The chief navigable rivers are:
He waded rivers and climbed mountains.
The largest of the rivers through which Argentina drains into the Plata system are the Pilcomayo, which rises in Bolivia and flows south-east along the Argentine frontier for about 400 m.; the Bermejo, which rises on the northern frontier and flows south-east into the Paraguay; and the Salado del Norte (called Rio del Juramento in its upper course), which rises on the high mountain slopes of western Salta and flows south-east into the Parana.
The ground to the right--along the course of the Kolocha and Moskva rivers--was broken and hilly.
of Lake Tsana, unites its waters with a number of other rivers which also rise in the Abyssinian highlands, and flows north-west Boo m.
Along the flood-plains of the larger rivers are fertile " bottomlands," but the ruggedness of the plateau country as a whole has retarded the development of the state, much of which is still sparsely populated.
Alone among French rivers, the Rhne, itself Alpine in character in its upper course, is partly fed by Alpine rivers (the Arve, the Isre and the Durance) which have their floodsin spring at the melting of the snow, and are maintained by glacierwater in summer.
The Dha-let and the An rivers are navigable by large boats for 25 and 45 m.
In it there are numberless trees and flowers and rivers and waterfalls, and other things to make the heart glad.
World class vistas, trickling silver rivers of high snow melt-off, sky as blue as a queen's velvet robe, and the green and grey of forest and rock towering in every direction—all went unseen.
The angle between the rivers was now almost full.
They saw a landscape with mountains and plains, lakes and rivers, very like those upon the earth's surface; but all the scene was splendidly colored by the variegated lights from the six suns.
The principal rivers entering the Mediterranean directly are the Nile from Africa, and the Po, Rhone and Ebro from Europe.
The valleys of the Aire and other rivers traverse it longitudinally, a fact to which its importance as a bulwark of north-eastern France is largely due.
The principal districts are the Fairmont (or Upper Monongahela) and the Elk Garden (or Upper Potomac) in the northern, and the Pocahontas (or Flat Top) and the New and Kanawha rivers districts in the southern part of the state.
Fed by the Shari and other rivers, the lake has no outlet and its area varies according to the season.
The valleys of the Aire and other rivers traverse it longitudinally, a fact to which its importance as a bulwark of north-eastern France is largely due.
The Panlaung and Zawgyi rivers from the Shan States flow through the district and are utilized for the numerous irrigation canals.
The work of blockade, and of harassing the Confederates on the coast and the rivers of the Atlantic seaboard, called for much service in boats, and entailed a great deal of exposure.
The rugged Spanish coast is indented by many fjord-like inlets, especially in the west, where navigation is sometimes difficult and dangerous; but its rivers are comparatively unimportant.
The lakes and rivers of Albania abound in fish.
They are similar to those found in rivers; but as there are no suckers nor lampreys here, I know not by what fish they could be made.
Charles II.of England, in 1661, granted to a company of gentlemen the land between the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers, commonly known as the " Northern Neck."
In 1 774 the governor of Virginia, Lord Dunmore, himself led a force over the mountains, and a body of militia under General Andrew Lewis dealt the Shawnee Indians under Cornstalk a crushing blow at Point Pleasant at the junction of the Kanawha and the Ohio rivers, but Indian attacks continued until after the War of Independence.
The chief rivers are tide Somme, the Escaut and the Sambre, which have their sources.
In April and May the rivers have opened, the snow has disappeared, and the opportunity has been afforded the farmer of sowing his grain.
Her presence would make the rivers run with water again and bring new life to the dying planet.
In October 1738 he built another at Fort Rouge, at the junction of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, where is now the city of Winnipeg.
In the Armenian and Coptic rites the vestment is often elaborately embroidered; in the other rites the only ornament is a cross high in the middle of the back, save in the case of bishops of the Orthodox Church, whose sticharia are ornamented with two vertical red stripes (7rorayof, " rivers").
Sometimes they occupy the approaches to tablelands, the narrowest points of gorges, or the fords of rivers; sometimes almost inaccessible mountain tops or important points on ridges; and it may be noticed that, where two important nuraghi are not visible from one another, a small one is interpolated, showing that there was a system of signalling from one to another.
Araucaria Bidwilli, the Bunya-Bunya pine, found on the mountains of southern Queensland, between the rivers Brisbane and Burnett, at 27° S.
TRACHIS, a city of ancient Greece, situated at the head of the Malian Gulf in a small plain between the rivers Asopus and Melas, and enclosed by the mountain wall of Oeta which here extended close to the sea and by means of the Trachinian Cliffs completely commanded the main road from Thessaly.
Abisares) between the same two rivers higher up, on the confines of Kashmir (Stein, Rajatarangini, transl.
The whole district lies high and has no large rivers.
The chief rivers emptying into Lake Winnipeg are the Winnipeg, the Red and the Saskatchewan.
This depression is the termination of what is in all probability the bed of one of the dried-up Saharan rivers.
The Argentine " mesopotamia," between the Parana and Uruguay rivers, belongs in great measure to this same region, being partly wooded, flat and swampy in the north (Corrientes), but higher and undulating in the south (Entre Rios).
The rivers belonging to this inland drainage system are the Vermejo, San Juan and Desaguadero, with their affluents, and their southward flow can be traced from about 28° S.
Some of the principal affluents are the Vinchina and Jachal, or Zanjon, which flow into the Vermejo, the Patos, which flows into the San Juan, and the Mendoza, Tunuyan and Diamante which flow into the Desaguadero, all of these being Andean snow-fed rivers.
(A description of the Patagonian part of Argentina will be found under Patagonia.) Rivers and Lakes.
The three great rivers that form the La Plata system - the Paraguay, Parana and Uruguay - have their sources in the highlands of Brazil and flow southward through a great continental depression, two of them forming eastern boundary lines, and one of them, the Parana, flowing across the eastern part of the republic. The northern part of Argentina, therefore, drains eastward from the mountains to these rivers, except where some great inland depression gives rise to a drainage having no outlet to the sea, and except, also, in the " mesopotamia " region, where small streams flow westward into the Parana and eastward into the Uruguay.
Other small rivers rising in the Cordoba sierras are the Primero and Segundo, which flow into the lagoons of north-east Cordoba, and the Quinto, which flows south-easterly into the lagoons and morasses of southern Cordoba.
