Monstrous gray rocks jutted up from the earth and found themselves entwined with honeysuckle and briar vines.
If they didn't own the ore mines, they'd be using rocks to fight.
The rocks have not life, and they cannot think.
Cassie shrank back against the rocks, hoping the Indians wouldn't look up.
They parked behind rocks, away from the direction of their approach, and immediately saw a nearly invisible path upward.
It crossed her mind that he might trip on the mossy rocks, but he crossed the creek with sure steps.
Something was moving among the rocks at the bottom of the chasm.
She lay hidden among some rocks, and nothing could make her stir.
On the other side of the rocks, water sprang from the ground and spilled off a ledge into a large blue pool.
Hardening, Jenn turned away and retreated through the forest and rocks to the compound.
The ATV climbed over large rocks, threatening to unseat them both at any moment.
They ran to the next nearest group of rocks, where a handful of four-by-fours waited.
While she despised the man, her feelings still lacked a motive to sever his rope in cold blood and watch him plummet down to the rocks and churning river below.
One by one he tossed the rocks into the pond.
If you don't mark 'em all with rocks we're going to miss a turn on the way out and end up god-knows-where in the middle of the earth someplace.
Peeking through the trees were some gray rocks – maybe a bluff.
Judging from the sharp rocks, they must be in the lava field.
A dark shape moved from the rocks while three more fanned out from the sides.
The churning sea below was littered with jagged rocks that looked small from her perch a hundred feet above them.
She stretched out on the hard cold rocks and fell asleep.
The road darkened as he entered the trees and he turned on his headlamps, trying to avoid the rocks and boulders that littered the roadway.
He could still hear her stifled sobs as he cautiously moved down the slope, wedging his foot against rocks and small vegetation for purchase.
But unlike the floating package that danced among the rocks, the tin had not floated away.
Dean's heart began to race as he caught sight of Cynthia and Martha at the edge of the rocks near the edge of the path leading to the entrance of the Lucky Pup.
When the helo circled the rocks, she began to suspect they'd picked up her transmission.
The rocks hurt my feet.
Stay away from the rocks.
She hurried after him, glancing nervously at the jumble of rocks and trees.
She breathed deeply of the clear air and listened to the sound of the creek darting over rocks - swirling against its banks.
We were cowboy and Indian kids, living in an imagination paradise of rocks and trees and dirt, with her leading the way.
The road continued to climb at a seemingly impossible grade, more rugged now with jagged rocks littering the uneven way.
Rocks kicked loose fell in silence until ricocheting and bouncing far below.
His wife motioned toward the mine entrance out of sight in the rocks and trees.
The glimmering lights were nestled among rocks and dirt.
She stepped out of his embrace, the two of them freezing in the middle of the dance floor like rocks in a flowing creek.
He glanced to the rocks where Katie had been, only to find she was gone.
In between, his sleep-movies starred Annie, huddled and pregnant as she walked the penstock trail in tears, and Shipton plunging down to the rocks and river below, amid scores of viewers clapping and cheering his bloody demise.
Belfair watched, a sneering smile painted on her beautiful face, revenge was hers, as Jership the Terrible crashed in a bloody heap on the rocks below.
But his cry came an instant too late as Shipton plummeted past him, his ice ax swinging in a rip across Dean's calf as he plummeted backward into space, and down to the rocks and churning river below.
No doubt Tessa was in labor and searching for a private place to give birth - some place high in the rocks, away from the water, but sheltered from the wind.
The rocks were slippery with half-thawed ice, and when she carelessly stepped on the edge of one, her foot slipped, wedging between two rocks.
Tessa scrambled over the rocks to reach her infant, stepping on Carmen's fingers in the process.
Soon a green river winked at them playfully between rocks and bushes, and roared impressively as they entered the clearing at the mill site.
Josh, Bill and Alex had gone hunting for them the day after the attack, but they lost the trail in some rocks on her back 40 acres.
Finally, she felt rocks scrape one leg, and Lana lifted her head.
Lana scrunched down as far as she could in the shadow of the massive rocks around her.
Lana stood and moved to the far side of the rocks, facing the area where the missile fire fell.
Lana followed them into the medical facility after a quick look around, not recognizing the flat landscape and distant red rocks surrounding the canyon in which they'd landed.
When his eldest brother died, he'd felt pain and anger, but he'd never felt the crippling ache he did standing on the rocks near the ocean staring at Katie.
Of course, the trail would be twice as dangerous now, with slippery wet rocks and washed out places.
A fish flopped in the pond, probably avoiding a snapping turtle, and water raced over rocks in the creek below.
The snow had melted on the mountain trail, and the dry gray rocks provided sufficient traction for Ed's hooves as they climbed higher into the hills.
He followed her up a jumble of rocks to the top of the ridge.
Rocks had been piled to make a shelter under the cliff across from them.
Jenn chose a small scouting position, hidden from view by rocks and snow.
She snagged a few small rocks from the ground and approached the portal, knife in her other hand.
Before long they neared the Black Pit, where a busy swarm of Mangaboos, headed by their Princess, was engaged in piling up glass rocks before the entrance.
"Stop, I command you!" cried the Wizard, in an angry tone, and at once began pulling down the rocks to liberate Jim and the piglets.
I was in haste to buy it, before the proprietor finished getting out some rocks, cutting down the hollow apple trees, and grubbing up some young birches which had sprung up in the pasture, or, in short, had made any more of his improvements.
He paused and pulled a weed from between some rocks and fed it to the bay.
As she hopped the short distance from rocks to the ground leading up to the compound, she caught the silhouettes of two men against the cloudy sky.
Dan ran ahead of them, Elise behind, and they flew down a deer path to a creek, then darted across rocks to the other bank.
Then his front wheel twisted violently and he knew the tire had blown a second before he hit the sand at the shoulder and felt himself twisting and rolling in the grass and sharp rocks at the edge of the roadside.
The sound of the water rushing over rocks and the coolness of the water lifted her spirits.
Three frolicsome little streams ran through it from springs in the rocks above, leaping here and tumbling there in laughing cascades wherever the rocks tried to bar their way.
Who does not remember the interest with which, when young, he looked at shelving rocks, or any approach to a cave?
But the black rocks sucked the heat in and held it close to the earth.
"There's enough rock here to build a housing development," she commented as they worked their way across a jumble of flat red rocks.
He started the engine and she clamped her arms around him, clinging to him as he spun the tires in a spray of pebbles and rocks.
They paused at a water hole that bubbled up between some rocks.
The only thing she accomplished was cutting her hands on the sharp rocks.
Horses were moving around on the ledge above, their hooves clicking against the rocks.
I saw something red up there in the rocks.
He took her hand and led her across the camp, heading for a jumble of rocks.
At the end of the pool, it seeped back into the ground between some more rocks.
He stooped and selected several rocks.
Her eyes went to the rocks.
A sense of familiarity hit her as they neared a clump of rocks.
You kept saying all that land up there is the same—trees and rocks.
Do humans eat rocks?
No, humans do not eat rocks.
Instead she crossed to the full bar and traded the champagne for a triple shot of whiskey on the rocks.
Daniela cried, and flew past her toward the rocks.
Turning her attention to the hills, she saw a single trail leading up into the rocks.
She darted behind the nearby rocks.
The icy water tickled her toes as it leaped over her feet and danced around the rocks.
She circled the tree, placing rocks around its trunk as she went.
Jenn grabbed more rocks and returned to the immortal world.
Placing the rocks on the ground near the return portal, she looked around.
She moved cautiously through the well-maintained orchard, back to the tree marked by the rocks.
She maneuvered that way now, leaning against rocks to peer into dark depths.
The water moved silently over moss and lichen covered slabs of rocks, forming small pools in the low spots.
Large rocks had been stacked, forming an outside wall that made a room under an overhanging cliff.
Rob walked gingerly across the rocks, wincing.
The water was so cold that it made the rocks seem sharper.
Moments later it clattered on the rocks below.
For a few moments he stood looking over the edge at the rocks below.
Behind him, the bluff fell away to rocks far below.
You could get the wheelbarrow and go with Alex to get some more rocks.
There was no shortage of rocks on the mountain.
He followed the tracks until he lost them across some rocks.
Sam started helping Carmen place rocks.
She maneuvered the car around washed out places and eased it over rocks that erupted from the surface of the dusty road.
Stay away from the weeds and rocks and you won't have to worry about them.
The rocks were deceptively sharp and the coldness of the water increased the sensitivity of the soles of her feet.
She ducked under the water and swam a short distance before surfacing to make sure she wasn't close to any rocks.
The sound began as light pecks on the window, and quickly grew to a crescendo of crashing rocks.
