Roman-empire Sentence Examples
During the later Roman empire Rhodes was the capital of the province of the islands.
This latter sense has been adapted and extended by modern historians concerned with the frontiers of the Roman Empire.
At length the long period of barbarism which accompanied and followed the fall of the Roman empire drew to a close in Europe.
But all five leaders were romanized nobles, with Roman names and Roman citizenship, and their risings were directed rather against the Roman government than the Roman empire.
In short, they became a considerable power in eastern Europe, and might be regarded as one of the claimants for the inheritance of the decrepit East Roman Empire.Advertisement
He sought to vanquish,., but was himself vanquished by, the new religious force which was making such rapid inroads on the decaying paganism of the Roman empire.
He also read largely, though somewhat indiscriminately, in French literature, and appears to have been particularly struck with Pascal's Provincial Letters, which he tells us he reperused almost every year of his subsequent life with new pleasure, and which he particularly mentions as having been, along with Bleterie's Life of Julian and Giannone's History of Naples, a book which probably contributed in a special sense to form the historian of the Roman empire.
Thus in the year 539 was Ravenna re-united to the Roman empire.
But his ambition was by no means satisfied, and he even aspired to the crown of the East Roman empire.
The invasion of France by the German armies during the war of 1870-71 attracted his attention to the Germanic invasions under the Roman Empire.Advertisement
During the Roman Empire it formed part of Noricum and Pannonia.
Under the constitution of Caracalla (198-217) all inhabitants of the Roman empire enjoyed the civil rights of the Cives Romani (Scherer, Die Rechtsverhaltnisse der Juden, p. Io).
Whereas Plato's main problem had been the organization of the perfect state, and Aristotle's intellect had ranged with fresh interest over all departments of the knowable, political speculation had become a mockery with the extinction of free political life, and knowledge as such had lost its freshness for the Greeks of the Roman Empire.
They succumbed to the Persian dynasty of the Sassanids, who ruled successfully for about four centuries, established the Zoroastrian faith as their state religion, and maintained a creditable conflict with the East Roman empire.
The Roman empire kept back the Persians and Parthians, but could not prevent a series of incursions by Avars, Huns, Bulgarians, and later by Mongols and Turks.Advertisement
After the fall of the Roman empire the city passed into the power of the Visigoths, and rapidly declined.
Inhabited by the Rauraci and the Sequani, it formed part of ancient Gaul, and was therefore included in the Roman empire in the provinces of Germania Superior and Maxima Sequanorum.
The logical outcome of this proceeding appeared on the 1st of August, when Napoleon declared that he no longer recognized the existence of the Holy Roman Empire.
Greek writers give a more flattering account of the Ephthalites, which may perhaps be due to the fact that they were useful to the East Roman empire as enemies of Persia and also not dangerously near.
In 1068 Alp Arslan invaded the Roman empire.Advertisement
The government was vested in the council (1 30uXii) and people (8rl/20s), and administered by civil officers with Greek titles, the proedros (president), the grammateus (secretary), the archons, syndics and dekaprotoi (a fiscal council of ten), following the model of a Greek municipality under the Roman Empire.
The Arabs had begun the conquest of Sicily from the East Roman empire in 827, and they had attacked the mainland of Italy as early as 840.
But while the Christians of the West were thus winning fresh ground from the Mahommedans, in the course of the 11th century, the East Roman empire had now to bear the brunt of a Mahommedan revival under the Seljuksa revival which, while it crushed for a time the Greeks, only acted as a new incentive to the Latins to carry their arms to the East.
Under the rule of their sultans, who assumed the role of mayors of the palace in Bagdad about the middle of the 11th century, they pushed westwards towards the caliphate of Egypt and the East Roman empire.
For the next twenty years, during the reigns of Baldwin and his brother Amalric I., there is indeed a close connexion between the kingdom of Jerusalem and the East Roman empire.Advertisement
But it is often the case that theory develops as practice fails; and as the theory of the Holy Roman Empire was never more vigorous than in the days of its decrepitude, so it was with the Crusades.
Bury, The Student's Roman Empire (1893), where a concise table of the journeys is given; P. von Rohden, s.v.
His reputation as a historian had been made as early as 1864 by his Holy Roman Empire.
