by raising up a small mound of rich compost around it, a contrivance which induces the graft to emit roots into the surface soil.

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  • The latter, when ripe, was pulled up by the roots, and the grain was separated by means of an implement resembling a comb.

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  • To these crops may be added peas, beans and many herbs and esculent roots.

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  • In the absence of artificial grasses and roots, hay was very valuable; it constituted almost the only winter food for live stock, which were consequently in poor condition in spring.

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  • Carrots, cabbages, turnips and rape, not yet cultivated in the fields, are mentioned among the herbs and roots for the kitchen.

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  • Ten years before, John Worlidge, one of his correspondents, and the author of the Systema Agriculturae (1669), observes, " Sheep fatten very well on turnips, which prove an excellent nourishment for them in hard winters when fodder is scarce; for they will not only eat the greens, but feed on the roots in the ground, and scoop them hollow even to the very skin.

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  • As the distance between his rows appeared much greater than was necessary for the range of the roots of the plants, he begins by showing that these roots extend much farther than is commonly believed, and then proceeds to inquire into the nature of their food.

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  • The chief and almost the only use of dung, he thinks, is to divide the earth, to dissolve " this terrestrial matter, which affords nutriment to the mouths of vegetable roots "; and this can be done more completely by tillage.

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  • Under the old Norfolk or four-course rotation (roots, barley, clover, wheat) land thus seeded with clover or grass seeds was intended to be ploughed up at the end of a year.

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  • Similar details for potatoes, roots and hay, brought together in Table VIII., show that the TABLE VIII.-Estimated Annual Total Produce of Potatoes, Roots and Hay in the United Kingdom, 1890-1905-Thousands of Tons.

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  • Mangels are probably more closely estimated, as these valuable roots are carted and stored for subsequent use for feeding stock.

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  • In the British Isles wheat is, as a rule, sown in the autumn on a heavier soil, and has four or five months in which to distribute its roots, and so it gets possession of a wide range of soil and subsoil before barley is sown in the spring.

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  • Both the quantity and the quality of the produce, and consequently its feeding value, must depend greatly upon the selection of the best description of roots to be grown, and on the character and the amount of the manures, and especially on the amount of nitrogenous manure employed.

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  • The field experiments on leguminous plants at Rothamsted have shown that land which is, so to speak, exhausted so far as the growth of one leguminous crop is concerned, may still grow very luxuriant crops of another plant of the same natural order, but of different habits of growth, and especially of different character and range of roots.

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  • The farmer therefore arranges his cropping in such a way that roots, or leguminous crops, succeed the cereal crops.

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  • Although many different rotations of crops are practised, they may for the most part be considered as little more than local adaptations of the system of alternating root-crops and leguminous crops with cereal crops, as exemplified in the old four-course rotation - roots, barley, clover, wheat.

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  • Under this system the clover is ploughed up in the autumn, the nitrogen stored up in its roots being left in the soil for the nourishment of the cereal crop. The following summer the wheat crop is harvested, and an opportunity is afforded for extirpating weeds which in the three previous years have received little check.

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  • The remainder, that in the straw, as well as that in the roots and the leguminous crops, is supposed to be retained on the farm, excepting the small amount exported in meat and milk.

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  • The most able exponent of this subject in Great Britain was John Curtis, whose treatise on Farm Insects, published in 1860, is still the standard British work dealing with the insect foes of corn, roots, grass and stored corn.

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  • The insects in the larval or wireworm stage attack the roots of plants, eating them away below the ground.

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  • In Europe a number of " long-snouted " beetles, such as the raspberry weevils (Otiorhynchus picipes), the apple blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum), attack fruit; others, as the " corn weevils " (Calandra oryzae and C. granaria), attack stored rice and corn; while others produce swollen patches on roots (Ceutorhynchus sulcicollis), &c. All these Curculionidae are very timid creatures, falling to the ground at the least shock.

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  • Larval " weevils " mostly feed on the roots of plants, but some, such as the nut weevil (Balaninus nucum), live as larvae inside fruit.

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  • Their food consists mainly of the sap obtained from the leaves and blossom of plants, but some also live on the roots of plants (Phylloxera vastatrix and Schizoneura lanigera).

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  • Light portable boats are sometimes made of very thin boards of fir, sewn together with cord thus manufactured from the roots of the tree.

