The bottom was solid rock covered with fine sand.
I felt the great billows rock and sink.
In the background were the beautiful layered mountains of the White Rock Wildlife Management.
Not far from the camp, they reached a rock outcropping.
I have often held in my hand a little model of the Plymouth Rock which a kind gentleman gave me at Pilgrim Hall, and I have fingered its curves, the split in the centre and the embossed figures "1620," and turned over in my mind all that I knew about the wonderful story of the Pilgrims.
She glanced around at the rock outcroppings.
The creek flowed over a succession of rock ledges and formed pools at the edge where tadpoles swam.
I've found old rock fences, and there's an old log cabin falling into ruins not too far from here.
Davis gulped the last of his coffee and turned the cup up side down on a rock so it would drain.
She flattened against the rock wall as she heard the horse scramble down into the ravine a little way down from her.
I was more interested, I think, in the great rock on which the Pilgrims landed than in anything else in Plymouth.
A rope was tied around a rock nearby.
The buggy bounced over a rock and she clutched his arm to keep from falling off.
It is thrown across the gorge at a height of two hundred and fifty-eight feet above the water and is supported on each bank by towers of solid rock, which are eight hundred feet apart.
Bordeaux stepped from behind the rock and called to the Indians.
The breakers would swoop back to gather themselves for a mightier leap, and I clung to the rock, tense, fascinated, as I felt the dash and roar of the rushing sea!
A small rock trickled down, bouncing and skipping before stopping by Dean's shoe—the slight noise was a rumble in the mountain stillness.
He led her to a large mossy rock that was etched with a name and date.
He removed his hand and they moved back against the rock wall of lava that swirled over them.
A large rock beside the road provided a place to rest while she listened for vehicles.
But, unfortunately, I struck my foot on a rock and fell forward into the cold water.
After examining a rock for ants or other insects, she leaned against it, drawing in the clean smell of the forest.
When at last they arrived at the trail's end, Westlake parked, placed a rock behind his wheel, and held out his polka-dot umbrella.
And God kept multiplying and multiplying 'em and feeding this whole field of people, like at a rock concert.
"I'm glad I tried to turn you into a rock a few days ago," she replied.
Although the poor may not believe that wealth is attainable for them, they do not want to rock the boat and risk disrupting the system that guarantees them at least some income.
She slid down the rock and joined them, casting a sour look at Bordeaux as she brushed by him.
"Do you see that big rock standing on the hillside yonder?" he continued, pointing with his finger.
You should never feed a human a rock, even by mistake.
"There's enough rock here to build a housing development," she commented as they worked their way across a jumble of flat red rocks.
After I had recovered from my first experience in the water, I thought it great fun to sit on a big rock in my bathing-suit and feel wave after wave dash against the rock, sending up a shower of spray which quite covered me.
What would inspire someone to chisel their name into a rock so far from civilization?
She looked again at the spinning ground, waiting until she was able to make out a rock formation clearly before engaging the thrusters.
I did see the rock in Plymouth and a little ship like the Mayflower and the cradle that dear little Peregrine slept in and many old things that came in the Mayflower.
About 10 feet back into the cave water oozed from the wall, slowly dripping into a small rock pool.
The desert was flat, the rock formations and canyons plentiful.
As the baby of the three, he'd always been the rock star among them.
Her fall was brutally interrupted by a rock ledge about five feet down.
He took Damian outside to the rock where he and kiri had watched the stars once long ago and set him down.
We may imagine a time when, in the infancy of the human race, some enterprising mortal crept into a hollow in a rock for shelter.
And the exile, separated from the beloved France so dear to his heart, died a lingering death on that rock and bequeathed his great deeds to posterity.
She tied the lengths of rope together and hunted for and found the perfect boulder in the cave: a loose, rounded rock the size of both her fists that was light enough for her to throw.
He waded out of the water and laid his socks and shirt on a rock in the sun to dry.
World class vistas, trickling silver rivers of high snow melt-off, sky as blue as a queen's velvet robe, and the green and grey of forest and rock towering in every direction—all went unseen.
Davis turned his cup up side down on the rock, but he didn't leave the fire.
The children and the Wizard rushed across the moving rock and sprang into the passage beyond, landing safely though a little out of breath.
The Irish rock blaring from the bar below was loud enough, and cigarette smoke already curled in through the window.
Suddenly my ecstasy gave place to terror; for my foot struck against a rock and the next instant there was a rush of water over my head.
He looked around and found a familiar dirt trail that led to a large rock overlooking the desert he'd sat on earlier to watch the sunset.
At length the old hound burst into view with muzzle to the ground, and snapping the air as if possessed, and ran directly to the rock; but, spying the dead fox, she suddenly ceased her hounding as if struck dumb with amazement, and walked round and round him in silence; and one by one her pups arrived, and, like their mother, were sobered into silence by the mystery.
"You're not a rock," she said again, stunned.
When they approached the area known as The Drinking Cup, the road narrowed and barely clung to the rock wall, a breath-gulping overhang hundreds of feet above the river.
As the afternoon dwindled, the Deans were content to rock and ruminate.
You're not a rock.
Unable to function from shock, he sat down on a rock overlooking the lake.
Fences that looked like nothing more than stacks of rock shingles edged each property.
You know how to defend yourself, and you can turn even a man into a rock with your magic.
Jonny was on a low, flat rock, making love to a woman writhing in pleasure beneath him.
She found a narrow, rocky road and hopped from rock to road, surprised to see an older man leading a donkey pulling a cart ahead of her.
He made the entire trip up without seeing another vehicle, and the lords of luck were with him—Jennifer Radisson's camera was sitting in the crevice of a rock as if it were waiting for him.
It was only moments later when his fears were realized by the gnashing, booming, ripping sound of metal on rock, echoing across the valley like a clap of thunder, repeating and repeating, as if car after car had met a similar fate, further and further away.
If something even more untoward than what the scene implied had actually occurred last evening, Dean would find himself squeezed between the proverbial rock and a hard place.
Jared was pale and propped against a rock.
They stopped at a rock wall.
The granite forms the prevailing rock in valleys of erosion.
A rough conglomerate containing blocks of this latter rock forms the hills on which Armagh itself is built; this outlier is probably Permian.
The main point, however, was that they flew, and flew swiftly, if a bit unevenly, toward the rock for which they had headed.
As fast as the rock of a cliff is weathered its fragments are washed to the ground by the rain, and carried down the slopes by small streams, ultimately finding their way into a river along which they are carried until the force of the water is insufficient to keep them in suspension, when they become deposited in the river bed or along its banks.
She stared up at Bordeaux, whose attention was focused on the rock above them.
He was taller than average, over six and a half feet, built like a rock with wide shoulders and tapered abdomen and hips beneath a jumpsuit similar to those worn by the prisoners.
Over the dusty hood, the yawning valley beckoned, and then... the sound of metal grinding against rock.
Exhaustion left her feeling cold and weak, which was probably why her foot slipped on the edge of a rock.
The local folks call this spot the writing on the rock.
Bordeaux lead the horse out of the ravine and behind a slab of rock.
The fingers ceased their massage and he took her arm, leading her to a dry rock.