Thus, Varro (De rustici) mentions a map of Italy engraved on marble, in the temple of Tellus, Pliny, a map of the seat of war in Armenia, of the time of the emperor Nero, and the more famous map of the Roman Empire which was ordered to be prepared for Julius Caesar (44 B.C.), but only completed in the reign of Augustus, who placed a copy of it, engraved in marble, in the Porticus of his sister Octavia (7 B.C.).
Patrick was doubtless educated as a Christian and was imbued with reverence for the Roman Empire.
The secular fashions altered with changes of taste; but the Church retained the dress with the other traditions of the Roman Empire.
In the partition of the government of the provinces of the Roman empire between the senate and the emperor, Africa fell to the senate, and was henceforth administered by a proconsul.
In the early Roman empire the word was used to designate the companions of the emperor (comites principis) and so became a title of honour.
The heads of these countly families of the "high nobility" are entitled (by a decree of the federal diet, 1829) to the style of Erlaucht (illustrious, most honourable); (2) Counts of the Empire 2 (Reichsgrafen), descendants of those counts who, before the end of the Holy Roman Empire (1806), were Reichsstiindisch, i.e.
Again, the Scythic style is interesting as being one element in the art of the barbarians who conquered the Roman Empire and the zoomorphic decoration of the early middle ages.
This picturesque privilege the family enjoyed till the end of the Holy Roman Empire.
His favourite metre was the pentasyllabic. Cyrillona composed a poem on the invasion of the Huns in 395, 9 and is by some regarded as identical with Ephraim's nephew Abhsamya, who in 403-404 " composed hymns and discourses on the invasion of the Roman empire by the Huns."
It was a border city between Boeotia and Attica, and its possession was a continual cause of dispute between the two countries; but at last it came into the final possession of Athens, and is always alluded to under the Roman empire as an Attic town.
They were extremely successful in practical matters, especially in surgery and in the use of drugs, and a large part of the routine knowledge of diseases and remedies which became traditional in the times of the Roman empire is believed to have been derived from them.
For two hundred years the Rhine formed the boundary between the Roman empire and the Teutonic hordes; and during that period the left or Roman bank made prodigious strides in civilization and culture.
This Roman civilization was, however, destined to be swamped by the current of Teutonic immigration, which finally broke down the barriers of the Roman empire and overwhelmed the whole of the Rhenish district.
The historians of the Roman Empire have left us some particulars of the visits of emperors and generals to Britain, but little or nothing about what happened in London, and we should be more ignorant than we are of the condition of Londinium if it had not been that a large number of excavations have been made in various parts of the city which have disclosed a considerable amount of its early history.
In France the arch-chaplain was grand-almoner, and both in France and in the Holy Roman Empire was also high chancellor of the realm.
Precarium and patrocinium easily passed from the Roman empire to the Frankish kingdom, and became as firmly rooted in the new society as they had ever been in the old.
As in the last days of the Roman empire the poor landowner had found his only refuge from the exactions of the government in the protection of the senator, who could in some way obtain exemptions, so the poor Frank could escape the ruinous demands of military service only by submitting himself and his lands to the count, who did not hesitate on his side to force such submission.
In the following year, according to Procopius, Justinian perceived the value of the Ghassanids as an outpost of the Roman empire, and as opponents of the Persian dependants of Hira, and recognized Harith as king of the Arabs and patrician of the Roman empire.
Arabian tradition tells of their prince Jabala ibn Aiham who accepted Islam, after fighting against it, but finding it too democratic, returned to Christianity and exile in the Roman empire.
On the decline of the Roman empire Vindobona became the prey of successive barbarian invaders.
The Roman empire of the German nation was indeed less universal and less theocratic under Otto, its restorer, than under Charlemagne, but what it lacked in splendour it gained in stability.
But the decline of agriculture at the end of the Republic led to a conversion of the land to pasture, and later the unsettled state of affairs consequent on the fall of the Roman Empire resulted in neglect of the watercourses.
The history of this region is the history of the advance of the Roman Empire towards the Euphrates.
In the division of the Roman empire it belonged to the emperors of the East; and in A.D.
As long as the Christian Church was itself persecuted by the pagan empire, it advocated freedom of conscience, and insisted that religion could be promoted only by instruction and persuasion (Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Lactantius); but almost immediately after Christianity was adopted as the religion of the Roman empire the persecution of men for religious opinions began.
The Christian faith had hitherto been maintained in a few small congregations scattered over the Roman Empire.