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  • The fibrous tough roots, softened by soaking in water, and split, are used by the Indians and voyageurs to sew together the birch-bark covering of their canoes; and a resin that exudes from the bark is employed to varnish over the seams. It was introduced to Great Britain at the end of the 17th century and was formerly more extensively planted than at present.

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  • Thanks to the exploration of Cnossus, we now know that Aegean civilization had its roots in a primitive Neolithic period, of uncertain but very long duration, represented by a stratum which (on that site in particular) is in places nearly 20 ft.

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  • It may eat roots or refuse, while the imago lives on leaves and flowers.

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  • The roots also are affected, and instead of growing considerably in length, branch repeatedly and give rise to little tufts of rootlets.

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  • In " Root rot," as the name implies, the roots are attacked, the fungus being a species of Ozonium, which envelops the roots in a white covering of mould or mycelium.

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  • The roots are prevented from fulfilling their function of taking up water and salts from the soil; the leaves accordingly droop, and the whole plant wilts and in bad attacks dies.

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  • It lives on the shores of lakes and rivers, swimming and diving with facility, feeding on the roots, stems and leaves of water-plants, or on fruits and vegetables which grow near the margin of the streams it inhabits.

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  • Of the Cyclostomidae only one species, Cyclostoma elegans, Muller, is British; it hides under stones and roots.

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  • Mole-rats are easily recognized by the peculiarly flattened head, in which the minute eyes are covered with skin, the wart-like ears, and rudimentary tail; they make burrows in sandy soil, and feed on bulbs and roots.

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  • This idea that the Messianic kingdom of the future on earth should have a definite duration has - like the whole eschatology of the primitive Church - its roots in the Jewish apocalyptic literature, where it appears at a comparatively late period.

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  • Sickly and unfruitful trees may often be revived by bringing up their roots within 5 or 6 in.

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  • Care must be taken that the roots always have a sufficient supply of moisture and that the soil is moist wherever the roots run.

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  • These hollow roots terminate blindly in the dorsal epidermis of the collar, and place the nervous layer of the latter in direct connexion with the fibres of the nerve-tube.

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  • The exact significance of these roots is a matter for speculation, but it seems possible that they are epiphysial structures remotely comparable with the epiphysial (pineal) complex of the craniate vertebrates.

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  • Latex, though chiefly secreted in vessels or small sacs which reside in the cortical tissue between the outer bark and the wood is also found in the leaves and sometimes in the roots or bulbs.

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  • Africa, from the tuberous roots of which rubber is extracted by the natives.

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  • Sudan is extracted partly from the roots of Landolphia or from the rhizomes of Landolphia Thollonii or Carpodinus lanceolatus.

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  • It is obtained by breaking up the roots or rhizomes in hot water and separating the rubber, and machines have now been devised for this purpose.

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  • The most serious trouble has been occasioned in the Malay States by a white thread-like fungus (Fomes semitostus) which attacks the roots of the Hevea tree and eventually kills it.

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  • The resultant being a product of mn root differences, is of degree mn in the roots, and hence is of weight mn in the coefficients of the forms; i.e.

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  • Again, if a i, a 2, a 3 ...a m, be the t " roots of -1, b 1 = b 2 =...

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  • The vanishing of this invariant is the condition for equal roots.

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  • This method of solution fails when the discriminant R vanishes, for then the Hessian has equal roots, as also the cubic f.

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  • The discriminant, whose vanishing is the condition that f may possess two equal roots, has the expression j 2 - 6 i 3; it is nine times the discriminant of the cubic resolvent k 3 - 2 ik- 3j, and has also the expression 4(1, t') 6 .

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  • The quartic has four equal roots, that is to say, is a perfect fourth power, when the Hessian vanishes identically; and conversely.

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  • The vanishing of the invariants i and j is the necessary and sufficient condition to ensure the quartic having three equal roots.

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  • The quartic will have two pairs of equal roots, that is, will be a perfect square, if it and its Hessian merely differ by a numerical factor.

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  • The general equation of degree 5 cannot be solved algebraically, but the roots can be expressed by means of elliptic modular functions.

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  • Its roots have occasionally been mistaken for horse-radish.

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  • The aconite has a short underground stem, from which dark-coloured tapering roots descend.

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  • The roots of Aconitum ferox supply the famous Indian (Nepal) poison called bikh, bish or nabee.

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  • Smilax is a characteristic tropical genus containing about 200 species; the dried roots of some species are the drug sarsaparilla.

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  • In algebra he discovered the method of approximating to the real roots of an equation by means of continued fractions, and imagined a general process of solving algebraical equations of every degree.