His body took it this time, and his soul didn't laugh at her as it had when she tried to turn him into a rock.
"Is this better, kiri?" he asked and sat on his cold rock.
She called out, louder and more frantically this time, her voice echoing against the rock.
"Well, there's certainly someone up there now," Dean answered as he peered around the rock.
Ocean surrounded the small island, upon which a fortress sat, several hundred meters away, up a sloping hill on top of solid rock.
He couldn't catch his balance and steadied himself against a rock.
They reached the top, where another set of low buildings were carved from the rock, their doors and windows glowing.
Her body hurt, her head pulsed, and she wanted nothing more than to curl up on a warm rock outside and go to sleep.
The Uncompahgre Gorge, a deep and narrow cut in the rock of the San Juan Mountains, hugged in its confines, a river of the same name.
Later, the serendipitous drippings were augmented by additional piping, carrying excess water to spray even more surface of the rock walls.
I can't imagine trying to sleep with just a couple of little steel pegs hammered into the rock the only thing holding me from a couple of thousand foot drop!
At least they're embedded in rock.
The glossy color photo displayed a concentrated young woman, hand-climbing upside down, across a rock face that looked devoid of any hint of a hand hold.
Being able to scale a sheer wall of rock and ice while lugging this junk requires some advance planning.
It was here Donald Ryland planned to tackle a mixed rock and ice climb innocuously called Rosebud.
A large outcropping of rock made it impossible for a climber more than just a few feet below the edge, to see anyone above him.
He flew out of here like a rock off a kid's sling shot.
But I glance up and this little shit, who looked to be about twelve, is standing on a rock about fifty feet away, laughing his ass off.
"Shipton!" he continued to yell as he paid out more of the line, moving down the short but near-vertical slope of snow-covered rock, his eyes fixed above on the receding bank of trees and safety.
He located the spot where his fangs would connect, but first he would rock her world.
We have been through more together than you could possibly imagine, and through it all Sarah has been my rock, and I hers.
Her foot slipped on a large wet rock, spilling her face first into the mud.
When the trail stopped at the edge of a rock strewn clearing, Carmen continued.
She staggered to her feet again and hobbled to a large rock.
She searched around and found a large rock.
Greenie's got us searching under every rock.
Her anger at him slid away as she huddled against a large river rock, alone.
Near a large rock.
Vinnie hadn't been marked because no one knew he'd accompanied the boys, until the twins came out from under their rock the prior weekend and were quickly nabbed and "questioned."
While he reluctantly acknowledged his growing feelings for the lady, he couldn't help but wonder: What would she think if she learned her loving husband was a toad who'd dropped her like a rock for a measly 2.8 mil?
The trail wound around pine trees and over rock outcroppings.
She took a rock and broke the ice, reaching in the frigid water with her fingers to pull out the jagged pieces of ice.
She sat down on a rock and removed her shoes and socks.
They had decided on putting down a new floor and putting sheet rock over the walls.
It was made of solid rock, even the heavy door.
Sofi leaned against the rock.
Her ankle twisted as she landed on a rock, and she fell, yanking free another knife to block the guardsmen's first blow.
She picked up a rock and threw it into the center of the gateway.
Right over here on the rock that tripped you.
Her father had discovered the rock cluster shortly after he bought the land.
He kept looking over the edge, his complexion paling when a rock leaped over the edge and bounced its way to the bottom.
The last thing she saw before she lost consciousness was a rock ledge coming at her.
His rain coat flipped in the breeze, exposing rippling muscles in his thighs as the square toed boots sought and found solid footholds in the wet rock.
Carmen glanced up from the rock she had placed and nodded.
Alex picked up a large flat rock and put it in the wheelbarrow.
Lift the far side of the rock toward you.
If there is a snake under it, that puts a rock between you and the snake.
Then she carefully pulled the rock toward her as he had instructed.
On one side was a massive rock cliff covered with green moss.
A back door opened off the kitchen and she descended the rock slab steps to the yard.
From the corner of her eye she saw Keaton select a rock from the drive and throw it into the woods.
Even in the dense underbrush, it had found another rock.
She flattened them against the cool rock and began making her way around the edges.
His rival the Cyclops Polyphemus surprised them together, and crushed him to pieces with a rock.
After the war, wells were drilled at Burning Springs, Oil Rock, California House, Volcano, Sandhill and Horseneck, and in the years1865-18763,000,000 bbls.
is Craigellachie - Gaelic for "the rock of alarm" - (pop. 454), on the confines of Elginshire.
The nucleus of the city is built on a ridge of rock (Mount Sceberras) which runs like a tongue into the middle of a bay, which it thus divides into two harbours, the Grand Harbour to the east and the Marsamuschetto to the west, which are subdivided again by three other peninsulas into creeks.
The governor's palace was formerly that of the grand master of the Maltese Order, and it also contains relics of the knights, tapestries, armour, &c. Extensive bagnios under the rock, formerly occupied by the slaves of the knights, are now used for stores.
The knights strengthened Valletta and its harbour by bastions, curtain-walls, lines and forts, towards the sea, towards the land and on every available point, taking advantage in every particular of the natural rock and of the marvellous advantages of situation, rendering it then almost impregnable.
The northern portion of it consists of a lofty ridge with two summits, the westernmost of which is occupied by the modern town (985 ft.), while the easternmost, which is slightly higher, bears the name of Rock of Athena, owing to its identification in modern days with the acropolis of Acragas as described by Polybius, who places upon it the temple of Zeus Atabyrius (the erection of which was attributed to the half mythical Phalaris) and that of Athena.'
433, accepts the name "Rock of Athena" and yet puts the acropolis on the site of the modern town, arguing further that the cathedral hill was an acropolis within an acropolis (II.
25), is to be seen at the south-west corner of the city; it is an enormous excavation in the rock with drains in its sides, at the bottom of which there is now a flourishing orange garden.
On the east and west the ravines already mentioned afforded, in the main, a sufficient protection, so that a massive wall was unnecessary, while near the south-eastern angle a breastwork was formed by the excavation of the natural rock, 2 which in later times was honeycombed with tombs.
The walls of the dwellings are entirely cut out of the natural rock.
Geologically Sardinia consists of two hilly regions of Pre-Tertiary rock, separated by a broad depression filled with Tertiary deposits.
Physically its continuity is broken by Monte Urticu and several smaller hills which rise within it, but these are all composed of volcanic rock and are the remains of Tertiary volcanoes.
The domus de gianas, on the other hand, resemble closely the rock tombs of the prehistoric cemeteries of Sicily.
They are small grottos cut in the rock.
high, where the white buildings offer a marked contrast to the brown rock which forms their setting.
The tower is still standing and is remarkable for its increase in size as it rises, which causes it to rock in a strong wind.
Denver is an important railway centre, being served by nine railways, of which the chief are the Atchison, ' Topeka & Santa Fe; the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy; the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific; the Denver & Rio Grande; the Union Pacific; and the Denver, North-Western & Pacific, Denver lies on the South Platte river, at an altitude exactly m.
It stands on a wooded hill, its botanical gardens commanding a fine view westward of the bay and rock of St Michel.
Jurassic Oeuonian Volcanic Rock, country was free from outbursts, except in the regions of the Alps and Pyrenees.