These Chaco rivers are obstructed by sand bars and snags, which could be removed only by an expenditure of money unwarranted by the present population and traffic. In the southern pampa.
On the north their most noteworthy offshoots are, in the centre, the plateau of Lannemezan from which rivers radiate fanwise to join the Adour and Garonne; and in the east the Corbire.
The coast, constantly encroaching on the sea by reason of the alluvium washed down by the rivers of the Pyrenees and Cvennes, is without important harbours saving that of Cette, itself continually invaded by the sand.
The basin of the Garonne occupies south-western France with the exception of the tracts covered by the secondary basins of the Adour, the Aude, the Hrault, the Orb and other smaller rivers, and the lowlying plain of the Landes, which is watered by numerous coast rivers, notably by the Leyre.
All these affluents are on the right, and with the exception of the Arige, which descends from the eastern Pyrcnees, rise in the mountaitis of Auvergne and the southern Cvennes, their sources often lying close to those of the rivers of the Loire and Rhone basins.
Farther to the north a number of small rivers, the chief of which is the Svre Niortaise, drain the coast region to the south of the plateau of Gtine.
is smaller than that of any of the other main systems, comprises the finest network of navigable rivers in the country.
of uncultivable area covered by lakes, rivers, towns, &c. Only the roughest estimate is possible as to the sizes of holdings, but in general terms it may be said that about 3 million persons are proprietors of holdings under 25 acres in extent amounting to between 15 and 20% of the cultivated area, the rest being owned by some 750,000 proprietors, of whom 150,000 possess half the area in holdings averaging 400 acres in extent.
Moratalla is built on a mountainous peninsula, almost surrounded by the Grande and Benamor, small rivers which meet and flow eastward to join the Segura.
- The salient features of the Australian continent are its compact outline, the absence of navigable rivers communicating with the interior, the absence of active volcanoes or snow-capped mountains, its isolation from other lands, and its antiquity.
These are opposite to the large estuaries of the Queensland rivers, and might be thought to have been caused by fresh water from the land.
The Dividing Range decreases north of the Blue Mountains, until as a mere ridge it divides the waters of the coastal rivers from those flowing to the Darling.
Flowing into the Pacific Ocean on the east coast there are some fine rivers, but the majority have short and rapid courses.
In Queensland a succession of rivers falls into the Pacific from Cape York to the southern boundary of the state.
Taking them from north to south, the principal rivers are the Richmond, Clarence, Macleay, Hastings, Manning, Hunter, Hawkesbury and Shoalhaven.
The other rivers worth mentioning are the Yarra, entering the sea at Port Phillip, Hopkins and Glenelg.
There are no other rivers of importance in South Australia, but the Torrens and the Gawler may be mentioned.
in length unpierced by any streams, large or small, but west of the bight, towards Cape Leeuwin, some small rivers enter the sea.
Between the Swan and North-West Cape the principal rivers are the Greenough, Murchison and Gascoyne; on the north-west coast, the Ashburton, Fortescue and De Grey; and in the Kimberley district, the Fitzroy, Panton, Prince Regent and the Ord.
In the Northern Territory are several fine rivers.
Besides those mentioned, there are a number of smaller rivers discharging on the north coast, and on the west shore of the Gulf of Carpentaria the Roper river discharges itself into Limmen Bight.
Along the portion of the south shore of the Gulf of Carpentaria which belongs to Queensland and the east coast, many large rivers discharge their waters, amongst them the Norman, Flinders, Leichhardt, Albert and Gregory on the southern shore, and the Batavia, Archer, Coleman, Mitchell, Staaten and Gilbert on the eastern shore.
The rivers flowing into the Gulf of Carpentaria, as well as those in the Northern Territory, drain country which is subject to regular monsoonal rains, and have the general characteristics of sub-tropical rivers.
The so-called rivers have a strong flow only after heavy rains, and some of them do not ever reach the main drainage line.
In many cases the rivers as they approach the main stream break up into numerous branches, or spread their waters over vast flats.
This is especially the case with the tributaries of the Darling on its left bank, where in seasons of great rains these rivers overspread their banks and flood the flat country for miles around and thus reach the main stream.
The great rivers of Australia, draining inland, carve out valleys, dissolve limestone, and spread out their deposit over the plains when the waters become too sluggish to bear their burden farther.
All Australian rivers, except the Murray and the Murrumbidgee, depend entirely and directly on the rainfall.
Springs which would equalize the discharge of rivers by continuing to pour water into their beds after the rainy season has passed seem entirely absent in the interior.
Nor are there any snowfields to feed rivers, as in the other continents.
As the general level of the country is raised by successive alluvial deposits, the more ancient river-beds become buried, but being still connected with the newer rivers at some point or other, they continue to absorb water.
It is this tropical downpour that fills and floods the rivers flowing into Lake Eyre and those falling into the Darling on its right bank.
The sea produces three different seals, which often ascend rivers from the coast, and can live in lagoons of fresh water; many cetaceans, besides the " right whale " and sperm whale; and the dugong, found on the northern shores, which yields a valuable medicinal oil.
So far the mud-fish has been found only in the Mary and the Burnett rivers.
Excellent fish of many varieties abound in the Australian seas and in many of the rivers.
The principal deposits of copper in New South Wales are found in the central part of the state between the Macquarie, Darling and Bogan rivers.
The most important tin-mines in Queensland are in the Herberton district, south-west of Cairns; at Cooktown, on the Annan and Bloomfield rivers; and at Stanthorpe, on the border of New South Wales.
Their nets, made by women, either of the tendons of animals or the fibres of plants, will catch and hold the kangaroo or the emu, or the very large fish of Australian rivers.
Oxley now turned aside - led by Mr Evans's report of the country eastward - crossed the Arbuthnot range, and traversing the Liverpool Plains, and ascending the Peel and Cockburn rivers to the Blue Mountains, gained sight of the open sea, which he reached at Port Macquarie.
By this time much had thus been done to obtain an acquaintance with the eastern parts of the Australian continent, although the problem of what could become of the large rivers flowing north-west and south-west into the interior was still unsolved.
139° gaining a practical solution of the problem of the destination of the westward-flowing rivers, Sir Thomas Mitchell, in 1833, led an expedition northward to the upper branches of the Darling; the party met with a sad disaster in the death of Richard Cunningham, brother of the eminent botanist, who was murdered by the blacks near the Bogan river.