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  • Brazil has three groups of animals similar to the common rat - the Capromydae, Loncheridae and Psammoryctidae- the best known of which is the " tuco-tuco " (Ctenomys brasiliensis), a small burrowing animal of Rio Grande do Sul which excavates long subterranean galleries and lives on roots and bulbs.

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  • The exports cover a wide range of agricultural, pastoral and natural productions, including coffee, rubber, sugar, cotton, cocoa, Brazil nuts, mate (Paraguay tea), hides, skins, fruits, gold, diamonds, manganese ore, cabinet woods and medicinal leaves, roots and resins.

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  • The poison is extracted by soaking the bruised or grated roots in water, after which the coarse flour is roasted.

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  • These are sometimes erroneously spoken of as the "roots" of cancer, and in the case of cancer of the stomach they may fix it to the pancreas, the liver, the bowels or the spine.

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  • This is especially clear from clause xvi., which decrees that the title and estates of the lords-lieutenant of counties should not be hereditary, thus attacking feudalism at its very roots, while clause xiv.

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  • In addition to the above may be mentioned the work of Kresznerics, where the words are arranged according to the roots (Buda, 1831-1832); the Etymologisches Worterbuch.

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  • The consideration of cases where two roots are equal belongs to the theory of equations (see Equation).

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  • Evolution and involution are usually regarded as operations of ordinary algebra; this leads to a notation for powers and roots, and a theory of irrational algebraic quantities analogous to that of irrational numbers.

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  • Even in ordinary algebra the notation for powers and roots disturbs the symmetry of the rational theory; and when a schoolboy illegitimately extends the distributive law by writing -V (a+b)a+J b, he is unconsciously emphasizing this want of complete harmony.

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  • A notable improvement on the ideas of Diophantus is to be found in the fact that the Hindus recognized the existence of two roots of a quadratic equation, but the negative roots were considered to be inadequate, since no interpretation could be found for them.

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  • In this work, which is one of the most valuable contributions to the literature of algebra, Cardan shows that he was familiar with both real positive and negative roots of equations whether rational or irrational, but of imaginary roots he was quite ignorant, and he admits his inability to resolve the so-called lation of Arabic manuscripts.

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  • It includes the properties of numbers; extraction of roots of arithmetical and algebraical quantities, solutions of simple and quadratic equations, and a fairly complete account of surds.

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  • He possessed clear ideas of indices and the generation of powers, of the negative roots of equations and their geometrical interpretation, and was the first to use the term imaginary roots.

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  • He also discovered how to sum the powers of the roots of an equation.

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  • His principal discovery is concerned with equations, which he showed to be derived from the continued multiplication of as many simple factors as the highest power of the unknown, and he was thus enabled to deduce relations between the coefficients and various functions of the roots.

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  • To calculate the roots of (5) we may assume u=(m+1)7r-y= U-y, (3), where y is a positive quantity which is small when u is large.

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  • The accompanying table is given by Lommel, in which the first column gives the roots of J2(z) =o, and the second and third columns the corresponding values of the functions specified.

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  • From atrophy of their roots, caused by the pressure of the growing permanent teeth, the " milk teeth " in children become loose and are cast off.

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  • When the rocks are concealed by detrital material he looks for outcroppings on steep hillsides, on the crests of hills or ridges, in the beds of streams, in landslides, in the roots of overturned trees, and in wells, quarries, roadcuttings and other excavations.

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  • A remarkable feature is the bare statement of a number of very close approximations to the square roots of numbers which are not complete squares.

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  • Others occur in the Metrica where also a method of finding such approximate square, and even approximate cube, roots is shown.

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  • The approximation to square roots in Hero has been the subject of papers too numerous to mention.

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  • Some of the American varieties have been introduced into France and other countries infested with Phylloxera, to serve as stocks on which to graft the better kinds of European vines, because their roots, though perhaps equally subject to the attacks of the insects, do not suffer so much injury from them as the European species.

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  • If the soil beyond this is very unfavourable, the roots should be prevented from entering it by building a wall at the extreme edge of the border.

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  • It is well after the borders are completed to remove the top soil, in which no roots are to be found, every two or three years, and to replace it with a mixture of good loam, rotten manure, lime rubbish and bone meal, to the depth of 6 or 7 in.

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  • As soon as roots are freely formed the plants must be shifted into 6-inch pots, and later on into 12-inch ones.