Beginning about the 5th century, the Roman empire was overthrown by German tribes from the north of the river Danube and east of the river Rhine.
After the fall of the Roman empire Ancona was successively attacked by the Goths, Lombards and Saracens, but recovered its strength and importance.
The cycle of Indiction was very generally followed in the Roman empire for some centuries before the adoption of the Christian era.
The assertion of Mommsen that the Tigris was a more defensible frontier than the desert line which separated the Parthian from the Roman Empire can hardly be accepted.
This redactor, moreover, was the first who gave to the Apocalypse the character of an attack on the Roman Empire and the imperial cult by means of a series of small additions.
In 1809 the conventual buildings were converted into a palace for the prince of Thurn and Taxis, hereditary postmaster-general of the Holy Roman Empire.
In 1438 the landgrave of Hesse obtained rights of suzerainty over Waldeck, and the claims arising from this action were not finally disposed of until 1847, when it was decided that the rights of Hesse over Waldeck had ceased with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.
Under the later Roman Empire the city dwindled into a mere village, which since the 6th century bore the Slavonic name of Goritza.
Within that system power is divided as it has not been in Europe since the fall of the Roman empire.
The cry of the heathen populace in the Roman empire against the Christians was " Away with the atheists!
The union even then met with resistance from a number of bishops, who, rather than accede.to it, submitted to deposition and expulsion from their sees; and it was not until these had all died out that, as the result of stringent imperial edicts, Nestorianism may be said to have become extinct throughout the Roman empire.
He was more than this; he was the "man of letters" - the first who had appeared in Europe since the fall of the Roman empire.
An interesting parallel to the spread of Christianity in the Roman empire is afforded by the contemporary Mithraism.
With the decline of the Roman Empire the demand for parrots in Europe lessened, and so the supply dwindled, yet all knowledge of them was not wholly lost, and they are occasionally mentioned by one writer or another until in the i 5th century began that career of geographical discovery which has since proceeded uninterruptedly.
It became a city of importance under the Roman dominion and, though nearly destroyed by an earthquake in the reign of Tiberius, was restored by that emperor and flourished through the Roman empire.
Under the Roman Empire the word prior is found signifying "ancestor."
Just as the Later Roman empire was at once the supreme effort of the old world and the outcome of its exhaustion, so Neoplatonism is in one aspect the consummation, in another the collapse, of ancient philosophy.
When the Roman Empire fell the towns were many of them destroyed by Attila, and the inhabitants took refuge in the islands of the lagoons.
He served under his father in the great attack on the East Roman empire (1080-1085), and commanded the Normans during Guiscard's absence (1082-1084), penetrating into Thessaly as far as Larissa, but being repulsed by Alexius Comneus.
In 1760 the title of Reichsfiirst or prince of the Holy Roman Empire was added and attached to the lordship of Torriglia and the marquisate of Borgo San Stefano, together with the qualification of Hochgeboren.
It was only subsequent to about 330 that Manichaeism spread rapidly in the Roman Empire.
Doubtless, however, he returned to Rome after a long sojourn in Alexandria, a fact which explains the defectiveness of his information about the countries to the east of his native land, and renders it possible for him to have made use of the " chorography " of Agrippa, a map of the Roman Empire and adjacent countries set up by order of Augustus in the Porticus Vipsaniae.
But it never became part of the Roman empire.
He made skilful use of Leopold's difficulties; and in 1692, in return for lavish promises of assistance to the Empire and the Habsburgs, the emperor granted him the rank and title of elector of Brunswick-Luneburg with the office of standardbearer in the Holy Roman Empire.
It gives an account of various peoples and countries from the earliest times down to their incorporation into the Roman empire.
The Holy Roman Empire itself was in some respects an agent for the preservation of peace among its constituent states.
This is, of course, more true of the middle ages than of the times that preceded and followed them; the Church under the Roman empire hardly as yet realized the possibilities of " sermons in stones," and took over, with little change, the model of the secular and religious buildings of pagan Rome; the Renaissance, essentially a neo-pagan movement, introduced disturbing factors from outside, and, though developing a style very characteristic of the age that produced it, started that archaeological movement which has tended in modern times to substitute mere imitations of old models for any attempt to express in church architecture the religious spirit of the age.
During the break-up of the Later Roman Empire it was occupied by Genoese privateers (1197-1207) who in turn were expelled by the Venetians.