Again, in Western Australia there were the explorations of the Arrowsmith, the Murchison, the Gascoyne, and the Ashburton rivers, by Captain Grey, Mr Roe, Governor Fitzgerald, Mr R.
The Barcoo or Cooper's Creek and its tributary streams were traced from the Queensland mountains, holding a south-westerly course to Lake Eyre in South Australia; the Flinders, the Gilbert, the Gregory, and other northern rivers watering the country towards the Gulf of Carpentaria were also explored.
Hann, with Messrs Warner, Tate and Taylor, in 1873, related to the country north of the Kirchner range, watered by the Lynd, the Mitchell, the Walsh and the Palmer rivers, on the east side of the Gulf of Carpentaria.
Elphinstone Dalrymple, with Messrs Hill and Johnstone, finishing in December 1873, effected a valuable survey of the inlets and navigable rivers in the Cape York Peninsula.
John (afterwards Sir John) Forrest was despatched by the Perth government with general instructions to obtain information regarding the immense tract of country out of which flow the rivers falling into the sea on the northern and western shores of Western Australia.
The chief streams are the Werra, which traverses the south and east of the duchy, and various tributaries of the Main and the Saale, so that Saxe-Meiningen belongs to the basins of the three great rivers Weser, Rhine and Elbe.
The neighbouring valleys of the Gandara and Hippatan rivers are exceedingly fertile, but in 1908 were uncultivated.
time of oppression and cruelty, and of war and devastation, during which the country remained chiefly swamp and tangled woodland, with little communication save up and down the rivers and along the old Roman roads.
Only an insignificant fraction of these forests has ever been visited by human beings, the Malays and even the aboriginal tribe having their homes on the banks of the rivers, and never, even when travelling from one part of the country to another, leaving the banks of a stream except for a short time when passing from one river-system to another.
The principal rivers on the west coast are the Perak, the Bernam and the Muar.
The deepest rivers are the Kuantan and Rompin; the largest are the Kelantan and the Pahang, both of which are navigable for native boats for a distance of over 250 m.
The rivers on the east coast are practically the only highways, the Malays always travelling by boat in preference to walking, but they serve their purpose very indifferently, and their great beauty is their chief claim to distinction.
it is cut deep by the valleys of the Winooski and Lamoille rivers.
The largest and only navigable rivers of Vermont are among those flowing into Lake Champlain: the Missisquoi, the Lamoille, the Winooski and Otter Creek.
The Deerfield, West, Williams, White, Passumpsic and Nulhegan rivers are the largest of the many streams which are tributary to the Connecticut.
The Black, Barton and Clyde rivers flow into Lake Memphremagog.
Vermont's rivers are generally swift, and in many places they are made very picturesque by their clear and sparkling waters, rapids, falls, gorges and wooded banks.
The first important industry of the state was "rafting" lumber from Vermont through Lake Champlain and the Richelieu and St Lawrence rivers to Quebec. Burlington became a great lumber market for a trade moving in the direction of Boston after the Richelieu river was blocked to navigation and railway transportation began, and in 1882 Burlington was the third lumber centre in the United States.
The principal railways are: the lines operated by the Boston & Maine system, extending along the eastern border from Brattleboro through Bellows Falls, and St Johnsbury to the Canada boundary (Vermont Valley, Sullivan County, and Connecticut & Passumpsic Rivers railways), with a line, the St Johnsbury & Lake Champlain railway, extending across the northern part of the state from Lunenburg to Maguam Bay; the Central Vermont railway (Grand Trunk system) which crosses the state diagonally from S.E.
The rivers of the province belong to the basins of the Indian Ocean and the Java Sea respectively, the water-parting being formed by the western and eastern ends respectively of the northern and southern lines of mountain peaks.
The Chi Tandui, also rising here, flows south-east to the Indian Ocean, and alone of all the rivers in this province is navigable.
The position is strong, being protected by the two rivers mentioned, and the medieval fortifications, which are nearly 2 m.
The terrigenous deposits consist of blue muds, red muds (abundant along the coast of Brazil, where the amount of organic matter present is insufficient to reduce the iron in the matter brought down by the great rivers to produce blue muds), green muds and sands, and volcanic and coral detritus.
from the Tagao junction the united streams of Alingar and Alishang (rivers of Kafiristan); and 20 m.
The Sio and Haho, the two largest rivers of the coast region, both flow into the Togo lagoon.
These rivers rise on the eastern versant of a chain of mountains which traverse the country in a south-westerly to north-easterly direction.
The chief rivers of Rajputana are the Luni, the Chambal and the Banas.
above the sea; it soon becomes a considerable stream, collecting in its course the waters of other rivers, and finally discharging itself into the Jumna after a course of 560 m.
Other rivers are the W.
the various rivers of Venetia fall directly into the Gulf of Venice.
A few miles below Valenza it is joined by the Tanaro, a large stream, which brings with it the united waters of the Stura, the Bormida and several minor rivers.
More important are the rivers that descend from the main chain of the Graian and Pennine Alps and join the Po on its left bank.
The Adige, formed by the junction of two streams—the Etsch or Adige proper and the Eisak, both of which belong to Tirol rather than to Italy—descends as far as Verona, where it enters the great plain, with a course from north to south nearly parallel to the rivers last described, and would seem likely to discharge its waters into those of the Po, but below Legnago it turns eastward and runs parallel to the Po for about 40 m., entering the Adriatic by an independent mouth about 8 m.
The waters of the two rivers have, however, been made to communicate by artificial cuts and canals in more than one place.
It is occupied by the branches and offshoots of the mountain ranges which separate it from the great plain to the north, and send down their lateral ridges close to the water's edge, leaving only in places a few square miles of level plains at the mouths of the rivers and openings of the valleys.
From the proximity of the mountains to the sea none of the rivers in this part of Italy has a long course, and they are generally mere mountain torrents, rapid and swollen in winter and spring, and almost dry in summer.
The most considerable rivers of Tuscany south of the Arno are the Cecina, which flows through the plain below Volterra, and the Ombrone, which rises in the hills near Siena, and enters the sea about 12 m.
The central range here approaches much nearer to the sea, and hence, with few exceptions, the rivers that flow from it have short courses and are of comparatively little importance.
The whole of the district known in ancient times as Samnium (a part of which retains the name of Sannio, though officially designated the province of Campobasso) is occupied by an irregular mass of mountains, of much inferior height to those of Central Italy, and broken up into a number of groups, intersected by rivers, which have for the most part a very tortuous course.