He was moving quickly, around the building and seeking shelter among the rocks that lined one side of the moonlit beach to separate it from the property of the neighboring set of condos.
in length by 4 in width, it consists of a series of precipitous rocks rudely piled into irregular blocks and pinnacles, and strongly contrasting with a rich vegetation.
Petroleum and natural gas also occur in the plateau rocks in great quantities.
Both to the east and to the west of this depression the Archean and Palaeozoic rocks which form the greater part of the island are strongly folded, with the exception of the uppermost beds, which belong to the Permian system.
The Palaeozoic rocks form two extensive masses, one in the south-east and the other in the south-west.
Although defeated in the early stages of the conflict, the Yankees or Connecticut settlers finally rallied in August 1771 and compelled the Pennsylvanians to retreat, and the war terminated with the defeat of Colonel William Plunket (1720-1791) and about 700 Pennsylvanians by a force of 300 Yankees under Colonel Zebulon Butler (1731-179, 5)5) in the battle of "Rampart Rocks" on the 25th of December 1775.
The favourite haunts of the wild cat are mountain forests where masses or rocks or cliffs are interspersed with trees, the crevices in these rocks or the hollow trunks of trees affording sites for the wild cat's lair, where its young are produced and reared.
The shortest road across this range passes along the eastern side of the mountains, and the most difficult part is the celebrated Scironian rocks, the mythic home of the robber Sciron.
Strutt has suggested that helium in hot springs may be derived from the disintegration of common rocks at great depths.
The building of the Canadian Pacific railway through almost continuous rocks for 800 miles was one of the greatest engineering feats of modern times.
The Lower Tertiary consists largely of reddish sandstones resting upon the old rocks of the Cordillera and of the Sierras.
Contemporaneous volcanic rocks are associated with the Ordovician beds and with the Rhaetic sandstones in several places.
The principal rocks are andesites, but trachytes and basalts are also common.
Geology.Many years ago it was pointed out by Elie de Beaumont and Dufrnoy that the Jurassic rocks of France form upon the map an incomplete figure of 8.
Within the northern circle of the 8 lie the Mesozoic and Tertiary beds of the Paris basin, dipping inwards; within the southern circle lie the ancient rocks of the Central Plateau, from which the later beds dip outwards.
Outside the northern circle lie on the west the folded Palaeozoic rocks of Brittany.
The oldest rocks, the gneisses and schists of the Archean period, form nearly the whole of the Central Plateau, and are also exposed in the axes of the folds in Brittany.
The rocks are mainly basalts and andesites, together with trachytes and phonolites, and some of the basaltic flows are of enormous extent.
The Sassanian kings have covered the face of the rocks in this neighbourhood, and in part even the Achaemenian ruins, with their sculptures and inscriptions, and must themselves have built largely here, although never on the same scale of magnificence as their ancient predecessors.
The lesser of these lies towards the east, and its entrance is obstructed by a barrier of rocks, so as to admit the entrance of but one ship at a time.
The higher steppes, as far as they are known, consist of Ordovician and Cambrian rocks, with an average elevation of 1500 to 3000 ft.
Australia is essentially the fragment of a great plateau land of Archean rocks.
These areas of Archean rocks were doubtless once continuous.
Cambrian rocks occur in each of these districts, and they are best developed in the South Australian high= lands, where they include a long belt of contemporary glacial deposits.
Marine Ordovician rocks were deposited along the same general course.
Silurian rocks are well developed in western Tasmania, and the Silurian sea must have washed the south-western corner of the continent, if the rocks of the Stirling Range be rightly identified as of this age.
The Upper Devonian was a period of marine retreat; the crustal disturbances of the Lower Devonian were renewed and great quartz-pebble beaches were formed on the rising shore lines, producing the West Coast Range conglomerates of Tasmania, and the similar rocks to the south-east of Mansfield in Victoria.
The Coal Measures become narrower in the south, until, owing to the eastward projection of the highlands, the Lower Palaeozoic rocks reach the coast.
These rocks were followed by the outpouring of the extensive older basalts in the Great Valley of Victoria and on the highlands of eastern Victoria, and also in New South Wales and Queensland.
Its congeners even then lived in England, as is proved by the fact that their relics have been found in the Stonesfield oolitic rocks, the deposition of which is separated from that which gave rise to the Paris Tertiary strata by an abyss of past time which we cannot venture to express even in thousands of years.
So far as is known, the Malay Peninsula consists of an axial zone of crystalline rocks, flanked on each side by an incomplete band of sedimentary deposits.
Granite is the most widely spread of the crystalline rocks; but dikes of various kinds occur, and gneiss, schist and marble are also met with.
These rocks form the greater part of the central range, and they are often - especially the granite - decomposed and rotten to a considerable depth.
The tin occurs in the form of cassiterite, and is found chiefly in or near the crystalline rocks, especially the granite.
Geologically considered, the country may be divided into three regions - a central, and the largest, comprising the whole width of the Aravalli system, formed of very old sub-metamorphic and gneissic rocks; an eastern region, with sharply defined boundary, along which the most ancient formations are abruptly replaced by the great basin of the Vindhyan strata, or are overlaid by the still more extensive spread of the Deccan trap, forming the plateau of Malwa; and a western region, of very ill-defined margin, in which, besides some rocks of undetermined age, it is more or less known or suspected that Tertiary and Secondary strata stretch across from Sind, beneath the sands of the desert, towards the flanks of the Aravallis.
Good building materials are obtained from many of the rocks of the country, among which the Raialo limestone (a fine-grained crystalline marble) and the Jaisalmer limestone stand pre-eminent.
The oldest rocks of Elba consist of schist and serpentine which in the eastern part of the island are overlaid by beds containing Silurian and Devonian fossils.
The Permian may be represented, but the Trias is absent, and in general the older Palaeozoic rocks are overlaid directly by the Rhaetic and Lias.
The celebrated iron ore of Elba is of Tertiary age and occurs indifferently in all the older rocks.
The sugar-cane flourishes, the cotton-plant ripens to perfection, date-trees are seen in the gardens, the rocks are clothed with the prickly-pear or Indian fig, the enclosures of the fields are formed by aloes and sometimes pomegranates, the liquorice-root grows wild, and the mastic, the myrtle and many varieties of oleander and cistus form the underwood of the natural forests of arbutus and evergreen oak.
The older rocks are early Tertiary or late Cretaceous but there are no fossils to indicate age.
The newer rocks, common also to the Nicobars and Sumatra, are in Ritchie's Archipelago chiefly and contain radiolarians and foraminifera.
There is coral along the coasts everywhere, and the Sentinel Islands are composed of the newer rocks with a superstructure of coral.
catta) often dwells among rocks.
With the exception just named, the islands, which agree very closely in geological structure, are mountainous, and present, perhaps, the most wonderful example of volcanic rocks to be found on the globe.
Schraufite is a reddish resin from the Carpathian sandstone, and it occurs with jet in the cretaceous rocks of the Lebanon; ambrite is a resin found in many of the coals of New Zealand; retinite occurs in the lignite of Bovey Tracey in Devonshire and elsewhere; whilst copaline has been found in the London clay of Highgate in North London.
From the 6th century onwards he was looked upon as one of the chief poets and musicians of antiquity, the inventor or perfecter of the lyre, who by his music and singing was able not only to charm the wild beasts, but even to draw the trees and rocks from their places, and to arrest the rivers in their course.
frbs which occur on particular dry kinds of soil, such as lime- rf one rocks, stiff clay, and so forth (Warming, 1909: 289).
The Cenomanian rocks of Bohemia have yielded remains of a sub-tropical flora which has been compared with that existing at present in Australia.
He formed a comprehensive theory of the variations of climate with latitude and season, and was convinced of the necessity of a circulation of water between the sea and rivers, though, like Plato, he held that this took place by water rising from the sea through crevices in the rocks, losing it .s dissolved salts in the process.
After this there is a considerable gap before New Guinea, Borneo, Madagascar, Sumatra and the vast multitude of smaller islands descending in size by regular gradations to mere rocks.
shelf, or show evidence in the character of their rocks of Islands having at one time been continuous with a neighbouring continent.
The geological structure and the mineral composition of the rocks are often the chief causes determining the character of the land forms of a region.
Thus the scenery of a limestone country depends on the solubility and permeability of the rocks, leading to the typical Karst-formations of caverns, swallowholes and underground stream courses, with the contingent phenomena of dry valleys and natural bridges.
The indirect geographical elements, which, as a rule, act with and intensify the direct, are mainly climatic; the prevailing winds, rainfall, mean and extreme temperatures of every locality depending on the arrangement of land and sea and of land forms. Climate thus guided affects the weathering of rocks, and so determines the kind and arrangement of soil.
Vegetation of all sorts acts in a similar way, either in forming soil and assisting in breaking up rocks, in filling up shallow lakes, and even, like the mangrove, in reclaiming wide stretches of land from the sea.