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  • As the roots require more room, the plants should be shifted from 3-inch pots into those of 6, 12 or 15 in.

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  • The diseased roots have been confounded with those attacked by Phylloxera.

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  • They feed chiefly on roots and grasses, in search of which they often travel considerable distances; and when eating they sit on their haunches, holding their food in their fore-paws.

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  • Cane sugar has been known for many centuries; milk sugar was obtained by Fabrizio Bartoletti in 1615; and in the middle of the 18th century Marggraf found that the sugars yielded by the beet, carrot and other roots were identical with cane sugar.

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  • The roots were grown under exactly the same cultivation and conditions as a crop of mangel-wurzel - that is to say, they had the ordinary cultivation and manuring of the usual root crops.

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  • The weight per acre, the saccharine contents of the juice, and the quotient of purity compared favourably with the best results obtained in Germany or France, and with those achieved by the Suffolk farmers, who between 1868 and 1872 supplied Mr Duncan's beetroot sugar factory at Lavenham; for the weight of their roots rarely reached 15 tons per acre, and the percentage of sugar in the juice appears to have varied between 10 and 12.

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  • The roots are brought from the fields by carts, canals and railways.

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  • They are weighed and then dumped into a washing machine, consisting of a large horizontal cage, submerged in water, in which revolves a horizontal shaft carrying arms. The arms are set in a spiral form, so that in revolving they not only stir the roots, causing them to rub against each other, but also force them forward from the receiving end,of the cage to the other end.

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  • This hopper was divided into two parts by vertical division plates, against the bottom edge of which the knives in the disk forced the roots and sliced and pulped them.

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  • In 1747 Andreas Sigismund Marggraf, director of the physical classes in the Academy of Sciences, Berlin, discovered the existence of common sugar in beetroot and in numerous other fleshy roots which grow in temperate regions.

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  • The subsoil not unfrequently contains materials which are deleterious to the growth of crops, and roots descending into it may absorb and convey these poisonous substances to other parts of the plant or be themselves damaged by contact with them.

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  • On this account deeper tillage than usual, which allows of easier penetration of roots, or the carrying out of operations which bring the subsoil to the surface, must always be carefully considered.

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  • The work has been going on for ages, and the finely comminuted particles of rocks form the main bulk of the soil which covers much of the earth's surface, the rest of the soil being composed chiefly of the remains of roots and other parts of plants.

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  • In the first place, soil, to be of any use, must be sufficiently loose and porous to allow the roots of plants to grow and extend freely.

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  • If the latter is too compact or has its interstices filled with carbon dioxide gas or with water - as is the case when the ground is water-logged - the roots rapidly die of suffocation just as would an animal under the same conditions.

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  • Its water-holding capacity is great, but it is often acid, and when dr y it is light and incapable of supporting the roots of plants properly.

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  • The method introduced by Dyer of dissolving out the mineral constituents of the soil with a i% solution of citric acid, which represents about the average acidity of the roots of most common plants, yields better results.

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  • When the pore-space of the soil is filled with water it becomes water-logged and few plants can effect absorption by their roots under such conditions.

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  • In this manner plants whose roots descend but a little way in the ground are enabled to draw on deep supplies.

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  • The nitrogen in decaying roots, in the dead stems. and leaves of plants, and in humus generally is sooner or later changed into a nitrate, the change being effected by bacteria.

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  • Certain bacteria of the nitrogenfixing class enter into association with the roots of green plants, the best-known examples being those which are met with in the nodules upon the roots of clover, peas, beans, sainfoin and other plants belonging to the leguminous order.

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  • Upon the roots of leguminous plants characteristic swollen nodules or tubercles are present.

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  • Later the nitrogen-content of the nodule decreases, most of the organisms, which are largely composed of proteid material, becoming digested and transformed into soluble nitrogenous compounds which are conducted to the developing roots and seeds.

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  • After the decay of the roots some of the unchanged bacteria are left in the soil, where they remain ready to infect a new leguminous crop.

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  • The turf is taken off either with the breast plough - a paring tool pushed forward from the breast or thighs by the workman - or with specially constructed paring ploughs or shims. The depth of the sod removed should not be too thick or burning is difficult and too much humus is destroyed unnecessarily, nor should it be too thin or the roots of the herbage are not effectually destroyed.

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  • The " tobacco flea-beetle " (Epitrix parvula, Fabr.) is a small active beetle, the larvae of which attack the roots, while the adult beetles eat holes in the leaves.

