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robespierre

robespierre

robespierre Sentence Examples

  • Soon, too, it came to be used for personal ends, particularly by Robespierre, who employed it for the condemnation of his adversaries.

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  • The movement was successful; Robespierre and his friends were guillotined; and Tallien, as the leading Thermidorian, was elected to the Committee of Public Safety.

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  • The club disowned Danton and Desmoulins and attacked Robespierre for his "moderation," but the new insurrection which it attempted failed, and its leaders were guillotined on the 24th of March 1794, from which date nothing is known of the club.

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  • During the Terror he was one of those deputies of the centre who supported Robespierre; but he was gained over by the members of the Mountain hostile to Robespierre, and his support, along with that of some other leaders of the Marais, made possible the 9th Thermidor.

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  • 576-577) that Robespierre in the night of 23-24 May fetched the king (the dauphin) from the Temple and took him to Meudon.

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  • 576-577) that Robespierre in the night of 23-24 May fetched the king (the dauphin) from the Temple and took him to Meudon.

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  • His hostility to the insurrectional commune of Paris, which led him to propose transferring the government to Blois, and his attacks upon Robespierre and his friends rendered him very unpopular.

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  • He was in Paris in 1789, and entered into relations with Marat, Camille Desmoulins and Robespierre.

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  • He was accused of "Orleanism" and imprisoned, and was not released until after the fall of Robespierre.

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  • On the other hand, the more conservative section of the Poles regarded Kollontaj as "a second Robespierre," and he is even suspected of complicity in the outrages of the 17th and, 8th of June 1794, when the Warsaw mob massacred the political prisoners.

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  • Simon was sent to the guillotine with Robespierre in 1794, and two years later Marie Jeanne entered a hospital for incurables in the rue de Sevres, where she constantly affirmed the dauphin's escape.

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  • Robespierre visited Marie Therese on the 11th of May, but no one, according to the legend, entered the dauphin's room for six months until Barras visited the prison after the 9th Thermidor (July 2 7, 1794).

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  • He was soon released owing to the interposition of the younger Robespierre and of Saliceti.

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  • In this school, in which Robespierre was also a bursar and a distinguished student, Camille Desmoulins laid the solid foundation of his learning.

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  • With Robespierre he was now more than ever associated, and the Histoire des Brissotins, the fragment above alluded to, was inspired by the arch-revolutionist.

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  • In December 1793 was issued the first number of the Vieux Cordelier, which was at first directed against the Hebertists and approved of by Robespierre, but which soon formulated Danton's idea of a committee of clemency.

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  • Then Robespierre turned against Desmoulins and took advantage of the popular indignation roused against the Hebertists to send them to death.

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  • On the 7th of January 1 794 Robespierre, who on a former occasion had defended Camille when in danger at the hands of the National Convention, in addressing the Jacobin club counselled not the expulsion of Desmoulins, but the burning of certain numbers of the Vieux Cordelier.

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  • In his last number, the seventh, which his publisher refused to print, he had dared to attack even Robespierre, but at his trial it was found that he was devoid of physical courage.

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  • On the 29th of December 1790 Camille had married Lucile Duplessis, and among the witnesses of the ceremony are observed the names of Brissot, Petion and Robespierre.

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  • The execution of Robespierre on the 28th of July had ended the Terror, and Babeuf - now self-styled "Gracchus" Babeuf - defended the men of Thermidor and attacked the fallen terrorists with his usual violence.

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  • This severe provision was, however, repealed after the fall of Robespierre.

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  • The next year her mother died, and the fall of Robespierre opened the way back to Paris.

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  • See French Revolution; Girondists; Mountain; D Anton; Robespierre; Marat, &C.

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  • On account of his friendship with Robespierre, Saliceti was denounced at the revolution of 9 Thermidor, and was saved only by the amnesty of the year IV.

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  • The scheme, in the main the work of Sieyes, was refused by the Convention, who submitted the whole question to a special commission of six, which under the influence of Robespierre adopted a report by Michel le Peletier de Saint Fargeau shortly before his tragic death.

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  • He now became president of the Education Committee and promptly abolished the system which had had Robespierre's support.

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  • Cambon then incurred the hatred of Robespierre by proposing the suppression of the pay to the clergy, which would have meant the separation of church and state.

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  • His courageous intervention in favour of the Girondists on the 2nd of June 1793 served Robespierre as a pretext to prevent his re-election to the Committee of Public Safety.

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  • In matters of finance Cambon was now supreme; but his independence, his hatred of dictatorship, his protests against the excesses of the Revolutionary Tribunal, won him Robespierre's renewed suspicion, and on the 8th Thermidor Robespierre accused him of being antirevolutionary and an aristocrat.

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  • Cambon's proud and vehement reply was the signal of the resistance to Robespierre's tyranny and the prelude to his fall.

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  • The excesses of the Revolutionary Tribunal increased with the growth of Robespierre's ascendancy in the Committee of Public Safety; and on the 10th of June 1794 was promulgated, at his instigation, the infamous Law of 22 Prairial, which forbade prisoners to employ counsel for their defence, suppressed the hearing of witnesses and made death the sole penalty.

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  • Before 22 Prairial the Revolutionary Tribunal had pronounced 1220 death-sentences in thirteen months; during the forty-nine days between the passing of the law and the fall of Robespierre 1376 persons were condemned, including many innocent victims. The lists of prisoners to be sent before the tribunal were prepared by a popular commission sitting at the museum, and signed, after revision, by the Committee of General Security and the Committee of Public Safety jointly.

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  • Although Robespierre was the principal purveyor of the tribunal, we possess only one of these lists bearing his signature.

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  • But the Terror could not be maintained at the same pitch: Robespierre began to see that he must strike at many of his own colleagues in the committees if he was to carry out his theories, and Tallien was one of the men condemned with them.