Both descriptions of rock yielded good material for building; while in the soft meleke tanks, underground chambers, tombs, &c., were easily excavated.
On the whole it is most likely that the Temple was erected by Solomon on the same spot as is now occupied by the Dome of the Rock, commonly known as the Mosque of Omar, and, regard being had to the levels of the ground, it is possible that the Holy of Holies, the most sacred chamber of the Temple, stood over the rock which is still regarded with veneration by the Mahommedans.
A wooden mosque was erected near the site of the Temple, which was replaced by the Mosque of Aksa, built by the amir Abdalmalik (Abd el Malek), who also constructed the Dome of the Rock, known as the Mosque of Omar, in 688.
N.N.E., on the opposite side of the Pulwar, rises a perpendicular wall of rock, in which four similar tombs are cut, at a considerable height from the bottom of the valley.
occupants of these seven tombs were kings might be inferred from the sculptures, and one of those at Nakshi Rustam is expressly declared in its inscription to be the tomb of Darius Hystaspis, concerning whom Ctesias relates that his grave was in the face of a rock, and could only be reached by means of an apparatus of ropes.
Diodorus says that the rock at the back of the palace containing the royal sepulchres is so steep that the bodies could be raised to their last resting-place only by mechanical appliances.
At the verge of the rock on the western side is the old baronial castle, erected by King John in 1185, which was the residence of the bishops till the 14th century.
The rock wallabies again have short tarsi of the hind legs, with a long pliable tail for climbing, like that of the tree kangaroo of New Guinea, or that of the jerboa.
There are some twenty smaller species in Australia and Tasmania, besides the rock wallabies and the hare kangaroos; these last are wonderfully swift, making clear jumps 8 or io ft.
Whiting, mullet, gar-fish, rock cod and many others known by local names, are in the lists of edible fishes belonging to New South Wales and Victoria.
But as the captain of the " Endeavour " ordered out the pinnace and prepared to land, the natives threw off their nonchalance; for on the boat approaching the shore, two men, each armed with a bundle of spears, presented themselves on a projecting rock and made threatening signs to the strangers.
A singular rock of conglomerate, 2 m.
Sculptured slabs form balustrades to the steps leading up to the temple, and its exterior is ornamented with figures in stucco, the outer faces of the four pillars in front having life-size figures of women with children in their arms. The small Temple of Beau Relief stands on a narrow ledge of rock against the steep slope of the mountain.
Its flat-roofed Moorish houses are enclosed by gardens of cactus, dwarf palm, orange and other subtropical plants, interspersed with masses of rock.
Amongst the places of interest round Marienbad is the basaltic rock of Podhorn (2776 ft.), situated about 3 m.
below it forces its way through the limestone rock at Incisa and 10 m.
away near the shore line of the Fastnet rock, crosses the rock, and is again earthed in the sea at the distant end.
If a battery on the mainland is connected through a key with the shore end of the main cable, and a speaking galvanometer is in circuit with the short cable crossing the Fastnet rock, then closing or opening the battery connexion will create a deflection of the galvanometer.
to stray " earth currents," and very good signalling was established between the mainland and the rock.
Owing to the rough seas sweeping over the Fastnet, the conditions are such that any ordinary submarine cable would be broken by the wearing action of the waves at the rock boundary in a very short time.
The harbour, the largest in Spain after that of Vigo, and the finest on the east coast, is a spacious bay, deep, except near its centre, where there is a ledge of rock barely 5 ft.
S.E., there are deposits of rock salt.
farther north, is still smaller, and is a mere rock, inhabited by a few fishermen.
The island of Capri, on the other hand, opposite the southern promontory of the Bay of Naples, is a precipitous limestone rock.
Boracic acid is chiefly found near Volterra, where there is also a little rock salt, but the main supply is obtained by evaporation.
is the Invisible Bank, with one rock just awash; and 34 m.
The older road crossed the back of the promontory at the foot of which Terracina stands; in imperial times, probably, the rock was cut away perpendicularly for a height of 120 ft.
The basal cell has less chlorophyll than the others, and is expanded and fixed firmly to the rock on which the plant grows by the basal surface, rh, thus forming a rudimentary rhizoid.
Lithophytes.These are plants which grow on true rock, it not on the loose soil covering rock, even though this may W
itertain species that are very intimately associated with the rock.
6, 115), Stasis, "a Persian town on a great rock, which Antiochus, the son of Seleucus, possessed" (Steph..Byz.
A region where volcanic activity has led to the embedding of dykes or bosses of hard rock amongst softer strata produces a plain broken by abrupt and isolated eminences.'
More mobile and more searching than ice or rock rubbish, the trickling drops are guided by the deepest lines of the hillside in their incipient flow, and as these lines converge, the stream, gaining strength, proceeds in River its torrential course to carve its channel deeper and en- t trench itself in permanent occupation.
Then, entering a deep gorge with lofty rock walls and magnificent scenery, it runs south-east to its junction with the Murad Su.
to its junction with the Tigris below Korna, through an unbroken plain, with no natural hills, except a few sand (or sandstone ?) hills in the neighbourhood of Warka, and no trace of rock, except at el-Haswa, above Hillah.
It should be noted that the oxidation of sulphur itself by atmospheric influence may give rise to sulphuric acid, which in the presence of limestone will form gypsum: thus the sulphur-deposits of Sicily suffer alteration of this kind, and have their outcrop marked by a pale earthy gypseous rock called briscale.
The Propylaea were approached in Greek times by a zig-zag path, terraced along the rock; this was superseded in Roman times by a broad flight of steps.
"BERNARD BOSANQUET (1848-), English philosopher, was born at Rock, near Alnwick, June 14 1848.
The nest, contrary to the habits of most Limicolae, is generally placed under a ledge of rock which shelters the bird from observation,' and therein are laid four eggs, of a light olive-green, closely blotched with brown, and hardly to be mistaken for those of any other bird.
The slopes of the sides vary according to the nature of the ground, the amount of moisture present, &c. In solid rock they may be vertical; in gravel, sand or common earth they must, to prevent slipping, rise r ft.
Except in hard rock, the top width of a cutting, and therefore the amount of material to be excavated, increases rapidly with the depth; hence if a cutting exceeds a certain depth, which varies with the particular circumstances, it may be more economical, instead of forming the sides at the slope at which the material of which they are composed will stand, to make them nearly vertical and support the soil with a retaining wall, or to bore a tunnel.
The barrenness extends into the mountains themselves, where there are bare rock cliffs, stony slopes and a general absence of vegetation.
Kelp is a natural danger-signal, and the sunken rock, " Uranie," is reputed to be the only one not buoyed by the giant seaweed.
The largest of these occurs in the Black Rock Desert, in the N.W., and at times is from 450 to 500 m.
The cave, still called Mavrospelya ("black cave"), was ever afterwards regarded as sacred to Demeter, and in'it, according to information given to Pausanias, there had been set up an image of the goddess, a female form seated on a rock, but with a horse's head and mane, to which were attached snakes and other wild animals.
Beautiful rock crystals occur in veins in the corries.