Phosphatic beds, supposed to have had a coprolitic origin, are found in the Lower Silurian rocks of Canada.
From the Cretaceous rocks of North America a large number of birds have been described by O.
by 28, and appears to be partly of volcanic origin and to consist partly of older rocks corresponding with those of Sumatra.
Such crystals occur either in cavities in mineral-veins and in granitic rocks, or as a lining in agate geodes.
Much fine amethyst comes from Russia, especially from near Mursinka in the Ekaterinburg district, where it occurs in drusy cavities in granitic rocks.
It is lowest in November, and rocks, shallows, and the remains of old dams then render it almost unnavigable.
Ungava includes much of the lower portion of Labrador, with a rim of recent marine deposits along its western coast, but the interior has the usual character of low rocky hills of Archean rocks, especially granite and gneiss, with a long band of little disturbed iron-bearing rocks, resembling the Animikie, or Upper Huronian of the Lake Superior region, near its eastern side.
Along Hudson Bay shore there is a strip of similar rocks, and a long row of small islands of the same age, with great sheets of trap or diabase forming the tops of the hills.
There is a foundation of schists and crystalline rocks upon which rests a series of sandstones.
Free or native sulphur, known also as "virgin sulphur," occurs in connexion with volcanoes and in certain stratified rocks in several modes, viz.
An important zone of sulphur-bearing Miocene rocks occurs on the east side of the Apennines, constituting a great part of the province of Forli and part of Pesaro.
A good deal of the seaboard is dangerous by reason of the sharp rocks which lie near the surface.
The Moa or Makona river is a fine stream of considerable volume, but its course is perpetually interrupted by rocks and rapids.
The Coleoptera can be traced back farther in time than any other order of insects with complete transformations, if the structures that have been described from the Carboniferous rocks of Germany are really elytra.
In the Triassic rocks of Switzerland remains of weevils (Curculionidae) occur, a family which is considered by many students the most specialized of the order.
Seen in front, its white face, striped with black, and broad black gorget attract attention as it sits, often motionless, on the rocks; while in flight the white of the lower part of the back and white band across the wings are no less conspicuous even at a distance.
The Archean rocks have a broad extension in Finland, N.
Rocks regarded as representing the Huronian system appear also in Finland, in N.W.
In Poland the rocks of these periods are met with in the Kielce Mountains, and in Podolia in the deeper ravines.
From Esthonia these rocks extend N.E.
The Arunta hold that the spirits of kangaroos are expelled by human blood from certain rocks.
The Falkland Islands consist entirely, so far as is known, of the older Palaeozoic rocks, Lower Devonian or Upper Silurian, slightly metamorphosed and a good deal crumpled and distorted, in the low grounds clay slate and soft sandstone, and on the ridges hardened sandstone passing into the conspicuous white quartzites.
There do not seem to be any minerals of value, and the rocks are not such as to indicate any probability of their discovery.
The dark bituminous layers of clay slate, which occur intercalated among the quartzites, have led, here as elsewhere, to the hope of coming upon a seam of coal, but it is contrary to experience that coal of any value should be found in rocks of that age.
The word seems to be used in this sense in the epistle of Jude 12: "These are they who are hidden rocks in your lovefeasts when they banquet with you."
In 1866 a submarine volcano near the islet of Olosenga was the scene of a violent commotion, discharging rocks and mud to a height of 2000 ft.
Many of the block mountains of the Great Basin are of complicated internal structure, showing rocks of all ages - slate, limestone, quartzites, granite, multi-coloured volcanic rocks, and large areas of lava overflow.
In the Centaur battle, having been crushed by rocks and trunks of trees, he was changed into a bird; or he disappeared into the depths of the earth unharmed.
The forest zone extends to about 10,500 ft., above which is the steeper alpine zone, in which pasturages alternate with rocks and crags.
in extreme height, and much more picturesque, being diversified by rocks and woods.
Some of the islands are built of volcanic rocks alone; such are Hongu-tonga and Hongu-hapai, which appear to be fragments of a single ancient crater, Tofua, Kao, Late, Metis, Amargua and Falcon Island.
All the volcanic rocks of these islands are submarine stratified tuffs which are penetrated here and there by andesite or diabase dikes.
The metamorphic rocks of western Crete form a series some 9000 to 10,000 ft.
They include gypsum, dolomite, conglomerates, phyllites, and a basic series of eruptive rocks (gabbros, peridotites, serpentines).
Glaucophane rocks are widely spread.
In the centre of the folds fossiliferous beds with crinoids have been found, and the black slates at the top of the series contain Myophoria and other fossils, indicating that the rocks are of Triassic age.
With the J urassic beds is associated an extensive series of eruptive rocks (gabbro, peridotite, serpentine, diorite, granite, &c.); they are chiefly of Jurassic age, but the eruptions may have continued into the Lower Cretaceous.
Although images of the divinities were certainly known, the principal objects of cult in the Minoan age were of the aniconic class; in many cases these were natural objects, such as rocks and mountain peaks, with their cave sanctuaries, like those of Ida or of Dicte.
A remarkable wall-painting depicts a cat creeping over ivy-covered rocks and about to spring on a pheasant.
The peninsula is almost wholly composed of a bed of coralline and porous limestone rocks, forming a low tableland, which rises gradually toward the S.
It is covered with a layer of thin, dry soil, through the slow weathering of the coral rocks.
In the extreme north-east are found the oldest rocks in the state - lower Devonian (the New Scotland beds of New York) and, not so old, an extension of the Lower Carboniferous which underlies the Warrior coalfields of Alabama, and which consists of cherts, limestones, sandstones and shales, with a depth of 800 to 900 ft.
Its materials are pebbles, clays and sands of various' colours from white to deep red, tinged with peroxide of iron, which sometimes cements the pebbles and sands into compact rocks.
Laymen also belonged to it, like Hermann of Fritzlar and Rulman Merswin, the rich banker of Strassburg (author of a mystical work, Buck der neon Felsen, on the nine rocks or upwards steps of contemplation).
The town is indeed surrounded by basaltic rocks, the largest of them being the Radelstein (2460 ft.), from which a fine view is obtained.
E Arabian Sea Ba Of G A L e Geological information incomplete Desert Deposits Quaternary Tertiary Mesozoic Palaeozoic Archaean and Metamorphic Younger Volcanic Rocks English Miles b iuHi iiiiuiiiiii after llargl,aua Geology The geology of Asia is so complex and over wide areas so little known that it is difficult to give a connected account of either the structure or the development of the continent, and only the broader features can be dealt with here.
In the south, in Syria, Arabia and the peninsula of India, none but the oldest rocks are folded, and the Upper Palaeozoic, the Mesozoic and the Tertiary beds lie almost horizontally upon them.
It is, indeed, as if the high land of central Asia had been pushed southward against and over the unyielding mass formed by the old rocks of the Indian peninsula, and in the process the edges of the over-riding strata had been crumpled and folded.
Here the folded Archean rocks are overlaid by Cambrian and Ordovician beds, which still lie for the most part flat and undisturbed.
South and east of the Palaeozoic plateau is an extensive area consisting chiefly of Archean rocks, and including the greater part of Mongolia north of the Tian-shan.
There is again a floor of folded Archean rocks overlaid by nearly horizontal strata of Lower Palaeozoic age; but these are followed by marine beds belonging to the Carboniferous period.
Magnetite is a mineral of wide distribution, occurring as grains in many massive and volcanic rocks, like granite, diorite and dolerite.
Its presence contributes to the dark colour of many basalts and other basic rocks, and may cause them to disturb the compass.
The character of the landscape ranges from the wild moorland of the Cheshire borders or the grey rocks of the Peak, to the park lands and woods of the Chatsworth district.
Five well-contrasted types of scenery in Derbyshire are clearly traceable to as many varieties of rock; the bleak dry uplands of the north and east, with deep-cut ravines and swift clear streams, are due to the great mass of Mountain Limestone; round the limestone boundary are the valleys with soft outlines in the Pendleside Shales; these are succeeded by the rugged moorlands, covered with heather and peat, which are due to the Millstone Grit series; eastward lies the Derbyshire Coalfield with its gently moulded grasscovered hills; southward is the more level tract of red Triassic rocks.
Volcanic rocks, locally called "Toadstone," are represented in the limestones by intrusive sills and flows of dolerite and by necks of agglomerate, notably near Tideswell, Millersdale and Matlock.
The Coal Measures repose upon the Millstone Grit; the largest area of these rocks lies on the east, where they are conterminous with the coalfields of Yorkshire and Nottingham.
The Coal Measures repose upon the Millstone Grit; the largest area of these rocks lieson the east, where they are conterminous with the coalfields of Yorkshire and Nottingham.
aA'ecv, to split), in petrology, metamorphic rocks which have a fissile character.