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  • They determined to strike first, and on the great day of Thermidor it was Tallien who, urged on by the danger in which his beloved lay, opened the attack upon Robespierre.

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  • Robespierre, who was himself on the brink of the volcano, remembered the venomous sallies in the Journal de Paris.

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  • Without being formally opposed to Robespierre, he did not support him, and he was the only member of the Committee of Public Safety who did not sign the order for the execution of Danton and his party.

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  • On the 23rd of the same month he obtained a decree closing all the churches of Paris, and placing the priests under strict surveillance; but on the 25th he retraced his steps and obtained from the Commune the free exercise of worship. He wished to save the Hebertists by a new insurrection and struggled against Robespierre; but a revolutionary decree promulgated by the Commune on his demand was overthrown by the Convention.

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  • Robespierre had him accused with the Hebertists; he was arrested, imprisoned in the Luxembourg, condemned by the Revolutionary tribunal and executed on the 13th of April 1794.

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  • On the fall of Robespierre, Beauchamp was transferred to the bureau of the minister of police, and charged with the superintendence of the press.

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  • He acquiesced in the fall of Robespierre in 1794, but later defended Barere and others among his colleagues, declaring that he himself had constantly signed papers without reading them, as it was physically impossible to do so in the press of business.

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  • After the fall of Robespierre he joined the group of "Thermidorians" and was sent on mission to the south of France, where he closed the Jacobin club at Toulouse and set free a number of imprisoned "suspects."

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  • The coup d'etat of Thermidor (July 28, 1794) compelled the young disciple of Robespierre hurriedly to leave St Maximin, and to accept a small post at St Chamans.

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  • Moreover, the Septembriseurs- Robespierre, Danton, Marat and their lesser satellites - realized that not only their influence but their safety depended on keeping the Revolution alive.

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  • Robespierre, who hated the Girondists, whose lustre had so long obscured his own, had proposed to includethem in the proscription lists of September; the Mountain to a man desired their overthrow.

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  • They had behind them the revolutionary Commune, the Sections and the National Guard of Paris, and they had gained control of the Jacobin club, where Brissot, absorbed in departmental work, had been superseded by Robespierre.

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  • The survivors of the party made an effort to re-enter the Convention after the fall of Robespierre, but it was not until the 5th of March 1795 that they were formally reinstated.

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  • Thrown into prison on a frivolous charge of friendliness to the royalists and England, he was released after the fall of Robespierre in the summer of 1794, and rose in the service until, in 1799, he became chief commissary to the French army serving under Massena in the north of Switzerland.

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  • His conduct arousing suspicion, he went into hiding, and did not emerge again until after the fall of Robespierre.

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  • But he became uneasy for his own safety and turned against Robespierre, whom he attacked on the 8th Thermidor as a "moderate" and a Dantonist.

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  • He took part in the reaction which followed the fall of Robespierre, sat in the Council of the Five Hundred under the Directory, and at the coup d'etat of the 18th Fructidor (Sept.

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  • He was closely allied with his namesake Merlin "of Thionville," and, after the counter-revolution which brought about the fall of Robespierre, xvni.

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  • (27th of July 1794), which resulted in the fall of Robespierre and the collapse of the Terror.

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  • Courtois, Rapport fait au nom de la commission chargee de l'examen des papiers trouves chez Robespierre et ses cornplices (1795); D.

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  • During their struggle with the Girondists, the Montagnards gained the upper hand in the Jacobin Club, and for a time Jacobin and Montagnard were synonymous terms. The Mountain was successively under the sway of such men as Marat, Danton, and Robespierre, and the group finally disappeared after Robespierre's death and the successes of the French arms.

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  • He entered into correspondence with Robespierre, who, flattered by his worship, admitted him to his friendship. Thus supported, Saint-Just became deputy of the department of Aisne to the National Convention, where he made his first speech on the condemnation of Louis XVI.

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  • In the Convention, in the Jacobin Club, and among the populace his relations with Robespierre became known, and he was dubbed the "St John of the Messiah of the People."

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  • What were then called reports were rather appeals to the passions; in Saint-Just's hands they furnished the occasion for a display of fanatical daring, of gloomy eloquence, and of undoubted genius; and - with the shadow of Robespierre behind him - they served their turn.

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  • Meanwhile affairs in Paris looked gloomier than ever, and Robespierre recalled Saint-Just to the capital.

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  • He was thrown into prison shortly before the coup d'etat of Thermidor (July 1794) which overthrew Robespierre.

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  • It suffered severely during the French Revolution, especially from Joseph Lebon, who, like the brothers Maximilien and Augustin Robespierre, was a native of the town.

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  • After the fall of Robespierre, Legendre took part in the reactionary movement, undertook the closing of the Jacobin Club, was.

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  • He incurred the suspicion of Robespierre, was thrown into prison, and escaped the guillotine by an accident.

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  • At the downfall of Robespierre, Paine was restored to his seat in the convention, and served until it adjourned in October 1795.

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  • The antagonism caused by such an attitude had reached a significant point when on the 10th of April Robespierre himself laid his accusation before the Convention.

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  • In May 1794 an attempt was made to assassinate Collot; but it only increased his popularity, and this won him the hatred of Robespierre, against whom he took sides on the 9th Thermidor, when he presided over the Convention during a part of the session.

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  • On the outbreak of the revolution Freron, who was a schoolfellow of Robespierre and Camille Desmoulins, established the violent journal L'Orateur du people.

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  • Imprisoned in La Force (1794) he was one of those who had the good fortune to escape the guillotine till the death of Robespierre set them free.

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  • Chaumette (q.v.) the "worship of Reason," in opposition to the theistic cult inaugurated by Robespierre, against whom he tried to excite a popular movement.

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  • In 1794 The Fall of Robespierre, of which Coleridge wrote the first act and Southey the other two, appeared.

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  • He hesitated for a time as to which party he should join, but finally decided for that of Robespierre, with whom he had many opinions in common, especially in matters of religion.