None of the rivers of Southern Italy is of any great importance.
Below this the watershed of the Apennines is too near to the sea on that side to allow the formation of any large streams. Hence the rivers that flow in the opposite direction into the Adriatic and the Gulf of Taranto have much longer courses, though all partake of the character of mountain torrents, rushing down with great violence in winter and after storms, but dwindling in the summer into scanty streams, which hold a winding and sluggish course through the great plains of Apulia.
Proceeding south from the Trigno, already mentioned as constituting the limit of Central Italy, there are (1) the Biferno and (2) the Fortore, both rising in the mountains of Samnium, and flowing into the Adriatic west of Monte Gargano; (3) the Cervaro, south of the great promontory; and (4) the Ofanto, the Aufidus of Horace, whose description of it is characteristic of almost all the rivers of Southern Italy, of which it may be taken as the typical representative.
They have been already noticed in connection with the rivers by which they are formed, but may be again enumerated in order of succession.
It is a great depression—the continuation of the Adriatic Sea—filled up by deposits brought down by the rivers from the mountains.
The total length of navigable rivers is 967 m.
The great extension of Italian coast-line is thought by some to be not really a source of strength to the Italian mercantile marine, as few of the ports have a large enough hinterland to provide them with traffic, and in this hinterland (except in the basin of the Po) there are no canals or navigable rivers.
The road system of Cisalpine Gaul was mainly co1~ litioned by the rivers which had to be crossed, and the Alpine passes which had to be approached.
They fought for bare existence, for primacy in commerce, for the command of seaports, for the keys of mountain passes, for rivers, roads and all the avenues of wealth and plenty.
provided for the removal' of kydells, or weirs, from all English rivers.
This was intended to give greater freedom to inland navigation, the rivers being the main highways of trade.
There are no rivers and few perennial streams in the islands.
The city is divided by the rivers (including the small streams Lieve and Moere) and by canals, some navigable, into numerous islands connected by over 200 bridges of various sorts.
The rivers of Groningen descending from the Drente plateau meet at the capital, whence they are continued by the Reitdiep to the Lauwers Zee (being discharged through a lock), and by the Ems canal (1876) to Delfzyl.
Besides the two great rivers, the principal streams are the Arand or Rhind, the Kavan or Singar, the Isan and the Pandu.
From the 6th century onwards he was looked upon as one of the chief poets and musicians of antiquity, the inventor or perfecter of the lyre, who by his music and singing was able not only to charm the wild beasts, but even to draw the trees and rocks from their places, and to arrest the rivers in their course.
These rivers follow the general slope of the department, which is from south-east, where the Bois du Mont (1200 ft.), the highest point, is situated, to north-west.
The watercress blocks the rivers of New Zealand into which it has been introduced from Europe.
Rivers bring down the plants of the upper levels of their basins to the lower: thus species characteristic of the chalk are found on the banks of the Thames near London.
Here the climate is temperate, the country watered by many rivers and lakes, the soil fertile, the vegetation rich, the cattle numerous.
Beyond the limits of his personal travels Herodotus applied the characteristically Greek theory of symmetry to complete, in the unknown, outlines The ides of lands and rivers analogous to those which had been of symexplored.
He formed a comprehensive theory of the variations of climate with latitude and season, and was convinced of the necessity of a circulation of water between the sea and rivers, though, like Plato, he held that this took place by water rising from the sea through crevices in the rocks, losing it .s dissolved salts in the process.
Excellent examples of the indecisive drainage of a new land surface, on which the river system has not had time to impress itself, are to be seen in northern Canada and in Finland, where rivers are separated by scarcely perceptible divides, and the numerous lakes frequently belong to more than one river system.
The action of rivers on the land is so important that it has been made the basis of a system of physical geography by Professor W.
By a re-elevation of a peneplain the rivers of an old land surface may be restored to youthful activity, and resume their shaping action, deepening the old valleys and initiating new ones, starting afresh the whole course of the geographical cycle.
The whole question of the regime of rivers and lakes is sometimes treated under the name hydrography, a name used by some writers in the sense of marine surveying, and by others as synonymous with oceanography.
For the study of rivers alone the name potamology has been suggested by Penck, and the subject being of much practical importance has received a good deal of attention.4 The study of lakes has also been specialized under the name of 1 See, for a summary of river-action, A.
Phillipson, Studien uber Wasserscheiden (Leipzig, 1886); also I.C. Russell, River Development (London, 1898) (published as The Rivers of North America, New York, 1898).
For practical studies see official reports on the Mississippi, Rhine, Seine, Elbe and other great rivers.
On the fertile low grounds along the margins of rivers or in clearings of forests, agricultural communities naturally take their rise, dwelling in villages and cultivating the wild grains, which by careful nurture and selection have been turned into rich cereals.
Rivers do not form effective international boundaries, although between dependent self-governing communities they are convenient lines of demarcation.
There are many pleasant drives along the shore of the bay or the banks of rivers, and some of these lead to popular resorts, such as Riverton Park, on the Presumpscot; Cape Cottage Park, at the mouth of the harbour; and Falmouth Foreside, bordering the inner bay.
The chief rivers of the eastern region are the Valserine and the Seran, right-hand tributaries of the Rhone, which forms the eastern and southern boundary of the department; and the Albarine and Oignin, left-hand affluents of the Ain.
There were numerous rivers flowing into either the Tigris or the Persian Gulf.
Rivers, The Todas, ch.
The rivers of the state include a number of small plateau streams flowing southward to the Sao Francisco River, and several large streams in the eastern part flowing eastward to the Atlantic. The former are the Moxoto, Ema, Pajehu, Terra Nova, Brigida, Boa Vista and Pontai, and are dry channels the greater part of the year.
It is an inhabitant of the rivers and streams of Europe north of the Alps, but it is most abundant in those of France and Germany.
" Seven Rivers") to the rivers which flow from the south-east into Lake Balkash.
In the time of the Arabs these were the chief canals, and the cuts from the main channels of the Nahr `Isa, Nahr Sarsar, Nahr Malk (or Nahr Malcha), and Nahr Kutha, reticulating the entire country between the rivers, converted it into a continuous and luxuriant garden.
