How to use Rome in a sentence
If you visit Rome and make your way to the Forum, nearby you will see the Arch of Titus.
I read the histories of Greece, Rome and the United States.
All Rome was in terror.
Though it was not clear what the artist meant to express by depicting the so-called King of Rome spiking the earth with a stick, the allegory apparently seemed to Napoleon, as it had done to all who had seen it in Paris, quite clear and very pleasing.
Verres returned to Rome in 70, and in the same year, at the request of the Sicilians, Cicero prosecuted him.Advertisement
The motives alike of geographical convenience and of the advantages to be gained by recognizing these movements of Roman subjects combined to urge a forward policy at Rome, and when the vigorous Vespasian had succeeded the fool-criminal Nero, a series of advances began which gradually closed up the acute angle, or at least rendered it obtuse.
In 1845 he was sent to Rome by Guizot to discuss the question of the Jesuits, being finally appointed ambassador of France at Rome.
Not only could he no longer think the thoughts that had first come to him as he lay gazing at the sky on the field of Austerlitz and had later enlarged upon with Pierre, and which had filled his solitude at Bogucharovo and then in Switzerland and Rome, but he even dreaded to recall them and the bright and boundless horizons they had revealed.
By his exposition of the political history of the kingdom, based on a study of its laws and institutions and of the legal conflicts between the state and the court of Rome, Pietro Giannone was the initiator of what has been since known as civil history.
Having devoted much time to the study of the Latin writers, historians, orators and poets, and filled his mind with stories of the glories and the power of ancient Rome, he turned his thoughts to the task of restoring his native city to its pristine greatness, his zeal for this work being quickened by the desire to avenge his brother, who had been killed by a noble, a member of the ruling class.Advertisement
Some see the guarantee, or at least the indication, of infallibility in the consensus of the Church (quod semper, ubique, et ab omnibus) expressed from time to time in general councils; others see it in the special grace conferred upon St Peter and his successors, the bishops of Rome, as heads of the Church; others again see it in the inspired Scriptures, God's Word.
The mortality from malaria in 1902 was higher than for any other part of Italy-1037 persons, or 154 per 100,000 (Basilicata, 141; Apulia, 104; Calabria, 77; Sicily, 76; province of Rome, 27).
Comparatively little grain is now produced, whereas under the republic Sardinia was one of the chief granaries of Rome.
This is no doubt accounted for by the extreme poverty which prevails among the lower classes, though beggars, on the other hand, are very few, the convictions being 8.95 per 100,000 against 258.15 per 100,000 for the province of Rome.
On each side of this is a curve formed of two rows of -HH a From Papers of the British School at Rome, v.Advertisement
It was classed with Sicily and Africa as one of the main sources of the corn-supply of Rome.
In the first place is the official recognition by the state of the Catholic religion 1 These are arranged under thirty-five distinct heads in Nussi's Quinquaginta conventiones de rebus ecclesiasticis (Rome, 1869).
It must be observed that the denunciation of a concordat by a nation does not necessarily entail the separation of the church and the state in that country or the rupture of diplomatic relations with Rome.
But he is chiefly famous for his History of the Church of Rome to the Pontificate of Innocent III.
Like Mazzini, Montanelli advocated the union of Tuscany with Rome.Advertisement
The struggle of the Bohemians against Rome continued uninterruptedly, and the position of Podébrad became a very difficult one when the young king Ladislas, who was crowned in 1453, expressed his sympathies for the Roman Church, though he had recognized the compacts and the ancient privileges of Bohemia.
All Podébrad's endeavours to establish peace with Rome proved ineffectual, and though the death of Pius II.
Under Henry II., being involved in the disgrace of all the servants of Francis I., he was sent to Rome (1547), and he obtained eight votes in the conclave which followed the death of Pope Paul III.
He lived in Rome thenceforth in great state.
It was first published by Manutius in Rome in 1565.Advertisement
In 1873 he was called to Rome to organize the college of engineering, and was also appointed professor of higher mathematics at the university.
After the capture of Rome by the Italian troops in 1870 Edgar Mortara had the opportunity of reverting to Judaism, but he refused to do so, and not long afterwards became an Augustinian.
The king set out for Rome to secure his coronation, but Venice refused to let him pass through .her territories; and at Trant, on the 4th of February 1508, he took the important step of assuming the title of Roman Emperor Elect, to which he soon received the assent of pope Julius II.
An important event of his pontificate was the capture of Granada (2nd of January 1492), which was celebrated at Rome with great rejoicing and for which Innocent gave to Ferdinand of Aragon the title of "Catholic Majesty."
Thus he gave to his undeserving son Franceschetto several towns near Rome and married him to the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici.
It was reached from Rome by the Via Flaminia, constructed in 220 B.C., and from that time onwards was the bulwark of the Roman power in Cisalpine Gaul, to which province it even gave its name.
In 27 B.C. Augustus planted new colonists there, and divided the city into seven vici after the model of Rome, from which the names of the vici were borrowed.
The embassy from Rome, however, is almost certainly a later, and an inevitable, invention.
After an account of the ancient history of Macedonia and of the intrigue of Nectanebus we are told how Philip dies, and how Alexander subdues Rome and receives tribute from all European nations.
About 1350 she went to Rome, partly to obtain from the pope the authorization of the new order, partly in pursuance of her self-imposed mission to elevate the moral tone of the age.
Save for occasional pilgrimages, including one to Jerusalem in 1373, she remained in Rome till her death on the 23rd of July 1373.
He set up an " intelligence bureau " in Rome, instituted mysteries like those of Eleusis, from which his particular enemies the Christians and Epicureans were alike excluded as " profane," and celebrated a mystic marriage between himself and the moon.
As an offset to this, Arbogast allied himself with the pagan element in Rome, while Valentinian was strictly orthodox.
His works were collected by Cardinal Cajetan, and were published in four volumes at Rome (1606-1615), and then at Paris in 1642, at Venice in 1743, and there are other editions.
With the latter, however, he remained on the most friendly terms, and when he departed from Rome, left in his hands two unfinished pictures which Raphael completed.
On his return to Rome (S4) he was accused of extortion in his province.
They were unanimous in rejecting the episcopacy of the Church of Rome, the sanctity of celibacy, the sacerdotal character of the ministry, the confessional, the propitiatory nature of the mass.
So dreadful had been the yoke of Rome, which they had shaken off, that they feared to submit to anything similar even under Protestant auspices.