Some human bones found on this hill when the town waterworks were built in 1855 have been placed in a chamber in the top of the canopy over the Rock.
A little to the south of a village called Deir Diwan, and one hour's journey south-east from Bethel, is the site of an ancient place called Khirbet Haiydn, indicated by reservoirs hewn in the rock, excavated tombs and foundations of hewn stone.
In the upper parts of the valleys a number of lakes occur, occupying hollows and rock basins in the agglomerates and ashes, fed by springs, and feeding many of the streams that drain the mountain slopes.
Chickasha is served by the St Louis & San Francisco, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific and the Oklahoma Central railways.
It crowns an isolated rock, 1033 ft.
in diameter, cut in the rock, with a double winding inclined plane, so that asses could ascend and descend to carry the water from the bottom.
At a time when all nationalities, and at the same time all bonds of religion and national customs, were beginning to be broken up in the seeming cosmos and real chaos of the Graeco-Roman Empire, the Jews stood out like a rock in the midst of the ocean.
In 1755 he retired from his shop to the house on the slope of the Castle Rock, still known as Ramsay Lodge.
" Porpoise " found that a solid core of black rock had been extruded 6 ft.
The goddess, who embodied the idea of the city, was seated on a rock, crowned with towers, and having the river Orontes at her feet.
1864), was prominent also as an owner and manager of railways, and became president of the Little Rock & Fort Smith railway (1888), the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern railway (1893), the International & Great Northern railway (1893), the Missouri Pacific railway (1893), the Texas & Pacific railway (1893), and the Manhattan Railway Company (1892); he was also vice-president and director of the Western Union Telegraph Company.
Westward to Houston and southward to about 32° 48' on the Alabama boundary and occupying a much larger area than the other Cretaceous formations, is the Selma chalk, called "Rotten Limestone" by Hilgard; it is made up of a material of great uniformity, - a soft chalky rock, white or pale blue, composed chiefly of tenacious clay, and white carbonate of lime in minute crystals.
Buffalo-fish, paddle-fish, cat-fish, drum, crappie, black bass, rock bass, German carp, sturgeon, pike, perch, eels, suckers and shrimp inhabit the waters of the Mississippi and its tributaries, and oysters, shrimp, trout, Spanish mackerel, channel bass, black bass, sheepshead, mullet, croakers, pompano, pin-fish, blue-fish, flounders, crabs and terrapin are obtained from the Mississippi Sound and the rivers flowing into it.
It is deeper and more sandy where granite is the underlying rock, deeper and more fertile on the north-western than on the south-eastern mountain slopes, and shallower and more clayey where slate is the underlying rock.
The town of Tetschen originally lay on the south side of the castle rock, but after its destruction by a flood, it was moved in 10J9 to its present site.
The palace, with its rock fortress, is called Fatehgarh.
Overlooking all smaller details, we may consider Asia to consist of a northern mass and a southern mass, too rigid to crumple, but not too strong to fracture, and an intermediate belt of softer rock which was capable of folding.
He was indeed taken in June 1673 while holding a conventicle at Knockdow, and condemned by the privy council to 4 years and 3 months' imprisonment on the Bass Rock and a further 15 months in the Tolbooth at Edinburgh.
Pop. (1900) 10,588, of whom 1804 were foreign-born; (1 9 10 census) 9535 It is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, and the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific railways, by interurban electric railways, and by the Illinois & Michigan Canal.
On Starved Rock, a bold hillock about 125 ft.
To the south of the castle is St Robert's chapel, an excavation in the rock constructed into an ecclesiastical edifice in the reign of Richard I.
Tampa is an important shipping point for naval stores and phosphate rock, for vegetables, citrus fruit and pineapples, raised in the vicinity, and for lumber, cattle and fuller's earth.
The fort rises from a huge mass of granite rock, which with a circumference of nearly 2 m., juts up abruptly to a height of 450 ft.
The length of this rock from north-east to south-west is about 1150 ft.
It contains several cisterns, excavated in the rock.
The lower fort lies at the eastern base of the rock and measures about half a mile in diameter.
The latter erected the present fortifications according to tradition with the assistance of a French engineer in his service, whom he afterwards hanged for not building the fort on a higher rock adjacent to it.
Five well-contrasted types of scenery in Derbyshire are clearly traceable to as many varieties of rock; the bleak dry uplands of the north and east, with deep-cut ravines and swift clear streams, are due to the great mass of Mountain Limestone; round the limestone boundary are the valleys with soft outlines in the Pendleside Shales; these are succeeded by the rugged moorlands, covered with heather and peat, which are due to the Millstone Grit series; eastward lies the Derbyshire Coalfield with its gently moulded grasscovered hills; southward is the more level tract of red Triassic rocks.
Ashwood Dale, Chee Dale, Millersdale, Monsal Dale and the valley at Matlock are all flanked by abrupt sides of this rock.
It is usually a pale, thick-bedded rock, sometimes blue and occasionally, as at Ashford, black.
At some points the limestone has been dolomitized; near Bonsall it has been converted into a granular silicified rock.
It is probable that the limpet takes several years to attain full growth, and during that period it frequents the same spot, which becomes gradually sunk below the surrounding surface, especially if the rock be carbonate of lime.
Charac.), and built his residence Dara on a rock in a fertile valley in Apavarktikene (Justin xli.
But by laying bare in 1884 the upper stratum of remains on the rock of Tiryns (q.v.), Schliemann made a contribution to our knowledge of prehistoric domestic life which was amplified two years later by Chr.
mica, talc, chlorite, haematite), or in long blades or fibres (anthophyllite, tremolite, actinolite, tourmaline), and, when these have a well marked parallel arrangement in definite bands or folia, the rock will break far more easily along the bands than across them.
The platy minerals have also a perfect cleavage parallel to their flat surfaces, while the fibrous species often have two or more cleavages following their long axes; hence a schistose rock may split not only by separation of the mineral plates from one another but also by cleavage of the parallel minerals through their substance.
In the mica-schists of this group biotite or muscovite may be the principal mineral and often both are present in varying proportions; the mica has developed from the argillaceous matter of the original rock; in addition there is always quartz and sometimes felspar (albite or oligoclase).
garnet, tourmaline, staurolite, andalusite, actinolite, chloritoid or ottrelite, epidote, haematite, and if any of these is abundant its presence may be indicated by the name given the rock, e.g.
Being pursued by Minos, king of Crete, who was enamoured of her, she sprang from a rock into the sea, but was saved from drowning by falling into some fishermen's nets.
Beds of rock gypsum extend over an area of 150 acres or more in Ottawa county.
Every cove of the seashore, every point, every island and prominent rock has its guardian spirit.
In the township are several villages, including Salisbury, Lakeville, Lime Rock, Chapinville and Ore Hill.
Among the manufactures are charcoal, pig-iron, car wheels and general castings at Lime Rock, cutlery at Lakeville, and knife-handles and rubber brushes at Salisbury.
from high water to rock.
The entire surface of the basin was scraped to bed rock, sand or mineral earth, this alone costing $3,000,000.
The gobies (Gobius) are small fishes readily recognized by their ventrals (the fins on the lower surface of the chest) being united into one fin, forming a suctorial disk, by which these fishes are enabled to attach themselves in every possible position to a rock or other firm substances.