In this it resembled the middle ages rather than the Roman empire or the present day, and it resembled them all the more in that its love of beauty, like theirs, was mixed with a feeling for the fantastic and the grotesque.
Of the English examples a few have been carefully excavated, notably Gellygaer between Cardiff and Brecon, one of the most perfect specimens to be found anywhere in the Roman empire of a Roman fort dating from the end of the ist century A.D.; Hardknott, on a Cumberland moor overhanging Upper Eskdale; and Housesteads on Hadrian's wall.
This conversion of earthwork into stone in the age of Severus can be paralleled from other parts of the Roman empire.
In 1719 these new acquisitions were raised by the emperor into a principality under the name of Liechtenstein, which formed part successively of the Holy Roman Empire (till 1806) and of the German Confederation (1815-1866), having been sovereign1806-1815as well as since 1866.
In the centuries that followed the break-up of the Roman empire it again suffered much from barbarian attacks, and was finally devastated in 889 by bands of Norse raiders who had sailed up the Rhine.
About the time that Peter and Paul died in Rome the primitive centre of Christianity - that is to say, Jerusalem - was disappearing amidst the disaster of the war of the Roman Empire with the Jews.
With the accession of Phocas (602) began the great war which shook the two kingdoms. The loss of Edessa, where Narses revolted, was temporary; but the Roman fortress of Dara fell after nine months' siege (c. 605); Harran, Ras al-`Ain and Edessa followed in 607, many of the Christian inhabitants being transported to the Far East, and Chosroes carried the victorious arms of Persia far into the Roman Empire.
The Goths and the Vandals who poured down upon the Roman Empire were evangelized so silently and rapidly that only a fact here and there relating to their conversion has been preserved.
The conference reported, " We have quite as much reason to be encouraged by the net result of the progress of Christianity in China during the 19th century as the early Christians had with the progress of the Gospel in the Roman Empire during the first century."
Caetani indeed (Nineteenth Century and After, 1908) attributes the economic decadence of the Roman Campagna to the existence of free trade throughout the Roman empire.
As the power of the Roman empire declined the Franks pushed forward along both banks of the Rhine, and by the end of the 5th century had regained all the lands that had formerly been under Teutonic influence.
Though of small size, and by no means remarkable in point of architecture, it is interesting as the only temple that has come down to us in a good state of preservation of those dedicated to the Egyptian goddess, whose worship became so popular under the Roman Empire.
The architecture of Pompeii must be regarded as presenting in general a transitional character from the pure Greek style to that of the Roman Empire.
The magnificent plateau in which the city of Morocco is situated seems to have been unknown to ancient geographers, and was certainly never included in the Roman Empire.
Yet it was the produce of this valley that formed the chief granary Valley of the Roman Empire.
Besides these political divisions there are certain parts of Germany which, not conterminous with political boundaries, retain appellations derived either from former tribal settlements or from divisions of the old Holy Roman Empire.
It is true that at last the Holy Roman Empire was in reality confined to Germany; but in theory it was something quite different.
Basil was the first grand-duke of Moscow who adopted the title of tsar and the double-headed eagle of the East Roman empire.
Christianity and civilization obtained entrance into the land, but the increasing weakness of the Roman empire opened the country to the inroads of the barbarians, and during the period of the great migrations it was ravaged in quick succession by a number of these tribes, prominent among whom were the Huns.
The disintegration 1648' of the Holy Roman Empire was now practically accomplished, and though the possession of the imperial dignity continued to give the rulers of Austria prestige, the Habsburgs henceforward devoted themselves to their Austrian interests rather than to those of the Empire.
The circular letter of Count Kaunitz, dated the 6th of July 1791, calling on the sovereigns to unite against the Revolution, was at once the beginning of the Concert of Europe, and in a sense the last manifesto of the Holy Roman Empire as " the centre of political unity."
This Greek element was strengthened at a later time by the long connexion of Sicily with the Eastern, the Greek-speaking, division of the Roman empire.
Under the Roman empire the cult of Isis, now furnished with an official priesthood and elaborate ritual, became really popular in the Hellenistic world.
Asia Minor and Syria remained substantial parts of the Roman Empire till the Mahommedan conquests of the 7th century A.D.
The ease with which this valuable province was wrenched from the Roman empire appears to have been.
He found the law of the Roman empire in a state of great confusion.
Under the early Roman empire the place was known as Caesarea, and was the metropolis of Cilicia Secunda.