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  • Following in the furrow of an ordinary plough it breaks through the sub-soil to a depth of several inches, making it porous and penetrable by plant roots.

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  • Way about 1850, this precaution was not only superfluous but harmful, because the soil possesses a power of absorbing the soluble saline matters required by plants and of retaining them, in spite of rain, for assimilation by the roots.

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  • It is represented in Britain by four species of Lemna, and a still smaller and simpler plant, Wolfa, in which the fronds are only one-twentieth of an inch long and have no roots.

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  • The underground stems are slender and creeping; their vertical roots enlarge and form turnip-shaped tubers.

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  • The roots are dug up in Mexico throughout the year, and are suspended to dry in a net over the hearth of the Indians' huts, and hence acquire a smoky odour.

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  • Here also are other plants with edible roots - the oca (Oxalis tuberosa), ulluca (Ullucus tuberosus), massua (Tropceolum tuberosum), and learc6 (Polymnia sonchifolia).

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  • Strong clumps of five or six roots of one kind have a very fine effect.

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  • His first work - composed, like all the rest, in Arabic - bears the title Almustalha, ind forms, as is indicated by the word, a criticism and at the same time a supplement to the two works of Yehuda `Ilayyuj on the verbs with weak-sounding and double-sounding roots.

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  • Jonah is the Kitab al Tank (" Book of Exact Investigation"), which consists of two parts, regarded as two distinct books - the Kitab alLuma ("Book of Many-coloured Flower-beds") and the Kitab alusul ("Book of Roots").

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  • Cotton yarn and cloth, petroleum, timber and furs are among the chief imports; copper, tin, hides and tea are important exports; medicines in the shape not only of herbs and roots, but also of fossils, shells, bones, teeth and various products of the animal kingdom; and precious stones, principally jade and rubies, are among the other exports.

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  • The resulting pebble and quartz-sand is very unproductive, and supports chiefly a poor underwood and crippled pines with widely spreading roots which seek their nourishment afar.

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  • As for the eye-lashes, not only are they comparatively short and sparse, but also they converge instead of diverging, so that whereas in a European the free ends of the lashes are further distant from each other than their roots, in a Japanese they are nearer together.

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  • Its three roots go down into the three great realms - (I) of death, where, in the well Hvergelmer, the dragon Nidhug (Niandggr) and his brood are ever gnawing it; (2) of the giants, where, in the fountain of Mimer, is the source of wisdom; (3) of the gods, Asgard, where, at the sacred fountain of Urd, is the divine tribunal, and the dwelling of the Fates.

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  • The roots of the climbing species are of interest in their adaptation to the mode of life of the plant.

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  • For instance, some species of Philodendron have a growth like that of ivy, with feeding roots penetrating the soil and clasping roots which fix the plant to its support.

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  • In other species of the genus the seed germinates on a branch, and the seedling produces clasping roots, and roots which grow downwards hanging like stout cords, and ultimately reaching the ground.

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  • The so-called water cabbage (Pistia Stratiotes) is a floating plant widely distributed in the tropics, and consisting of rosettes of broadish leaves several inches across and a tuft of roots hanging in the water.

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  • The history of Christian preaching with which alone this article is concerned has its roots (I) in the activity of the Hebrew prophets and scribes, the former representing the broader appeal, the latter the edification of the faithful, (2) in the ministry of Jesus Christ and His apostles, where again we have both the evangelical invitation and the teaching of truth and duty.

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  • The bones of the skeleton generally more resemble those of the Indian elephant than of any other species, but the skull differs in the narrower summit, narrower temporal fossae, and more prolonged incisive sheaths, supporting the roots of the enormous tusks.

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  • Some of the roots and branches were examined by Captain Samuel Turner during his journey to Tibet; but the plant being neither in blossom nor bearing fruit, it was impossible to decide whether it was the true cinnamon or an inferior kind of cassia.

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  • Porphyra laciniata, the edible laver; Codium tomentosum, a coarse species; Padina pavonia, common in shallow water; Ulva latissima; Haliseris polypodioides; Sargassum bacciferum; the well-known gulf weed, probably transported from the Atlantic; Zostera marina, forming dense beds in muddy bays; the roots are cast up by storms and are valuable to dress the fields.

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  • He knew the connexion existing between the positive roots of an equation (which, by the way, were alone thought of as roots) and the coefficients of the different powers of the unknown quantity.

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  • Their chief food is grass and seeds, but they also consume roots.