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  • During the crisis preceding the 9th Thermidor, Couthon showed considerable courage, giving up a journey to Auvergne in order, as he wrote, that he might either die or triumph with Robespierre and liberty.

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  • Arrested with Robespierre and Saint-Just, his colleagues in the triumvirate of the Terror, and subjected to indescribable sufferings and insults, he was taken to the scaffold on the same cart with Robespierre on the 28th of July 1794 (loth Thermidor).

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  • After Robespierre's fall he was the first to advocate the reopening of the churches (speech of December 21, 1794).

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  • Excluded at the instance of Robespierre from the Jacobin Club, he was soon afterwards implicated in an accusation levelled against the Hebertists.

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  • From the first he posed as an opponent of the Mountain, accused Robespierre of aiming at the dictatorship (25th of September 17 9 2), attacked Marat, and proposed to break up the commune of Paris.

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  • The editors worked under the inspiration of a strong admiration of the principles of Robespierre and the Jacobins, and in the belief that the French Revolution was an attempt to realize Christianity.

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  • His horrible career ended with the fall of Robespierre and the terrorists on the 9th Thermidor.

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  • Burke no more adopted the doctrines of Jefferson in 1776 than he adopted the doctrines of Robespierre in 1793.

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  • Danton, no doubt, was abler than most of the others, yet the timidity or temerity with which he allowed himself to be vanquished by Robespierre showed that even he was not a man of commanding quality.

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  • Pitt, on the other hand, as Lord Russell truly says, treated Robespierre and Carnot as he would have treated any other French rulers, whose ambition was to be resisted, and whose interference in the affairs of other nations was to be checked.

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  • The Extreme Left, still more republican in spirit, of whom Robespierre was the most noteworthy, were few and had little power.

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  • Upon Robespierre's motion it had decreed that none of its members should be capable of sitting in the next legislature.

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  • Hence Robespierre and those who thought with him desired peace.

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  • Barbaroux accused Robespierre of aiming at a dictatorship, and Buzot demanded a guard recruited in the departments to protect the Convention.

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  • In October Louvet reiterated the charge against Robespierre, and Barbaroux called for the dissolution of the Commune of Paris.

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  • Robespierre frankly demanded that Louis as a public enemy should be put to death without form of trial.

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  • But soon after Danton had ceased to be a member of the Committee of Public Safety Robespierre was elected, and now became the most powerful man in France.

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  • Robespierre was an acrid fanatic, and unlike Danton, who only cared to secure the practical results of the Revolution, he had a moral and religious ideal which he intended to force on the nation.

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  • Robespierre, the leading member of the committee, abhorred the chiefs of the Commune, not merely because they conflicted with his ambition but from difference of character.

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  • When he became aware of the feud between Robespierre and the Commune, he conceived the hope of limiting the Terror and guiding the Revolution into a sane course.

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  • He returned to Paris and joined with Robespierre in carrying the law of 14 Frimaire (December 4), which gave the Committee of Public Safety absolute control over all municipal authorities.

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  • A sharp contest ensued between the Dantonists and the Commune, Robespierre inclining now to this side, now to that, for he was really a friend to neither.

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  • None could presume to challenge the authority of the Committee of Public Safety, and in the committee none disputed the leadership of Robespierre.

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  • On the 8th the festival of the Supreme Being was solemnized, Robespierre acting as pontiff amid the outward deference and secret jeers of his colleagues.

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  • But Robespierre knew what a gulf parted him from almost all his countrymen.

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  • With Robespierre's approval St Just sketched at this time the plan of an ideal society in which.

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  • Robespierre was not a man of action; he knew not how to form or lead a party; he lived not with his fellows but with his own thoughts and ambitions.

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  • Robespierre professed consideration for the deputies of the Plain, who were glad to buy safety by conforming to his will; but he could not reckon on their help in time of danger.

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  • By degrees a coalition against Robespierre was formed in the Mountain.

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  • When St Just proposed Robespierre to the committees as dictator, he found no response.

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  • On the 8th Thermidor (26th of July) Robespierre addressed the Convention, deploring the invectives against himself and the Revolutionary Tribunal and demanding the purification of the committees and the punishment of traitors.

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  • Robespierre felt his ascendancy totter.

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  • Robespierre's enemies called on the Committee of Public Safety to arrest the traitors, but the committee was divided.

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  • Robespierre and all who tried to speak in his behalf were shouted down.

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  • The Plain was deaf to Robespierre's appeal.

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  • Finally the Convention decreed the arrest of Robespierre, of his brother Augustin, of Couthon and of St Just.

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  • The Convention outlawed Robespierre and his friends and sent out commissioners to rally the citizens.

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  • Had Robespierre possessed Danton's energy, the result might have been doubtful.

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  • Robespierre, whose jaw had been shattered by a pistol shot, was left in agony for the night.

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  • The fall of Robespierre had consequences unforeseen by his destroyers.

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  • Beside the remnant of Terrorists, such as Billaud Varennes and Collot d'Herbois, who had joined in the revolt against As- Robespierre, there were in the Convention at that time three principal factions.

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  • The Thermidorians, the immediate agents in Robespierre's overthrow, such as Tallien, had loudly professed Jacobinism, but wanted to make their peace with the nation.

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  • The most notable Jacobins have seldom left memoirs, but the works of Robespierre and St Just enable us to form a clearer conception of the authors.

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  • Mallet's Mallet du Pan and the French Revolution (London, 1902); Robinet's Danton (Paris, 1889); Hamel's Histoire de Robespierre (Paris, 1865-1867) and Histoire de St-Just (2 vols., Brussels, 1860); A.

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  • Thus Robespierre was executed on 10 Thermidor An II., i.e.

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  • But this mission helped to make him an object of suspicion to the other members of the Committee of Public Safety, and especially to Robespierre, who as a deist and a fanatical follower of the ideas of Rousseau, hated Herault, the follower of the naturalism of Diderot.