In 1786 he published An Inquiry into the Secondary Causes which Mr Gibbon has assigned for the Rapid Growth of Christianity (Dutch translation, Utrecht, 1793), one of the most respectable of the very many replies which were made to the famous 15th and 16th chapters of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
The organization of the Christian church in the Roman empire following very closely the lines of the civil administration (see Church History), the word diocese, in its ecclesiastical sense, was at first applied to the sphere of jurisdiction, not of a bishop, but of a metropolitan.'
The church of the Celtic tribe thus yielded to the church of the Roman empire.
Under the Roman empire Phrygia had no political existence under a separate government, but formed part of the vast province of Asia.
When the Roman empire was reorganized by Diocletian at the end of the 3rd century Phrygia was divided into two provinces, distinguished at first as Prima and Secunda, or Great and Little, for which the names Pacatiana and Salutaris soon came into general use.
Taking Hierocles as authority, the extent of the two provinces at the beginning of the 6th century will be readily gathered from the accompanying list, in which those towns which coined money under the Roman empire are italicized and the name of the nearest modern village is appended.
And while the originally Jewish idea led straight to the conception, set forth in Revelation, of the Roman empire or its ruler as Antichrist, here, on the contrary, it is probably the Roman empire that is the power which still retards the reign of Antichrist.
In this process of transformation of the idea, which has become of importance for the history of the world, is revealed probably the genius of Paul, or at any rate, that of the young Christianity which was breaking its ties with Judaism and establishing itself in the world of the Roman empire.
Under the later Roman Empire the name was revived by the Byzantine emperors as the title of a new order of nobility.
In religious matters he was an Arian, and persecuted the members of the orthodox church in Africa, although his religious policy varied with his relations to the Roman empire.
Historically it is of great value as showing how widely within twenty or twenty-five years of the Crucifixion a religion which proclaimed developed theological teaching as to " the Lord Jesus Christ " had spread in the Roman Empire.
Secure of his position, Herod began to build temples and palaces and whole cities up and down Palestine as visible embodiments of the Greek civilization which was to distinguish the Roman Empire from barbarian lands.
The sharp contrasts between its compulsory religious observances and those of the rest of the world prevented such an absorption of the Jewish people into the Roman Empire as had caused the disappearance of the ten tribes of Israel by their merging with the Assyrians.
A more formidable enemy was already on the way, and the final wresting of Syria from the feeble relics of the Roman Empire was imminent.
Its massive Roman walls still survive, and recent excavations have revealed a town hall and market square, a temple, baths, amphitheatre, and many comfortable houses with mosaics, &c. An inscription shows that under the Roman Empire it was the chef-lieu of the Silures, whose ordo or county council provided for the local government of the district.
His grandson James, who assumed his mother's .name of Wishart in addition to that of Lockhart, was in the Austrian service during the Seven Years' War, and was created a baron and count of the Holy Roman Empire.
This potentate called himself "king of kings," commanded an army and a fleet, coined money, adopted Greek as the official language, and lived on good terms with the Roman empire.
The kernel of his subjects consisted of genuine Arabs, not only recent immigrants along with Islam, but also old settlers who, through contact with the Roman empire and the Christian church, had become to some extent civilized.
The dux first appears in the Roman empire under the emperor Hadrian, and by the time of the Gordians has already a recognized place in the official hierarchy.
Scholasticism The living force in the spiritual life of the Roman empire was, after all, not philosophy, but religion, and specifically Christianity.
The first year of Leo's reign saw a memorable siege of his capital by the Saracens, who had taken advantage of the civil discord in the Roman empire to bring up a force of 80,000 men to the Bosporus.
Beginning in Asia, Christianity extended itself rapidly throughout the Roman empire and beyond its borders among the barbarians.
In the limitations of the Roman empire and in the separation of East and West consequent upon its decline, Christianity, as a dominant religion, was confined for a thousand years to Europe, and even portions of this continent for centuries were in the hands of its great foe.
As a result Christianity was rejected by the Jews and became the conquering religion of the Roman empire.
The occupation of the fairest provinces of the Roman empire by the northern barbarians had little in common with colonization.
Yet it must be strongly emphasized, that recent historical research at the hands of experts in classical antiquity has tended steadily to verify such parts of the narrative as it can test, especially those connected with Paul's missions in the Roman Empire.
