Roads Sentence Examples
The city changed as she wandered the zigzag roads toward its center until she came upon an inner wall - -now open - -leading to stone structures gleaming with gold and silver artwork.
Most of the route was via Interstate roads and easy driving.
The roads were crooked and muddy and rough.
I remembered how isolated these roads were, but I forgot how dangerous they were.
The roads were muddy, and the first of several wells she saw teemed with dirty water.Advertisement
Are the roads clear?
The roads up there are closed by snow two-thirds of the year.
Sofia watched the scenery turn from urban to rural and recognized the roads leading up to Skyline Drive, the scenic route running through the mountains of northern Virginia.
The sun is shining brightly to-day and I hope we shall go to ride if the roads are dry.
Unless he sticks to back roads, he can't get away.Advertisement
Two roads from the wall, she saw where the wounded and dead were being kept.
Is no part of this god forsaken state level or the roads straight?
There are numerous side roads but this is becoming a massive man hunt.
She'd traveled nonstop, sticking to narrow country roads and the forest to avoid both people and zones marked as having any sort of radiation fallout from the nuke strikes.
There are a lot of swamps in Arkansas, so just stick as close to the roads as you can.Advertisement
There are practically no branch roads in Turkestan, and the only means of transport in bulk is either by wagon on the few main roads, or by railway.
The first British factory in the peninsula was established in the native state of Patani on the east coast in 1613, the place having been used by the Portuguese in the 16th century for a similar purpose; but the enterprise came to an untimely end in 1620 when Captain Jourdain, the first president, was killed in a naval engagement in Patani Roads by the Dutch.
There is no general property tax except a special levy of 8% on the general list for school purposes and 5% for the construction of roads.
Two inclined roads lead from the centre of the boulevard to the quay 40 ft.
Being a meeting point of six main roads,' it was much visited by travellers.Advertisement
From Rome itself roads radiated in all directions.
But the two different roads led to the same result.
We asked about buildings; there were none, only corn in the four fields separated by the cross roads.
Our route scooted between Pennsylvania and Virginia for three hours until we crossed into West Virginia and traded a major highway for winding secondary roads.
I was awoken by the gunshot and both of us drove the roads around the perimeter of the property but neither heard nor saw his vehicle.Advertisement
She drove the winding roads from her father's manor through County Clare and south towards the Cliffs of Moher to Doolin, one of her favorite day trips.
He drove them through back roads and alleys to ensure no one followed before taking the highway and exiting into a direction that appeared to be nothing but desert.
It had been the mildest late winter in years and the lack of high country snow had opened the Jeep roads weeks earlier than usual.
I loathe these horrible roads, but I love the places they take you.
The roads up here haven't been free of snow all that long.
Dean planned to spend his free time biking, but changed his mind when he saw the crowds in town and remembered the traffic that would clog the narrow roads.
The road was rough but not limited to four-wheel drive vehicles like the mountain Jeep roads to the south.
The meadow was a tranquil site, far removed from main roads of present day habitation.
The lush Scottish Highlands around him were covered in a blanket of snow that stretched for miles, the white world interrupted only by a few narrow roads snaking in different directions.
There aren't any open side roads and hardly a plowed turnoff on this highway for twenty miles.
However, winter locked the mountain jeep roads beneath yards of snow for all but a few short summer weeks.
Soon they were snuggled beneath a heavy wool robe, gliding contentedly down the snow covered back roads of the Uncompahgre valley.
The roads were nearly empty but low visibility made driving treacherous.
His route to Philly looked like a drunkard's path, zigzagging a series of country roads that were at times crowded with local traffic.
Dean retrieved his car and fought his way out of town on roads thick with retreating commuters.
The light jackets came off early as the pair pedaled along, mostly riding side by side since the rural roads carried sparse traffic.
In spite of the cloudy weather and the threat of rain, Dean ended the daylight hours listening to the hum of his bike tires on the country roads west of Parkside.
Had this happened any other time, she would have suggested they go out for supper, but the roads weren't the only thing icy tonight.
Fifteen minutes to travel six miles to the clinic — most of it rough gravel roads.
The small town had only dirt roads, and his glanced lingered towards a farmers market under the awnings in the center, a couple of blocks away.
He all but dragged her through the quiet, stinking roads of Corcoran, seething, oblivious to the wooden huts lining the muddied street on each side of them.
My allies will block their roads and take the fortresses at the borders, among other actions.
Two other passes, farther to the west, were crossed by the roads from Plataea to Athens and to Megara respectively.
Astorga was the Roman Asturica Augusta, a provincial capital, and the meeting-place of four military roads.
For twenty-two years I have lived amongst these pollarded trees, these rutty roads, beside these tangled thickets and streams along whose banks only children and sheep can pass.
The city extends for several miles along both sides of the river, and is in a good farming district, with which it is connected by stone roads.
The main road system, which dates from 1828, previous to which there were only tracks, is good, and the roads well engineered; many of them are traversed daily by post vehicles.
The railway runs through the centre of the rice-producing area, and feeder roads open up the country as far as the Shan foot-hills.
The point of concentration for next year's campaign had been fixed at Gordium, a meeting-place of roads in Northern Phrygia.
Besides the historical narrative, there were works mainly geographical or topographical left by persons like Baeton and Diognetus, whom Alexander had employed (as Onyarcaral.) to survey the roads over which he passed.
The development of commerce is retarded by lack of communications; the country possesses no railways and few roads.
The true source of the Adige is in some small lakes on the summit of the Reschen Scheideck Pass (4902 ft.), and it is swollen by several other streams, near Glurns, where the roads over the Ofen and the Stelvio Passes fall in.
The cole des Fonts et Chausses at Paris is maintained by the government for the training of the engineers for the construction and upkeep of roads and bridges.
Each department controls and maintains the routes dpartementales, usually good macadamized roads connecting the chief places within its limits and extending in 1903 over 9700 m.