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  • Membership of the National League is, in many cases, as necessary a protection as ever was a certificate of civism under Robespierre.

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  • His tutor was Philippe Le Bas, son of the well-known member of the Convention and follower of Robespierre, an able man, imbued with the ideas of the Revolution, while Vieillard, who instructed him in the rudiments, was a democratic imperialist also inspired with the ideal of nationalism.

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  • This schism was reflected in the parties of the Assembly; the absolutists of the extreme Right; the moderate monarchists of the Right and Centre; the constitutionalists of the Left Centre and Left; and, finally, on the extreme Left the democratic revolutionists, among whom Robespierre sat as yet all but unnoticed.

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  • Their chief was not so much Robespierre, president of the parliamentary and bourgeois club of the Jacobins (q.v.), which had acquired by means of its two thousand affiliated branches great power in the provinces, as the advocate Danton, president of the popular and Parisian club of the Cordeliers.

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  • They drove him into the arms of Robespierre, Marat and the Commune of Paris.

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  • To the departments that were hostile to the dictatorship of Paris, and the tyranny of Danton or Robespierre, it promised the referendum, an executive of twenty-four citizens, universal suffrage, and the free exercise of religion.

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  • A man of action and not of cunning shifts, he succumbed on the 10th of July to the blows of his own government, which had passed from his hands into those of Robespierre, his ambitious and crafty rival.

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  • Composed of twelve members, re-eligible every month, and dominated by the triumvirate, Second Robespierre, Saint-Just and Couthon~ it was stronger committee than ever, since it obtained the right of appointing of public leaders, disposed of money, and muzzled the press, safety.

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  • Such were Robespierre, Saint-Just, Couthon, Billaud-Varenne, Cambon, Thuriot, Collot dHerbois, Barrre and Prieur d~ la Mbrne.

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  • At the head of the former type Robespierre, without special knowledge or exceptional talent, devoured by jealous ambition and gifted with cold grave eloquence, enjoyed a great moral ascendancy, due to his incorruptible purity of life and the invariably correct behaviour that had been wanting in Mirabeau, and by the persevering will which Danton had lacked.

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  • deist and therefore hostile to anti-religious masquerades, while uneasy at the absolute authority of the Paris Commune, which aimed at suppressing the State, and at its armed propaganda abroad, Robespierre resumed the struggle against its illegal power, so fatal to the Gironde.

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  • Robespierre now stood ~Ione.

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  • By his dogma of the supreme state Robespierre founded a theocratic government with the police as an Inquisition.

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  • Robespierre was no man of action.

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  • Although brought about by the Terrorists, the tragic fall of Robespierre put an end to the Reign of Terror; for their chiefs having disappeared, the subordinates were too much Thfrd divided to keep up the dictatorship of the third commiUee Committee of Public Safety, and reaction soon set in.

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  • The expedition to San Domingo reduced the republican army to a nullity; war demoralized or scattered the leaders, who were jealous of their comrade Bonaparte; and Moreau, the last of his rivals, cleverly compromised in a royalist plot, as Danton had formerly been by Robespierre, disappeared into exile.

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  • At first he voted with the Girondists, attacked Robespierre, "a pygmy who should not be set on a pedestal," and at the trial of the king voted with the Mountain for the king's death "without appeal and without delay."

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  • Appointed member of the Committee of Public Safety on the 7th of April 1793, he busied himself with foreign affairs; then, joining the party of Robespierre, whose resentment he had averted by timely flatteries, he played an important part in the second Committee of Public Safety - after the 17th of July 1793 - and voted for the death of the Girondists.

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  • On the 9th Thermidor (July 27th, 1 794) Barere hesitated, then he drew up the report outlawing Robespierre.

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  • The followers of Hebert, who were then pursuing their anti-Christian policy, claimed Gobel as one of themselves; while, on the other hand, Robespierre looked upon him as an atheist, though apostasy cannot strictly speaking be laid to the charge of the ex-bishop, nor did he ever make any actual profession of atheism.

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  • Robespierre, however, found him an obstacle to his religious schemes, and involved him in the fate of the Hebertists.

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  • He was recalled by the Committee of Public Safety on the 8th of February 1794, took part in the attack on Robespierre on the 9th Thermidor, but was himself brought before the Revolutionary Tribunal on the 11th and guillotined on the 16th of November 1794.

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  • He accused the Girondists of relations with the court, then turned against Robespierre, who had him expelled from the Jacobin club for his conduct as commissioner of the Convention with the army of La Rochelle.

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  • On the 9th Thermidor he was one of the deputies delegated to aid Barras to repress the insurrection made by the commune of Paris in favour of Robespierre.

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  • His failure to fulfil the tasks imposed on him (especially that of the relief of Mainz) led to his being arrested, and he was guillotined (23rd June 1794) not long before the fall of Robespierre.

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  • His arrest was decreed; but he had the generale sounded and the tocsin rung, and tried to rescue Robespierre, who was under arrest in the hall of the Comite de Siirete Generale.

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  • He was arrested, sentenced to death, and guillotined with Robespierre and his friends on the 10th Thermidor of the year II.

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  • He took part in the reactionary movement which followed the fall of Robespierre, and became a member of the reorganized Committees of Public Safety and General Security.

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  • They had made many and influential friends in advance, and Madame Roland's salon soon became the rendezvous of Brissot, Petion, Robespierre and other leaders of the popular movement, above all of Buzot, whom she loved with platonic enthusiasm.

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  • His hostility to the insurrectional commune of Paris, which led him to propose transferring the government to Blois, and his attacks upon Robespierre and his friends rendered him very unpopular.

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  • He was in Paris in 1789, and entered into relations with Marat, Camille Desmoulins and Robespierre.

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  • He was accused of "Orleanism" and imprisoned, and was not released until after the fall of Robespierre.