In political history, the epochal fact which marks the close of ancient times is the decline of the Roman Empire.
Yet we may say that the 5th century did witness the actual dismemberment of the Roman Empire.
It does not include those two institutions which more than any others stand in popular imagination as genuinely medieval - the papal monarchy and the Holy Roman Empire.
Papal monarchy and Holy Roman Empire were not the only political phenomena of their age, and it is possible that their vast pretensions have somewhat blinded historians as to their real importance.
It is at least evident that the political middle ages were already disintegrating during the period of papal monarchy and Holy Roman Empire.
The one great economic change brought about by the decline of the Roman Empire was the lessening of urban life throughout the greater part of Europe, the closing up of avenues of communication and the predominance of isolated agricultural communities.
But 1 "It is, perhaps, by surveying India that we at this day can best represent to ourselves and appreciate the vast external reform worked upon the heathen world by Christianity, as it was organized and executed throughout Europe by the combined authority of the Holy Roman Empire and the Church Apostolic."
An appreciable part of the Holy Roman Empire had been in the hands of clerical rulers.
It had recovered from the confusion consequent upon the dissolution of the ancient Roman empire.
The ideas of universal monarchy and of indivisible Christendom, incorporated in the Holy Roman Empire and the Roman Church, had so far lost their hold that scope was offered for the introduction of new theories both of state and church which would have seemed visionary or impious to the medieval mind.
Charles the Great (Charlemagne) lent his forces to the plan of resuscitating the Roman empire at a moment when his own power made him the arbiter of western Europe, when the papacy needed his alliance, and when the Eastern Empire had passed under the usurped regency of a female.
On the financial side the work, as already suggested, was aided by the ideas and institutions inherited from the Roman Empire.
Under the constraining power of the Roman Empire the older city states were reduced to the position of municipalities, and their financial administration became dependent on the control of the Emperor - as is abundantly illustrated in the correspondence of Pliny and Trajan.
Here, then, we have a perfect example of syncretism; as in the Mithras cult in Armenia, Asia Minor, and still further in the Roman Empire.
But, apart from the ravaging of Syria (51 B.C.) by Pacorus the son of Orodes, the threatened attack on the Roman Empire was carried into effect neither then nor during the civil wars of Caesar and Pompey.
His whole policy and the needs of the newly organized Roman Empire demanded peace.
With the Roman Empire a profound peace had reigned since Hadrian (117), which was first disturbed by the attack of Marcus Aurelius and Aelius Verus in 162.
Soon afterwards, however, the Roman Empire seemed to collapse utterly.
Meanwhile, the Roman Empire was at the lowest ebb.
Under the Roman empire Nicaea and Nicomedia disputed the title of metropolis of Bithynia.
Under the Roman Empire Pergamum was one of the chief seats of the worship of Asclepius "the Saviour"; invalids came from distant parts of the country to ask advice from the god and his priests.
Christianity arose in the East, and Greek was the language of the Scriptures and early services of the church, but when Latin Christianity established itself in Europe and Africa, and when the old Roman empire fell in two, and the eastern half became separate in government, interests and ideas from the western, the term Greek or Eastern Church acquired gradually a fixed meaning.
He betrays, too, an insight into the evils which were destined finally to undermine the imposing fabric of Roman eMpire.
His firm fighting alliance with the Roman general Aetius, with whom he had had many a conflict in previous years, was one of the best auguries for the new Europe that was to arise out of the ruins of the Roman empire.
As for political science, we do not regard the national state as that ultimate and final product which men once saw in the Roman Empire.
It was the name of one of the three themes (provinces) into which Phrygia was divided in the military reorganization of the East Roman empire.
In spite of his military prowess Manuel achieved but in a slight degree his object of restoring the East Roman empire.
It is important for our purpose to notice that the condition of coloni was developed as a result of historic necessity by the working of economic and social agencies in the first centuries of the Roman empire and was made the subject of regular legislation in the 4th and 5th centuries.
With the break-up of the Roman empire the legal protection in regard to serfs could not be kept up in the same way as before.
In 542 it was established throughout the entire East Roman empire by Justinian.
Hertzberg, in Ersch and Gruber's Allgemeine Encyklopcidie, and an anonymous monograph, Precis historique de la maison imperiale des Comnenes (Amsterdam, 1784); and, for the history of the period, the works referred to under Later Roman Empire.