The urban and rural district roads, covering a much greater mileage and classed as la petite voirie, are maintained chiefly by the communes under the supervision of the Minister of the Interior.
It assigns its quota of taxes (contingent) to each arrondissement, authorizes the sale, purchase or exchange of departmental property, superintends the management thereof, authorizes the construction of new roads, railways or canals, and advises on matters of local interest.
There are also carriage roads to Bethlehem, Hebron and Jericho, and a road to Nablus was in course of construction in 1909.
Without the walls carriage roads have been made to the mount of Olives, the railway station, and various parts of the suburbs, but they are kept in bad repair.
The unhealthiness of the city is chiefly due to want of proper drainage, impure drinkingwater, miasma from the disturbed rubbish heaps, and contaminated dust from the uncleansed roads and streets.
By means of bond labour roads and bridges were con structed, and a route opened into the interior beyond Rise of the Blue Mountains.
The principal thoroughfares are Wandsworth Road and Battersea Park and York Roads from east to west, connected north and south with the Victoria or Chelsea, Albert and Battersea bridges over the Thames.
Mining is hampered by the lack of roads and by the want of machinery.
By the act of 1903 the state contributes half and the province a quarter of the cost of roads connecting communes with the nearest railway stations or landing places.
The former category comprises the maintenance of provincial roads, bridges and watercourse embankments;, secondary education, whenever this is n.ot provided for by private, institutions or by the state (elementary education being maintained by the communes), and the maintenance of foundlings and pauper lunatics.
The mainstay of the Roman military control of Italy first, and of the whole empire afterwards, was the splendid system of roads.
As the supremacy of Rome extended itself Roads, over Italy, the Roman road system grew step by step, each fresh conquest being marked by the pushing forward of roads through the heart of the newly-won territory, and the establishment of fortresses in connection with them.
It was in Italy that the military value of a network of roads was first appreciated by the Romans, and the lesson stood them in good stead in the provinces.
Communications with the south-east were mainly provided by the Via Appia (the queen of Roman roads, as Statius called it) and the Via Latina, which met close to Casiinum, at the crossing of the Volturnus, 3 m.
Coast roads of minor importance as means of through communication also existed on both sides of the toe of the boot.
The road along the east coast from Fanum Fortmrnae down to Barium, which connected the terminations of the Via Salaria and Via Valeria, and of other roads farther south crossing from Campania, had no special name in ancient times, as far as we know.
Cremona, on the north bank of the P0, was an important meeting point of roads and Hostilia (Ostiglia) another; so also was Patavium, farther east, and Altinum and Aquileia farther east still.
Roads, indeed, were almost as plentiful as railways at the present day in the basin.
As to the roads leading out of Italy, from Aquileia roads diverged northward into Raetia, eastward to Noricum and Pannonia, and southwards to the Istrian and Dalmatian coasts.
Farther west came the roads over the higher Alpine passes the Brenner from Verona, the Septimer and the Splugen from Clavenna (Chiavenna), the Great and the Little St Bernard from Augusta Praetoria (Aosta), and the Mont Genvre from Augusta Taurinorum (Turin).
Westward two short but important roads led on each side of the Tiber to the great harbour at its mouth; while the coast of Latium was supplied with a coast road by Septimius Severus.
Massive walls, substantial edifices, commodious seaports, good roads, were the benefits conferred by this new government on Italy.
They fought for bare existence, for primacy in commerce, for the command of seaports, for the keys of mountain passes, for rivers, roads and all the avenues of wealth and plenty.
Railways, roads and harbours which contractors had undertaken to construct for reasonable amounts were frequently made to cost thrice the original estimates.
Weaving is taught in the girls' school, and fairs are held for the sale of farm produce; but the absence of a railway and the badness of the roads retard commerce.
In the reign of Tiberius he held the office of praetor, and was appointed to the superintendence of the roads and bridges.
The Via Appia was the most famous of Roman roads; Statius, Silvae, ii.
It was administered under the empire by a curator of praetorian rank, as were the other important roads of Italy.
The registry of the citizens, the suppression of litigation, the elevation of public morals, the care of minors, the retrenchment of public expenses, the limitation of gladiatorial games and shows, the care of roads, the restoration of senatorial privileges, the appointment of none but worthy magistrates, even the regulation of street traffic, these and numberless other duties so completely absorbed his attention that, in spite of indifferent health, they often kept him at severe labour from early morning till long after midnight.
The plan of Shakespeare's Stratford at least is preserved, for the road crossing Clopton's bridge is an ancient highway, and forks in the midst of the town into three great branches, about which the village grew up. The high cross no longer stands at the marketplace where these roads converged.
Every new war produced a new survey and itinerary of the countries which were conquered, and added one more to the imperishable roads that led from every quarter of the known world to Rome.
Amongst his contemporaries were Istakhri, who travelled through all the Mahommedan countries and wrote his Book of Climates in 950, and Ibn Haukal, whose Book of Roads and Kingdoms, based on the work of Istakhri, was written in 976.
These are places where the mode of travelling or of transport is changed, such as seaports, river ports and railway termini, or natural resting-places, such as a ford, the foot of a steep ascent on a road, the entrance of a valley leading up from a plain into the mountains, or a crossing-place of roads or railways.'
In countries of uniform surface or faint relief, roads and railways may be constructed in any direction without regard to the configuration.
In places where the low ground is marshy, roads and railways often follow the ridge-lines of hills, or, as in Finland, the old glacial eskers, which run parallel to the shore.
Here the roads from Damascus, by way of Palmyra, and from Mosul, by way of the Khabur, reach the Euphrates, and here there must always have been a town of considerable commercial and strategic importance.
It was then in the midst of dense forests and was wholly unconnected by roads with other parts of the state.
Another English company has constructed motor roads in the Liberian hinterland to connect centres of trade with the St Paul's river.
The money which he accumulated he put to good use in the construction of roads and public buildings.
The zemstvos were originally given large powers in relation to the incidence of taxation, and such questions as education, public health, roads and the like.