From him he obtained introductions to the great houses of Rome and Naples, whither he now hastened.
At Rome he married a beautiful but unprincipled woman, Lorenza Feliciani, with whom he travelled, under different names, through many parts of Europe.
Leaving England, he travelled through Europe as far as Rome, where he was arrested in 1789.
A bishop of Parma is mentioned in the acts of the council of Rome of A.D.
Its bishop Cadalus (1046-1071) was elected to the papacy by the Lombard and German bishops in 1061, and marched on Rome, but was driven back by the partisans of Alexander III.
Gibbon justly calls Beli- sarius the Africanus of New Rome.
A large number of other works by members and pupils of the same family, but unsigned, exist in Rome.
Bocchus again made overtures to the Romans, and after an interview with Sulla, who was Marius's quaestor at that time, sent ambassadors to Rome.
At Rome the hope of an alliance was encouraged, but on condition that Bocchus showed himself deserving of it.
In return for their more equivocal attitude during the Third Macedonian War they were deprived by Rome of some possessions in Lycia, and damaged by the partial diversion of their trade to Delos (167).
While young Rousseau went to Rome, where he spent some years in painting the ancient ruins, together with the surrounding landscapes.
A war with Rome seemed inevitable.
Rome, attacked by the French army, was taken by assault after a month's sanguinary siege.
After the fall of Rome it suffered attacks and devastations from the successive masters of Italy, until it was finally taken by the Neapolitans in 1299.
Julius Caesar, after a severe struggle with - the Nervii and their confederates, was successful in bringing the Belgic tribes into Their subjection to Rome.
By the time the third stage, which placed the seat of soul-life in the brain, was reached through the further advance of anatomical knowledge, the religious rites of Greece and Rome were too deeply incrusted to admit of further radical changes, and faith in the gods had already declined too far to bring new elements into the religion.
The German army invaded Italy in August 1132, and occupied Rome, all except St Peter's church and the castle of St Angelo which held out against them.
A second expedition of Lothair expelled Roger of Sicily (to whom Anacletus had given the title of king in return for his support) from southern Italy, but a quarrel with Innocent prevented the emperor attacking Rome.
After the decline of the power of Rome, the dominant force in Asiatic commerce and navigation was Persia, and from that time onward, until the arrival of the Portuguese upon the scene early in the 16th century the spice trade, whose chief emporia were in or near the Malay Peninsula, was in Persian or Arab hands.
When Charles of Bourbon stormed Rome in 1527 Paleario went first to Perugia and then to Siena, where he settled as a teacher.
He was tried at Rome, condemned to death in October 1569, and executed in July 1570.
Subsequently he was transferred, perhaps through Cromwell's influence, to the service of the king, and in January 15 3 2 he was sent to Rome to obstruct the judicial proceedings against Henry in the papal curia.
The Latinizing Armenians adopted it from Rome in the crusading epoch.
Its importance is vouched for by the many remains of antiquity which it possesses, of which the most famous is the triumphal arch erected in honour of Trajan by the senate and people of Rome in A.D.
The scene of the legend now shifts to Rome, where Diocletian falls in love with a lovely nun named Ripsime; she, rather than gratify his passion, flees with her abbess Gaiana and several priests to Armenia.
According to Agathangelus, Tiridates went to Rome with Gregory, Aristaces, son of Gregory, and Albianos, head of the other priestly family, to make a pact with Constantine, newly converted to the faith, and receive a pallium from Silvester.
Albrecht had been elected at the age of twenty-four to a see already impoverished by frequent successions and payments of annates to Rome.
He is said to have baptized the emperor Philip and his son, to have done some building in the catacombs, to have improved the organization of the church in Rome, to have appointed officials to register the deeds of the martyrs, and to have founded several churches in France.
The basilica reared over his tomb at Rome is still visited by pilgrims. His legend is very popular.
According to this statement he left his native town at an early age and settled at Rome, where he got employment in a theatre, though it is not clear in what capacity.
At Rome he saved a little money, and embarked on some mercantile enterprise, probably abroad.
Plautus was a general favourite in the days of republican Rome.
They appear to have had a foedus with Rome, but subsequently rebelled.
At this time he was nominated to the pope as coadjutor of Geneva,' and after a visit to Rome he assisted Bishop de Granier in the administration of the newly converted countries and of the diocese at large.
The depositions of witnesses were returned to Rome in 1632, but meantime the forms of the Roman chancery had been changed by Urban VIII., and the advocates could not at once continue their work.
Gian Paolo Baglioni was lured to Rome in 1520 and beheaded by Leo X.; and in 1534 Rodolfo, who had slain a papal legate, was defeated by Pier Luigi Farnese, and the city, captured and plundered by his soldiery, was deprived of its privileges.
During the short reign of Valentinian there were wars in Africa, in Germany and in Britain, and Rome came into collision with barbarian peoples of whom we now hear for the first time - Burgundians, Saxons, Alamanni.
Though himself a plain and almost illiterate soldier, he was a founder of schools, and he also provided medical attendance for the poor of Rome, by appointing a physician for each of the fourteen districts of the city.
In 1890 Liverpool was placed in direct telegraphic communication with Hamburg and Havre, and London with Rome.
Since the early days of international telegraphy, conferences of representatives of government telegraph departments and companies have been held from time to time (Paris 1865, Vienna 1868, Rome 1871 and 1878, St Petersburg 1875, London 1879, Berlin 1885,1885, Paris 1891, Buda Pesth 1896, London 1903).
There are now four circuits between London and Paris, one between London and Lille, and two between Londofi and Brussels, the last carrying an increasing amount of traffic. Experiments have been made in telephonic communication between London and Rome by way of Paris.
He devoted himself to solitude, prayer and the service of the poor, and before long went on a pilgrimage to Rome.
According to this authority Jovinian in 388 was living at Rome the celibate life of an ascetic monk, possessed a good acquaintance with the Bible, and was the author of several minor works, but, undergoing an heretical change of view, afterwards became a self-indulgent Epicurean and unrefined sensualist.
Podébrad, who had gained the throne of Bohemia with the aid of the Hussites and Utraquists, had long been in ill odour at Rome, and in 1465 Pope Paul II.
This volcanic tract extends across the Campagna of Rome, till it rises again in the lofty group of the Alban hills, the highest summit of which, the Monte Cavo, is 3160 ft.