The fact also that many of the most ancient of these ruins, like Ur, Lagash (Sirpurla), Larsa, Erech, Nippur, Sippara and Babylon, were situated on the banks of the great canals would indicate that the control of the waters of the rivers by a system of canalization and irrigation was one of the first achievements of civilization.
By far the greater part of the country was a plain watered by numerous rivers, the chief of which have already been mentioned, with the exception of its great central stream, the Liger or Ligeris (Loire).
The boundaries separating it from Rio Grande do Sul, a province of Brazil, are Lake Mirim, the rivers Chuy, Jaguarao and Quarahy, and a cuchilla or low range of hills called Santa Ana.
Besides the rivers mentioned, the chief streams are the Santa Lucia, which falls into the Plata a little west of Montevideo; the Queguay, in Paysandu; and the Cebollati, rising in the sierras in Minas and flowing into Lake Mirim.
The plains are covered by a formation similar to that of the Argentine pampas and by the alluvial deposits of the present rivers.
In the interior, away from the sea and the shores of the great rivers, the temperature frequently rises in summer to 86° F.
Fauna.-Among wild animals the tiger or ounce-called in the Guarani language the ja-gud or "big dog"-and the puma are found on the frontier of Brazil and on the wooded islets and banks of the larger rivers.
The fish of the lagoons and streams are coarse, and some of them primitive in type; but two or three kinds, found generally in the large rivers, are much prized.
In addition to the natural lines of communication provided by the rivers bordering on or belonging to the republic, there are about 2240 m.
In the deltas of shoal rivers, with a strong tide or current and no land visible, a 5 lb lead is substituted for the log-ship; the lead rests on the bottom, and the speed is obtained in a manner similar to that previously described.
The outline of the state is that of a roughly-shaped wedge with the thin edge extending northward between and up to the junction of the rivers Araguaya and Upper Tocantins, and its length is nearly 15° of latitude.
by the deeply eroded valleys of the Araguaya and Upper Tocantins rivers and their tributaries.
The general slope of the plateau is toward the N., and the drainage of the state is chiefly through the above-named rivers - the principal tributaries of the Araguaya being the Grande and Vermelho, and of the Upper Tocantins, the Manoel Alves Grande, Somno, Paranan and Maranhao.
Several rivers, of which the Komo is the chief, discharge their waters into the estuary.
In 1905 Liberia proposed to France that the boundary line should follow the river Moa from the British frontier of Sierra Leone up stream to near the source of the Moa (or Makona), and that from this point the boundary should run eastwards along the line of water-parting between the system of the Niger on the north and that of the coast rivers (Moa, Lofa, St Paul's) on the south, until the 8th degree of N.
As most of the rivers have rapids or falls actually at the sea coast or close to it, they are, with the exception of the Cavalla, useless for penetrating far inland, and the whole of this part of Africa from Cape Palmas north-west to the Senegal suggests a sunken land.
Although very little of the coast belt is actually swampy, a kind of natural canalization connects many of the rivers at their mouths with each other, though some of these connecting creeks are as yet unmarked on maps.
in the Nimba mountains, where also rise the Nuon, St John's and Dukwia rivers.
of the source of the Cavalla, and like all the Liberian rivers (except the Cavalla) it has a general S.W.
The Dukwia and Farmington are tortuous rivers entering the sea under the name of the river Junk (Portuguese, Junco).
It extends between the Duobe and the Cavalla rivers.
In the rivers and swamps there are soft-shelled turtle (Trionyx and Sternothaerus).
The sand of nearly all the rivers contains a varying proportion of gold.
The sand of the rivers contains monazite.
Subsequently the Portuguese mapped the whole coast of Liberia, and nearly all the prominent features - capes, rivers, islets - off that coast still bear Portuguese names.
In these forests are found the two-horned rhinoceros, the elephant, lion, panther, numerous apes and antelopes, while the crocodile and hippopotamus frequent the rivers.
The rivers are not navigable.
to the margins of inland rivers and lakes; but it is very rarely seen except near water, and salt water for preference.
Russia; the Valdai tablelands, where all the great rivers of Russia take their rise; the broad and gently sloping meridional belt of the Ural Mountains; and lastly the Taimyr, Tunguzka and Verkhoyansk ranges in Siberia, which, notwithstanding their sub-Arctic position, do not reach the snow-line.
It is owing to these leading orographical features - divined by Carl Ritter, but only recently ascertained and established as fact by geographical research - that so many of the great Rivers.
rivers of the old continent are comprised within the limits of - the Russian empire.
But in the government of Vologda, on the rivers Sukhona and N.
The deposits of the Post-Glacial period are represented throughout Russia, Poland and Finland, as also throughout Siberia and Central Asia, by very thick lacustrine deposits, which show that, after the melting of the ice-sheet, the country was covered with immense lakes, connected by broad channels (the fjarden of the Swedes), which later on gave rise to the actual rivers.
hilly plateaus are still in the same geological phase, and are dotted with numberless lakes and ponds, while the rivers continue to dig out their yet undetermined channels.
This upheaval - the consequences of which have been felt even within the historic period, by the drainage of the formerly impracticable marshes of Novgorod and at the head of the Gulf of Finland - together with the destruction of forests, contributes towards a decrease of precipitation over Russia and towards increased shallowness of her rivers.
At the same time, as the gradients are gradually increasing on account of the upheaval of the continent, the rivers dig their channels deeper and deeper.
The round flattened summits of the Valdai plateau do not rise above 1100 ft., and they present the appearance of mountains only in consequence of the depths of the valleys - the rivers which flow towards the depression of Lake Peipus being only 200 to 250 ft.
of the Caspian, comprising the lower Volga and the Ural and Emba rivers, and establishing a link between Russia and the Aral-Caspian region.
Taking their origin from a series of lacustrine basins scattered over the plateaus and differing slightly in elevation, the Russian rivers describe immense curves before reaching the sea, and flow with a very gentle gradient, while numerous large tributaries collect their waters from over vast areas.
Moreover, the chief rivers, the Volga, the W.
But although the rivers of Russia rank before the rivers of W.
Dvina, and the Pripet, both very important for navigation - as well as several smaller tributaries on which rafts are floated; on the left the Sozh, the Desna, one of the most important rivers of Russia, navigated by steamers as far as Bryansk, the Sula, the Psiol and the Vorskla.
(freezing of Russian rivers, and navigation).
A great variety of monographs dealing with separate rivers and basins are available; e.g.
The rapid melting of the snow at the same time causes the rivers to swell, and renders a.