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  • They feed entirely by suction, and the majority of the species pierce plant tissues and suck sap. The leaves of plants are for the most part the objects of attack, but many aphids and scale-insects pierce stems, and some go underground and feed on roots.

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  • If the roots are examined numerous fusiform swellings are found upon the smaller rootlets.

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  • They move actively about for a few days and then, having selected a convenient place on the young roots, insert their proboscis and become stationary.

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  • If, however, the insect were content with this method of reproduction the disease could be isolated by surrounding the infected patches with a deep ditch full of some such substance as coal-tar, which would prevent the insects spreading on to the roots of healthy vines.

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  • In 1868 Planchon proved that the disease was due to a new species of phylloxera, which was invariably found on the roots of the affected vines, and to which he accordingly gave the prophetic name of Phylloxera vastatrix.

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  • Insecticides, of which the bisulphide of carbon (CS 2) and the sulpho-carbonate of potassium (KS CS2) remain in use, were injected into the earth to kill the phylloxera on the roots of the vine.

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  • Both incisors and canines are devoid of roots and grow throughout life, the canines, and in the typical species one pair of lower incisors, growing to an immense size.

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  • They agree, for instance, with that family in the presence of a descending flange at the hinder end of each side of the lower jaw; but their dentition is of a more generalized type, comprising the full series of 44 teeth, among which the incisors and canines are of normal form, but specially enlarged, and developing roots in the usual manner.

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  • He also showed that the roots of a cubic equation can be derived by means of the infinitesimal calculus.

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  • While in its completer form it is thus a doctrine distinctive of modern times, idealism has its roots far back in the history of thought.

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  • It had its roots in New a literature and in forms of thought remote from the common track; it had been formulated before the Prag- great advances in psychology which marked the course matism.

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  • They are mainly nocturnal, and subsist chiefly on bark and twigs or the roots of water plants.

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  • The utterance of these speech elements in definite order constitutes the roots and sentences of the various tongues.

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  • Where the temperature allowed, vegetable diet increased, and fruits, seeds and roots were laid under tribute.

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  • The mild climate assists the growth of esculent plants and roots; and a considerable trade is carried on with New York, principally in onions, early potatoes, tomatoes, and beetroot, together with lily bulbs, cut flowers and some arrowroot.

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  • The horse-drawn hoe is steered by means of handles in the rear, but its successful working depends on accurate drilling of the seed, because unless the rows are parallel the roots of the plants are liable to be cut and the foliage injured.

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  • In most rotations barley is grown after turnips, or some other " cleaning " crop, with or without the interposition of a wheat crop. The roots are fed off by sheep during autumn and early winter, after which the ground is ploughed to a depth of 3 or 4 in.

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  • The smaller size of the flocks and the breeding of sheep for meat rather than for wool, the cultivation of English grasses and of extensive crops of turnips and other roots on which to fatten sheep and lambs, all tend to change sheep-farming from the mere grazing of huge mobs on wide, unimproved runs held by pastoral licences.

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  • Some have abstained from all underground-grown roots and tubers, and have claimed special benefits from using only those fruits and vegetables that are grown in the sunlight.

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  • All plant life has a remarkably large proportion of subterranean growth, because of the necessity of getting moisture from the earth and not from the air; hence roots and tubers are unusually well developed.

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  • The fungus attacks injured roots.

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  • The fungus hibernates in the soil and enters through broken or injured roots, hence care should be taken when removing the bulbs that the roots are injured as little as possible.

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  • It feeds chiefly on fruit and roots, but kills sheep, goats, deer, ponies and cattle, and sometimes devours carrion.

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  • They found that the absorbing powers of the metals, and therefore, by the principle of exchanges, their radiating powers also, are proportional to the square roots of their electric conductivities.

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  • Lichtenstein has established the fact that from the egg of the Aphis of Pistachio galls, Anopleura lentisci, is hatched an apterous insect (the gall-founder), which gives birth to young Aphides (emigrants), and that these, having acquired wings, fly to the roots of certain grasses (Bromus sterilis and Hordeum vulgare), and by budding underground give rise to several generations of apterous insects, whence finally comes a winged brood (the pupifera).

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  • As soon as growth commences at the top and a fair amount of roots are formed they may be introduced into gentle heat, in batches according to the need and the amount of stock available.

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  • For the processes of the paper manufacturer esparto is used in the dry state, and without cutting; roots and flowers and stray weeds are first removed, and the material is then boiled with caustic soda, washed, and bleached with chlorine solution.