Some rock tombs hard by may be of earlier than Roman date.
In the middle ages it was a strong fortress defending the confines of Piedmont towards Liguria, but the fortifications on the rock above the town were demolished in 1800 by the French, to whom it had been ceded in 1796.
In the very early rock inscriptions of Thera (700-600 B.C.), written from right to left, it appears in a form resembling the ordinary Greek X; this form apparently arose from writing the Semitic symbol upside down.
Near, too, is a rock named "Hugh Lloyd's pulpit" (Lloyd lived in the time of Charles I., Cromwell and Charles II.).
The city is built on a level, sandy plain, in the rear of which is a line of hills terminating in two spurs, East Rock and West Rock, respectively 360 and 400 ft.
On East Rock is a monument to the Connecticut soldiers who fell in the War of Independence, the War of 1812, the Mexican War and the Civil War; on the West Rock is a cave, "Judges' Cave," in which the regicides William Goffe and Edward Whalley are said to have concealed themselves when sought for by royal officers in 1661.
They are used on a very large scale in the vicinity of oil mills in southern cities like Memphis, New Orleans, Houston, and Little Rock, from Soo to s000 cattle being often collected in a single yard for this purpose.
It is a barren rock, on the summit of which stands a lighthouse visible at night for 21 m.
STERLING, a city of Whiteside county, Illinois, U.S.A., on the north bank of Rock river, 109 m.
Across the river is Rock Falls (pop. in 1900, 2176), practically a suburb of Sterling, with foundries and machine-shops and manufactories of agricultural implements, barbed wire and bolts and rivets.
The Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company was formed in 1854, but its operations were unsuccessful, and in 1858 certain of the members founded the Seneca Oil Company, under whose direction E.
Thus, while the mineral may be formed in a stratum other than that in which it is found, though in many cases it is indigenous to it, for the formation of a natural reservoir of the fluid (whether liquid or gas) it is necessary that there should be a suitable porous rock to contain it.
Such a rock is typically exemplified by a coarse-grained sandstone or conglomerate, while a limestone may be naturally porous, or, like the Trenton limestone of Ohio and Indiana, rendered so by its conversion into dolomite and the consequent production of cavities due to shrinkage - a change occurring only in the purer limestones.
Their principal use is to give a sharp jar to the drill on the upstroke so that the bit is dislodged if it has become jammed in the rock.
The bore is then reduced to 5Z-in., and a bevelled shoulder being made in the rock, a 5$-in.
It is one of the most rapid and economical which can be employed in soft formations, but where hard rock is encountered it is almost useless.
West Virginia, estimates that in fairly good producing sand a cubic foot of rock contains from 6 to 12 pints of oil.
He assumes that in what is considered a good producing district the amount of petroleum which can be obtained from a cubic foot of rock would not be more than a gallon, and that the average thickness of the oil-bearing rock would not exceed 5 ft.
Until the beginning of the 19th century Basutoland appears to have been uninhabited save by wandering Bushmen, whose rude rock pictures are to be found in several parts of the Drakensberg.
The principal minerals are rock phosphate and (recently more important) land and river pebble phosphate, found in scattered deposits in a belt on the " west coast " about 30 m.
Although the economic value of the phosphate deposits was first realized about 1889, between 1894 and 1907 Florida produced, each year, more than half of all the phosphate rock produced in the whole United States, the yield of Florida (1,357,365 long tons) in 1907 being valued at $ 6, 577,757; that of the whole country at $10,653,558.
Other minerals that have been discovered but have not been industrially developed are gypsum, lignite and cement rock.
About half of the varieties of forest trees in the United States are found, and 1 Almost everywhere limestone is the underlying rock, but siliceous sands, brought out by the Atlantic rivers to the N.E., are carried the whole length of the Florida coast by marine action.
18 imposing ruin of Gutenfels, and facing it, on a rock in the middle of the Rhine, the small castle Pfalz, or Pfalzgrafenstein, where, according to legend, the Palatine countesses awaited their confinement, but which in reality served as a toll-gate for merchandise on the Rhine.
Another story is that a rock hung over his head ready to fall and crush him (Euripides, Orestes, 5).
The punishment of the overhanging rock refers to the dangerous position of the town of Tantalis below the summit of Mount Sipylus.
ROCKFORD, a city and the county seat of Winnebago county, Illinois, U.S.A., on the Rock river, in the northern part of the state, about 85 m.
Rockford is the see of a Roman Catholic bishop. In and near the city there are two hospitals and three sanatoriums. Manufacturing is facilitated by good water-power, supplied by a dam across the Rock river about 800 ft.
2 The coffer is of fine hard sandstone of superior quality, and has been hollowed out, at the cost of vast labour and expense, from a solid block of rock.
It is celebrated for the extensive deposit of rock salt in its vicinity.
Among the monuments of this age discovered in the surrounding districts are the rock hewn tombs of Spata, accidentally revealed by a landslip in 1877, and the domed sepulchre at Menidi, near the ancient Acharnae, excavated by Lolling in 1879.
Such a wall would be required to protect the clusters of dwellings around the Acropolis as well as the springs issuing from the rock, while the gates opening in various directions would give access to the surrounding pastures and gardens.
by 212), the upper portion of which is cut out of the rock, while the lower is enclosed by a semicircular wall of massive masonry; the theory of these scholars, however, that the whole precinct was a sanctuary of the Pelasgian Zeus cannot be regarded as proved, nor is it easy to abandon the generally received view that this was the scene of the popular assemblies of later times, notwithstanding the apparent unsuitability of the ground and the insufficiency of room for a large multitude.
Projecting from the upper platform at the centre of the chord of the semicircular area is a cube of rock, ii ft.
Other cubes of rock, apparently altars, exist in the neighbourhood.
They consist of chambers of various sizes, some of which were evidently human habitations, together with cisterns, channels, seats, steps, terraces and quadrangular tombs, all cut in the rock.
This neighbourhood was held by Curtius to have been the site of the primeval rock city, Kpavaa 7roXcs (Aristoph.
Some of the rock chambers originally intended for tombs were afterwards converted, perhaps under pressure of necessity, into habitations, as in the case of the so-called " Prison of Socrates," which consists of three chambers horizontally excavated and a small round apartment of the " beehive " type.
The Areopagus is now a bare rock possessing few architectural traces.
The entire area of the summit was now thoroughly explored, the excavations being carried down to the surface of the rock, which on the southern side was found to slope outwards to a depth of about 45 ft.
On the north-west rock the caves known as the grottoes of Pan and Apollo were cleared out; these consist of a slight high-arched indentation immediately to the east of the Clepsydra and a double and somewhat deeper cavern a little farther to the east.
Close to it are a series of steps hewn in the rock which connect with those discovered in 1886 within the Acropolis wall.
Farther east is an underground passage leading eastward to a cave supposed to be the sanctuary of Aglaurus where the ephebi took the oath; with this passage is connected a secret staircase leading up through a cleft in the rock to the precinct of the Errephori on the Acropolis.
At its north-western extremity is a platform of levelled rock which may have supported the altar of Zeus Hypsistus.