The rivers freeze rapidly; towards November 10th all the streams of the White Sea basin are ice-bound, and so remain for an average of 167 days; those of the Baltic, Black Sea and Caspian basins freeze later, but about December the 10th nearly all the rivers of the country are highways for sledges.
Not a tree is to be seen, the few woods and thickets being hidden in the depressions and deep valleys of the rivers.
The vegetation in the marshy bottoms of the ravines and in the valleys of the streams and rivers is totally different.
Europe, except the carp, are met with in the lakes and rivers in immense quantities, the characteristic feature of the region being its wealth in Coregoni and in Salmonidae generally.
The absence of Coregoni is a characteristic feature of the fish-fauna of the steppes; the carp, on the contrary, reappears, and the rivers abound in sturgeon (Acipenseridae).
The mouths of the Caspian rivers are especially celebrated for their wealth of fish.2 Ethnography.
All over Russia there is a network of such artels - in the cities, in the forests, on the banks of the rivers, on journeys and even in the prisons.
The Ural industry is the older, and is still conducted on primitive methods, wood being largely used for fuel, and the ore and metals being transported by water down the Kama and other rivers.
In the basins of the southern rivers they formed semi-independent military communities.
Of the rivers of Fars only three important ones flow into the sea: (1) the Mand (Arrian's Sitakos), Karaagha.ch in its upper course; (2) the Shapur or Khisht river (Granis); (3) the Tab (Oroatis).
Some rivers, notably the Kur (Kyros, Araxes) which flows into the Bakhtegan lake east of Shiraz, drain into inland depressions or lakes.
When, however, a company desires to construct a line on a commercial scale, to acquire land compulsorily, to divert rivers and streams, to cross roads either on the level or by means of bridges, to pass near houses, to build tunnels or viaducts, and to execute all the other works incidental to a.
Larger rivers, canals, roads, other railways and sometimes deep narrow valleys are crossed by bridges (q.v.) of timber, brick, stone, wrought iron or steel, and many of these structures rank among the largest engineering works in the world.
Both these rivers come from the south-west: the Argun, or Kerulen as it is called above Lake Kulun (Dalai-nor), through which it flows about half way between its source and Ust-Stryelka, rises in 49° N.
Rivers and Lakes.
is drained by the Owyhee, the Little Owyhee, the Salmon and Bruneau rivers, whose waters eventually reach the Pacific Ocean.
two other streams, the Carson and the Walker rivers, receive their waters from the eastern slope of this range and empty into lakes bearing their names.
The three principal areas in which irrigation is practicable are along the Humboldt river, in the plains watered by the Carson, Truckee and Walker rivers, and at the foot of the mountains along the western edge of the state.
The oldest of these trunk lines, the Southern Pacific (formerly the Central Pacific), follows the course of the Humboldt and Truckee rivers.
AVON, the name of several rivers in England and elsewhere.
In England the following are the principal rivers of this name.
The town is connected with the sea by the Corsini Canal, the two small rivers Ronco and Montone no longer serving as means of communication.
comes sweeping into it; and thus, while all the muddy deposit of the rivers is swept away, the malaria is at the same time removed, and by this means the city enjoys so good a sanitary reputation that the government has fixed on it as a place for the reception and training of gladiators."
The southern half of the state, however, slopes eastward and is drained directly into the Atlantic through a number of small rivers, the largest of which are the Irapiranga (whose source is in the state of Bahia and which is called Vasa Barris at its mouth), the Real, and the Cotinguiba.
There are no good ports on the coast because of the bars at the mouths of the rivers.
MAHSEER, or Mahaseer (Barbus mosal), a kind of barbel, abundant in the rivers of India, especially in pools of the upper and more rapid streams where they issue from the mountainous part of the country.
Put comprehensively, it involves the control of the subsoil and surface waters by drainage, the regulation of rivers and floods, suitable agriculture, the clearing of forests or jungles, which tend to increase the rainfall and keep the ground swampy.
BLACKWATER, the name of a number of rivers and streams in England, Scotland and Ireland.
Even at that period, however, the silt brought down by the rivers rendered access to the harbour difficult, and the historian Philistus excavated a canal to give free access to the sea.
The most remarkable of these rivers is the Laibach, which rises in the Karst region under the name of Poik, takes afterwards a subterranean course and traverses the Adelsberg grotto, and appears again on the surface near Planina under the name of Unz.
Augustus joined it with Lucania (from which it was divided by the rivers Laus and Crathis) to form the third region of Italy.
The principal rivers are the Metropoli Potamos and the Anapothiari, which drain the plain of Monofatsi and enter the southern sea E.
The Lerma, on the northern frontier, and the Balsas on the southern, are the only rivers of importance of the state, their tributaries within its boundaries being small and swift-flowing.
The principal rivers are: the Mississippi on the western border, and its tributaries, the Yazoo and the Big Black; the Pearl and Pascagoula, which drain much of the southern portion of the state and flow into the Gulf; and the Tombigbee, which drains most of the north-eastern portion.
Each of the larger rivers is fed by smaller streams; their fall is usually gentle and quite uniform.
Most of the rivers flowing into the Gulf are obstructed by sand-bars and navigable only during high-water from January to April.
Buffalo-fish, paddle-fish, cat-fish, drum, crappie, black bass, rock bass, German carp, sturgeon, pike, perch, eels, suckers and shrimp inhabit the waters of the Mississippi and its tributaries, and oysters, shrimp, trout, Spanish mackerel, channel bass, black bass, sheepshead, mullet, croakers, pompano, pin-fish, blue-fish, flounders, crabs and terrapin are obtained from the Mississippi Sound and the rivers flowing into it.
Pine stumps and waste limbs are utilized, notably at Hattiesburg, for the manufacture of charcoal, tar, creosote, turpentine, &c. Fisheries Fishing is a minor industry, confined for the most part to the Mississippi Sound and neighbouring waters and to the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers.
The Yazoo, Tallahatchie, Yalobusha, Sunflower, Big Black, Pascagoula and Pearl rivers are also navigable to a limited extent.
of the Chattahoochee and Apalachicola rivers.
Projecting into these sounds and between the estuaries of rivers flowing into them are extensive tracts of swamp land - the best known of these is Dismal Swamp, which lies mostly in Virginia and is about 3 o m.
West of it the Hiwassee, the Little Tennessee and the French Broad rivers flow W.