The Teverone or Anio, which enters the Tiber a few miles above Rome, is an inferior stream to the Nera, but brings down a considerable body of water from the mountains above Subiaco.
Such is the Lago di Bolsena, near the city of the same name, which is an extensive sheet of water, as well as the much smaller Lago di Vico (the Ciminian lake of ancient writers) and the Lago di Bracciano, nearer Rome, while to the south of Rome the well known lakes of Albano and Nemi have a similar origin.
Foxes are common in the neighborhood of Rome.
Rome is an exception to the former rule and imports garden produce largely from the neighborhood of Naples and from Sardinia.
Artificial props of several kindswires, cane work, trellis work, &c.are also in use in many districts (in the neighborhood of Rome canes are almost exclusively employed), and in some the plant is permitted to trail along the ground.
In Sicily and the provinces of Reggio, Catanzaro, Cosenza and Lecce this tree flourishes without shelter; as far north as Rome, Aquila and Teramo it reqtiires only the slightest protection; in the rest of the peninsula itruns the risk of damage by frost every ten years or so.
In the agro Romano, or zone immediately around Rome, land is as a rule left for pasturage.
The electric power required fcir the tramways and the illuminatiQn of Rome is entirely supplied by turbines situated at Tivoli, and this is the case elsewhere, and the harnessing of this waterpower is capable of very considerable extension.
The industry is chiefly developed in Lombardy, Piedmont and Liguria; to some extent also in Campania, Venetia and Tuscany, and to a less extent in Lazio (Rome), Apulia, Emilia, the Marches, Umbria, the Abruzzi and Sicily.
The industry centres chiefly in Piedmont (province of Novara), Venetia (province of Vicenza), Tuscany (Florence), Lombardy (Brescia), Campania (Caserta), Genoa, Umbria, the Marches and Rome.
The jewellers art received large encouragement in a country which had so many independent courts; but nowhere has it attained a fuller development than at Rome.
Milan 4s the most important railway centre in the country, and is followed by Turin, Genoa, Verona, Bologna, Rome, Naples.
One of the fastest runs is from Rome to Orte, 52-40 m.
The insufficiency of rolling stock, and especially of goods wagons, is mainly caused by delays in handling traffic consequent on this or other causes, among which may be mentioned the great length ofthe single lines south of Rome.
International communication between Rome and Paris, and Italy and Switzerland also exists.
At the end of 1907 Italy was among the few Countries that had not adopted the reduction of postage sanctioned at the Postal Union congress, held in Rome in 1906, by which the rates became 23/4d.
Though the territorial authority of the papal see was practically abolished in 1870, the fact that Rome is the seat of the administrative centre of the vast organization of the church is not without significance to the nation.
The Italian sees (exclusive of Rome and of the suburbicarian sees) have a total annual revenue of 206,000 equal to an average of 800 per see.
Supplementary stipends to bishops and parochial clergy, assignments to Sardinian clergy and expenditure for education and charitable purposes - - 142,912 f28,52f Roman Charitable and Religious Fund.The law of the 19th of June 1873 contained special provisions, in conformity with the character of Rome as the seat of the papacy, and with the situation created by the Law of Guarantees.
According to the census of 1871 there were in the city and province of Rome 474 monastic establishments (311 for monks, 163 for nuns), occupied by 4326 monks and 3825 nuns, and possessing a gross revenue of 4,780,89i lire.
Italy has courts of cassation at Rome, Naples, Palermo, Ttirin, Florence, 20 appeal court districts, I62 tribunal districts and 1535 mandamenti, each with its own magistracy (pretura).
Appeal may be made from the sentences of the pretori to the tribunals, and from the tribunals to the courts of appeal; from the assize courts there is no appeal except on a point of form, which appeal goes to the court of cassation at Rome.
Even the first president of the Rome court of cassation only receives f6o0 a year.
The courts of appeal and cassation, too, often have more than they can do; in the year 1907 the court of cassation at Rome decided 948 appeals on points of law in civil cases, while no fewer than 460 remained to be decided.
Rome is plotected by a circle of forts from a coup de main from the sea, the coast, only 12 m.
After being depressed between 5885 and 1894, the prices in Italy and abroad reached, in 1899, on the Rome Stock Exchange, the average 01 100.83 and of 94.8 on the Paris Bourse.
There are in Italy six clearing houses, namely, the ancient one at Leghorn, and those of Genoa, Milan, Rome, Florence and Turin, founded since 1882.
The early history of Italy will be found under ROME and allied headings.
We know from the Roman historians that a large force of Gauls came as far south as Rome in the year 390 B.C., and that some part of this horde settled in what was henceforward known as the Ager Gallicus, the easterdmost strip of coast in what was later known as Umbria, including the towns of Caesna, Ravenna and -Ariminum.
Latin will be counted the language of the earlier plebeian stratum of the population of Rome and Latium, probably once spread over a large area of the peninsula, and akin in sijme degree to the language or languages spoken in north Italy before either the Etruscan or the Gallic invasions began.
As the supremacy of Rome extended itself Roads, over Italy, the Roman road system grew step by step, each fresh conquest being marked by the pushing forward of roads through the heart of the newly-won territory, and the establishment of fortresses in connection with them.
From Rome itself roads radiated in all directions.
In the same year a road was constructed over the Apennines from Bon.onia to Arretium, but it is difficult to suppose that it was not until later that the Via Cassia was made, giving a direct communication between Arretium and Rome.
Rome, protected by invincible prestige, escaped.
The duchies of Spoleto in the centre, and of Benevento in the south, inserted wedge-like into the middle of the peninsula, and enclosing independent Rome, were but loosely united to the kingdom at Pavia.
Three separate capitals must be discriminated Pavia, the seat of the new Lombard kingdom; Ravenna, the garrison city of the Byzantine emperor; and Rome, the rallying point of the old nation, where the successor of St Peter was already beginning to assume that national protectorate which proved so influential in the future.
The fruit of his policy, which made of Rome a counterpoise against the effete empire of the Greeks upon the one hand and against the pressure of the feudal kingdom on the other, was seen in the succeeding century.
Liudprand pressed hard, not only upon the Greek dominions of the exarchate, but also upon Rome.
These he handed over to the pope, of Rome.
The Franko-Papal alliance, which conferred a crown on Pippin and sovereign rights upon the see of Rome, held within itself that ideal of mutually Charles supporting papacy and empire which exercised so the iireat powerful an influence in medieval history.
