A third bold-leaved species is C. robusta, which may be included with C. lucida and C.
There are also several extremely valuable soft timbers, the principal being red cedar (Cedrela Toona), silky oak (Grevillea robusta), beech and a variety of teak, with several important species of pine.
The sal, Shorea robusta, a very durable wood, is most abundant along the skirts of the Himalaya from Assam to the Punjab, and is found in central India, to which the teak also extends.
The most important timber trees are the tu'n (Cedrela Toona), sdl (Shorea robusta), the present area of which forms two belts separated by the Gangetic plain; satin wood (Chloroxylon Swietenia), common in the drier parts of the peninsula; sandalwood, especially characteristic of Mysore; iron-wood (Mesua ferrea), and teak (Tectona grandis).
Javanica, Hasskarliana and anglica, were likely to lead to disappointment as quinineyielding species, these have been replaced in the plantations as rapidly as possible by the more valuable species, of which C. Ledgeriana, yielding from 5 to io% or even more of quinine, C. officinalis, and a hybrid between C. officinalis and C. succirubra, which has been named C. robusta, are the most important.
Sal (Shorea robusta) is the chief timber tree.
A large part of the area is still covered with forest, the most valuable timber-tree being sal (Shorea robusta).