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  • On the other hand, the more conservative section of the Poles regarded Kollontaj as "a second Robespierre," and he is even suspected of complicity in the outrages of the 17th and, 8th of June 1794, when the Warsaw mob massacred the political prisoners.

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  • The club disowned Danton and Desmoulins and attacked Robespierre for his "moderation," but the new insurrection which it attempted failed, and its leaders were guillotined on the 24th of March 1794, from which date nothing is known of the club.

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  • Simon was sent to the guillotine with Robespierre in 1794, and two years later Marie Jeanne entered a hospital for incurables in the rue de Sevres, where she constantly affirmed the dauphin's escape.

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  • Robespierre visited Marie Therese on the 11th of May, but no one, according to the legend, entered the dauphin's room for six months until Barras visited the prison after the 9th Thermidor (July 2 7, 1794).

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  • He was soon released owing to the interposition of the younger Robespierre and of Saliceti.

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  • The commissioners sent by the Convention, Albitte, Laporte and Saliceti, suspected him of having divulged the plan of campaign, and on the 6th of August ordered his arrest as being the "maker of plans" for the younger Robespierre.

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  • In this school, in which Robespierre was also a bursar and a distinguished student, Camille Desmoulins laid the solid foundation of his learning.

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  • With Robespierre he was now more than ever associated, and the Histoire des Brissotins, the fragment above alluded to, was inspired by the arch-revolutionist.

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  • In December 1793 was issued the first number of the Vieux Cordelier, which was at first directed against the Hebertists and approved of by Robespierre, but which soon formulated Danton's idea of a committee of clemency.

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  • Then Robespierre turned against Desmoulins and took advantage of the popular indignation roused against the Hebertists to send them to death.

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  • On the 7th of January 1 794 Robespierre, who on a former occasion had defended Camille when in danger at the hands of the National Convention, in addressing the Jacobin club counselled not the expulsion of Desmoulins, but the burning of certain numbers of the Vieux Cordelier.

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  • In his last number, the seventh, which his publisher refused to print, he had dared to attack even Robespierre, but at his trial it was found that he was devoid of physical courage.

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  • On the 29th of December 1790 Camille had married Lucile Duplessis, and among the witnesses of the ceremony are observed the names of Brissot, Petion and Robespierre.

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  • The execution of Robespierre on the 28th of July had ended the Terror, and Babeuf - now self-styled "Gracchus" Babeuf - defended the men of Thermidor and attacked the fallen terrorists with his usual violence.

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  • This severe provision was, however, repealed after the fall of Robespierre.

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  • The next year her mother died, and the fall of Robespierre opened the way back to Paris.

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  • See French Revolution; Girondists; Mountain; D Anton; Robespierre; Marat, &C.

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  • On account of his friendship with Robespierre, Saliceti was denounced at the revolution of 9 Thermidor, and was saved only by the amnesty of the year IV.

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  • The scheme, in the main the work of Sieyes, was refused by the Convention, who submitted the whole question to a special commission of six, which under the influence of Robespierre adopted a report by Michel le Peletier de Saint Fargeau shortly before his tragic death.

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  • He now became president of the Education Committee and promptly abolished the system which had had Robespierre's support.

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  • Cambon then incurred the hatred of Robespierre by proposing the suppression of the pay to the clergy, which would have meant the separation of church and state.

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  • His courageous intervention in favour of the Girondists on the 2nd of June 1793 served Robespierre as a pretext to prevent his re-election to the Committee of Public Safety.

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  • In matters of finance Cambon was now supreme; but his independence, his hatred of dictatorship, his protests against the excesses of the Revolutionary Tribunal, won him Robespierre's renewed suspicion, and on the 8th Thermidor Robespierre accused him of being antirevolutionary and an aristocrat.

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  • Cambon's proud and vehement reply was the signal of the resistance to Robespierre's tyranny and the prelude to his fall.

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  • During the Terror he was one of those deputies of the centre who supported Robespierre; but he was gained over by the members of the Mountain hostile to Robespierre, and his support, along with that of some other leaders of the Marais, made possible the 9th Thermidor.

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  • Soon, too, it came to be used for personal ends, particularly by Robespierre, who employed it for the condemnation of his adversaries.

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  • The excesses of the Revolutionary Tribunal increased with the growth of Robespierre's ascendancy in the Committee of Public Safety; and on the 10th of June 1794 was promulgated, at his instigation, the infamous Law of 22 Prairial, which forbade prisoners to employ counsel for their defence, suppressed the hearing of witnesses and made death the sole penalty.

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  • Before 22 Prairial the Revolutionary Tribunal had pronounced 1220 death-sentences in thirteen months; during the forty-nine days between the passing of the law and the fall of Robespierre 1376 persons were condemned, including many innocent victims. The lists of prisoners to be sent before the tribunal were prepared by a popular commission sitting at the museum, and signed, after revision, by the Committee of General Security and the Committee of Public Safety jointly.

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  • Although Robespierre was the principal purveyor of the tribunal, we possess only one of these lists bearing his signature.

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  • But the Terror could not be maintained at the same pitch: Robespierre began to see that he must strike at many of his own colleagues in the committees if he was to carry out his theories, and Tallien was one of the men condemned with them.

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  • They determined to strike first, and on the great day of Thermidor it was Tallien who, urged on by the danger in which his beloved lay, opened the attack upon Robespierre.

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  • The movement was successful; Robespierre and his friends were guillotined; and Tallien, as the leading Thermidorian, was elected to the Committee of Public Safety.

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  • Robespierre, who was himself on the brink of the volcano, remembered the venomous sallies in the Journal de Paris.

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  • The list of his works includes hymns and national songs - among others, the famous Chant du depart; odes, Sur la mort de Mirabeau, Sur l'oligarchie de Robespierre, &c.; tragedies which never reached the stage, Brutus et Cassius, Philippe deux, Tibere; translations from Sophocles and Lessing, from Gray and Horace, from Tacitus and Aristotle; with elegies, dithyrambics and Ossianic rhapsodies.