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  • These salts are sucked up by the roots of plants, and by taking part in the process of nutrition are partly converted into oxalate, tartrate, and other organic salts, which, when the plants are burned, are converted into the carbonate, K 2 CO 3.

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  • But almost everywhere the vegetation serves to smooth the contours of the rugged hills, ferns, mosses and shrubs growing wherever their roots can cling, and leaving only the steepest crags uncovered to form, as in Tahiti, a striking contrast.

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  • Although feeding chiefly on roots, fruits and grain, it is also to some extent carnivorous, attacking and eating small quadrupeds, lizards and birds.

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  • The third, however, was made of the sound of a cat's footsteps, a man's beard, the roots of a mountain, a fish's breath and a bird's spittle.

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  • Logarithms were originally invented for the sake of abbreviating arithmetical calculations, as by their means the operations of multiplication and division may be replaced by those of addition and subtraction, and the operations of raising to powers and extraction of roots by those of multiplication and division.

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  • Briggs also gave methods of forming the mean proportionals or square roots by differences; and the general method of constructing logarithmic tables by means of differences is due to him.

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  • It generally inhabits woody districts, and can climb trees with facility when hunted, but usually lives on or near the ground, among rocks, bushes and roots and low branches of large trees.

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  • These jelly-fishes are probably budded from a minute polyp-stock introduced with the roots of the lily.

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  • The attitude of Gnosticism to the Old Testament and to the creator-god proclaimed in it had its deeper roots, as we have already seen, in the dualism by which it was dominated.

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  • The pulque industry is located on the plateau surrounding the city of Mexico, the most productive district being the high, sandy, arid plain of Apam, in the state of Hidalgo, where the " maguey " (A gave americana) finds favourable conditions for its growth - a dry calcareous surface with moisture sufficiently near to be reached by its roots.

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  • It is exceptionally nutritious, but it disappears altogether in the dry season because of its short roots.

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  • He knows that the roots of the quarrel lie in a wrong condition of the church's life.

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  • It only remained now for the primal man to descend into the abyss and prevent the further increase of the generations of darkness by cutting off their roots; but he could not immediately separate again the elements that had once mingled.

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  • The crown of the third molar is nearly as long as those of the first and second together, having, in addition to the four principal lobes, a large posterior heel, composed of clustered conical cusps, and supported by additional roots.

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  • Other roots are substituted for it, notably that of Panax quinquefolium, distinguished as American ginseng, and imported from the United States.

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  • The plants may be increased by division, the side shoots being taken off early in spring rather than in autumn, with a portion of roots attached.

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  • In Germany a fungus (Polyporus Laricis) grows on the roots and stems of decaying larches, which was formerly in esteem as a drastic purgative.

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  • According to the above law the least refrangible member of the trunk being double, there must be two roots for the branches, and this is found to be the case.

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  • There are, therefore, two main branches and two side branches, but these are not twins springing out of the same root, but parallel branches springing out of different though closely adjacent roots.

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  • The difference between the frequencies of the roots (s = co) is given by This is the first law.

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  • The roots of the three series have frequencies which diminish as the atomic weight increases, but not according to any simple law.

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  • Like other South Sea Islanders they made an intoxicating drink, awa or kava, from the roots of the Macro piper latifolium or Piper methysticum; in early times this could be drunk only by nobles and priests.

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  • Their food is entirely vegetable, especially grass roots and stalks, shoots of dwarf birch, reindeer lichens and mosses, in search of which they form, in winter, long galleries through the turf or under the snow.

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  • Perez says that the Sarare branch of the Apure has formed a gigantic dam across its own course by prodigious quantities of trees, brush, vines and roots, and thus, impounding its own waters, has cut a new channel to the southward across the lowlands and joined the Arauca, from which the Sarare may be reached in small craft and ascended to the vicinity of Pamplona.

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  • The lower incisors have long tapering roots, but not of persistent growth; and are straight, directed somewhat forwards, with awlshaped, tri-lobed crowns.

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  • On the other hand, the representatives of the contemporary genus Megalohyrax were approximately as large as Pliohyrax, and in some instances had double roots to the second and third incisors.

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  • We see how deep the early Adoptianism had struck its roots, when a primate of the 12th century could still appeal to the baptismal regeneration of Jesus.

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  • Peccaries are omnivorous, living on roots, fallen fruits, worms and carrion, and often inflict great devastation upon crops.