A Doric colonnade with a double row of columns was found to have extended along the base of the Acropolis for a distance of 54 yds.; behind it in a chamber hewn in the rock is the sacred well mentioned by Pausanias.
The colonnade was a place of resort for the patients; a large building close beneath the rock was probably the abode of the priests.
Another choragic monument was that of Thrasyllus, which faced a cave in the Acropolis rock above the Dionysiac theatre.
The plan is that of the conventional Roman theatre; the semicircular auditorium, which seated some 5000 persons, is, like that of the Dionysiac theatre, partly hollowed from the rock.
It is served by the Chicago, Milwaukee & Saint Paul, the Chicago & North-Western, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific (which has repair shops here), and the Illinois Central railways, and by interurban electric lines.
It is served by the Arkansas, Louisiana & Gulf, the Little Rock & Monroe, the% Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pacific (Queen & Crescent), and the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern railways, and by river steamers plying between New Orleans and Camden, Arkansas.
The poor harbour called the "port," protected by a breakwater, has been cut out of the rock (shingle).
Porthilechog, or Bull Bay (so called from the Bull Rock), at a mile's distance, is a small but favourite watering-place.
In the vicinity is a cliff or ridge of rock called Teufelsmauer (Devil's wall), from which fine views are obtained across the plain and into the deep gorges of the Harz Mountains.
The Kubbet-esSakhra, or Dome of the Rock, at Jerusalem, is only a shrine erected over the sacred rock, so that the title often ascribed to it as "the mosque of Omar" is misleading.
The Rhine-daughters have been teasing the Nibelung Alberich, and are rejoicing in the light of the Rhine-gold which shines at the top of a rock as the sun strikes it through the water.
Siegfried is then persuaded to transform himself by his magic Tarnhelm into the likeness of his host, Gutrune's brother Gunther, in order to bring Briinnhilde (whose name is now quite new to him) from her fire-encircled rock, so that Gunther may have her for his bride and Siegfried may wed Gutrune.
A splendid range separates this dale from Wasdale and its tributary Mosedale, including Great Gable (2949 ft.), Pillar (2927), with the precipitous Pillar Rock on the Ennerdale flank and Steeple (2746).
On this side of Gable is the fine detached rock, Napes Needle.
Obsidian and rock crystal were also used for knife making.
But, on his return, he forgot to hoist the white sail, and his father, supposing that his son had lost his life, threw himself from a high rock on which he was keeping watch into the sea, which was afterwards called the Aegean.
of the town the Bied plunged into a deep chasm, on the steep rock face of which were formerly the subterranean mills of the Col des Roches, situated one above another; but the stream is now diverted by the above-mentioned tunnel, while another serves the railway line from Le Locle to Morteau in France (8 m.).
It is picturesquely situated on a lofty rock (787 ft.
The remains are principally of Norman date, and an unusual feature of the stronghold is the existence of various subterranean chambers in the rock.
In Southgate is an ancient hermitage and oratory cut out of the solid rock, which dates from 1396.
Snakes are common, an adder, a variegated rock snake and a Hadramut with forty followers about the 13th century.
The cape, which faces north and east, presents on its northern face a nearly vertical wall of rock rising from the sea to a height of 900 ft.
Practically all the remaining area in these islands is occupied by metamorphic schists and gneisses which occur in great variety and with which are associated numerous dikes and masses of intrusive igneous rock.
In the rock of Dore Holm is a natural archway, 70 ft.
Lichens for the herbarium should, whenever possible, be sought for on a slaty or laminated rock, so as to procure them on flat thin pieces of the same, suitable for mounting.
in width, interspersed with small chambers, all excavated at successive levels, in the they reach seven storeys), and communicate with one another by stairs cut out of the living rock.
Steps of the rock.
strata of volcanic rock subjacent to the city and its environs, and constructed originally for the interment of the Christian dead.
In each case the arched tomb was formed by an oblong chest, either hollowed out of the rock, or built of masonry, and closed with a horizontal slab.
Catacomb of benches cut out of the tufa rock.
(2) The seven baskets full of (7) Moses striking the rock.
They were certainly originally stone-quarries, and the hardness of the rock has made the construction practicable of wide, lofty of corridors and spacious halls, very unlike the narrow galleries and contracted chambers in the Roman cemeteries.
(From Bosio.) The subjects, beginning at the bottom and going to the right, are (I) Moses striking the rock.
There is an entire underground city with several storeys of larger and smaller streets, squares and cross ways, cut out of the rock; at the intersection of the cross ways FIG.
wide, having three or more ranges of loculi on either side, running longitudinally into the rock, each originally closed by a stone bearing an inscription.
Here, too, the graves run endways into the rock.
The ceilings have the representation of beams and rafters cut in the rock.
In some instances arm-chairs, carved out of the living rock, stand between the doors of the chambers, and the walls above are decorated with the semblance of suspended shields.
(From Dennis.) hewn from the rock.
The deposit of rock salt on Petite Anse Island, in the coast swamp region, has been extensively worked since its discovery during the Civil War.
The rock on the surface is as hard as flint, but underneath it gradually softens and furnishes an admirable stone for building which can be sawn into blocks of any size, hardening on exposure to the atmosphere.
As a result of the porosity of the rock, many of the wells feel the influence of the sea and exhibit an ebb and flow.
Their formation has been attributed to the effect of rotting vegetation on the rock, but without certainty.
They vary in texture from a fine-grained compact oolite to a coarse-grained rock composed of angular or rounded fragments, and they commonly exhibit strongly marked false bedding.
When freshly exposed the rock is soft, but by the action of rain and sea it becomes covered with a hard crust.
The surface is often remarkably honeycombed, and the rock weathers into pinnacles, pillars and arches of extraordinary shapes.
Where a mantle of soil covers the rock it is generally thin but very fertile.
The surface of some, as notably the Mostarsko Blato, lying west of Mostar, is marshy, and in spring forms a lake; others are watered by streams which disappear in swallow-holes of the rock, and make their way by underground channels either to the sea or the Narenta.
Next, proceeding from this region in an easterly direction, are the Neogene freshwater formations, filling up the greatest part of the north-east of Bosnia, as also a zone of flysch intermingled with several strips of eruptive rock.
"Bosnia begins with the forest," says a native proverb, "Herzegovina with the rock"; and this account is, broadly speaking, accurate, although the Bosnian Karst is as bare as that of Herzegovina.
It is surrounded by old walls, flanked with towers, and has a considerable number of ancient buildings, among which are the fine church of the Holy Cross; St John's church, which dates from the time of the Hohenstaufen; and, situated on a height near the town, partly hewn out of the rock, the pilgrimage church of the Saviour.
Abandoned by almost all his adherents Benedict found refuge in the castle of Peniscola on an impregnable rock overlooking the Mediterranean, and remained intractable.
On Rusthall Common about a mile from the town is the curiously shaped mass of sandstone known as the Toad Rock, and a mile and a half south-west is the striking group called the High Rocks.
This iron is considered by several of the first authorities"on the subject to be of meteoric origin,' but no evidence hitherto given seems to prove decisively that it cannot be telluric. That the nodules found were lying on gneissic rock, with no basaltic rocks in the neighbourhood, does not prove that the iron may not originate from basalt, for the nodules may have been transported by the glaciers, like other erratic blocks, and will stand erosion much longer than the basalt, which may long ago have disappeared.