The aggregate value of the redemption and land taxes often reaches 185 to 275% of the normal rental value of the allotments, not to speak of taxes for recruiting purposes, the church, roads, local administration and so on, chiefly levied from the peasants.
They comprise several ranges which the roads from the sea to the interior have to cross at right angles, thereby rendering communication and transport very difficult.
It may be supposed that originally the public roads, when worn by the cartage of the coal, were repaired by laying planks of timber at the bottom of the ruts, and that then the planks were laid on the surface of special roads or ways' formed between the collieries and the river.
When, however, a company desires to construct a line on a commercial scale, to acquire land compulsorily, to divert rivers and streams, to cross roads either on the level or by means of bridges, to pass near houses, to build tunnels or viaducts, and to execute all the other works incidental to a.
Roads had been constructed in advance of settlement, and land-seekers had been transported to these frontier sections only to become dependent upon the railways for their very existence.
Larger rivers, canals, roads, other railways and sometimes deep narrow valleys are crossed by bridges (q.v.) of timber, brick, stone, wrought iron or steel, and many of these structures rank among the largest engineering works in the world.
In connexion with a railway many bridges have also to be constructed to carry public roads and other railways over the line, and for the use of owners or tenants whose land it has cut through (" accommodation bridges ").
In many instances old level crossings have been replaced by over-bridges with long sloping approaches; in this way considerable expenditure has been involved, justified, however, by the removal of a danger to the public and of interruptions to the traffic on both the roads and the railways.
As far as possible, these railways are laid beside roads, in preference to independent formation; the permanent way costs £977 per mile in the former as against £793 in the latter.
Through villages, and where roads have to be crossed, the line is of the usual tramway type.
Cuttings are reduced to a minimum; and where the roads are sufficiently wide, the rails are laid on the margins.
Similarly, the same authorities decide for themselves the conditions under which the public roads may be used, and the precautions for public safety, all subject to the confirmation of the imperial government.
Communications are maintained on horseback and by water, and there are no roads except at Stanley.
All fines collected under the penal laws, all escheats and 2% of the receipts of toll roads and bridges go into the school fund, which is invested in state and Federal securities and the interest apportioned among the counties according to their school population.
The second decision grew out of the attempt of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers to prevent other roads from accepting freight from the Toledo, Ann Arbor & North Michigan railroad, against which a "legal" strike had been declared.
In 132 the consul P. Popillius built the great inland road from Capua through Vibo and Consentia to Rhegium, while the date of the construction of the east and west coast roads is uncertain.
Their houses are slightly built, but the surrounding ground and roads are laid out with great care and taste.
The councils assess within certain limits the communal taxes, maintain roads, bridges, &c., and generally superintend local affairs.
He encouraged agriculture, improved the roads, introduced an Albanian police, and put down brigandage.
Built in a low and swampy country and approached by deep and almost impassable roads, Barfurush would not seem at all favourably situated for the seat of an extensive inland trade; it is, however,.
The commissioners supervise the penal and charitable institutions, schools, roads, bridges and finances of the county.
The junction in Southwark of the great roads from the south of England for the passage of the Thames sufficiently accounted for the early origin of Southwark.
The town is situated in the valley of the Metauro, in the centre of fine scenery, at the meeting-point of roads to Fano, to the Furlo pass and Fossato di Vico (the ancient Via Flaminia), to Urbino and to Sinigaglia, the last crossing the river by a fine bridge.
This railway, together with the driving roads over the Caucasus mountains via the Mamison pass (the Ossetic military road) and the Darial pass (the Georgian military road), and the route across the Black Sea to Poti or Batum are the chief means of communication between southern Russia and Transcaucasia.
Another reform was the substitution for the corvee of a tax in money levied on the whole province, the construction of roads being handed over to contractors, by which means Turgot was able to leave his province with a good system of roads, while distributing more justly the expense of their construction.
In Scotland the opening up of the country by the construction of practicable roads, and the enclosing and subdividing of farms by hedge and ditch, was now in active progress.
Stephens headed the Confederate commission to the peace conference at Hampton Roads in February 1865.
The geographical position of Venice and her commercial policy alike compelled her to attempt to secure the command of the rivers and roads of the mainland, at least up to the mountains, that is to say, of the north-western outlet, just as she had obtained command of the south-eastern inlet.
The other township officials are the clerk, treasurer, assessor, supervisor of roads, justices of the peace, constables, board of education and board of health.
They are traversed by the Pontebba or Pontafel Pass, through which passes one of the principal Alpine roads from Italy to Austria.
Boston is the terminus of the Boston & Albany (New York Central), the Old Colony system of the New York, New Haven & Hartford, and the Boston & Maine railway systems, each of which controls several minor roads once in dependent.
Boston also feels the competition of Montreal and Portland; the Canadian roads being untrammelled in the matter of freight differentials.
Kerosene is transported in bulk by various means; specially constructed steel tank barges are used on the waterways of the United States, tank-cars on the railroads, and tank-wagons on the roads.
There are carriage roads radiating from Aleppo to the sea at Alexandretta, and to Aintab; and Antioch is also connected with Alexandretta; Beirut and Horns with Tripoli; Damascus with Beirut; and Nazareth with Haifa.
But carriage roads in the Ottoman dominions are seldom completely made, and hardly ever kept in repair.
The Lebanon district is well supplied with both roads and made mule-tracks.
Roads were laid out, some of which yet remain; and in the last three years of English occupation the government spent $580,000 on the two provinces.
In front of the reservoir is a small open space towards which several roads converge; close by is a triangular enclosure of polygonal masonry, in which were found various relics relating to the worship of Dionysus, a very ancient wine-press (Anvos) and the remains of a small temple.
The walls of the city, now built under the direction of Themistocles, embraced a larger area than the previous circuit, with which they seem to have coincided at the Dipylon Gate on the north-west where the Sacred Way to Eleusis was joined by the principal carriage route to the Peiraeus and the roads to the Academy and Colonus.
The mileage of wagon roads was increased from about 170 m.