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  • Without being formally opposed to Robespierre, he did not support him, and he was the only member of the Committee of Public Safety who did not sign the order for the execution of Danton and his party.

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  • On the 23rd of the same month he obtained a decree closing all the churches of Paris, and placing the priests under strict surveillance; but on the 25th he retraced his steps and obtained from the Commune the free exercise of worship. He wished to save the Hebertists by a new insurrection and struggled against Robespierre; but a revolutionary decree promulgated by the Commune on his demand was overthrown by the Convention.

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  • Robespierre had him accused with the Hebertists; he was arrested, imprisoned in the Luxembourg, condemned by the Revolutionary tribunal and executed on the 13th of April 1794.

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  • On the fall of Robespierre, Beauchamp was transferred to the bureau of the minister of police, and charged with the superintendence of the press.

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  • He acquiesced in the fall of Robespierre in 1794, but later defended Barere and others among his colleagues, declaring that he himself had constantly signed papers without reading them, as it was physically impossible to do so in the press of business.

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  • After the fall of Robespierre he joined the group of "Thermidorians" and was sent on mission to the south of France, where he closed the Jacobin club at Toulouse and set free a number of imprisoned "suspects."

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  • The coup d'etat of Thermidor (July 28, 1794) compelled the young disciple of Robespierre hurriedly to leave St Maximin, and to accept a small post at St Chamans.

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  • They were allpowerful in the Jacobin Club (see Jacobins), where Brissot's influence had not yet been ousted by Robespierre, and they did not hesitate to use this advantage to stir up popular passion and intimidate those who sought to stay the progress of the Revolution.

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  • Moreover, the Septembriseurs- Robespierre, Danton, Marat and their lesser satellites - realized that not only their influence but their safety depended on keeping the Revolution alive.

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  • Robespierre, who hated the Girondists, whose lustre had so long obscured his own, had proposed to includethem in the proscription lists of September; the Mountain to a man desired their overthrow.

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  • They had behind them the revolutionary Commune, the Sections and the National Guard of Paris, and they had gained control of the Jacobin club, where Brissot, absorbed in departmental work, had been superseded by Robespierre.

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  • The survivors of the party made an effort to re-enter the Convention after the fall of Robespierre, but it was not until the 5th of March 1795 that they were formally reinstated.

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  • Thrown into prison on a frivolous charge of friendliness to the royalists and England, he was released after the fall of Robespierre in the summer of 1794, and rose in the service until, in 1799, he became chief commissary to the French army serving under Massena in the north of Switzerland.

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  • His conduct arousing suspicion, he went into hiding, and did not emerge again until after the fall of Robespierre.

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  • But he became uneasy for his own safety and turned against Robespierre, whom he attacked on the 8th Thermidor as a "moderate" and a Dantonist.

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  • He took part in the reaction which followed the fall of Robespierre, sat in the Council of the Five Hundred under the Directory, and at the coup d'etat of the 18th Fructidor (Sept.

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  • He was closely allied with his namesake Merlin "of Thionville," and, after the counter-revolution which brought about the fall of Robespierre, xvni.

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  • (27th of July 1794), which resulted in the fall of Robespierre and the collapse of the Terror.

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  • Courtois, Rapport fait au nom de la commission chargee de l'examen des papiers trouves chez Robespierre et ses cornplices (1795); D.

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  • During their struggle with the Girondists, the Montagnards gained the upper hand in the Jacobin Club, and for a time Jacobin and Montagnard were synonymous terms. The Mountain was successively under the sway of such men as Marat, Danton, and Robespierre, and the group finally disappeared after Robespierre's death and the successes of the French arms.

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  • He entered into correspondence with Robespierre, who, flattered by his worship, admitted him to his friendship. Thus supported, Saint-Just became deputy of the department of Aisne to the National Convention, where he made his first speech on the condemnation of Louis XVI.

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  • In the Convention, in the Jacobin Club, and among the populace his relations with Robespierre became known, and he was dubbed the "St John of the Messiah of the People."

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  • What were then called reports were rather appeals to the passions; in Saint-Just's hands they furnished the occasion for a display of fanatical daring, of gloomy eloquence, and of undoubted genius; and - with the shadow of Robespierre behind him - they served their turn.

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  • Meanwhile affairs in Paris looked gloomier than ever, and Robespierre recalled Saint-Just to the capital.

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  • He was vehemently interrupted, and the sitting ended with an order for Robespierre's arrest (see Robespierre).

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  • He was thrown into prison shortly before the coup d'etat of Thermidor (July 1794) which overthrew Robespierre.

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  • It suffered severely during the French Revolution, especially from Joseph Lebon, who, like the brothers Maximilien and Augustin Robespierre, was a native of the town.

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  • After the fall of Robespierre, Legendre took part in the reactionary movement, undertook the closing of the Jacobin Club, was.

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  • He incurred the suspicion of Robespierre, was thrown into prison, and escaped the guillotine by an accident.

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  • At the downfall of Robespierre, Paine was restored to his seat in the convention, and served until it adjourned in October 1795.

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  • The antagonism caused by such an attitude had reached a significant point when on the 10th of April Robespierre himself laid his accusation before the Convention.

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  • In May 1794 an attempt was made to assassinate Collot; but it only increased his popularity, and this won him the hatred of Robespierre, against whom he took sides on the 9th Thermidor, when he presided over the Convention during a part of the session.

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  • On the outbreak of the revolution Freron, who was a schoolfellow of Robespierre and Camille Desmoulins, established the violent journal L'Orateur du people.

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  • Imprisoned in La Force (1794) he was one of those who had the good fortune to escape the guillotine till the death of Robespierre set them free.

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  • Chaumette (q.v.) the "worship of Reason," in opposition to the theistic cult inaugurated by Robespierre, against whom he tried to excite a popular movement.