It occupies a commanding position, while the remains of its walls, and of a fine Moorish castle on a rock that overhangs the town, show how admirably its natural defences were supplemented by art.
afterwards worn down to a more nearly level surface, except in the extreme north-east corner, where ridges of harder rock resisted erosion.
Glacial action determined the direction and character of the rivers, made numerous swamps, and, by scouring out rock basins, damming rivers and leaving morainal hollows, determined the character and formation of the lakes, of which Minnesota has upwards of io,000, a number probably exceeding that of any other state in the Union.
The general characteristics of the lakes in the north differ from those of the south, the former being generally deep, with ragged rocky shores formed by glacial scouring which caused rock basins, the latter being mostly shallow.
The rock formations of the state furnish building stones of great value.
In so far as it depends on solution of calcareous rock the Semper-Murray theory of coral reefs is unsatisfactory.
OBSIDIAN, a glassy volcanic rock of acid composition.
A similar rock was named obsianus by medieval writers, from its resemblance to a rock discovered in Ethiopia by one Obsius.
The early printed editions of Pliny erroneously named the discoverer Obsidius, and the rock obsidianus.
Rhyolitic lavas frequently are more or less vitreous, and when the glassy matter greatly predominates and the; crystals are few and inconspicuous the rock becomes an obsidian; the chemical composition is essentially the same as that of granite; the difference in the physical condition of the two rocks is due to the fact that one consolidated at the surface, rapidly and under low pressures, while the other cooled slowly at great depths and under such pressures that the escape of the steam and other gases it contained was greatly impeded.
Few obsidians are entirely vitreous; usually they have small crystals of felspar, quartz, biotite or iron oxides, and when these are numerous the rock is called a porphyritic obsidian (or hyalo-liparite).
In such cases the molten rock cannot have been homogeneous, and as it flowed along the ground the different portions of it were drawn out into long parallel streaks.
As the rock was highly viscous and the surface over which it moved was often irregular the motion was disturbed and fluctuating; hence the sinuous and contorted appearance frequently assumed by the banding.
Even when conspicuous and well formed crystals are not visible in the rock there is nearly always an abundance of minute imperfect crystallizations (microlites, &c.).
These crystallites (q.v.) show that the glassy rock has a tendency to crystallize which is inhibited only by the very viscous state of the glass and the rapidity with which it was cooled.
In some obsidians from Teneriffe and Lipari the whole rock consists of them, so closely packed together that they assume polygonal shapes like the cells of a honeycomb.
Often bands of spherulites alternate with bands of pure glass, a fact which seems to indicate that the growth of these bodies took place before the rock ceased to flow.
As cooling progresses the glassy rock contracts and strain phenomena appear in consequence.
These surround little spherules of glass which are detached when the rock is struck with a hammer.
These globular bodies are, in fact, merely the more coherent portions of a perlite; the rest of the rock falls down in a fine powder setting free the glassy spheres.
A dull stony-looking rock results, the vitreous lustre having entirely disappeared, and in microscopic section this exhibits a cryptocrystalline structure, being made up of exceedingly minute grains principally of quartz and felspar.
The first fortification of the rock, at the confluence of the Save and the Danube, was made by the Celts in the 3rd century B.C. They gave it the name of Singidunum, by which Belgrade was known until the 7th century A.D.
Under the foundations of the church are tombs hewn out of the solid rock.
After a certain time the larva fixes itself by its stalk to some stone or rock, and the skirt-like second segment turns forward over the head and forms the mantle.
Out of pity for her grief, the gods changed Niobe herself into a rock on Mount Sipylus in Phrygia, in which form she continued to weep (Homer, Iliad, xxiv.
Heffter builds up the story round the dripping rock in Lydia, really representing an Asiatic goddess, but taken by the Greeks for an ordinary woman.
The appearance of the rock on Sipylus gave rise to the story of Niobe having been turned to stone.
The rock bas-reliefs and other monuments showing native divinities are rare, and give only very summary representations.
It is situated on a platform of conglomerate rock forming a promontory at the south-west of the entrance to Loch Etive and is surrounded on three sides by the sea.
The interior of Cutch is studded with hills of considerable elevation, and a range of mountains runs through it from east to west, many of them of the most fantastic shapes, with large isolated masses of rock scattered in all directions.
The greater part is a rock destitute of soil, and presenting the wildest aspect; the ground is cold, poor and sterile; and the whole face of the country bears marks of volcanic action.
above the sea, and consist of rugged coral rock and limestone, there being very little soil.
Picturesquely situated on the slope of a hill, the town has remains of ramparts of the 12th and 13th centuries, with ditches hewn in the rock, and several medieval buildings.
A fine belfry (12th, 13th and 15th centuries) commanding the town is built on the terrace, beneath which are hollowed in the rock the oratory and hermitage of St Emilion, and adjoining them an ancient monolithic church of considerable dimensions.
It is served by the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the Illinois Central, the Chicago Great Western, and the Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern railways.
The second group represents, first, the birth of Mithras; then the god nude, cutting fruit and leaves from a fig-tree in which is the bust of a deity, and before which one of the winds is blowing upon Mithras; the god discharging an arrow against a rock from which springs a fountain whose water a figure is kneeling to receive in his palms; the bull in a small boat, near which again occurs the figure of the animal under a roof about to be set on fire by two figures; the bull in flight, with Mithras in pursuit; Mithras bearing the bull on his shoulders; Helios kneeling before Mithras; Helios and Mithras clasping hands over an altar; Mithras with drawn bow on a running horse; Mithras and Helios banqueting; Mithras and Helios mounting the chariot of the latter and rising in full course over the ocean.
Mithras was born of a rock, the marvel being seen only by certain shepherds, who brought gifts and adored him.
Mithras defeated his purpose by discharging an arrow against a rock and miraculously drawing the water from it.
Ancient Amasia has left little trace of itself except on the castle rock, on the left of the river, where the acropolis walls and a number of splendid rock-cut tombs, described by Strabo as those of the kings of Pontus, can be seen.
It has extensive campos and large areas of exposed rock and stony steppes, but is richly provided with mineral deposits.
The upper fall is known as the Rumbling Bridge from the fact that the stream pours with a rumbling noise through a deep narrow gorge in which a huge fallen rock has become wedged, forming a rude bridge or arch.
In the centre is a bold rock, crowned by the castle, between which and the new town lies a ravine that once contained the Nor' Loch, but is now covered with the gardens of Princes Street.
on the west side of the rock, is capable of storing 30,000 stand of arms. In the armoury is a collection of arms of various dates;.
The city gaol, a castellated structure on the black rock of Calton Hill, forms one of the most striking groups of buildings in the town.
Fine white freestone abounds in the immediate vicinity (as at Craigleith, from the vast quarry of which, now passing into disuse, the stone for much of the New Town was obtained) and furnishes excellent building material; while the hard trap rock, with which the stratified sandstones of the Coal formation have been extensively broken up and overlaid, supplies good materials for paving and road-making.