Schists in the common acceptance of that term are really highly crystalline rocks; fissile slates, shales or sandstones, in which the original sedimentary structures are little modified by recrystallization, are not included in this group by English petrologists, though the French schistes and the German Schiefer are used to designate also rocks of these types.
The difference between schists and gneisses is mainly that the latter have less highly developed foliation; they also, as a rule, are more coarse grained, and contain far more quartz and felspar, two minerals which rarely assume platy or acicular forms, and hence do not lead to the production of a fissile character in the rocks in which they are important constituents.
Schists, as a rule, are found in regions composed mainly of metamorphic rocks, such as the Central Alps, Himalayas, and other mountain ranges, Saxony, Scandinavia, the Highlands of Scotland and north-west of Ireland.
They are typical products of "regional" metamorphism, and are in nearly all cases older than the fossiliferous sedimentary rocks.
The Silurian mica-schists of Bergen in Norway are fossiliferous; in the Alps it is believed that even Mesozoic rocks pass laterally into mica-schists and talc-schists.
those derived from sedimentary and those derived from igneous rocks, or, as they have been called, the "paraschists" and the "orthoschists."
The first group is the more important and includes some of the commonest metamorphic rocks.
When the foliation is undulose or sinuous the rocks are said to be crumpled, and have wavy splitting surfaces instead of nearly plane ones.
The development of foliation in shaly rocks is undoubtedly closely akin to the production of cleavage in slates.
Those rocks which contain andalusite and staurolite are sometimes found in such associations as show that they are due to contact action by intrusive igneous masses.
Others are probably sedimentary rocks, especially those which contain much muscovite.
The orthoschists are white mica-schists produced by the shearing of acid rocks, such as felsite and porphyry.
These are modified forms of basic rocks such as basalt, dolerite and diabase.
Under extreme crushing these basic rocks may be converted into dark biotite-schists, or greenish chloriteschists.
Tremolite-schist and anthophyllite-schist are in nearly all cases the representatives of the ultra-basic igneous rocks such as peridotite in regions of high metamorphism.
Occasionally serpentines become sheared without yielding talcose minerals; they are then known as serpentine-schist and antigoriteschist, the latter being tough leek-green rocks, more or less transparent.
The Hexapoda, being aerial, terrestrial and fresh-water animals, are but occasionally preserved in stratified rocks, and our knowledge of extinct members of the class is therefore fragmentary, while the description, as insects, of various obscure fossils, which are perhaps not even Arthropods, has not tended to the advancement of this branch of zoology.
The Devonian rocks of Canada (New Brunswick) have yielded several fossils which are undoubtedly wings of Hexapods.
In the Jurassic rocks are found Ephemeroptera and Odonata, as well as Hemiptera, referable to existing families, some representatives of which had already appeared in.
The occurrence of weevils - among the most specialized of the Coleoptera - in Triassic rocks shows us that this great order of metabolous insects had become differentiated into its leading families at the dawn of the Mesozoic era, and that we must go far back into the Palaeozoic for the origin of the Endopterygota.
Towards the Caspian, especially between Petrovsk and the river Sulak, the Cretaceous system is well represented, and upon its rocks rest marls, shales, and sandstones of the Eocene period.
Crystals are found as a rarity in the amygdaloidal cavities of igneous rocks.
The disturbances among the underlying rocks of Ohio have been slight, and originally the surface was a plain only slightly undulating; stream dissection changed the region to one of numberless hills and valleys; glacial drift then filled up the valleys over large broken areas, forming the remarkably level till plains of northwestern Ohio; but at the same time other areas were broken by the uneven distribution of the drift, and south-eastern Ohio, which was unglaciated, retains its rugged hilly character, gradually merging with the typical plateau country farther S.E.
caves formed by the uplifting and folding of the rocks while gypsum was forming beneath, followed by the partial collapse of those rocks when the gypsum passed into solution.
part of the state, the soil is largely a decomposition of the underlying rocks, and its fertility varies according to their composition; there is considerable limestone in the E.
As instances of procryptic or celative coloration may be mentioned that of the species of the genus Dolomedes, one of the Lycosidae, which lives amongst reeds and is marked with a pair of longitudinal yellow lines which harmonize with the upright stalks of the vegetation, and Lycosa pitta, which lives on the sand, can scarcely be seen on account of its mottled pattern: Sparassus smargdulus and the species of Pecucetia, which are found amongst grass or low green herbage, are mostly green in colour, and Salticus scenicus is banded with white and black to match the grey tint of the rocks and stone walls on which it hunts its prey.
Desis lives invariably between tide-marks upon the rocks and coral reefs, and may be found at low tide either crawling about upon them or swimming in tidal pools and feeding upon small fish or crustaceans.
On the west side of the city is Edgewood Park (120 acres); on the north is Beaver Pond Park (loo acres); and East and West Rocks, mentioned above, have been made into suburban parks.
He manoeuvred so skilfully in the campaign against Radagaisus, who led a large force of various Germanic peoples into Italy in 405, that he surrounded the barbarian chieftain on the rocks of Fiesole near Florence and starved him into surrender.
Bitumen is, in its various forms, one of the most widel y -distributed of substances, occurring in strata of every geological age, from the lowest Archean rocks to those now in process of deposition, and in greater or less quantity throughout both hemispheres, from Spitzbergen to New Zealand, and from California to Japan.
The occurrence of commercially valuable petroleum is, however, comparatively limited, hitherto exploited deposits being confined to rocks younger than the Cambrian and older than the Quaternary, while the majority of developed oilfields have been discovered north of the equator.
Water, often saline or sulphurous, is also found in these porous rocks and replaces the oil as the latter is withdrawn.
In this list, while certain occurrences in rocks of undetermined age in little-known regions have been omitted, many of those included are of merely academic interest, and a still larger number indicate fields supplying at present only local needs.
It should be pointed out that the deposits which have been hitherto of chief commercial importance occur in the old rocks (Carboniferous to Silurian) on the one hand, and in the comparatively new Tertiary formations on the other, the intermediate periods yielding but little or at any rate far less abundantly.
Similarly there is a difference of opinion as to the conditions under which the organisms have been mineralized, some holding that the process has taken place at a high temperature and under great pressure; but the lack of practical evidence in nature in support of these views has led many to conclude that petroleum, like coal, has been formed at moderate temperatures, and under pressures varying with the depth of the containing rocks.
The earlier wells in Pennsylvania consisted of three sections, the first formed of surface clays and gravels, the second of stratified rocks containing water, and the third of stratified rocks, including the oil-sands, usually free from water.
In the southern region, which is by far the better known, the oldest rocks are granites, crystalline schists and other rocks of Archean aspect.
Cretaceous limestones cover the greater part of Palestine and rocks of the same period form Mt Lebanon, the Casius Mons, &c., farther north.
The rocks do not appear to differ very markedly from those farther south, but the Devonian is believed to be represented.
As a stratigraphical geologist he rendered much assistance on the Geological Survey of France, but in the course of time he gave his special attention to the study of volcanic phenomena and earthquakes, to minerals and rocks; and he was the first to introduce modern petrographical methods into France.
His studies of the eruptive rocks of Corsica, Santorin and elsewhere; his researches on the artificial reproduction of eruptive rocks, and his treatise on the optical characters of felspars deserve special mention; but he was perhaps best known for the joint work which he carried on with his friend Michel Levy.
In this region the sandstone rocks are generally overlaid with heavy black soil formed from the decaying trap, which is principally devoted to the cultivation of the spring crops, wheat and grain, while rice and hill millets are sown in the lighter and more sandy soils.
To the south of the Nerbudda the Satpura range stretches across the province, containing the greater part of five districts, its crystalline and sandstone rocks rising in places through the superficial stratum of trap, and with large areas of shallow stony land still covered to a great extent with forest interspersed by black-soil valleys of great fertility.
Its centre is of volcanic rocks, complex in character, while the Coal-measures and New Red Sandstone appear round the edges.
radius lies on the lesser heights between Langstrath and Dunmail Raise, which may, however, be the crown of an ancient dome of rocks, "the dissected skeleton of which, worn by the warfare of air and rain and ice, now alone remains" (Dr H.
In some parts it rises into irregular uplands and elevated plains, interspersed with detached rocks of granite; in others it sinks into marshy lowlands, which frequently remain under water during the rainy season.
In front of the delta are sandbanks and rocks which prevent the passage of vessels except by a canal, 18 m.
Four instances have, however, been recorded of its occurrence on the British coasts, one on the coast of Norfolk in 1588, one in the Firth of Forth in 1648, one near Boston in Lincolnshire in 1800, while a fourth entangled itself among rocks in the Sound of Weesdale, Shetland, in September 1808.
The succession of beds in descending order is as follows: - (1) Shingle consisting of pebbles of limestone, slate and other local rocks, with fragments of stalagmite and containing a few bones and worked flints.