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  • Decimal fractions had been employed for the extraction of square roots.

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  • They protect the valleys from destructive avalanches, and, retaining the superficial soil by their roots, they mitigate the destructive effects of heavy rains.

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  • Owing to their growth in length at, or rather in the immediate vicinity of, their tips, roots are enabled to traverse long distances by surmounting some obstacles, penetrating others, and insinuating themselves into narrow crevices.

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  • The importance of the root-fibres, or " feeding roots " justifies the care which is taken by every good gardener to secure their fullest development, and to prevent as far as possible any injury to them in digging, potting and transplanting, such operations being therefore least prejudicial at seasons when the plant is in a state of comparative rest.

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  • The contrariety is more apparent than real, as the operation consists in the removal of the coarser roots, a process which results in the development of a mass of fine feeding roots.

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  • So far as practical gardening is concerned, feeding by the roots after they have been placed in suitable soil is confined principally to the administration of water and, under certain circumstances, of liquid or chemical manure; and no operations demand more judicious management.

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  • Bottom-Heat.----The " optimum " temperature, or that best suited to promote the general activity of roots, and indeed of all vegetable organs, necessarily varies very much with the nature of the plant, and the circumstances in which it is placed, and is ascertained by practical experience.

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  • Artificial heat applied to the roots, called by gardeners " bottom-heat," is supplied by fermenting materials such as stable manure, leaves, &c., or by hot-water pipes.

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  • In winter the temperature of the soil, out of doors, beyond a certain depth is usually higher than that of the atmosphere, so that the roots are in a warmer and more uniform medium than are the upper parts of the plant.

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  • In some instances buds form on the roots, and may be used for purposes of propagation, as in the Japan quince, the globe thistle, the sea holly, some sea lavenders, Bocconia, Acanthus, &c. Of the tendency in buds to assume an independent existence gardeners avail themselves in the operations of striking " cuttings," and making " layers " and " pipings," as also in budding and grafting.

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  • In the case of the more delicate plants, the formation of roots is preceded by the production from the cambium of the cuttings of a succulent mass of tissue, the callus.

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  • The most successful mode of forming roots is to place the cuttings in a mild bottom-heat, which expedites their growth, even in the case of many hardy plants whose cuttings strike roots in the open soil.

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  • With some hard-wooded trees, as the common white-thorn, roots cannot be obtained without bottom-heat.

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  • It is a general rule throughout plant culture that the activity of the roots shall be in advance of that of the leaves.

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  • Layering consists simply in bending down a branch and keeping it in contact with or buried to a small depth in the soil until roots are formed; the connexion with the parent plant may then be severed.

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  • Early autumn planting enables wounded parts of roots to be healed over, and to form fibrils, which will be ready in spring, when it is most required, to collect food for the plant.

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  • Planting late in spring should, as far as possible, be avoided, for the buds then begin to awaken into active life, and the draught upon the roots becomes great.

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  • Another fact in favour of autumnal planting is the production of roots in winter.

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  • The more argillaceous and the less siliceous the soil the more readily can balls of earth be retained about the roots.

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  • During their removal it is important that the roots be covered, if only to prevent desiccation by the air.

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  • On the same principle the use of small pots to confine the roots, root-pruning and lifting the roots, and exposing them to the sun, as is done in the case of the vine in some countries, are resorted to.

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  • In the latter case the seedling has early to shift for itself, and to form roots and leaves for the supply of its needs.

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  • In this operation all stones larger than a man's fist must be taken out, and all roots of trees and of perennial weeds carefully cleared away.

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  • When there is an injurious preponderance of metallic oxides or other deleterious substances, the roots of trees would be affected by them, and they must therefore be removed.

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  • The trees should be planted inside and trained up towards the ridge on a trellis about a foot from the glass, the walls being arched to permit the egress of the roots.

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  • For the growth of pot plants sand is an essential part of most composts, in order to give them the needful porosity to carry off all excess of moisture from the roots.

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  • It any state most plants feed greedily upon it, and when pure or free from decaying wood or sticks it is a very safe ingredient in composts; but it is so liable to generate fungus, and the mycelium or spawn of certain fungi is so injurious to the roots of trees, attacking them if at all sickly or weakened by drought, that many cultivators prefer not' to mix leaf-mould with the soil used for permanent plants, as peaches or choice ornamental trees.

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  • Before being used the turfy ingredients of composts should lie together in a heap only long enough for the roots of the herbage to die, not to decompose.