The other principal rivers - the Cape Fear, the Neuse and the Tar - rise in the N.E.
In the Mountain Region and in the Piedmont Plateau Region the rivers have numerous falls and rapids which afford a total water power unequalled perhaps in any other state than Maine on the Atlantic Coast, the largest being on the Yadkin, Roanoke and Catawba; and in crossing some of the mountains, especially the Unakas, the streams have carved deep narrow gorges that are much admired for their scenery.
In contrast with the rivers of these regions those of the Coastal Plain are sluggish, and toward their mouths expand into wide estuaries.
Large numbers of shad, blue fish, weak fish (squeteague), alewives, Spanish mackerel, perch, bass, croakers (Micropogon undulatus), mullet, menhaden, oysters and clams are caught in the sounds, in the lower courses of the rivers flowing into them, or in the neighbouring waters of the sea.
portions of the Coastal Plain; rice, along the banks of rivers near the coast; wheat, in the valley of the Yadkin; orchard fruits, in the W.
In the sounds along the coast, in the lower courses of the rivers that flow into them, and along the outer shores fishing is an important industry.
The harbours along the sounds and in the estuaries of the rivers are well protected from the storms of the ocean by the long chain of narrow islands in front, but navigation by the largest vessels is interrupted by shoals in the sounds, and especially by bars crossing the inlets between islands.
Kunz; Report of the Secretary of Agriculture in Relation to the Forests, Rivers and Mountains of the Southern Appalachian Region (Washington, 1902); Climatology of North Carolina (Raleigh, 1892); and H.
from the coast is the source of the Rio Grande, the larger of the two rivers that form the Parana.
Part of these rivers are navigable for small steamers, and the Sao Francisco must some day be of great importance in the development of Central Brazil.
All these rivers of the Brazilian plateau are interrupted by falls and rapids.
These rivers have no tributaries of importance within the territory, but the Limay receives some small streams from the Andean slopes.
above sea, where all the main rivers flow northward to the Mediterranean, the Arctic Sea, or the Caspian; a central section of depression, where the drainage is lost in swamps or hamuns, and of which the average level probably does not exceed 2000 ft.
snowy to about 27° N., flow the great rivers of the Indo-Chinese peninsula, the Mekong, the Menam, the Salween, and the Irrawaddy, the valleys of which form the main portions of the states of CochinChina (including Tongking and Cambodia), of Siam (including Laos) and of Burma.
The two great rivers of China, the Hwang-ho and the Yang-tsze-kiang take their rise from the eastern face of Tibet, the former from the north-east angle, the latter from the south-east.
The great rivers of northern India - the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Indus - all derive their waters from the Tibetan mountain mass; and it is a remarkable circumstance that the northern water-parting of India should lie to the north of the Himalaya in the regions of central Tibet.
In this tract the rainfall is nowhere sufficient for the purposes of agriculture, which is only possible by help of irrigation; and the fixed population (which contains a non-Turkish element) is comparatively small, and restricted to the towns and the districts near the rivers.
Last is the Altai, near the 50th parallel, rising to 10,000 or 12,000 ft., which separates the waters of the great rivers of western Siberia from those that collect into the lakes of northwest Mongolia, Dzungaria and Kalka.
The Ob,Yenisei and Lena,which traverse Siberia, are among the largest rivers in the world.
From the water-divide which separates the most eastern affluent of the Brahmaputra, eastwards to the deep gorges which enclose the most westerly branch of the upper Yang-tsze-kiang (here running from north to south), is a short space of loo m.; and within that space two mighty rivers, the Salween and the Mekong, send down their torrents to Burma and Siam.
These three rivers flow parallel to each other for some 300 m., deep hidden in narrow and precipitous troughs, amidst some of the grandest scenery of Asia; spreading apart where the Yank-tsze takes its course eastwards, not far north of the parallel of 25°.
The rainfall, though moderate, is still sufficient to maintain the supply of water in the great rivers that traverse the country to the Arctic Sea, and to support an abundant vegetation.
The Salmonidae are entirely absent from the waters of southern Asia, though they exist in the rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean and the neighbouring parts of the northern Pacific, extending perhaps to Formosa; and trout, though unknown in Indian rivers, are found beyond the watershed of the Indus, in the streams flowing into the Caspian.
The chief development of this family, both as to size and number of forms, is in the mountain regions with a temperate climate; the smaller species are found in the hotter regions and in the low-lying rivers.
Of the Clupeidae, or herrings, numerous forms occur in Asiatic waters, ascending the rivers many hundred miles; one of the best-known of Indian fishes, the hilsa, is of this family.
The sturgeons, which abound in the Black Sea and Caspian, and ascend the rivers that fall into them, are also found in Asiatic Russia, and an allied form extends to southern China.
It is irrigated by an elaborate system of dams, cuts and canals in connexion with the rivers Cauvery and Coleroon, and the soil is exceedingly productive.
Besides the Oder and its affluents, the chief of which are the Peene, the Ucker and the Ihna, there are several smaller rivers flowing into the Baltic; a few of these are navigable for ships, but the greater number only carry rafts.
and had a population in 1901 of 300,173; it consists partly of fertile valleys formed by spurs of mountain system which divides it from Siam, and partly of a rich alluvial tract created by the great rivers which issue from them.
The most important of these are the Salween and the Gyaing, formed by the junction of the Hlaingbwe and Haungtharaw rivers.
The only cultivable soil occurs in the valleys of the large rivers, but the deer-forest and the shootings on moor and mountain are among the most extensive in Scotland.
The soil of these plains is generally very fertile and they support a population of nearly 2,800,000 Russians, composed of Cossacks and peasant immigrants, settled chiefly along the rivers and grouped in large, wealthy villages.
The higher parts of the plains, which are deeply trenched by the upper tributaries of the rivers, are inhabited by various Caucasian races - Kabardians and Cherkesses (Circassians) in the west, Ossetes in the middle, and several tribal elements from Daghestan, described under the general name of Chechens, in the east.
In the seas and rivers about 190 species of fishes have been enumerated.
The district is watered by five rivers: the Tungabhadra, formed by the junction of two streams, Tunga and Bhadra, the Haggari, Hindri, Chitravati and Pennar, the last considered sacred by the natives.
None of the rivers is navigable and all are fordable during the dry season.