Eastwards the mountain system, the Jebel Sangeli, maintains the same general character as far as Bandar Gori (Las Korai), where the precipitous northern cliffs approach within 200 or 300 yards of the gulf, their bare brown rocks and clays presenting the same uninviting appearance as the light brown hills skirting the Red Sea.
wide leads into the circular bay of GubbetKharab (Hell's Mouth), behind which rise a chaotic mass of volcanic rocks, destitute of vegetation and presenting a scene of weird desolation.
From this point a zone of upheaved coral rocks skirts the shore for some distance.
A number of scattered rocks lie across the entrance, but through them two fairways have been made, one 600 ft.
In the western portion of Mainland, in Northmavine, -there is a considerable tract of rocks of this age which are formed largely of intrusive diabase-porphyrite; similar volcanic rocks occur in Papa Stour.
Similar rocks occur in Fetlar.
to W., for many of the rocks belonging to the eastern side are found as boulders scattered over the western districts.
The lochs and tarns are well stocked with brown trout, and the voes and gios, or narrow inlets of the sea with steep rocks on both sides, abound with sea trout.
On the east coast the rocks form a headland (592 ft.) called the Noup of Noss ("the peak of the nose"), once the source from which falcons were obtained for the royal mews.
Pectolite is a secondary mineral occurring as white masses with a radially fibrous structure in the veins and cavities of basic igneous rocks.
A remarkable group of isolated columnar rocks are those known as the Adersbacher Felsen in a valley on the Bohemian side of the Riesengebirge, 9 m.
Most of the rocks or soils composing its surface were formed as submarine deposits; the easternmost and southernmost parts are true river deposits.
The foundation of the island is formed of metamorphic and igneous rocks, which appear in the Sierra Maestra and are exposed in other parts of the island wherever the comparatively thin covering of later beds has been worn away.
These ancient rocks have hitherto yielded no fossils and their age is therefore uncertain, but they are probably pre-Cretaceous at least.
in thickness, they probably at one time covered the whole island except the summits of the Sierra Maestra, where they have been observed, resting upon the older rocks, up to a height of 2300 ft.
The rocks of its lower half are mainly granite and gneiss; its upper half is composed of porphyritic greenstone, and a variety of minerals occur.
It is estimated to consist of 29 islands, 661 cays and 2387 rocks, and extends along a line from Florida on the northwest to Haiti on the south-east, between Cuba and the open Atlantic, over a distance of about 630 m., from 80° 50' to 72° 50' W., and 22° 25' to 26° 40' N.
A group of signs carved on some rocks near Visegrad have been regarded as cuneiform writing, but are probably medieval masonic symbols.
The rocks of which these various monuments are composed is the ordinary granite of the district, and most of them present a strange appearance from their coating of white lichens.
This was done by the winged sons of Boreas, and Phineus now told them their course, and that the way to pass through the Symplegades or Cyanean rocks - two cliffs which moved on their bases and crushed whatever sought to pass - was first to fly a pigeon through, and when the cliffs, having closed on the pigeon, began to retire to each side, to row the "Argo" swiftly through.
From that time the rocks became fixed and never closed again.
- to Melilla, a distance of some 150 m., the Rif Mountains face the Mediterranean, and here, as along the whole coast eastward to Cape Bon, many rugged rocks rise boldly above the general level.
On Rusthall Common about a mile from the town is the curiously shaped mass of sandstone known as the Toad Rock, and a mile and a half south-west is the striking group called the High Rocks.
Only occasionally there emerge lofty rocks, isolated but not completely covered by the ice-cap; such rocks are known as nunataks (an Eskimo word).
Numerous glacial marks, however, such as polished striated rocks, moraines, erratic blocks, &c., prove that the whole of Greenland, even the small islands and skerries outside the coast, has once been covered by the inland ice.
Laurentian gneiss forms the greatest mass of the exposed rocks of the country bare of ice.
They are found on both sides of Smith Sound, rising to heights of 2000 ft., and underlie the Miocene and Cretaceous rocks of Disco Island, Noursoak Peninsula and the 2 E.
It is possible that some of these rocks are also of Huronian age, but it is doubtful whether the rocks so designated by the geologists of the " Alert " and " Discovery " expedition are really the rocks so known in Canada, or are a continuous portion of the fundamental or oldest gneiss of the north-west of Scotland and the western isles.
Devonian rocks are believed to occur in Igaliko and Tunnudiorbik Fjords, in S.W.
Feilden notes as suggestive that, though the explorers have not met with this formation on the northern shores of Greenland, yet it was observed that a continuation of the direction of the known strike of the limestones of Feilden peninsula, carried over the polar area, passes through the neighbourhood of Spitsbergen, where the formation occurs, and contains certain species identical with those of the Grinnell Land rocks of this horizon.
No Secondary rocks have been discovered in the extreme northern parts of West Greenland, but they are present on the east and west coasts in more southerly latitudes than Smith Sound.
On the south coast of the same island are coarse-grained, brownish micaceous and light-coloured calcareous sandstone and marls, containing fossils, which render it probable that they are of the same age as the coal-bearing Jurassic rocks of Brora (Scotland) and the Middle Dogger of Yorkshire.
The Danish expeditions of 1899-1900 have added considerably to our knowledge of the Jurassic rocks of East Greenland.
These beds, as well as the Cretaceous series, from which they are as yet only imperfectly distinguished, are associated with sheets of basalt, which penetrate them in great dikes, and in some places, owing to the wearing away of the softer sedimentary rocks, stand out in long walls running across the beds.
These Miocene strata have not been found farther north on the Greenland shore than the region mentioned; but in Lady Franklin Bay, on the Grinnell Land side of Smith Sound, they again appear, so that the chances are they will be found on the opposite coast, though doubtless the great disintegration Greenland has undergone and is undergoing has destroyed many of the softer beds of fossiliferous rocks.
Nathorst has suggested that the whole of Greenland is a "horst," in the subordinate folds of which, as well as in the deeper " graben," the younger rocks are preserved, often with a covering of Tertiary or later lava flows.'
This iron is considered by several of the first authorities"on the subject to be of meteoric origin,' but no evidence hitherto given seems to prove decisively that it cannot be telluric. That the nodules found were lying on gneissic rock, with no basaltic rocks in the neighbourhood, does not prove that the iron may not originate from basalt, for the nodules may have been transported by the glaciers, like other erratic blocks, and will stand erosion much longer than the basalt, which may long ago have disappeared.
south, there is a very curious labyrinth of red marble rocks.
Like the rest of the cluster, the island is of volcanic origin, with tuff, trachyte and obsidian among its ordinary rocks.
Rhyolitic lavas frequently are more or less vitreous, and when the glassy matter greatly predominates and the; crystals are few and inconspicuous the rock becomes an obsidian; the chemical composition is essentially the same as that of granite; the difference in the physical condition of the two rocks is due to the fact that one consolidated at the surface, rapidly and under low pressures, while the other cooled slowly at great depths and under such pressures that the escape of the steam and other gases it contained was greatly impeded.
All obsidians have a low specific gravity (about 2.4) both because they are acid rocks and because they are non-crystalline.
Black, grey, yellow and brown are the prevalent colours of these rocks.
The minute globular bodies have occasionally a sub-pearly lustre, and glassy rocks which possess this structure have been called perlites (q.v.).
Hence it may be regarded as diagnostic of rocks which were vitreous when they consolidated.
Although rocks wholly or in large part vitreous are known from very ancient geological systems, such as the Devonian, they are certainly most frequent in recent volcanic countries.
Yet among the older rocks there are many which, though finely crystalline, have the chemical composition of modern obsidians and possess structures, such as the perlitic and spherulitic, which are very characteristic of vitreous rocks.
Many vitreous rocks show alteration of this type in certain parts where either the glass has been of unstable nature or where agencies of change such as percolating water have had easiest access (as along joints, perlitic cracks and the margins of dikes and sills).
Included in this group are some rocks which are more properly to be regarded as vitreous forms of trachyte than as glassy rhyolites (Iceland), but except by chemical analyses they cannot be separated.
It is certain, however, that most obsidians are very acid or rhyolitic. The dark, semiopaque glassy forms of the basic igneous rocks are known as tachylytes.
The typical obsidians exhibit the chemical peculiarities of the acid igneous rocks (viz.
These valleys are not synclinal foldings of rocks; they seem to be erosion-valleys.
In sedimentary rocks it occurs as detrital material.
Muscovite and biotite are commonly found in siliceous rocks, whilst phlogopite is characteristic of calcareous rocks.
The Cevennes proper are formed by a folded belt of Palaeozoic rocks which lies along the south-east border of the central plateau of France.
In 1886 the old Liberal party was run on the rocks and went to pieces.