The police force of each municipality, or rather of each of 66 police districts, is maintained and controlled by the insular government; justice in each municipality is also administered by the insular government; the building, maintenance and repair of public roads are under the management of a board of three road supervisors in each of the seven insular election districts; and matters pertaining to education are for the most part under the insular commissioner of education and a school board of three members elected biennially in each municipality; nearly all other local affairs are within the jurisdiction of the mayor and municipal council.
He fortified cities, constructed roads and organized the army.
Coaches and cars traverse the main roads during the summer, but many of the finest dales and passes are accessible only on foot or by ponies.
It stands at the junction of several important roads and railways from Maaseyck, Maastricht and Liege.
On the British side of the border the chief objects have been the disarmament of the tribes and the construction of frontier and internal roads.
He was put in command of its naval forces when Franklin Buchanan resigned after he was wounded in the action with the Federal squadron in Hampton Roads.
The roads and aqueducts were repaired, and the limits of the pomerium extended.
The British government (the Asquith cabinet) came to the conclusion that another expedition against the mullah would be useless; that they must either build a railway, make roads and effectively occupy the whole of the protectorate, or else abandon the interior completely.
From the landing-stage, by the customs house, roads lead to the Place Mehemet Ali, the centre of the life of the city and the starting-point of the electric tramways.
This quarter has been pierced by several straight roads, one of which, crossing the Mahmudiya canal by the Pont Neuf, leads to Gabbari, the most westerly part of the city and an industrial and manufacturing region, possessing asphalt works and oil, rice and paper mills.
The leasing or hiring of state convicts is prohibited by the constitution, but parish convicts may be hired or leased for farm and factory work, work on roads and levees, and other public undertakings.
P. Banks at Sabine Cross Roads near Mansfield and were themselves repulsed at Pleasant Hill, these battles being incidental to.
There was ostensible government regulation of rates after 1877, but the roads were guaranteed outright against any loss of revenue, and in fact practically nothing was ever done in the way of reform in the Spanish period.
In 1900 the total length of railways was 2097 m., of which 1226 were of 17 public roads and 871 m.
Wagon roads are still of small extent and primitive character save in a very few localities.
The subjects of legislative power are very similar to those of the United States congress; but control of railroads, canals and public roads is explicitly given to the federal government.
Very little was spent on sanitation, roads, other public works and education.
The Bahamas are without railways, but there are good roads.
Not far off, similar relics were found at Sobunar, Zlatiste and Debelobrdo; iron and bronze ornaments, vessels and weapons, often of elaborate design, occur in the huts and cemeteries of Glasinac, and in the cemetery of Jezerine, where they are associated with objects in silver, tin, amber, glass, &c. Among the numerous finds made in other districts may be mentioned the discovery, at Vrankamer, near Bihac, of 98 African coins, the oldest of which dates from 300 B.C. Many vestiges of Roman rule survive, such as roads, mines, ruins, tombs, coins, frescoes and inscriptions.
Although the capital of Bolivia, Sucre is one of its most isolated towns because of the difficult character of the roads leading to it.
A considerable hindrance to the development of the empire's resources has been the lack of an adequate system of communications; but although it is still deficient in good roads, much has been done of late years to develop railways, extend canals and improve river communications.
The institution of the Janissaries holds a prominent place among the most remarkable events of Orkhan's reign, which was notable for the encouragement of learning and the foundation of schools, the building of roads and other works of public utility.
On the 26th of September, its deployment beyond the mountains was complete, and as Napoleon did not know of Mack's intention to stay at Ulm and had learned that the Russian advance had been delayed, he directed his columns by the following roads on the Danube, between Donauworth and Ingolstadt, so as to be in a position to intervene between the Austrians and the Russians and beat both in detail.
The weather during the whole of October had been unusually wet, the swollen Danube overflowed the low ground and the roads had become quagmires.
The road now lay completely open, but the Austrian columns had so opened out owing to the state of the roads that the leading troops could not pursue their advantage - Dupont rallied and the Austrians had actually to fall back towards Ulm to procure food.
On the 7th of October the Grande Armee lay in three parallel columns along the roads leading over the mountains to Hof, Schleiz and Kronach; on the right lay the IV.
Exhaustive orders to organize the necessary trains were duly issued, but the emperor seems to have had no conception of the difficulties the tracks - there were no metalled roads - of Poland were about to present to him.
The truth is that the days were too short and the roads too bad for Napoleon to carry out the full purpose his "general advanced guard " was intended to fulfil.
But here too the weather and the state of the roads operated adversely, for Ney came up too late, while Davout, in the full tide of his victorious advance, was checked by the arrival of Lestocq, whose corps Ney had failed to intercept, Campaign Of 1807 In Poland And Prussia Scale.
Blucher followed by parallel and inferior roads on their northern flank, but Schwarzenberg knowing that the Bavarians also had forsaken the emperor and were marching under Wrede, 50,000 strong, to intercept his retreat, followed in a most leisurely fashion.
There he was joined by the Austrian advance guard, and together they decided to accept battle - indeed they had no alternative, as the roads in rear were so choked with traffic that retreat was out of the question.
Owing to the state of the roads, more perhaps to the extraordinary lethargy which always characterized Schwarzenberg's headquarters, no pursuit was attempted.
In July 1804 he ordered his admiral commanding at Toulon, Latouche Treville, to seize an opportunity when Nelson, who was in command of the blockade, was driven off by a northerly gale, to put to sea, with 1 0 sail of the line, pick up the French ship in Cadiz, join Villeneuve who was in the Aix roads, and then effect a junction with Ganteaume and the 21 sail of the line at Brest.
The operations of the British fleet were therefore divided between the work of patrolling the ocean roads and ancillary services to diplomacy, or to the armies serving in Italy, Denmark and, after 1808, in Spain.
With the exception of the highway from Pnom-Penh (q.v.) the capital, to Kampot, the roads of Cambodia are not suited for vehicles.