The parcels into which the Lombards had divided the peninsula remained thus virtually unaltered, except for the new authority acquired by the see of Rome.
In the third place it was marked by a decline of good government in Rome.
But the conditions under which it could arise, casting from itself all foreign and feudal trammels, recognizing its true past in ancient Rome, and reconstructing a civility out of the ruins of those glorious memories, were now at last granted.
Rome fell once more into the hands of her nobles.
Henry nearly destroyed Pavia, was crowned in Rome and died in 1024.
Next to Milan, and from the point of view of general politics even more than Milan, Rome now claims attention.
The destinies of Italy depended upon the character which Rome.
During the reign of Conrad II., the party of the counts of Tusculum revived in Rome; and Crescentius, claiming the title of consul in.
It saved Rome from becoming a duchy in the hands of the Tusculum house.
Sicily in the hands ot the Mussulmans, the Theme of Lombardy abandoned to the weak suzerainty of the Greek catapans, the Lombard duchy of Benevento slowly falling to pieces and the maritime republics of Naples, Gaeta and Amalfi extending their influence by commerce in the Mediterranean, were in effect detached from the Italian regno, beyond the jurisidiction of Rome, included in no parcel of Italy proper.
Gregory had passed before her from the scene of his contest, an exile at Salerno, whither Robert Guiscard carried him in 1084 from the anarchy of rebellious Rome.
A new descent into Italy, a new seizure of Rome, proved of no avail.
They recognized the fact that their blood was Latin as distinguished from Teutonic, and that they must look to ancient Rome for those memories which constitute a pecples nationality.
The rise of the Lombard communes produced a sympathetic revolution in Rome, which deserves to be mentioned in this place.
Rome, ever mindful of hei unique past, listened to Arnolds preaching.
He laid waste Chieri, Asti and Tortona, then took the Lombard crown at Pavia, and, reserving Milan for a future day, passed southward to Rome.
The gates of Rome itself were shut against Frederick; and even on this first occasion his good understanding with Adrian began to suffer.
When Frederick once more crossed the Alps in 1166, he advanced on Rome, and besieged Alexander in the Coliseum.
Rome itself again at this epoch established a republic, with which Innocent would not or could not interfere.
Having established Ezzelino in Verona, Vicenza and Padua, he defeated the Milanese and their allies at Cortenuova in 1237, and sent their carroccio as a trophy of his victory to Rome.
He therefore made alliance with Venice and Genoa, fulminated a new excommunication against Frederick, and convoked a council at Rome to ratify his ban in 1241.
They made him senator of Rome and vicar of Tuscany, and promised him the investiture of the regno provided he stipulated that it should not be held in combination with the empire.
Charles was forced to resigr the senatorship of Rome and the signoria of Lombardy and Tuscany.
After receiving the crown in Rome, he died at Buonconvento, a little walled town south of Siena, on his backward journey in 1313.
The threatening presence of the tWo princely houses of Orsini and Colonna, alike dangerous as friends or foes, rendered Rome an unsafe residence.
At this crisis she was ruled by the monk Girolamo Savonarola, who inspired the people with a thirst for freedom, preached the necessity of reformation, and placed himself in direct antagonism to Rome.
The year 1527 was signalized by the famous sack of Rome.
After his death, the Constable de Bourbon took command of them; they marched slowly down, aided by the marquis of Ferrara, and unopposed by the duke of Urbino, reached Rome, and took it by assault.
As an immediate result of this catastrophe, Florence shook off the Medici, and established a republic. But Clement, having made peace with the emperor, turned the remnants of the army which had sacked Rome against his native city.
A Spanish viceroy in Milan and another in Naples, supported by Rome and by the minor princes who followed the policy dictated to them from Madfid, were sufficient to preserve the whole peninsula in a state of somnolent inglorious servitude.
Paul III.s pontificate was further marked by important changes in the church, all of which confirmed the spiritual autocracy of Rome.
Emmanuel Philibert, duke of Savoy, represented the oldest and not the least illustrious reigning house in Europe, and his descendants were destined to achieve for Italy the independence which no other power or prince had given her since the fall of ancient Rome.
Before he set sail for Egypt, the French had taken possession of Rome.
Joseph Bonaparte, then occupaFrench envoy to the Vatican, encouraged democratic tion of manifestations; and one of them, at the close of 1797, Rome.
The liberators of Rome thereupon proceeded to plunder the city in a way which brought shame on their cause and disgrace (perhaps not wholly deserved) on the general left in command, Massna.
The Neapolitan troops at first occupied Rome, but, being badly handled by their leader, the Austrian general, Mack, they were soon scattered in flight; and the Republican troops under General The Championnet, after crushing the stubborn resistance Parthenoof the lazzaroni, made their way into Naples and paean proclaimed the Parthenopaean Republic (January 23, Republic. 1799).
The republics set up by the French at Naples, Rome and Milan collapsed as soon as the French troops retired; and a reaction in favor of clerical and Austrian influence set in with great violence.
Your Holiness (he wrote) is sovereign of Rome, but I am its emperor; and he threatened to annul the presumed donation of Rome by Charlemagne, unless the pope yielded implicit obedience to him in all temporal affairs.
But after the occupation of Vienna the conqueror dated from that capital on the 17th of May 1809 a decree virtually annexing Rome and the Painmonium Petri to the French empire.
Here again he cited the action of Charlemagne, his august predecessor, who had merely given certain domains to the bishops of Rome as fiefs, though Rome did not thereby cease to be part of his empire.
Thereupon the French general, Miollis, who still occupied Rome, caused the pope to be arrested and carried him away northwards into Tuscany, thence to Savona; finally he was taken, at Napoleons orders, to Fontainebleau.
By an imperial decree of the I7th of February 1810, Rome and the neighboring districts, including Spoleto, became part of the French empire.
Rome thenceforth figured as its second city, and entered upon a new life under the administration of French officials.
The pope, Pius VII., who had long been kept under restraint by Napoleon at Fontainebleau, returned to Rome in May 1814, and was recognized by the congress of Vienna (not without some demur on the part of Austria) as the sovereign of all the former possessions of the Holy See.
In April Pius created a Consulta, or consultative assembly, and soon afterwards a council of ministers and a municipality for Rome.
Events in Rome produced widespread excitement throughout Europe.
In Rome the pope gave way to popular clamour, granting one concession after another, and on the 8th of February he publicly called down Gods blessing on Italythat Italy hated by the Austrians, whose name it had hitherto been a crime to mention.