It is probable that the Ottadeni built a fort or camp on the rock on which Edinburgh Castle now stands, which was thus the nucleus around which, in course of time, grew a considerable village.
Under the protection of the hill-fort, a native settlement was established on the ridge running down to the valley at the foot of Salisbury Crags, and another hamlet, according to William Maitland (1693-1757), the earliest historian of Edinburgh, was founded in the area at the northwestern base of the rock, a district that afterwards became the parish of St Cuthbert, the oldest in the city.
The Romans occupied the country for more than three hundred years, as is evidenced by various remains; `but James Grant (1822-1887), in Old and New Edinburgh, doubts whether they ever built on the castle rock.
Remains of a Roman theatre, of an amphitheatre, of an aqueduct which entered the town by the Porte Taillee, gate cut in the rock below the citadel, and an arch of a former Roman bridge, forming part of the modern bridge, are also be seen.
It stands on undulating and easily drained ground, upon a bed of sandstone rock, on a peninsula jutting into one of the deepest, safest and most beautiful harbours in the world; and in addition it lies in the centre of a great carboniferous area.
It is usually a hard compact rock containing striated stones.
The Umgeni quarries, where the rock is used for road-metal, furnish the best exposures.
Ant-eaters (Orycteropus capensis), porcupines, weasels, squirrels, rock rabbits, hares and cane rats are common in different localities.
Ruins of a fortress crown the rock of Harlech, about half a mile from the sea.
It may be due partly to the natural conformation of the rock and the differences of level, partly to the necessity of enclosing within a single building several objects of ancient sanctity, such as the mark of Poseidon's trident and the spring that arose from it, the sacred olive tree of Athena, and the tomb of Cecrops.
In the north portico a square hole in the floor, with a corresponding hole in the roof above it, must have given access to another sacred object, the mark of Poseidon's trident in the rock.
It occurs in its matrix, either in or closely associated with fissure veins or disseminated through rock masses.
" The Lord said not to him, upon thee I build the church, but he said, upon this rock (the which is the body wherewith the Lord was clothed) I build my church..
that that rock was the Messiah.
Tirgu Ocna is built among the Carpathian Mountains, on bare hills formed of rock salt.
The modern town lies at the foot of a rock, on which stands the old town with its steep rock-paved streets and fortified walls, commanded by the Fort Muzello.
At Port Logan in Wigtonshire cod-fish are kept in a large reservoir, scooped out of the solid rock by the action of the sea, egress from which is prevented by a barrier of stones, which does not prevent the free access of the water.
Near the ferry are a row of long parallel cuttings in the rock, which must be remains of the ancient docks, each being intended to take a ship.
Several smaller entrances are to be seen in it, as in the south wall: among them one with a series of inclined planes cut in the rock, which leads to an ancient road running south-east to the neighbourhood of the theatre.
The west boundary of Achradina is marked farther south by a perpendicular cutting in the rock, on the top of which a wall must have run (see above).
Here are numerous caves in the rock, used for the worship of Artemis.
The temple of Apollo Temenites has entirely disappeared, but the theatre, entirely hewn in the rock, is still to be seen.
Each of the nine cunei bore a name: the inscriptions of five of them, still preserved on the rock, are in honour of Zeus, Heracles, King Hiero II., his wife Philistis, and his daughterin-law Nereis.
Of the stage nothing but cuttings in the rock for foundations are visible.
Not far off to the south-east is the amphitheatre, probably erected by Augustus when he founded a colony at Syracuse; it is partly cut in the rock and partly built.
To the northwest of the theatre a winding road ascends through the rock, with comparatively late tomb chambers on each side of it.
In this distridt are seen hundreds of small niches cut in the rock, as a rule about 2 ft.
deep and of great extent (though through the collapse of the pillars supporting the undermined rock they have become still larger than they were in ancient times).
Cuttings in the rock for the foundations of such are numerous round the south edge of Temenites and Achradina, and are to be seen at various points near the city wall.
The process continues but is checked by the existence of the rock barrier which stretches across the Semliki.
The contorted strata of slate and greywacke rock must have been formed at a period vastly anterior to that in which the lake of the upper valley managed to force an outlet through the enclosing barriers.
The deepest point is opposite the Lorelei (Lurlei) Rock near St Goar, where it is 75 ft.
i i), the resinous exudation of Cistus creticus, C. ladaniferus and other species of "rock rose" or "rose of Sharon"; myrrh (Heb.
The incense sticks and pastils known all over India under the names of ud-buti (" benzoin-light") or aggar-ki-buti (" wood aloes light") are composed of benzoin, wood aloes, sandalwood, rock lichen, patchouli, rose-malloes, talispat (the leaf of Flacourtia Cataphracta of Roxburgh), mastic and sugar-candy or gum.
There are occasional outcrops of rock and low perpendicular cliffs.
When the solid rock is not exposed the soil sometimes furnishes an indication of the character of the underlying rock.
Sometimes the vegetation, shrubs, trees, &c., as characteristic of certain soils, may furnish evidence as to rock or minerals below.
A quartz vein or bed of hard rock may show itself as a sharp ridge or as a well-defined bench; a stratum of soft rock or the line of a great fissure, or the weakening of the strata by an anticlinal fold, may produce a ravine or a deep valley.
In the systematic mining of larger deposits, the simplest plan consists in mining large areas by means of numerous working-places under the protection of pillars of mineral left for the purpose, and later mining these pillars systematically, allowing the overlying rock beds to fall and fill the abandoned workings.
These separate areas are then mined in small rooms, each room being timbered as in mining under a weak roof rock.
On completion of any room the timbers are withdrawn and the overlying mass of timber and rock is allowed to fall and a new room is started immediately alongside of the one just completed.
In this way the whole floor is worked out and the mat of timber and overlying rock is gradually lowered and rests upon the top of the ore forming the floor below.
This is the cheapest of the three caving systems, but is applicable only when the deposit lies between walls of very solid rock, as otherwise wall rock is liable to cave with and become mixed with ore, which adds greatly to the expense of handling.
When rock filling is available, as when the ore contains much barren material to be left behind in mining, the ore body is divided into blocks of convenient height as above, and these blocks are divided into floors, the bottom floor of each block however being attacked.
Each floor is opened up by subsidiary haulage roads and worked out in small rooms which are timbered and filled with broken rock when completed.
In order to lessen the cost of handling the rock-filling, the excavation sometimes takes the form of inclined working-places, parallel to the slope naturally taken by the rock when dumped from above into the working 7 -,, , --,, ?
The shrinkage of the rock-filling and the settlement of the workings /, Yan be greatly lessened by the use of hard rock with a minimum of fine stuff; but even so the advantage lies with the American system of timbering.
In some cases it has been found advantageous to quarry and crush rock for the purpose of using it in this way.
'Where mineral deposits lie near the surface underground mining may be replaced by open excavations, and the reduced cost of mining makes it possible to remove the overlying soil and rock to considerable depths.
Siphons are sometimes used to carry the water over an undulating grade and thereby save the expense of a deep rock cutting.
The possibility of hoisting and pumping from great depths has been discussed, and it remains now to consider the other conditions which will tend to limit mining operations in depth - namely, increase of temperature and increase of rock pressure.