On the 20th of August the Allies, strengthened by the arrival of two more brigades (4000 men), occupied some heights north of Vimiera (Vimeira or Vimeiro) where the roads branch off to Torres Vedras and Mafra.
For these reasons he marched by land; and as the roads north of the Tagus were deemed impassable for guns, while transport and supplies for a large force were also difficult to procure, he sent Sir John Hope, with the artillery, cavalry and reserve ammunition column, south of the river, through Badajoz to Almaraz, to move thence through Talavera, Madrid and the Escurial Pass, involving a considerable detour; while he himself with the infantry, marching by successive divisions, took the shorter roads north of the Tagus through Coimbra and Almeida, and also by Alcantara and Coria to Ciudad Rodrigo and Salamanca.
With about 35,000 British, 30,000 Portuguese regular troops and 30,000 Portuguese militia, he watched the roads leading into Portugal past Ciudad Rodrigo to the north, and Badajoz to the south of the Tagus, as also the line of the Douro and the country between the Elga and the Ponsul.
Wellington followed, directing the Portuguese to remove all boats from the Mondego and Douro, and to break up roads north of the former river.
The key to the remaining operations of t811 lies in the importance attached by both Allies and French to the possession of the fortresses which guarded the two great roads from Portugal into Spain - Almeida and Ciudad Rodrigo on the northern, and Badajoz and Elvas on the southern road; all these except Elvas were in French hands.
Soult held Battle of a strong position behind Orthes on heights command Orthes, ing the roads to Dax and St Sever.
From St Sever Soult turned eastwards to Aire, where he covered the roads to Bordeaux and Toulouse.
The surrounding country, which is traversed by gravel roads leading to the principal towns of the province, is fertile and well cultivated, producing sugar, tobacco and rice in abundance.
Law courts, government offices, prisons and a substantial bridge were built, good roads made, and a large staff of sanitary inspectors appointed.
During his two and a half years of service under Cochrane, the young midshipman witnessed more than fifty engagements, and had much experience of service on the coast of Spain in the early stage of the Peninsular War, in the attack on the French squadron in the Roads (April 1809) and in the Walcheren expedition.
It is also a road centre, the roads from the Mediterranean to Bagdad by way of Aleppo and Damascus respectively meeting here.
It lay at the point of junction of four roads - the Via Caecilia, the Via Claudia Nova and two branches of the Via Salaria, which joined it at the 64th and 89th miles respectively.
The settlement in Flying Fish Cove now numbers some 250 inhabitants, consisting of Europeans, Sikhs, Malays and Chinese, by whom roads have been cut and patches of cleared ground cultivated.
Bologna is an important railway centre, just as the ancient Bononia was a meeting-point of important roads.
During his reign silver mines were opened in the Harz Mountains, towns were founded, roads were made, and the general condition of the country was improved.
The climate though subject to extremes of heat and cold is healthy; in winter the roads are often closed by snow.
A majority of the ports, from which these roads are built, are small and difficult of access, and the coasting trade is restricted to vessels carrying the Brazilian flag.
The Pentland range contains many points of interest and beauty, but these are mostly accessible only to the pedestrian, although the hills are crossed by roads, of which the chief are those by Glencorse burn and the Cauld Stane Slap. Habbie's Howe, the scene of Allan Ramsay's pastoral The Gentle Shepherd, is some 2 m.
The state came under British management, and the administration was improved, the revenue increased, a system of irrigation developed, new tanks and wells constructed and an excellent system of roads and public buildings organized.
As a centre from which good natural roads lead N.,N.E.,W.
Modern roads were made, the first railways were laid down, the regulation of the river Theiss was taken in hand, a new and better scheme of finance was inaugurated.
They were attempts to arrive at a true knowledge of the relationships of animals by " royal roads "; their followers were landed in barren wastes.
Oxford Street, with its handsome shops, bounds the borough on the south, crossing Regent Street at Oxford Circus; Edgware Road on the west; Marylebone Road crosses from east to west, .and from this Upper Baker Street gives access to Park, Wellington, and Finchley Roads; and Baker Street leads southward.
The semi-military organization of these divisions, which existed under the South African republic, has been abolished, and field-cornets, who are nominated by the provincial government, are purely civil officials charged with the registration of voters, births and deaths, the maintenance of public roads, &c. The chief local authorities are the municipal bodies, many " municipalities " being rural areas centred round a small town.
The Prussians followed on the 29th, but, owing to the iie of the roads, they had to march in two long columns, separated by almost a day's march, and when the advanced guard of the left column, late in the afternoon, gained touch with the enemy, the latter were in a position to crush them by weight of numbers, had they not suddenly been ordered to continue the retreat on Miletin.
Their railway communication ended abruptly at the Austrian frontier; the roads were few and bad, the country sparsely cultivated and inhospitable, and the troops suffered severely.
The marshes near the Danube and Theiss were cleared, roads and canals were built at great expense of labour, German artisans and other settlers were attracted to colonize the district, and agriculture and trade encouraged.
Agriculture has been developed only to a limited extent in Sonora, because of its aridity, lack of irrigation facilities, lack of railways and roads, and the unsettled state of the country.
The wonderful Roman remains at Trier and elsewhere, the Roman roads, bridges and aqueducts, are convincing proofs of what the Rhine gained from Roman domination.
The principal continuous thoroughfares within the metropolis, though each bears a succession of names, are coincident with the main roads converging upon the capital from all parts of England.
The direct line of the thoroughfare is interrupted after Piccadilly Circus (the term " circus " is frequently applied to the open space - not necessarily round - at the junction of several roads), but is practically resumed in the Strand, with its hotels, shops and numerous theatres, and continued through the City in Fleet Street, the centre of the newspaper world, and Ludgate Hill, at the head of which is St Paul's Cathedral.
From the east two main roads similarly converge upon the City, which they enter by Aldgate (the suffix in this and other names indicating the former existence of one of the City gates).
From the north of England two roads preserve communication-lines from the earliest times.