In Rome the popes authority weakened day by day, and disorder increased.
Capponi resigned in October 1848, and Leopold reluctantly consented to a democratic ministry led by Guerrazzi and Montanelli, the former a very ambitious and unscrupulous man, the latter honest but fantastic. Following the Roman example, a constituent assembly was demanded to vote on union with Rome and eventually with the rest of Italy.
In Rome the triumvirate decided to defend the republic to the last.
On the 25th of April General Roman Oudinot landed with 8000 men at Civitavecchia, and Republl4 on the 3oth attempted to capture Rome by suprise, but was completely defeated by Garibaldi, who might have driven the French into the sea, had Mazzini allowed him to leave the city.
The Neapolitans were ignominiously beaten in May and retired to the frontier; on the 1st of June Oudinot declared that he would attack Rome on the 4th, but by beginning operations on the 3rd, when no attack was expected, he captured an important position in the Pamphili gardens.
The Italian cause had been crushed, but revolution and war had strengthened the feeling of unity, for Neapolitans had fought for Venice, Lombards for Rome, Piedmontese for all Italy.
In Rome, after the restoration of the temporal power by the French troops, the pope paid no attention to Louis Napoleons advice to maintain some form of constitution, to grant a general amnesty, and to secularize the administration.
In the Austrian provinces and in the duchies it carried all before it, and gained many adherents in the Legations, Rome and Naples, although in the latter regions the autonomist feeling was still strong even among the Liberals.
In Piedmont itself it was at first less successful; and Cavour, although he aspired ultimately to a united Italy with Rome as the capital,1 openly professed no ambition beyond the expulsion of Austria and the formation of a North Italian kingdom.
His ces me, intentions in the main were still loyal, for be desired cal to capture Rome for the kingdom; and he did his tio st to avoid the regulars tardily sent against him.
Rome was still wanting.
The French regular troops were withdrawn from Rome in December 1866; but the pontifical forces were largely recruited in France and commanded by officers of the imperial army, and service under the pope was considered by the French war office as equivalent to service in France.
Their presence, however, was a sufficient excuse for Napoleon, under pressure of the clerical party, to send another expedition to Rome (26th of October).
On the 24th he captured Monte Rotondo, but did not enter Rome as the expected insurrection had not broken out.
Austria would not join France unless Italy did the same, and she realized that that was impossible unless Napoleon gave way about Rome.
On the 9th of August Italy made a declaration of neutrality, and three weeks later ViscontiVenosta informed the powers that Italy was about to occupy Rome.
In France, where the Uon of Government of National Defence had replaced the Rome.
The occupation of Rome caused no surprise to the French government, which had been forewarned on 11th September of the Italian intentions.
On that occasion Jules Favre had recognized the September convention to be dead, and, while refusing explicitly to denounce it, had admitted that unless Italy went to Rome the city would become a prey to dangerous agitators.
At the same time he made it clear that Italy would occupy Rome upon her own responsibility.
Prussia, while satisfied at the fall of the temporal power, seemed to fear lest Italy might recompense the absence of French opposition to the occupation of Rome by armed intervention in favor of France.
The friendly attitude of France towards Italy during the period immediately subsequent to the occupation of Rome seemed to cow and to dishearten the Vatican.
The secretary-general of the Italian foreign office, Baron Blanc, who had accompanied General Cadorna to Rome, was received almost daily by Cardinal Antonelli, papal secretary of state, in order to settle innumerable questions arising out of the Italian occupation.
Once in possession of Rome, and guarantor to the Catholic world of the spiritual independence of the pope, the Italian government prepared juridically to regulate its relations to the Holy See.
Article 10 extended immunity to ecclesiastics employed by the Holy See, and bestowed upon foreign ecciesiastics in Rome the personal rights of Italian citizens.
Article 13 exempted all ecclesiastical seminaries, academies, colleges and schools for the education of priests in the city of Rome from all interference on the part of the Italian government.
Bishops were further dispensed from swearing fealty tc the king, though, except in Rome and suburbs, the choice of bishop1 was limited to ecclesiastics of Italian nationality.
For a few months after the occupation of Rome pressing questions incidental to a new change of capital and to the administration of a new domain distracted public attention from the real condition of Italian affairs.
Pressure from all sides of the House, however, induced the ministry to retain office until after the debate on the application to Rome and the Papal States of the Religious Orders Bill (originally passed in 1866)a measure which, with the help of Ricasoli, was carried at the end of May.
To the pope was made over 16,000 per annum as a contribution to the expense of maintaining in Rome representatives of foreign orders; the Sacred College, however, rejected this endowment, and summoned all the suppressed confraternities to reconstitute themselves under the ordinary Italian law of association.
It had completed national unity, transferred the capital to Rome, overcome the chief obstacles to financial equilibrium, initiated military reform and laid the foundation of the relations between state and church.
For some time after the occupation of Rome the pope, in order to substantiate the pretence that his spiritual freedom had been diminished, avoided the creation of cardinals and the nomination of bishops.
Perceiving the advantage of a visit to the imperial and apostolic court after the Italian occupation of Rome and the suppression of the religious orders, and convinced of the value of more cordial intercourse with the German empire, Visconti-Venosta and Minghetti advised their sovereign to accept both the Austrian and the subsequent German invitations.
Meanwhile Thiers had given place to Marshal Macmahon, who effected a decided improvement in Franco-Italian relations by recalling from Civitavecchia the cruiser Ornoque, which since 1870 had been stationed in that port at the disposal of the pope in case he should desire to quit Rome.
On more than one occasion Bismarck had maintained direct relations with the chiefs of the Left, and had in I87o worked to prevent a FrancoItalian alliance by encouraging the party of action to press for the occupation of Rome.
As a precaution against an eventual French attempt to restore the temporal power, orders were hurriedly given to complete the defences of Rome, but in other respects the Italian government maintained its subservient attitude.
He had led the country out of the despondency which followed the defeat of Novara and the abdication of Charles Albert, through all the vicissitudes of national unification to the final triumph at Rome.
Notwithstanding the pontiffs bestowal of the apostolic benediction in articulo mortis upon Victor Emmanuel, the attitude of the Vatican had remained so inimical as to make it doubtful whether the conclave would be held in Rome.