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  • In 1794 The Fall of Robespierre, of which Coleridge wrote the first act and Southey the other two, appeared.

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  • He hesitated for a time as to which party he should join, but finally decided for that of Robespierre, with whom he had many opinions in common, especially in matters of religion.

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  • During the crisis preceding the 9th Thermidor, Couthon showed considerable courage, giving up a journey to Auvergne in order, as he wrote, that he might either die or triumph with Robespierre and liberty.

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  • Arrested with Robespierre and Saint-Just, his colleagues in the triumvirate of the Terror, and subjected to indescribable sufferings and insults, he was taken to the scaffold on the same cart with Robespierre on the 28th of July 1794 (loth Thermidor).

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  • After Robespierre's fall he was the first to advocate the reopening of the churches (speech of December 21, 1794).

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  • Excluded at the instance of Robespierre from the Jacobin Club, he was soon afterwards implicated in an accusation levelled against the Hebertists.

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  • From the first he posed as an opponent of the Mountain, accused Robespierre of aiming at the dictatorship (25th of September 17 9 2), attacked Marat, and proposed to break up the commune of Paris.

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  • The editors worked under the inspiration of a strong admiration of the principles of Robespierre and the Jacobins, and in the belief that the French Revolution was an attempt to realize Christianity.

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  • He was as ruthless and as incorrupt as Robespierre himself; he could be moved from his purpose neither by pity nor by bribes; nor was there in his cruelty any of that quality which made the ordinary Jacobin enrage by turns ferocious and sentimental.

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  • His horrible career ended with the fall of Robespierre and the terrorists on the 9th Thermidor.

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  • Burke no more adopted the doctrines of Jefferson in 1776 than he adopted the doctrines of Robespierre in 1793.

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  • Danton, no doubt, was abler than most of the others, yet the timidity or temerity with which he allowed himself to be vanquished by Robespierre showed that even he was not a man of commanding quality.

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  • Pitt, on the other hand, as Lord Russell truly says, treated Robespierre and Carnot as he would have treated any other French rulers, whose ambition was to be resisted, and whose interference in the affairs of other nations was to be checked.

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  • The Extreme Left, still more republican in spirit, of whom Robespierre was the most noteworthy, were few and had little power.

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  • Upon Robespierre's motion it had decreed that none of its members should be capable of sitting in the next legislature.

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  • Hence Robespierre and those who thought with him desired peace.

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  • Barbaroux accused Robespierre of aiming at a dictatorship, and Buzot demanded a guard recruited in the departments to protect the Convention.

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  • In October Louvet reiterated the charge against Robespierre, and Barbaroux called for the dissolution of the Commune of Paris.

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  • Robespierre frankly demanded that Louis as a public enemy should be put to death without form of trial.

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  • But soon after Danton had ceased to be a member of the Committee of Public Safety Robespierre was elected, and now became the most powerful man in France.

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  • Robespierre was an acrid fanatic, and unlike Danton, who only cared to secure the practical results of the Revolution, he had a moral and religious ideal which he intended to force on the nation.

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  • Robespierre, the leading member of the committee, abhorred the chiefs of the Commune, not merely because they conflicted with his ambition but from difference of character.

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  • When he became aware of the feud between Robespierre and the Commune, he conceived the hope of limiting the Terror and guiding the Revolution into a sane course.

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  • He returned to Paris and joined with Robespierre in carrying the law of 14 Frimaire (December 4), which gave the Committee of Public Safety absolute control over all municipal authorities.

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  • A sharp contest ensued between the Dantonists and the Commune, Robespierre inclining now to this side, now to that, for he was really a friend to neither.

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  • None could presume to challenge the authority of the Committee of Public Safety, and in the committee none disputed the leadership of Robespierre.

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  • Robespierre was at last acy of free to establish the republic of virtue.

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  • On the 8th the festival of the Supreme Being was solemnized, Robespierre acting as pontiff amid the outward deference and secret jeers of his colleagues.

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  • But Robespierre knew what a gulf parted him from almost all his countrymen.

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  • With Robespierre's approval St Just sketched at this time the plan of an ideal society in which.

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  • Robespierre was not a man of action; he knew not how to form or lead a party; he lived not with his fellows but with his own thoughts and ambitions.

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  • Robespierre professed consideration for the deputies of the Plain, who were glad to buy safety by conforming to his will; but he could not reckon on their help in time of danger.

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  • By degrees a coalition against Robespierre was formed in the Mountain.

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  • When St Just proposed Robespierre to the committees as dictator, he found no response.

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  • On the 8th Thermidor (26th of July) Robespierre addressed the Convention, deploring the invectives against himself and the Revolutionary Tribunal and demanding the purification of the committees and the punishment of traitors.

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  • Robespierre felt his ascendancy totter.

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  • Robespierre's enemies called on the Committee of Public Safety to arrest the traitors, but the committee was divided.

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  • Robespierre and all who tried to speak in his behalf were shouted down.

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  • The Plain was deaf to Robespierre's appeal.

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  • Finally the Convention decreed the arrest of Robespierre, of his brother Augustin, of Couthon and of St Just.

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  • The Convention outlawed Robespierre and his friends and sent out commissioners to rally the citizens.

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  • Had Robespierre possessed Danton's energy, the result might have been doubtful.

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  • Robespierre, whose jaw had been shattered by a pistol shot, was left in agony for the night.

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  • The fall of Robespierre had consequences unforeseen by his destroyers.

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  • Beside the remnant of Terrorists, such as Billaud Varennes and Collot d'Herbois, who had joined in the revolt against As- Robespierre, there were in the Convention at that time three principal factions.

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  • The Thermidorians, the immediate agents in Robespierre's overthrow, such as Tallien, had loudly professed Jacobinism, but wanted to make their peace with the nation.

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  • The most notable Jacobins have seldom left memoirs, but the works of Robespierre and St Just enable us to form a clearer conception of the authors.