The Holyhead and Great North Roads, uniting at Barnet, enter London by branches through' Hampstead and through Highgate, between the Old North and Edgware roads.
At the second of these points the majority of the chief roads from the southern suburbs and the south of England are collected.
Probably in the later, as in the earlier time, Londinium had the usual four gates of a Roman city, with the main roads to them.
This object was the completion of a system of roads connecting all parts of the Empire with Rome.
No doubt the coming of the Saxons, which entirely changed the condition of the country, must have greatly injured trade, but although there was not the same freedom of access to the roads, the Londoners had the highway of the river at their doors.
In 1841 some slaves who were being carried in the brig "Creole" from Hampton Roads, Virginia, to New Orleans, revolted, killed the captain, gained possession of the vessel, and soon afterwards entered the British port of Nassau.
Such roads in England for the most part either are of immemorial antiquity or have been created under the authority of an act of parliament.
By the Local Government Act 1888 the entire maintenance of main roads was thrown upon county councils.
The trustees were required and empowered to maintain, repair and improve the roads committed to their charge, and the expenses of the trust were met by tolls levied on persons using the road.
The various grounds of exemption from toll on turnpike roads were all of a public character, e.g.
By the Highways and Locomotives Act of 1878 disturnpiked roads became "main roads."
Ordinary highways might be declared to be "main roads," and "main roads" be reduced to the status of ordinary highways.
Fn Scotland the highway system is regulated by the Roads and Bridges Act 1878 and amending acts.
One of the consequences of the act was the abolition of tolls, statutelabour, causeway mail and other exactions for the maintenance of bridges and highways, and all turnpike roads became highways, and all highways became open to the public free of tolls and other exactions.
Sometimes it is held to be restricted to county roads as opposed to town-ways.
See Glen, Law Relating to Highways; Pratt, Law of Highways, Main Roads and Bridges.
Well-made roads connect all the magistracies.
The Tugela is crossed by well-known drifts, to which roads from Natal and Zululand converge.
As the mine is opened the deposit is subdivided into blocks of convenient size by parallel passages, which form later the main haulage roads, and by transverse openings for ventilation.
The working-floors are connected by winzes with the main haulage roads below.
Haulage roads are driven in the ore so as to divide the floor into areas of convenient size.
In this manner one floor after another is worked until the floor containing the main haulage roads of the level below is reached.
In the meantime a new level and a system of haulage roads have been driven a hundred feet below, and winzes have been driven upward to connect with the old level which is to be abandoned.
The floor containing these old haulage roads now becomes the top slice of the one hundred-foot block of ground below and is mined out as described.
The subdrift system requires a smaller amount of narrow work in excavating the necessary haulage roads, and is therefore better adapted to hard ores in which such narrow work is expensive.
Each floor is opened up by subsidiary haulage roads and worked out in small rooms which are timbered and filled with broken rock when completed.
Work is then started on the floor above, the upper floors being connected with the main haulage roads by winzes which are maintained through the filled ground.
The use of the heavy timbers and continuous framing which characterize this system facilitates greatly the work of mining and maintaining the haulage roads on the different floors, and gives more rigid support to the unmined portions of the block of ground above.
This occasions much added expense in the maintenance and retimbering of the haulage roads on the upper floors.
For deep workings the milling method is usually employed, in which the ore is excavated in funnel-shaped pits, each of which connects with underground haulage roads by a shaft.
Before the bottom of these pits reaches the level of the haulage roads below, a new set of roads will have been driven at a lower level and connected with the excavations above by the shafts.
Wooden rails, protected by iron straps, are sometimes used on underground roads for temporary traffic; but steel rails, similar to, though lighter than, those employed for railways are the rule.
Mine cars are sometimes run long distances, singly or in trains, over roads which are given sufficient grade to impart considerable speed by gravity, say from I to 21%.
Locomotive haulage is applicable to large mines, where trains of cars are hauled long distances on flat or undulating roads of moderate gradients.
In the tail-rope system of haulage, best adapted for single track roads, there are two ropes - a main and a " tail " rope - winding on a pair of drums operated by an engine.
In the endless-rope systems cars run singly or in short trains, curves are disadvantageous, unless of long radius, speed is relatively slow, and branch roads not so easily operated as with tail-rope.
Drainage channels are provided, usually along the main haulage roads, by which the water flows to a sump excavated at the pump shaft.
This, however, meant a two days' march along indifferent roads.
Those utilized were the Kaoshan (the "Hindu Kush" pass par excellence), 14,340 ft.; the Chahardar (13,900 ft.), which is a link in one of the amir of Afghanistan's high roads to Turkestan; and the Shibar (9800 ft.), which is merely a diversion into the upper Ghorband of that group of passes between Bamian and the Kabul plains which are represented by the Irak, Hajigak, Unai, &c. About this point it is geographically correct to place the southern extremity of the Hindu Kush, for here commences the Koh-i-Baba system into which the Hindu Kush is merged.
The so-called rivers of the delta, the Ngawun, Pyamalaw, Panmawaddy, Pyinzalu and Pantanaw, are simply the larger mouths of the Irrawaddy, and the whole country towards the sea is a close network of creeks where there are few or no roads and boats take the place of carts for every purpose.
The length of roads has not greatly increased in Lower Burma, but there has been a great deal of road constuction in Upper Burma.
It lay off the main roads, and is hardly mentioned by ancient writers, though Pliny speaks of the Silis as flowing "ex montibus Tarvisanis."
Roads connected Laranda, north of the Taurus, with Kelenderis and Seleucia.
Situated at the intersection of two roads - from Kulja to Tashkent, and from Semipalatinsk to Kashgar - Vyernyi carries on an active trade in wheat, rice, corn, tea, oil and tobacco.
The empire was bound together by roads, along which there was a regular postal service; and clay seals, which took the place of stamps, are now in the Louvre bearing the names of Sargon and his son.