Y Y' is a so.- iron yoke, which rocks upon knife-edges K and constitutes the beam of the balance.
The genera Belinurus, Aglaspis, Prestwichia, Hemiaspis and Bunodes consist of small forms which occur in Palaeozoic rocks.
Thus although the rocks of the southern coast of Java in their general character and succession resemble those of Christmas Island, there lies between them an abysmal trough 18,000 ft.
Among the rocks then obtained and submitted to Sir John Murray for examination there were detected specimens of nearly pure phosphate of lime, a discovery which eventually led, in June 1888, to the annexation of the island to the British crown.
The mountain ranges of the east of Brazil, from Cape St Roque to the mouth of the river Plate, are composed chiefly of crystalline and metamorphic rocks.
Some of the metamorphic rocks may belong to the older Palaeozoic period, but the greater part of the series is probably Archaean.
Similar rocks cover a large area in the province of Goyaz and in the south of the Matto Grosso, and they form, also, the hills which border the basin of the Amazon on the confines of Venezuela and Guiana.
The crystalline rocks are succeeded by beds which have been referred to the Cambrian and Silurian systems. In the valley of the Trombetas, one of the northern tributaries of the Amazon, fossils have been found which indicate either the top of the Ordovician or the bottom of the Silurian.
Devonian beds also lie upon the older rocks in the Matto Grosso and other provinces in the interior of Brazil, where they generally form plateaux of nearly horizontal strata.
Eruptive rocks occur in the Devonian and Carboniferous beds, but there is no evidence of volcanic activity since the Palaeozoic epoch.
Evans, " The Rocks of the Cataracts of the River Madeira and the adjoining Portions of the Beni and Mamore," Quart.
An attempt was made in 184 B.C. to get round it by an embankment thrown out into the sea: but it was probably not until early in the imperial period that a cutting in the rocks at the foot of the promontory (Pisco Montano) finally solved the problem.
It consists of a series of plateaus formed of sedimentary rocks which mainly belong to three formations of widely separated ages, and which rest on a platform of granitic and metamorphic rocks.
A group of highly inclined quartzites, altered conglomerates and jasperoid rocks which crop out on the Umhlatuzi river, between Melmoth and Nkandhla and on the White Umfolosi river above Ulundi Ph ins, is considered by Anderson to represent some portion of the Lover Witwatersrand series.
This rests unconformably on the pre-Cape rocks.
Pre-Cape Rocks principally the yellow wood (Podocarpus)., sneezewood (Pteroxylon utile), stinkwood (Oreodaphne bullata), black ironwood (Olea laurifolia), white ironwood (Vepris lanceolata), and umtomboti (Exoecaria africana); all are very useful woods, and the yellow wood, sneezewood, stinkwood and ironwood when polished have grain and colour equal to maple, walnut and ebony.
There is but one cactus indigenous to Natal; it is found hanging from perpendicular rocks in the midlands.
The hilly regions of Transylvania and of the northern part of Hungary consist of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks and are closely connected, both in structure and origin, with the Carpathian chain.
Amongst the most interesting features of the Bakony-wald are the volcanic and the igneous rocks.
Thus he carried on the narrative of orderly development from the point at which it was left by Kant and Laplace - explaining by reference to the ascertained laws of physics and chemistry the configuration of the earth, its mountains and seas, its igneous and its stratified rocks, just as the astronomers had explained by those same laws the evolution of the sun and planets from diffused gaseous matter of high temperature.
of its course winds among the Mandla hills, which form the head of the Satpura range; then at Jubbulpore, passing through the "Marble Rocks," it enters its proper valley between the Vindhyan and Satpura ranges, and pursues a direct westerly course to the Gulf of Cambay.
Meerkats are sociable animals, living in holes in the rocks on the mountains, and burrowing in the sandy soil of the plains.
The rocks at the base of the slopes are granite, the upper escarpments are of sedimentary rocks.
A broad ring of crystalline rocks (Swaziland schists) encircles the Transvaal except on the south, where the Karroo formation extends over the Vaal River.
Within this nearly complete circle of crystalline rocks several geological formations have been determined, of which the age cannot be more definitely fixed than that they are vastly older than the Karroo formation and newer than the Swaziland schists.
The South African Primary System includes a complex of rocks as yet little understood.
No fossils have been discovered, and except that they represent some portion or portions of rocks of the Pre-Cape formation the age of the upper Witwatersrand beds, as well as that of the lower division, remains an open question.
This consists largely of rocks of igneous origin, of which the amygdaloidal diabase of Klipriversberg forms the type.
This is a very definite sequence of rocks covering immense areas in the centre of the country.
Dykes and intrusive rocks are common.
A complex of igneous rocks of different ages covers immense areas in the central Transvaal.
Syenites, gabbros, norites and volcanic rocks are also represented.
The boulders consist of very various rocks often of large size.
The direction of striae on the underlying quartzitic rocks, particularly well seen near the Douglas colliery, Balmoral, point to an ice movement from the north-north-west to south-south-east.
The Karroo beds lie almost horizontally, in marked contrast to the highly inclined older rocks.
The diamond pipes probably represent some of the most recent rocks of the Transvaal.
reefs are the gold-bearing rocks in the Klerksdorp, Potchefstroom and Venterskroon districts.
Throughout the world, primary deposits of tinstone are in or closely connected with granite or acid eruptive rocks of the same type, its mineral associates being tourmaline, fluorspar, topaz, wolfram and arsenical pyrites, and the invariable gangue being quartz: the only exception to this mode of occurrence is to be found in Bolivia, where the tin ore occurs intimately associated with silver ores, bismuth ores and various sulphides, whilst the gangue includes barytes and certain carbonates.
- Geologically Venezuela consists of three distinct regions: (1) South of the Orinoco a great mass of granite, gneiss, pyroxenite and other crystalline rocks, continuous with that of Guiana and probably of Archean age.
The rocks of Falcon are believed by Sievers to belong to the Andean system; while the outlying peninsula of Paraguana probably belongs, geologically, to the same massif as Goajira and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Maria in Colombia.
The oldest rocks in the country are the granites, gneisses, &c., of the southern massif and the crystalline schists which form the axis of the Cordillera and the Caribbean chain.
MCKEES ROCKS, a borough of Allegheny county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., on the Ohio river, about 3 m.
McKees Rocks is served by the Pittsburg & Lake Erie and the Pittsburg, Chartiers & Youghiogheny railways, the latter a short line extending (13 m.) to Beechmont.
Rising amid the ancient gneiss rocks of the St Gotthard, the Rhine finds its way down to the Lake of Constance between layers of Triassic and Jurassic formation; and between that lake and Basel it penetrates the chalk barrier of the Jura.
In this district, too, as has already been remarked, is the finest scenery of the Rhine, a fact due in great part to the grotesque shapes of the quartzose rocks, left denuded of the less durable slate and sandstone.
The very extensive pumice deposits at Neuwied and the lava and other volcanic rocks belong to a more recent epoch.
The work of blasting out the rocks which at that spot projected in the bed of the river, begun in 1830, was continued down to the year 1887, so that now there are two navigable channels of sufficient depth for all vessels which ply up and down that part of the stream.
It was cut on the rocks by an Egyptian nobleman named Hannu, who states that he was sent by Pharaoh Sankhkere, Menthotp IV., with a force gathered out of the Thebaid, from Coptos to the Red Sea, there to take command of a naval expedition to the Holy Land of Punt (Puoni), "to bring back odoriferous gums."
When the rocks are concealed by detrital material he looks for outcroppings on steep hillsides, on the crests of hills or ridges, in the beds of streams, in landslides, in the roots of overturned trees, and in wells, quarries, roadcuttings and other excavations.
Search should be made in the beds of streams and on the hillsides for " float mineral " or " shoad stones," fragments of rocks and minerals known to be associated with and characteristic of the deposits.
The outcrop of a metalliferous vein frequently manifests itself as a line of rocks stained with oxide of iron, often honeycombed and porous, the " gossan " or " eisen-hut," the iron oxide of which results from the decomposition of the pyrites, usually present as a constituent of such veins.
As the coal and the associated rocks usually contain pyrites, these springs are often chalybeate.
The method to be adopted will vary with the thickness and character of the deposit, with its inclination, and to some extent with the character of the enclosing rocks, the depth below the surface, and other conditions.
rocks the working-places may sometimes exceed z oo or even 200 ft.
In addition to these sources of contamination the air of the mine is frequently charged with gas issuing from the rocks or from the mineral deposit.
The special difficulties which attend deep mining, in addition to the problems of hoisting ore and raising water from great depths, are the increase of temperature of the rocks and the pressure of the overlying strata.
At such pressures all but the strongest rocks will be strained beyond their limit of elasticity.
and less some of the softer rocks show a tendency to flow, as exhibited by the under-clay in deep coal-mines, which not infrequently swells up and closes the mine passages.