Crispi, whose strong anti-clerical convictions did not prevent him from regarding the papacy as preeminently an Italian institution, was determined both to prove to the Catholic world the practical independence of the government of the Church and to retain for Rome so potent a centre of universal attraction as the presence of the future pope.
The Sacred College having decided to hold the conclave abroad, Crispi assured them of absolute freedom if they remained in Rome, or of protection to the frontier should they migrate, but warned them that, once evacuated, the Vatican would be occupied in the name of the Italian government and be lost to the Church as headquarters of the papacy.
The cardinals thereupon overruled their former decision, and the conclave was held in Rome, the new pope, Cardinal Pecci, being elected on the 20th of February 1878 without let or hindrance.
At the same time the duke of Aosta, commander of the Rome army corps, ordered the troops to render royal honors to the pontiff should he officially appear in the capital.
Danger of foreign interference in the relations between Italy and the papacy had never been so great since the Italian occupation of Rome, as when, in the summer of 1881,the disorders during the transfer of the remains of Pius IX.
Robilants opposition to a precipitate acceptance of the Austrian hint was founded upon fear lest King Humbert at Vienna might be pressed to disavow Irredentist aspirations, and upon a desire to arrange for a visit of the emperor Francis Joseph to Rome in return for King Humberts visit to Vienna.
At the request of Kalnky, Mancini defined his proposal in a memorandum, but the illness of himself and Depretis, combined with an untoward discussion in the Italian press on the failure of the Austrian emperor to return in Rome King Humberts visit to Vienna, caused negotiations to drag.
A few days later Signor Bonghi, one of the framers of the Law of Guarantees, published in the Nuova Antologia a plea for reconciliation on the basis of an amendment to the Law of Guarantees and recognition by the pope of the Italian title to Rome.
Italy, for her part, could not go back upon the achievements of the Risorgimento by restoring Rome or any portion of Italian territory to the pope.
Meanwhile the enthusiastic reception accorded to the young German emperor on the occasion of his visit to Rome in October 1888, and the cordiality shown towards King Humbert and Crispi at Berlin in May 1889, increased the tension of FrancoItalian relations; nor was it until after the fall of Prince Bismarck in March 1890 that Crispi adopted towards the Republic a more friendly attitude by sending an Italian squadron to salute President Carnot at Toulon.
Giolitti removed the prefect of Rome for not having prevented an expression of popular anger, and presented formal excuses to the French consul at Messina for a demonstration against that consulate.
The remains of King Humbert were laid to rest in the Pantheon at Rome beside those of his father, Victor Emmanuel II.
In December 1898 he convoked a diplomatic conference in Rome to discuss secret means for the repression of anarchist propaganda and crime in view of the assassination of the empress of Austria by an Italian anarchist (Luccheni), but it is doubtful whether results of practical value were achieved.
Riots broke out also in Naples, Florence, Rome and Bologna.
Loubet, the French president, came to Rome; this action was strongly resented by the pope, who, like his predecessor since 1870, objected to the presence of foreign Catholic rulers in Rome, and led to the final rupture between France and the Vatican.
They wrote the history of Rome from the earliest times (in most cases) down to their own days, the events of which were treated in much greater detail.
For the earlier period their authorities were state and family records - above all, the annales maximi (or annales pontificum), the official chronicle of Rome, in which the notable occurrences of each year from the foundation of the city were set down by the pontifex maximus.
Although these annals were no doubt destroyed at the time of the burning of Rome by the Gauls, they were restored as far as possible and continued until the pontificate of P. Mucius Scaevola, by whom they were finally published in eighty books.
As a general rule the annalists wrote in a spirit of uncritical patriotism, which led them to minimize or gloss over such disasters as the conquest of Rome by Porsena and the compulsory payment of ransom to the Gauls, and to flatter the people by exaggerated accounts of Roman prowess, dressed up in fanciful language.
His work embraced the history of Rome from its foundation down to his own days.
Claudius Quadrigarius (about 80 B.C.) wrote a history, in at least twenty-three books, which began with the conquest of Rome by the Gauls and went down to the death of Sulla or perhaps later.
Valerius Antias, a younger contemporary of Quadrigarius, wrote the history of Rome from the earliest times, in a voluminous work consisting of seventy-five books.
Peter, Historicorum Romanorum Reliquiae (1870, 1906), and Historicorum Romanorum Fragmenta (1883); also articles ROME, History (ancient) ad fin., section "Authorities," and Liv y, where the use made of the annalists by the historian is discussed; Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopddie, art.
An embassy, with the earl of Wiltshire at its head, was despatched to Rome in 1530, that " the matter of the divorce should be disputed and ventilated," and Cranmer was an important member of it.
Brooks had no power to give sentence, but reported to Rome, where Cranmer was summoned, but not permitted, to attend.
The Church of Rome has discouraged these daring tactics in favour of the more cautious and probably more defensible positions of Aquinas.
It suggests in every deed a personal but limited God, or a number of Gods - " Religions of spiritual Individuality," including, along with " Judaism," the anthropomorphic religions of Greece and Rome.
Artaxata and Tigranocerta were captured, and Tigranes, who had been brought up in Rome and was the obedient servant of the government, was installed king of Armenia.
At Rhandea he laid down his diadem at the foot of the emperor's statue, promising not to resume it until he received it from the hand of Nero himself in Rome.
For a century, from Maximian to Maximus (286-388), it was (except under Julian, who preferred to reside in Paris) the administrative centre from which Gaul, Britain and Spain were ruled, so that the poet Ausonius could describe it as the second metropolis of the empire, or "Rome beyond the Alps."
Educated at the universities of Bonn and Heidelberg, he obtained a position in Florence through the influence of an Englishman, William Craufurd, but soon he entered the Prussian diplomatic service and was employed in Florence, in Constantinople and in Rome.
He remembered his connexion with Florence when he wrote Romische Briefe von einem Florentiner (Leipzig, 1840-44), and his residence in Rome was also responsible for his Geschichte der Stadt Rom (3 vols., 1867-70)..
He was born at Rome while his father was cardinal, and on the latter's elevation to the papacy (1492) he was created archbishop of Valencia, and a year later cardinal.
The Sforzas having expelled the French from Milan, Cesare returned to Rome in February, his schemes checked for the moment; his father rewarded him for his successes by making him gonfaloniere of the church and conferring many honours on him; he remained in Rome and took part in bull fights and other carnival festivities.
After taking Castel Bolognese he returned to Rome in June, to take part in the Franco-Spanish intrigues for the partition of Naples.