The real reference of these stories, however, was forgotten, and it has been reserved to our own generation to rediscover the records of a power and a civilization which once dominated Asia Minor and north Syria and occupied all the continental roads of communication between the East and the West of the ancient world.
Some of the religious gilds supported schools, or helped to maintain roads, bridges and town-walls, or even came, in course of time, to be closely connected with the government of the borough; but, as a rule, they were simply private societies with a limited sphere of activity.
The ancient Eporedia, standing at the junction of the roads from Augusta Taurinorum and Vercellae, at the point where the road to Augusta Praetoria enters the narrow valley of the Duria (Dora Baltea), was a military position of considerable importance belonging to the Salassi who inhabited the whole upper valley of the Duria.
So gentle is the incline of the hills that in driving over the wellconstructed roads the ascent is scarcely noticeable.
Ibn Khordadhbeh, in the middle of the 9th century, wrote a Book of Roads and Provinces to give an account of the highways, the posting-stations and the revenues of the provinces.
Formerly nearly the whole of Muttra consisted of pasture and woodland, but the roads constructed as relief works in1837-1838have thrown open many large tracts of country, and the task of reclamation has since proceeded rapidly.
Leaving Hampton Roads on the 18th of August 1838, it Mopped at Madeira and Rio de Janeiro; visited Tierra del Fuego, Chile, Peru, the Paumotu group of the Low Archipelago, the Samoan islands and New South Wales; from Sydney sailed into the Antarctic Ocean in December 1839 and reported the discovery of an Antarctic continent west of the Balleny islands; visited the Fiji and the Hawaiian islands in 1840, explored the west coast of the United States, including the Columbia river, San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento river, in 1841, and returned by way of the Philippine islands, the Sulu archipelago, Borneo, Singapore, Polynesia and the Cape of Good Hope, reaching New York on the 10th of June 1842.
These roads added much to the productive resources of the country, but their extension to the sierra districts was still a vital necessity.
Roads with post-houses at intervals were made over the wildest mountain-ranges and the bleakest deserts for hundreds of miles.
From the mainland it is separated by a narrow channel, which at Hong-Kong roads, between Victoria, the island capital, and Kowloon Point, is about 1 m.
There is good anchorage throughout the entire channel separating the island from the mainland, except in the Ly-ee-mun Pass, where the water is deep; the best anchorage is in Hong-Kong roads, in front of Victoria, where, over good holding ground, the depth is 5 to 9 fathoms. The inner anchorage of Victoria Bay, about a m.
There abound "beautifully laid out gardens, public and private, and solidly constructed roads, some of them bordered with bamboos and other delicately-fronded trees, and fringed with the luxuriant growth of semi-tropical vegetation."
Hampton Roads is famous in history as the scene of the first engagement between iron-clad vessels.
John Lorimer Worden (1818-1897), had left New York on the morning of the 6th of March; after a dangerous passage in which she twice narrowly escaped sinking, she arrived at Hampton Roads during the night of the 8th, and early in the morning of the 9th anchored near the "Minnesota."
At Sewell's Point, on Hampton Roads, in 1907 was held the Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition.
In 1812 he was promoted general, and made director of roads and bridges.
The roads are wide but badly kept.
Several important roads intersect the province; among them are - I.
Consulates of Great Britain, Germany, France, Russia and Turkey and several European mercantile houses are established at Bushire, and notwithstanding the drawbacks of bad roads to the interior, insufficient and precarious means of transport, and want of security, the annual value of the Bushire trade since 1890 averaged about £1,500,000 (one-third being for exports, two-thirds for imports), and over two-thirds of this was British.
It was an important point in the road system of the district, lying on that between Mediolanum and Aquileia, while here diverged to the north the roads up the Athesis valley and over the Brenner into Raetia, and to the south roads ran to Betriacum, Mantua and Hostilia.
Its fertile surroundings, its central position at the junction of several great roads, and the natural strength of its position, defended by a river along two-thirds of its circumference, all combined to make Verona one of the richest and most important cities in northern Italy, although its extent within the walls was not large.
Communications.From the conditions actually existing in the 8th century after the Christian era the first compilers of Japanese history inferred the conditions which might Roads and have existed in the 7th century before that era.
Six hundred years later, the local satraps are represented as having received instructions to build regular highways, and in the 3rd century the massing of troops for an over-sea expedition invested roads with new value.
Among the benevolent acts attributed to renowned Buddhist priests posterity specially remembers their efforts to encourage the building of roads and bridges.
Yoritomo, the founder of feudalism at the close of the 12th century, was too great a statesman to underestimate the value of roads and posts.
The highway between his stronghold, Kamakura, and the imperial city, KiOto, began in his time to develop features which ultimately entitled it to be called one of the finest roads in the world.
Not until the Tokugawa family obtained military control of the whole empire (I6o3), and, fixing its capital at Yedo, required the feudal chiefs to reside there every second year, did the problem of roads and post-stations force itself once more on official attention.
By degrees, however, the progresses of the feudal chiefs to and from Yedo, which at first were simple and economical, developed features of competitive magnificence, and the importance of good roads and suitable accommodation received increased attention.
After the cessation of civil wars under the sway of the Tokugawa, the building and improvement of roads went on steadily.
It is not too much to say, indeed, that when Japan opened her doors to foreigners in the middle of the 19th century, she possessed a system of roads some of which bore striking testimony to her medieval greatness.
National roads, consisting of Class I.
Roads leading from Tokyo to the various treaty ports.
Roads leading from Tokyo to the ancestral shrines in the province of Is, and also to the Cities or to military stations.
Roads leading from Tokyo to the prefectural offices, and those forming the lines of conoexion between cities and military stations.
Prefectural roads, consisting of Class I.
Roads connecting different prefectures, or leading from military stations to their outposts.
Roads connecting the head offices of cities and prefectures with their branch offices.
Roads connecting noted localities with the chief town of such neighborhoods, or leading to seaports convenient of access.
Village roads, consisting of Class I.
Roads passing through several localities in succession, or merely leading from one locality to another.