On the revival of the Roman empire in the West by Charlemagne in Soo, the title (at first in the form imperator, or imperator Augustus, afterwards Romanorum imperator Augustus) was taken by him and by his Frankish, Italian and German successors, heads of the Holy Roman Empire, down to the abdication of the emperor Francis II.
In Germany, Austria and other countries formerly embraced in the Holy Roman Empire the title of " prince " has had a somewhat different history.
Examples are the princes of Mecklenburg (Prilislav I., prince of the Holy Roman Empire in i 70) and Rugen, the latter title now belonging to the kings of Prussia.
There are, however, in the countries formerly embraced in the Holy Roman Empire other classes of " princes."
Besides these mediatized princes, who transmit their titles and their privilege of " royal " blood to all their legitimate descendants, there are also in Austria and Germany " princes," created by the various German sovereigns, and some dating from the period of the old empire, who take a lower rank, as not being " princes of the Holy Roman Empire " nor entitled to any royal privileges.
After his father's death he continued the struggle against the new rulers of the Roman Empire.
It is said by this school of legal historians that, from the Conquest down to Henry VIII., the Church of England was regarded by churchmen not as in any sense as separate entity, but as two provinces of the extra-territorial, super-national Catholic Church, and that the pope at this period was contemplated as the princeps of this Catholic Church, whose edicts bound everywhere, as those of Augustus had bound in the Roman empire.
Eventually he settled in Rome, where, at an advanced age, he wrote (in Latin) a history of the Roman empire from the accession of Nerva to the death of Valens (96-378), thus forming a continuation of the work of Tacitus.
Its author directly arraigned the organization of the Holy Roman Empire and exposed its feebleness, denounced in no measured terms the faults of the house of Austria, and attacked with remarkable vigour the politics of the ecclesiastical princes.
From this time onwards Herod was free to govern Palestine, as a client-prince of the Roman Empire should govern his kingdom.
On the 29th of May 1453 Constantinople ceased to be the capital of the Roman empire in the East, and became the capital of the Ottoman dominion.
Gradually these kingdoms were merged in the Roman empire.
It suffered greatly from a siege in the Mithradatic war, but soon recovered its prosperity under the Roman empire.
Thus at the end of the 5th century the Roman empire was nothing but a heap of ruins, and fidelity to the empire was now only maintained by the Catholic Church; she alone The clergy survived, as rich, as much honored as ever, and more and the powerful, owing to the disappearance of the imperial barbarofficials for whom she had found substitutes, and the tans.
Boniface was the instrument of the union of Rome and Germany, of which union the Holy Roman Empire in Germany was in the 10th century to become the most perfect expression, continuing up to the time of Luther.
The insubordination of several great vassalsthe count of Vermandois, the duke of Burgundy, the count of Flanderswho treated him as he had treated the Carolingian king; the treachery of Arnuif, archbishop of Reims, who let himself be won over by the empress Theophano; the papal hostility inflamed by the emperor against the claim of feudal France to independence,all made it seem for a time as though the unity of the Roman empire of the West would be secured at Hughs expense and in Ottos favor; but as a matter of fact this papal and imperial hostility ended by making the Capet dynasty a national one.
The Spaniards had no longer any hope of adding Luxemburg to their Franche-Comt; while the Holy Roman Empire in Germany, taken in the rear by Sweden (now mistress of the Baltic and the North Sea), cut off for good from the United Provinces and the Swiss cantons, and enfeebled by the recognized right of intervention in German affairs on the part of Sweden and France, was now nothing but a meaningless name.
After this, in four campaigns from transformed his Carolingian feudal and federal empire into one modelled on the Roman empire.
On the other hand, Napoleons creation of the kingdom of Italy, his annexation of Venetia and her ancient Adriatic empire wiping out the humiliation of 1797and the occupation of Ancona, marked a new stage in his progress towards his Roman Empire.
It is possible, however, that after the Roman conquest Italians drifted in, and it is fairly certain that after the Roman Empire fell German conquerors brought German settlers, though in what numbers no wise man will guess.
It is the product of a people living on the borders of the Roman Empire who inherited much of the Hellenistic tradition in minor arts but combined it with a remarkable power of independent origination.
His History of Christianity to the Abolition of Paganism in the Roman Empire (1840) had been completely ignored; but widely different was the reception accorded to the continuation of his work, his great History of Latin Christianity (1855), which has passed through many editions.