He was back in Rome early in 1503, and took part in reducing the last rebel Orsinis.
On all sides his enemies rose up against him; in Romagna the deposed princes prepared to regain their own, and the Orsinis raised their heads once more in Rome.
Cesare's position was greatly shaken, and when he tried to browbeat the cardinals by means of Don Michelotto and his bravos, they refused to be intimidated; he had to leave Rome in September, trusting that the Spanish cardinals would elect a candidate friendly to his house.
Before he reached Rome, Pope John XV., who had invited him to Italy, had died, whereupon he raised his own cousin Bruno, son of Otto duke of Carinthia, to the papal chair as Pope Gregory V., and by this pontiff Otto was crowned emperor on the 21st of May 996.
On his return to Germany, the emperor learned that Gregory had been driven from Rome, which was again in the power of John Crescentius, patrician of the Romans, and that a new pope, John XVI., had been elected.
Leaving his aunt, Matilda, abbess of Quedlinburg, as regent of Germany, Otto, in February 99 8, led Gregory back to Rome, took the castle of St Angelo by storm and put Crescentius to death.
In the palace which he built on the Aventine, Otto sought to surround himself with the splendour and ceremonial of the older emperors of Rome, and dreamed of making Rome once more the centre of a universal empire.
Returning to Rome, trouble soon arose between Otto and the citizens, and for three days the emperor was besieged in his palace.
The first building to which the name was given was that built in Rome in 27 B.C. by Agrippa; it was burned later and the existing building was erected in the reign of Hadrian; since A.D.
His ritual and mysteries (Sacra Savadia) gained a firm footing in Rome during the 2nd century A.D., although as early as 139 B.C. the first Jews who settled in the capital were expelled by virtue of a law which proscribed the propagation of the cult of Jupiter Sabazius.
The original road was no doubt only gravelled (glarea strata); in 298 B.C. a footpath was laid saxo quadrato from the Porta Capena, by which it left Rome, to the temple of Mars, about 1 m.
The distance from Rome to Capua was 132 m.
Aurelian referred the matter to the bishop of Rome and the bishops of Italy, who gave their award in favour of the Antiochene Church.
A synod was held at Rome, attended by bishops from various regions, which reversed the original judgment of the synod of Tyre which had condemned Athanasius.
This council endeavoured to set up a system of appeals in the case of bishops, in which the see of Rome was made to play a great part.
If this be done, the synod of first instance is to send letters to Julius, bishop of Rome.
Pending appeal, the appellant's see is not to be filled up. The judges appointed by the bishop of Rome to hear the appeal are to be from the neighbouring provinces.
A bishop refusing to come to Rome was to be brought there by the civil power.
The pope received the appeal, absolved him and restored him to the rank of priest, and sent a bishop and two priests as legates to Africa with instructions to them to hear the cause of Apiarius anew and for execution of their sentence to crave the prefect's aid; moreover, they were to summon the bishop of Sicca to Rome and to excommunicate him, unless he should amend those things which the legates deemed wrong.
The constitution of the patriarchal system resulted in the recognition of a certain right of appeal to Rome from the larger part of the West.
The growth of a special " original " jurisdiction at Constantinople, which perhaps developed earlier than the corresponding institution at Rome, may be traced to the fact that bishops from all parts were constantly in Constantinople.
Ten years later he was recalled to York, but refusing to consent to the division of his see was again deposed and again appealed to Rome.
The last words were an attempt to limit further appeal to Rome.
Appeals to Rome lay from interlocutory as well as final judgments.
In 1438 the council of Basel took away all papal original jurisdiction (save in certain reserved cases - of which infra), evocation of causes to Rome, appeals to Rome omisso medio, and appeals to Rome altogether in many causes.
These - proceedings at Basel were regarded at Rome as of no effect.
The parlements thereupon condemned several private persons for obtaining bulls from Rome.
Canterbury, York, Armagh, Dublin, Cashel and Tuam are put in the place of Rome.
In the diocese of Rome, exercised discipline of a penitential kind over their lay members; but in later times their censures have generally ceased to carry temporal consequences.
This was the first time that Rome had two emperors as colleagues.
Among various reasons, the most convincing is that the presence of Aurelius was required in Rome; moreover, the real leader was evidently Cassius.
Along with his son Commodus he entered Rome in 176, and obtained a triumph for victories in Germany.
His ashes (according to some authorities, his body) were taken to Rome.
Commodus, who was with his father when he died, erected to his memory the Antonine column (now in the Piazza Colonna at Rome), round the shaft of which are sculptures in relief commemorating the miracle of the Thundering Legion and the various victories of Aurelius over the Quadi and the Marcomanni.
In Rome and Alexandria, and even in Jerusalem, Holy Week was included in Lent and the whole fast lasted but six weeks, Saturdays, however, not being exempt.
Both at Rome and Constantinople, therefore, the actual fast was but thirty-six days.
Wren's earlier designs have the exterior of the church arranged with one order of columns; the division of the whole height into two orders was an immense gain in increasing the apparent scale of the whole, and makes the exterior of St Paul's very superior to that of St Peter's in Rome, which is utterly dwarfed by the colossal size of the columns and pilasters of its single order.
Some of the so-called " Orphic tablets," metrical inscriptions engraved on small plates of gold, chiefly dating from the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C., have been discovered in tombs in southern Italy, Crete and Rome.
The chief blot on his reign was the systematic and authorized persecution of the Christians, which had for its object the restoration of the religion and institutions of ancient Rome.
He retired to Rome and died there.
The Romans did not encourage navigation and commerce with the same ardour as their predecessors; still the luxury of Rome, The which gave rise to demands for the varied products Romans.
But it was the military genius of Rome, and the ambition for universal empire, which led, not only to the discovery, but also to the survey of nearly all Europe, and of large tracts in Asia and Africa.
Every new war produced a new survey and itinerary of the countries which were conquered, and added one more to the imperishable roads that led from every quarter of the known world to Rome.
It was, however, in the reigns of Severus and his immediate successors that Roman intercourse with India was at its height, and from the writings of Pausanias (c. 174) it appears that direct communication between Rome and China had already taken place.
This narrative, under the title of Description of the Kingdom of Congo, was published at Rome by Pigafetta in 1591.
Cicero, who entertained a high opinion of Deiotarus, whose acquaintance he had made when governor of Cilicia, undertook his defence, the case being heard in Caesar's own house at Rome.