As will be seen from this diagram the most serious source of death and injury is not found in mine explosions, but in the fall of rocks and mineral in the working places.
It is necessary, however, to keep the mine sealed until the burning timbers, or coal, and the red-hot rocks have become cool, or the fire will again break out.
While the mine workings are small the overlying rocks support themselves of and the full pressure does not come upon the mine Caving p i llars.
West of this line the rocks are chiefly Tertiary and Quaternary; east of it they are mostly Palaeozoic or gneissic. In the western mountain ranges the beds are thrown into a series of folds which form a gentle curve running from south to north with its convexity facing westward.
The older rocks of eastern Burma are very imperfectly known.
Volcanic rocks are not common in any part of Burma, but about 50 m.
131) says that the glass is extremely pure, and is made from the rocks in the neighbourhood.
The rocks are probably of quartz, i.e.
It is found in the form of oxide (silica), either anhydrous or hydrated as quartz, flint, sand, chalcedony, tridymite, opal, &c., but occurs chiefly in the form of silicates of aluminium, magnesium, iron, and the alkali and alkaline earth metals, forming the chief constituent of various clays, soils and rocks.
The expedition sent out by Cornell University in 1907 found several Hittite inscriptions on rocks near Darende in the valley of the Tokhma Su.
Practically the tendrils assist the plant in its native state to scramble over rocks or trees.
They associate in communities, forming their burrows among loose rocks, and coming out to feed in the early morning and towards sunset.
The Indians in hunting them employ the grison (Galictis vittata), a member of the weasel family, which is trained to enter the crevices of the rocks where the chinchillas lie concealed during the day.
In many of the islands signs are engraved on rocks.
- Speaking generally, New Caledonia may be described as a band of Palaeozoic and probably Lower Palaeozoic rocks, associated doubtless with some Archean beds; this band runs from north-west to south-east, through the whole length of the island.
Most of the island is occupied by the band of the old rocks, which include mica, glaucophane and sericite-schists and slates; there are small intrusions of granite, and numerous dikes and masses of basic eruptive rocks.
Glasser, the basic igneous rocks which are associated with the mineral deposits of New Caledonia were intrusive in Cainozoic times, at the severing of the connexion between New Caledonia and New Zealand.
The main mineral deposits are the nickel ores, occurring as veins of garnierite, associated with peridotite dikes, in the ancient rocks of the eastern slope of the island.
These " weathering " agents not only act upon stones of buildings, but upon rocks of all kinds, reducing them sooner or later into a more or less fine powder.
The work has been going on for ages, and the finely comminuted particles of rocks form the main bulk of the soil which covers much of the earth's surface, the rest of the soil being composed chiefly of the remains of roots and other parts of plants.
If the whole of the soil in the British Islands were swept into the sea and the rocks beneath it laid bare the surface of the country would ultimately become covered again with soil produced from the rocks by the weathering processes just described.
The soils overlying red sandstone rocks would be reddish and of a sandy nature, while those overlying chalk would be whitish and contain considerable amounts of lime.
There are transported or drift soils, the particles of which have been brought from other areas and deposited over the rocks below.
It is often of very mixed origin, being derived from the detritus of many kinds of rocks, and usually forms soil of a fertile character.
in diameter) of sand and other minerals derived from the decomposition of rocks, with a small amount of silicate of alumina.
of slates from the Bala limestone, below this are more slates and volcanic rocks.
In Shropshire this series is represented by the Caradoc and Chirbury Series; in southern Scotland by the Hartfell and Ardmillan Series, and by similar rocks in Ireland.
In habits they are partly diurnal; and live either in burrows among the crevices of rocks, beneath the leaves of aquatic plants in marshy districts, or underneath the floors of outbuildings.
The oldest rocks of Barbados, known as the Scotland series, are of shallow water origin, consisting of coarse grits, brown sandstones and sandy clays, in places saturated with petroleum and traversed by veins of manjak.
The oldest rocks consist of granite and schist, penetrated by intrusive dykes, and upon this foundation rest the flat-lying sedimentary deposits, beginning with a sandstone like the Nubian sandstone of Egypt.
In the northern part of Arabia the crystalline rocks form a broad area extending from the peninsula of Sinai eastwards to Hail and southwards at least as far as Mecca.
An extinct volcano occurs at Aden, and volcanic rocks are found at other places near the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb.
The "lion-coloured" coat approximates to the hue of the limestone rocks on which these sheep dwell.
Typical spiny squirrels differ from true squirrels in being completely terrestrial in their habits, and live either in clefts or holes of rocks, or in burrows which they dig themselves.
It occupies a site of great antiquity, as the cuneiform inscriptions on the neighbouring rocks testify; it stands on the site of the old Armenian town of Pakovan.
Lower Cretaceous rocks, consisting of thick limestones, shales and marls, occur in Central Tunisia.
Phosphatic deposits are well developed among the Lower Eocene rocks.
The two islets of Guanape, surrounded by many rocks, in 8° 34' S., contain rich deposits.
Santa Islet lies off the bay of Cosca, in 9° I' 40", and the three high rocks of Ferrol in 9° 8' 30" S.
Farther south there is the group of islets and rocks called Huaura, in I I ° 27' S., the chief of which are El Pelado, Tambillo, Chiquitana, Bravo, Quitacalzones and Mazorque.
Off its south-east end lies a small but lofty islet called Fronton, and to the south-west are the Palomitas Rocks.
The next, called San Francisco, is like a sugar-loaf, perfectly rounded at the top. The others are mere rocks.
All these rocks and islets are barren and uninhabitable.
The Central Cordillera consists mainly of crystalline and volcanic rocks, on each side of which are aqueous, in great part Jurassic, strata thrown up almost vertically.
The Eastern Andes is a magnificent range in the southern part of Peru, of Silurian formation, with talcose and clay slates, many quartz veins and eruptions of granitic rocks.
In ascending from the coast-valleys there is first an arid range, where the great-branched cacti rear themselves up among the rocks.
The pito is a brown speckled creeper which flutters about the rocks.
Geology.'--The Eastern Cordillera., which, however, is but little known, appears to consist, as in Bolivia, chiefly of Palaeozoic rocks; the western ranges of the Andes are formed of Mesozoic beds, together with recent volcanic lavas and ashes; and the lower hills near the coast are composed of granite, syenite and other crystalline rocks, sometimes accompanied by limestones and sandstones, which are probably of Lower Cretaceous age, and often covered by marine Tertiary deposits.
In the Cordillera Nevada the Mesozoic rocks which form the chain are often covered by masses of modern volcanic rock.
Similar rocks are also found in the Cordillera Negra, but the volcanic centres appear to have been in the Sierra Nevada.
The dried dung of the llama (taquia) is generally used as fuel, as in pre-Spanish times, for roasting ores, as also a species of grass called ichu (Stipa incana), and a singular woody fungus, called yareta (Azorella umbellifera), found growing on the rocks at elevations exceeding 12,000 ft.
On the hills to the north of the town, across the Unstrut, lies Schenkelburg, once the residence of the poet Gellert, and noticeable for the grotesque carvings in the sandstone rocks.
STRONTIUM [[[Symbol]] Sr, atomic weight 87.62 (0 = 16)], a metallic chemical element belonging to the alkaline earth group. It is found in small quantities very widely distributed in various rocks and soils, and in mineral waters; its chief sources are the minerals strontianite, celestine and barytocelestine.
The Cyclostomata are numerous in Palaeozoic rocks, but attained a specially predominant position in the Cretaceous strata, where they are represented by a prpfusion of genera and species; while they still survive in considerable numbers at the present day.
The geographer Strabo, however, detected the probable volcanic origin of the cone and drew attention to its cindery and evidently fire-eaten rocks.
Lofty summits are separated by comparatively low passes, which lie at the level of crystalline rocks and schists constituting the original uplands upon which the summits have been piled by volcanic action.
Within the period of Japans written history several eruptions are recorded the last having been in 1707, when the whole summit burst into flame, rocks were shattered, ashes fell to a depth of several inches even in Yedo (TOkyO), 60 m.
Geology.It is a popular belief that the islands of Japan consist for the most part of volcanic rocks.
Overlying these amongst the Palaeozoic rocks, we meet in many parts of Japan with slates and other rocks possibly of Cambrian or Silurian age.
Carboniferous rocks are represented by mountain masses of Fusulina and other limestones.
Mesozoic rocks are represented by slates containing Ammoniles and Monotis, evidently of Triassic age, rocks containing Ammonites Bucklandi of Liassic age, a series of beds rich in plants of Jurassic age, and beds of Cretaceous age containing Trigonia and many other fossils.
Such rocks as basalt, diorite and trachyte are comparatively rare.
These they call respectively the southern schist range, the northern schist range, and the snow range, the last consisting mainly of old crystalline massive rocks.