Under the Roman Empire Zante was included in the province of Epirus.
The inscription by which the existence of a Jassiorum municipium in the time of the Roman Empire is sought to be proved, lies open to grave suspicion; but the city is merrtioned as early as the 14th century, and probably does derive its name from the Jassians, or Jazygians, who accompanied the Cumanian invaders.
Despite these efforts, however, much of Wales successfully resisted assimilation into the Roman empire.
Her recent research focuses on the reception of Greek athletics in the Roman empire and the representation of Greek mythology in Roman art.
It is probably coincidental that life at the Limebrook Way farm site ceased at a time of unprecedented threat to the mighty Roman Empire.
Even the Carolingian empire of the early ninth century had only been a failed successor state to the Western Roman Empire.
The Roman Empire is the classical illustration of this policy, tho in a somewhat inchoate form, in the ancient world.
He was the puppet ruler the tetrarch of the region of Galilee and Perea, within the Roman Empire.
During the disintegration of the Roman empire Clermont suffered as much perhaps from capture and pillage as any city in the country; its history during the middle ages chiefly records the struggles between its bishops and the counts of Auvergne, and between the citizens and their overlord the bishop. It was the seat of seven ecclesiastical councils, held in the years 535, 549, 587, 1095, 1110, 1124 and 1130; and of these the council of 1095 is for ever memorable as that in which Pope Urban II.
After the fall of the Roman Empire the workings remained abandoned until the days of the Pisan supremacy, 3 and were again given up under the Spanish government, especially after the discovery of America.
The only highroad of importance which left Rome and ran eastwards, the Via.Valeria, was not completed as far as the Adriatic before the time of Claudius; but on the north and northwest started the main highways which communicated with central and northern Italy, and with all that part of the Roman empire which was accessible by land.
Abandoning the ancient Muscovite capital, where many influential personages were fanatically hostile to his innovations and not a few of the superstitious inhabitants regarded him with horror as Antichrist, he built at the mouth of the Neva a new capital which was to serve as " a window through which his people might look into Europe "; and laying aside the national St title of tsar he proclaimed himself (1711) emperor Peters- (Imperator) of all Russia - much to the surprise and indignation of foreign diplomatic chancelleries, which resented the audacity of a semi-barbarous potentate in claiming to be equal in rank with the head of the Holy Roman Empire.
A vague tradition had always assigned the title of emperor to the sovereign who held Leon as the most direct representative of the Visigoth kings, who were themselves the representatives of the Roman empire.
Again we find the cult in Sicily, introduced, no doubt, by slaves and mercenary troops, who carried it even to the farthest northern limits of the Roman empire.
It was the metropolis of Bithynia under the Roman empire (see Nicaea), and Diocletian made it the chief city of the East.
His efforts to induce his master to accord lenient terms to Austria in November 1805 were futile; and he looked on helplessly while that Power was crushed, the Holy Roman Empire swept away, and the Confederation of the Rhine set up in central Europe.
Bury (who agrees with Ranke in rejecting the authorship of Procopius) A History of the Later Roman Empire (1889), vol.
Pompey united the coast districts of Paphlagonia with the province of Bithynia, but left the interior of the country under the native princes, until the dynasty became extinct and the whole country was incorporated in the Roman empire.
Under the Roman Empire Paphlagonia, with the greater part of Pontus, was united into one province with Bithynia, as we find to have been the case in the time of the younger Pliny; but the name was still retained by geographers, though its boundaries are not distinctly defined by Ptolemy.
It is tempting to think of a last stand by the local natives against the might of the Roman Empire.
In AD 200, this transcontinental route linked the Roman Empire in the west with the imperial court of China.
The Roman Empire existed from 27 BC to 476 AD.
The solders of the Roman Empire served for twenty years.
Since Christians were persecuted during the height of the Roman Empire before the Romanconversion to Christianity, they discretely used the fish symbol as a way to identify themselves to each other.
Glass was produced in many places in Europe during the Roman Empire.
People have been using gold and silver to create wedding or betrothal rings since at least the time of the Roman Empire.
Modern Taureans would have thrived during the height of the Roman Empire when the pleasure of the senses ruled.
There, surrounded by synchophants, toadies (literally) and fellow smugglers, Jabba spends his time in Fall of the Roman Empire splendor, playing gladiator games with his captives.
Their collection includes many helmets ranging from the Roman Empire to Renaissance-era protection.