Of the above three headings, it was decided that all national roads should be maintained at the national expense, the regulations for their up-keep being entrusted to the care of the prefectures along the line of route, and the cost incurred being paid from the Imperial treasury.
Prefectural roads are maintained by a joint contribution from the government and from the particular prefecture, each paying one-half of the sum needed.
Village roads, being for the convenience of local districts alone, are maintained at the expense of such districts under the general supervision of the corresponding prefecture.
The width of national roads was determined at 42 ft.
In the cities and towns horses used as beasts of burden are now shod with iron, but in rural or mountainous, districts straw shoes are substituted, a device which enables the animals to traverse rocky or precipitous roads with safety.
It enacted that, within a period of 10 years from 1906 to 1915, the state should purchase the 17 principal private roads, which had a length of 2812 m., and whose cost of construction and equipment had been 231/8 millions sterling.
Now the government was pledged by the diet in 1907 to an expenditure of 111/8 millions (spread over 8 years) for extending the old state system of roads, and an expenditure of 63/4 millions (spread over 12 years) for improving them.
The country is well furnished with roads and railways, the greater proportion of the latter being in the hands of the state.
The harbour is entered from the roads by way of a channel leading to the outer harbour which communicates with a floating basin 22 acres in extent, on the east, and with the older and less commodious portion of the harbour to the north and west of the old town.
The great strategic importance of Dijon as a centre of railways and roads, and its position with reference to an invasion of France from the Rhine, have led to the creation of a fortress forming part of the Langres group. There is no enceinte, but on the east side detached forts, 3 to 4 m.
Lebanon on its way to Damascus, and the excellent roads and mule-paths made since 1883.
Roads were purposely neglected under the Russian regime in the frontier area, Kovno itself being then a first-class fortress.
The surface is fertile, the rivers are small and not navigable, and the roads are mere footpaths.
The Confederates concentrated above 40,000 men at Corinth and advanced on Pittsburg Landing with a view to beating Grant before Buell's arrival, but their concentration had left them only a narrow margin of time, and the advance was further delayed by the wretched condition of the roads.
Frederick William's accession to the throne (August 17, 1786) was, indeed, followed by a series of measures for lightening the burdens of the people, reforming the oppressive French system of tax-collecting introduced by Frederick, and encouraging trade by the diminution of customs dues and the making of roads and canals.
The western or Victoria harbour is a refuge for vessels between Leith Roads and the Tyne.
Several roads from Kordofan converge on the Nile at this point, and near the station is the residence of the mek, or king, of the Shilluk tribe, whose designation of the post was adopted when it was decided to abandon the use of Fashoda.
By its vicinity to the watersheds of the Eurotas and Alpheus, and its command over the main roads from Laconia to Argos and the Isthmus, Tegea likewise was brought into conflict with Sparta.
The borough is built on nearly level ground in the fertile valley of the Conewago, at the point of intersection of the turnpike roads leading to Baltimore, Carlisle, York and Frederick, from which places the principal streets - sections of these roads - are named.
Under the Roman emperors Metz was connected by military roads with Toul, Langres, Lyons, Strassburg, Verdun, Reims and Trier.
Corps in the centre of the army advanced on a front of five miles between the Cambrai-Peronne and Cambrai-Bapaume roads.
It is connected by metalled roads with Sivas and Kaisarieh, and by sea with Constantinople.
The provincial and parish roads, kept up by the local government, are excellent.
He anchored in some confusion in Calais roads.
Main roads radiate N.W.
It was useful as marking definitely the boundary of the Roman sway, and as assuring the Romans that no inroad could be made without intelligence being had of it beforehand, while the limes itself and the system of roads behind it enabled troops to be directed rapidly to any threatened point, and the fortified positions could be held against large numbers till reinforcements arrived.
Among a people of roadmakers, Trajan was one of the greatest, and we have definite evidence from inscriptions that some of the military roads in this region were constructed by him.
Until modern times the city was built largely on floating pontoons or on piles at the edges of the innumerable canals and water-courses which formed the thoroughfares, but to meet the requirements of modern life, well-planned roads and streets have been constructed in all directions, crossing the old canals at many points and lined with well-built houses, for the most part of brick, in which the greater part of the erstwhile riparian population now resides.
Its situation at the junction of two great roads from the west of England made it an important coaching station, and some Soo coaches formerly passed through it daily.
The question of the nomenclature of the group of roads between the Via Ardeatina and the Via Ostiensis is somewhat difficult, and much depends on the view taken as to the site of Laurentum.
That the Via Laurentina was near the Via Ardeatina is clear from the fact that the same contractor was responsible for both roads.
In Staffordshire the main levels are also known as Laying gate roads."
The removal of the coal after the roads have been driven may be effected in many different ways, according to the custom of the district.
By this method the whole of the coal is got backwards, the main roads being kept in solid coal; the intermediate levels not being driven till they are wanted, a greater amount of support is given, and the pillars are less crushed than is usual in pillar working.
In the South Wales system of working, cross headings are driven from the main roads obliquely across the rise to get a sufficiently easy gradient for horse roads, and from these the stalls are opened out with a narrow entrance, in order to leave support on either side of the road, but afterwards widening to as great a breadth as the seam will allow, leaving pillars of a minimum thickness.
The second great principle of working is that known as longwall or long-work, in which the coal is taken away either in broad faces from roads about 40 or 50 yds.
The roads for drawing the coal from the working faces to the shaft are kept open by walling through the waste or goaf produced by the fall of the unsupported roof.
The straight roads are the air-ways for carrying pure air from the down-cast shaft to the working faces, while the return air passes along the faces and back to the up-cast by the curved road.
Another method consists in driving towards the boundary, and taking the coal backward towards the shafts, or working homeward, allowing the waste to close up without roads having to be kept open through it.
This is of course preferable, but is only applicable where the owner of the mine can afford to expend the capital required to reach the limit of the field in excess of that necessary when the raising of coal proceeds pari passu with the extension of the main roads.