The rocks predominatin~ in Japan fall also into three groups.
They are, first, plutonic rocks, especially granite; secondly, volcanic rocks, chiefly trachyte and dolerite; and thirdly, palaeozoic schists.
The strike of the old crystalline rocks follows, in general, the main direction of the islands (S.W.
Granite, diorite and other plutonic rocks hem in the winding upper valleys of the Kisogawa, the Saigawa (Shinano river) and many other rivers of this province, their clear water running over granite.
Also in the hills bordering on the plain of Kwantd these old crystalline rocks are widely spread.
Farther northwards they give way again, as in the south, to schists and eruptive rocks.
The igneous rocks occur at several geological horizons, but the great volcanic eruptions did not begin until the Tertiary period.
South and west of the Fossa Magna the beds are thrown into folds which run approximately parallel to the general direction of the coast, and two zones may be recognizedan outer, consisting of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic beds, and an inner, consisting of Archaean and Palaeozoic rocks, with granitic intrusions.
These rocks, which include some highly siliceous lavas, form part of the Eocene series that is so conspicuously displayed above Carlingford in Co.
Bloodstone is not very widely distributed, but is found in the basaltic rocks of the Isle of Rum in the west of Scotland, and in a few other localities.
by the steep wall-like under-cliffs of Mount Parnassus known as the Phaedriades or Shining Rocks, on the E.
A raid on Delphi attempted by the Persians in 480 B.C. was said to have been frustrated by the god himself, by means of a storm or earthquake which hurled rocks down on the invaders; a similar tale is told of the raid of the Gauls in 279 B.C. But the sacrilege thus escaped at the hands of foreign invaders was inflicted by the Phocian defenders of Delphi during the Sacred War, 356-346 B.C., when many of the precious votive offerings were melted down.
Granite and serpentine rocks predominate, but the shores of Amboyna Bay are of chalk, and contain stalactite caves.
The female makes her nest of moss, dried leaves and grass in the hollow of a tree, but sometimes in a hole among rocks or ruined buildings, and produces several young at a birth, usually from four to six.
Its home is sometimes a den under ground or beneath rocks, but oftener the hollow of a tree, and it is said to take possession of a squirrel's nest, driving off or devouring the rightful proprietor.
In the alluvial deposits the associated minerals are chiefly those of great density and hardness, such as platinum, osmiridium and other metals of the platinum group, tinstone, chromic, magnetic and brown iron ores, diamond, ruby and sapphire, zircon, topaz, garnet, &c. which represent the more durable original constituents of the rocks whose distintegration has furnished the detritus.
The Carpathians consist of an outer zone of newer beds and an inner zone of older rocks.
In the western Carpathians the inner zone consists of a foundation of Carboniferous and older rocks, which were folded and denuded before the deposition of the succeeding strata.
In the outer portion of the zone the Permian and Mesozoic beds are crushed and folded against the core of ancient rocks; in the inner portion of the zone they rest upon the old foundation with but little subsequent disturbance.
They may be the pinched-up summits of sharp anticlinals, which in the process of folding have been forced through the softer rocks which lay upon them.
Of all the peculiar features of the Carpathian chain, perhaps the most remarkable is the fringe of volcanic rocks which lies along its inner margin.
There are two harbours,difficult of access owing to the number of reefs and sunken rocks.
m., and the uninhabited rocks called Cominotto and Filfla.
Gregory, " The Maltese Fossil Echinoidea and their evidence on the correlation of the Maltese Rocks," Trans.
above the sea, and occupies the southern end of the great central rift-valley, which terminates suddenly at its southern point, the line of depression being represented farther south by the more easterly trough of Lakes Nyasa and Rukwa, from which Tanganyika is separated by the Fipa plateau, composed of old granitoid rocks; though even here traces of old valley-walls are said by Dr Kohlschiitter to exist.
About a mile and a half distant are the Spiegelsberge, from which a fine view of the surrounding country is obtained, and the Klusberge, with prehistoric cave-dwellings cut out in the sandstone rocks.
This, we submit, was a deep-seated error in his theory of life, an error to which may be ascribed the numerous stumbling-blocks and rocks of offence in his more serious writings.
The climate and the scenery in and about Biddeford attract summer visitors and there are two resorts, Biddeford Pool and Fortune Rocks within the municipal limits; but the city is chiefly a manufacturing centre (third in rank among the cities of the state in 1905) - good water-power being furnished by the river - and cotton goods, foundry and machine shop products and lumber are the principal products, the first being by far the most important.
There are, however, especially in the southern portion, ancient and non-volcanic rocks.
Geologists are agreed that littoral and hemipelagic deposits similar to those now forming are to be found in all geological systems, but the existence in the rocks of eupelagic deposits and especially of the abysmal red clay, though viewed by some as probable, is totally denied by others.
From the obvious rarity of true abysmal rocks in the continental area Sir John Murray deduces the permanence of the oceans, which he holds have always remained upon those portions of the earth's crust which they occupy now, and both J.
Magnesium sulphate amounts to 4.7% of the total salts of sea-water according to Dittmar, but to 23.6% of the salts of the Caspian according to Lebedinzeff; in the ocean magnesium chloride amounts to 10.9% of the total salts, in the Caspian only to 4.5%; on the other hand calcium sulphate in the ocean amounts to 3.6%, in the Caspian to 6.9 This disparity makes it extremely difficult to view ocean water as merely a watery extract of the salts existing in the rocks of the land.
Polished rocks outside the cavern and pictographs in the vicinity indicate the work of a prehistoric race earlier than the Osage Indians, who were the historic owners previous to the advent of the white man.
An anthracite occurring in connexion with the old volcanic rocks of Arthur's Seat,Edinburgh, which contains a large amount of sulphur in proportion to the Caking coals.
It has been variously attributed to metamorphism, consequent upon igneous intrusion, earth movements and other kinds of geothermic action, greater or less loss of volatile constituents during the period of coaly transformation, conditioned by differences of permeability in the enclosing rocks, which is greater for sandstones than for argillaceous strata, and other causes; but none of these appears to be applicable over more than limited areas.
The nature of the Coal Measures will be best understood by v1.19 considering in detail the areas within which they occur in Britain, together with the rocks with which they are most intimately associated.
upper portion of this group consists of shales and sandstones, known as the Yoredale Rocks, which are highly developed in the moorland region between Lancashire and the north side of Yorkshire.
The areas containing productive coal measures are usually known as coalfields or basins, within which coal occurs in more or less regular beds, also called seams or veins, which can often be followed over a considerable length of country without change of character, although, like all stratified rocks, their continuity may be interrupted by faults or dislocations, also known as slips, hitches, heaves or troubles.
This is now generally done, and in some countries is compulsory, when the rocks are deficient in natural moisture.
One of the scarps or steps is the result of a great fault or displacement of the earth's crust, and is known as the Balcones fault scarp; others are due to erosion and weatherin g of alternate layers of hard and soft rocks lying almost horizontal.
The eastern part of the Prairie Plains is a belt known as the Black Prairie, and it has a rich black soil derived from Upper Cretaceous limestone; immediately west of this is another belt with a thinner soil derived from Lower Cretaceous rocks; a southern part of the same plains has a soil derived from granite; in a large area in the north-west the plains have a reddish clay soil derived from Permian rocks and a variety of soils - good black soils and inferior sandy and clay soils - derived from Carboniferous rocks.
from the mouth of the Big Sioux river, extends a line of mound-like bluffs usually free from rocks, but rising abruptly from the flood plain of the Missouri to a height varying from TOO to 300 ft, A broad water-parting extending from Spirit lake, on the northern border, nearly S.
This is covered to a considerable extent by rocks of recent and late Tertiary ages.
Older Tertiary rocks form the bluffs of Lindi.
They are underlain by Jurassic rocks, from beneath which sandstones and shales yielding Glossopteris browniana var.
The central plateau consists almost entirely of metamorphic rocks with extensive tracts of granite in Unyamwezi.
In the vicinity of Lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika, sandstones and shales of Lower Karroo age and yielding seams of coal are considered to owe their position and preservation to being let down by rift faults into hollows of the crystalline rocks.
In Karagwe certain quartzites, slates and schistose sandstones resemble the ancient gold-bearing rocks of South Africa.
Archean rocks - gneiss, schist and granite - cover large areas through which the Nile cuts its way in alternate narrow gorges and open reaches.
In Ankole and Koki rocks consisting of granular quartzite, schistose sandstone, red and brown sandstone, and shales with cleaved killas rest on the Archean platform and possibly represent the Lower Witwatersrand beds of the Transvaal.
Volcanic rocks occur in Usoga and elsewhere.
The rocks on the verge of the Kisumu province of East Africa are mainly volcanic (basalt, tuff, lava, kenyte).
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