When the war was over, Sulla, on his return to Rome, lived quietly for some years and took no part in politics.
Sulla with a small army soon won a victory over the general of Mithradates, and Rome's client-king was restored.
An embassy from the Parthians now came to solicit alliance with Rome, and Sulla was the first Roman who held diplomatic intercourse with that remote people.
In the year 91, which brought with it the imminent prospect of sweeping political change, with the enfranchisement of the Italian peoples, Sulla returned to Rome, and it was generally felt that he was the man to lead the conservative and aristocratic party.
Meanwhile Mithradates and the East were forgotten in the crisis of the Social or Italic War, which broke out in 91 and threatened Rome's very existence.
Rioting took place at Rome at the prompting of the popular leaders, Sulla narrowly escaping to his legions in Campania, whence he marched on Rome, being the first Roman who entered the city at the head of a Roman army.
Sulla, leaving things quiet at Rome, quitted Italy in 87, and for the next four years he was winning victory after victory against the armies of Mithradates and accumulating boundless plunder.
Crossing the Hellespont in 84 into Asia, he was joined by the troops of C. Flavius Fimbria, who soon deserted their general, a man sent out by the Marian party, now again in the ascendant at Rome.
The same year peace was concluded with Mithradates on condition that he should be put back to the position he held before the war; but, as he raised objections, he had in the end to content himself with being simply a vassal of Rome.
Only the Samnites, who were as yet without the Roman franchise, remained his enemies, and it seemed as if the old war between Rome and Samnium had to be fought once again.
Rome was at the same time in extreme peril from the advance of a Samnite army, and was barely saved by Sulla, who, after a hardfought battle, routed the enemy under Pontius Telesinus at the Colline gate of Rome.
With the death of the younger Marius, who killed himself after the surrender of Praeneste, the civil war was at an end, and Sulla was master of Rome and of the Roman world.
Then came the memorable "proscription," when for the first time in Roman history a list of men declared to be outlaws and public enemies was exhibited in the forum, and a reign of terror began throughout Rome and Italy.
The title of "dictator" was revived and Sulla was in fact emperor of Rome.
He was accorded a magnificent public funeral, his body being removed to Rome and buried in the Campus Martius.
The result of this harsh law was that numerous applications were made to Rome for secret absolution; and thus much money escaped the Inquisition in Spain.
Against this law, too, many petitions went to Rome for rehabilitation, until in 1498 the Spanish pope Alexander VI.
The constant stream of petitions to Rome opened the eyes of the pope to the effects of Torquemada's severity.
It is surrounded on the first story by a sixteensided gallery (the Hochmiinster) adorned by antique marble and granite columns, of various sizes, brought by Charlemagne's orders from Rome, Ravenna and Trier.
In consequence numerous churches and convents were built, and the town acquired the title of "Little Rome."
Borelli (De motu animalium, Rome, 1680), explained that birds are enabled to grasp the twig on which they rest whilst sleeping, without having to make any muscular exertion, because the weight of the body bends the knee and ankle-joints, over both of which pass the tendons of this compound muscle.
Benedict governed Rome quietly for nearly nine years, a somewhat rare thing in those days.
After taking orders he went (1770) to Rome, where he obtained the degree of doctor of theology and common law, and devoted himself enthusiastically to the study of the fine arts, especially of architecture and painting.
At Rome too he obtained a canonry attached to Cracow cathedral, and on his return to Poland in 1755 threw himself heart and soul into the question of educational reform.
Eger is the see of an archbishopric, and owing to its numerous ecclesiastical buildings has received the name of "the Hungarian Rome."
The Latin West was scarcely less productive; it is enough to mention Hilary of Poitiers, Ambrose of Milan, Augustine of Hippo, Leo of Rome, Jerome, Rufinus, and a father lately restored to his place in patristic literature, Niceta of Remesiana.'
The reader to whom the study is new will gain some idea of the bulk of the extant patristic literature, if we add that in Migne's collection ninety-six large volumes are occupied with the Greek fathers from Clement of Rome to John of Damascus, and seventysix with the Latin fathers from Tertullian to Gregory the Great.2 For a discussion of the more important fathers the student is referred to the articles which deal with them separately.
His tenure of office was marked by an increased zeal for missions in Protestant lands, and by the removal of the society's headquarters from Rome to Fiesole near Florence in 1870.
He died at Rome on the 4th of March 1887.
The rest of his life was passed in Verona, Mantua and Rome - chiefly Mantua; Venice and Florence have also been named, but without confirmation.
Some of his early Mantuan works are in that apartment of the Castello which is termed the Camera degli Sposi - full compositions in fresco, including various portraits of the Gonzaga family, and some figures of genii, &c. In 1488 he went to Rome at the request of Pope Innocent VIII., to paint the frescoes in the chapel of the Belvedere in the Vatican; the marquis of Mantua (Federigo) created him a cavaliere before his departure.
After his return to Mantua from Rome his prosperity was at its height, until the death of his wife.
He went to Rome after the termination of the civil wars, and spent twenty-two years in studying the Latin language and literature and preparing materials for his history.
His chief object was to reconcile the Greeks to the rule of Rome, by dilating upon the good qualities of their conquerors.
The bishop of Rome claimed for his legates the right to preside, and insisted that any act that failed to receive their approval would be invalid.
Its chief distinctions are that during the later Republic and earlier Empire it yielded excellent soldiers, and thus much aided the success of Caesar against Pompey and of Octavian against Antony, and that it gave Rome the poet Virgil (by origin a Celt), the historian Livy, the lyrist Catullus, Cornelius Nepos, the elder and the younger Pliny and other distinguished writers?
Gradually the province was extended north of Massilia, up the Rhone, while the Greek town itself became weak and dependent on Rome.
In particular, they eagerly accepted the worship of "Augustus and Rome," devised by the first emperor as a bond of state religion connecting the provinces with Rome.
It was defended in 196 B.C. against Antiochus the Great of Syria, after which its inhabitants were received as allies of Rome.
But when Greek deities were introduced into Rome on the advice of the Sibylline books (in 495 B.C., on the occasion of a severe drought), Demeter, the Greek goddess of seed and harvest, whose worship was already common in Sicily and Lower Italy, usurped the place of Ceres in Rome, or rather, to Ceres were added the religious rites which the Greeks paid to Demeter, and the mythological incidents which originated with her.