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  • Mallet's Mallet du Pan and the French Revolution (London, 1902); Robinet's Danton (Paris, 1889); Hamel's Histoire de Robespierre (Paris, 1865-1867) and Histoire de St-Just (2 vols., Brussels, 1860); A.

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  • Thus Robespierre was executed on 10 Thermidor An II., i.e.

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  • But this mission helped to make him an object of suspicion to the other members of the Committee of Public Safety, and especially to Robespierre, who as a deist and a fanatical follower of the ideas of Rousseau, hated Herault, the follower of the naturalism of Diderot.

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  • Membership of the National League is, in many cases, as necessary a protection as ever was a certificate of civism under Robespierre.

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  • His tutor was Philippe Le Bas, son of the well-known member of the Convention and follower of Robespierre, an able man, imbued with the ideas of the Revolution, while Vieillard, who instructed him in the rudiments, was a democratic imperialist also inspired with the ideal of nationalism.

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  • This schism was reflected in the parties of the Assembly; the absolutists of the extreme Right; the moderate monarchists of the Right and Centre; the constitutionalists of the Left Centre and Left; and, finally, on the extreme Left the democratic revolutionists, among whom Robespierre sat as yet all but unnoticed.

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  • Their chief was not so much Robespierre, president of the parliamentary and bourgeois club of the Jacobins (q.v.), which had acquired by means of its two thousand affiliated branches great power in the provinces, as the advocate Danton, president of the popular and Parisian club of the Cordeliers.

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  • They drove him into the arms of Robespierre, Marat and the Commune of Paris.

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  • To the departments that were hostile to the dictatorship of Paris, and the tyranny of Danton or Robespierre, it promised the referendum, an executive of twenty-four citizens, universal suffrage, and the free exercise of religion.

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  • A man of action and not of cunning shifts, he succumbed on the 10th of July to the blows of his own government, which had passed from his hands into those of Robespierre, his ambitious and crafty rival.

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  • Composed of twelve members, re-eligible every month, and dominated by the triumvirate, Second Robespierre, Saint-Just and Couthon~ it was stronger committee than ever, since it obtained the right of appointing of public leaders, disposed of money, and muzzled the press, safety.

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  • Such were Robespierre, Saint-Just, Couthon, Billaud-Varenne, Cambon, Thuriot, Collot dHerbois, Barrre and Prieur d~ la Mbrne.

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  • At the head of the former type Robespierre, without special knowledge or exceptional talent, devoured by jealous ambition and gifted with cold grave eloquence, enjoyed a great moral ascendancy, due to his incorruptible purity of life and the invariably correct behaviour that had been wanting in Mirabeau, and by the persevering will which Danton had lacked.

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  • deist and therefore hostile to anti-religious masquerades, while uneasy at the absolute authority of the Paris Commune, which aimed at suppressing the State, and at its armed propaganda abroad, Robespierre resumed the struggle against its illegal power, so fatal to the Gironde.

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  • Robespierre now stood ~Ione.

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  • By his dogma of the supreme state Robespierre founded a theocratic government with the police as an Inquisition.

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  • Robespierre was no man of action.

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  • Although brought about by the Terrorists, the tragic fall of Robespierre put an end to the Reign of Terror; for their chiefs having disappeared, the subordinates were too much Thfrd divided to keep up the dictatorship of the third commiUee Committee of Public Safety, and reaction soon set in.

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  • The expedition to San Domingo reduced the republican army to a nullity; war demoralized or scattered the leaders, who were jealous of their comrade Bonaparte; and Moreau, the last of his rivals, cleverly compromised in a royalist plot, as Danton had formerly been by Robespierre, disappeared into exile.

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  • At first he voted with the Girondists, attacked Robespierre, "a pygmy who should not be set on a pedestal," and at the trial of the king voted with the Mountain for the king's death "without appeal and without delay."

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  • Appointed member of the Committee of Public Safety on the 7th of April 1793, he busied himself with foreign affairs; then, joining the party of Robespierre, whose resentment he had averted by timely flatteries, he played an important part in the second Committee of Public Safety - after the 17th of July 1793 - and voted for the death of the Girondists.

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  • On the 9th Thermidor (July 27th, 1 794) Barere hesitated, then he drew up the report outlawing Robespierre.

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  • The followers of Hebert, who were then pursuing their anti-Christian policy, claimed Gobel as one of themselves; while, on the other hand, Robespierre looked upon him as an atheist, though apostasy cannot strictly speaking be laid to the charge of the ex-bishop, nor did he ever make any actual profession of atheism.

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  • Robespierre, however, found him an obstacle to his religious schemes, and involved him in the fate of the Hebertists.

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  • He was recalled by the Committee of Public Safety on the 8th of February 1794, took part in the attack on Robespierre on the 9th Thermidor, but was himself brought before the Revolutionary Tribunal on the 11th and guillotined on the 16th of November 1794.

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  • He accused the Girondists of relations with the court, then turned against Robespierre, who had him expelled from the Jacobin club for his conduct as commissioner of the Convention with the army of La Rochelle.

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  • On the 9th Thermidor he was one of the deputies delegated to aid Barras to repress the insurrection made by the commune of Paris in favour of Robespierre.

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  • His failure to fulfil the tasks imposed on him (especially that of the relief of Mainz) led to his being arrested, and he was guillotined (23rd June 1794) not long before the fall of Robespierre.

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  • His arrest was decreed; but he had the generale sounded and the tocsin rung, and tried to rescue Robespierre, who was under arrest in the hall of the Comite de Siirete Generale.

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  • He was arrested, sentenced to death, and guillotined with Robespierre and his friends on the 10th Thermidor of the year II.

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  • He took part in the reactionary movement which followed the fall of Robespierre, and became a member of the reorganized Committees of Public Safety and General Security.

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  • Then Robespierre was beheaded for being a despot.

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