The other principal rivers are the following: - The Dane rises at the junction of the three counties, Staffordshire, Cheshire and Derbyshire.
Even in summer cold and thick fogs are often seen hanging over the rivers, and clinging to the lower parts of the hills, and hoar-frosts are by no means unknown even in June and July.
The earliest known forms of intensive husbandry were based chiefly upon the proximity of rivers and irrigation.
Milford Haven itself, designated by the Welsh Aberdaugleddau, as the estuary of the united East and West Cleddy rivers, has played an important part on several occasions in the course of history.
The rest of the Venetian mainland (the districts between the rivers Adige and Ticino) went to the newly constituted Cisalpine republic, France gaining the Ionian Isles and the Venetian fleet.
It lies between the rivers Frome and Piddle, r 2 m.
by a lower outer ridge, the Karadagh, through which the rivers cut their way.
The Boz-dagh and another ridge run between the four Koisu rivers, the head-streams of the Sulak, which flows into the Caspian.
The whole of this plain has been formed by the debris swept down from the Alps by the rivers Po, Ticino, Oglio, Adda, Mincio, Adige, Brenta, Piave, Livenza, Tagliamento and Isonzo.
The rivers when they debouch from the 'mountains assume an eastern trend in their effort to reach the sea.
This current catches the silt brought down by the rivers and projects it in long banks, or lidi, parallel with the shore.
In process of time some of these banks, as in the case of Venice, raised themselves above the level of the water and became the true shore-line, while behind them lay large surfaces of water, called lagoons, formed partly by the fresh water brought down by the rivers, partly by the salt-water tide which found its way in by the channels of the river mouths.
The history of Venice during the next two hundred years is marked externally by the growth of the city, thanks to an ever-expanding trade, both down the Adriatic, which brought the republic into collision with the Dalmatian pirates and led to their final conquest, in 1000, by the doge Pietro Orseolo II., and also on the mainland, where Venice gradually acquired trading rights, partly by imperial diploma, partly by the establishment and the supply of markets on the mainland rivers, the Sile and the Brenta.
The geographical position of Venice and her commercial policy alike compelled her to attempt to secure the command of the rivers and roads of the mainland, at least up to the mountains, that is to say, of the north-western outlet, just as she had obtained command of the south-eastern inlet.
North of this water-parting the rivers flow into Lake Erie; S.
Those that flow directly into the lake are short, but some of the rivers of this region, such as the Cuyahoga and the'Grand, are turned by drift ridges into circuitous courses and flow through narrow valleys with numerous falls and rapids.
part of the state the Black, Vermilion and Huron rivers have their sources in swamps on the water-parting and flow directly to the lake through narrow valleys.
The till plains of north-western Ohio are drained chiefly by the Maumee and Sandusky rivers, with their tributaries, and the average fall of the Maumee is only 1.1 ft.
South of the water-parting the average length of the rivers is greater than that of those N.
the Great Miami and Little Miami rivers have uniform falls through basins that are decidedly rolling and that contain the extremes of elevation for the entire state.
Whitefish, bass, trout and pickerel are an important food supply obtained from the waters of the lake, and some perch, catfish and sunfish are caught in the rivers and brooks.
It is deeper and more fertile, however, in the basins of the Great Miami and Little Miami rivers, where there is a liberal mixture of decomposed limestone and where extensive areas with a clay subsoil are covered with alluvial deposits.
Virginia reserved a tract between the Little Miami and Scioto rivers, known as the Virginia Military District, for her soldiers in the War of Independence.
Two large rivers, which numerous tributaries, drain the government - the Dniester, which forms its boundary with Bessarabia and is navigable throughout its length, and the Bug, which flows almost parallel to the former in a higher, sometimes swampy, valley, and is interrupted at several places by rapids.
numbers on the mud flats at the mouths of rivers in the tropics, skipping about by means of the muscular, scaly base of their pectoral fins, with the head raised and bearing a pair of strongly projecting versatile eyes close together.
Dacca is watered by a network of rivers and streams, ten of which are navigable throughout the year by native cargo boats of four tons burthen.
Towards the city the red soil is intersected by creeks and morasses, whose margins yield crops of rice, mustard and til seed; while to the east of the town, a broad, alluvial, well-cultivated plain reaches as far as the junction of the Dhaleswari and Lakshmia rivers.
The wild animals found in the district comprise a few tigers, leopards and wild elephants, deer, wild pig, porcupines, jackals, foxes, hares, otters, &c. The green monkey is very common; porpoises abound in the large rivers.
The nature of the integument and its hairy clothing in all spiders enables them to be plunged under water and withdrawn perfectly dry, and many species, even as large as the common English house-spider (Tegenaria), are so lightly built that they can run with speed over the surface of standing water, and this faculty has been perfected in genera like Pirata, Dolomedes and Triclaria, which are always found in the vicinity of lakes or on the edges of rivers and streams, readily taking to the water or running down the stems of water plants beneath its surface when pursued.
The city, said to be the "Eden" of Charles Dickens's Martin Chuzzlewit, is built on a tongue of land between the rivers, and has suffered many times from inundations, notably in 1858.
from Long Island Sound, at the head of New Haven Bay, into which empty three small streams, the Quinnipiac, the Mill and the West rivers.
In the moist bottom-lands along the rivers it is the custom to throw the soil up in high beds with the plough, and then to cultivate them deep. This is the more common method of drainage, but it is expensive, as it has to be renewed every few years.
It was very difficult to burn, and when dumped into rivers and creeks was carried out by flood water to fill the edges of the flats with a decaying and offensive mass of vegetable matter.
Rivers of James Island, South Carolina, has resulted in the production of disease-resistant races.
In one instance Mr Rivers found one healthy plant in a badly affected field.
A supply of seed of a high grade of Sea Island cotton was obtained from Colonel Rivers's estate in the Sea Islands, S.
bank of the Hudson rivers about 41 m.
In its course through Eastern Manchuria it forms the watershed of the Sungari, Usuri and other rivers, and in the south that of the Ya-lu and many smaller streams. it also forms the eastern boundary of the great plain of Liao-tung.
The three principal rivers of Manchuria are the Sungari,Mutankiang and Usuri already mentioned.
Next in importance to these rivers are the Liao and Ya-lu, the former of which rises in Mongolia, and after running in an easterly direction for about 400 m.
As in the north of China, the rivers are frozen up during the four winter months.
The rivers are well stocked with fish, especially with salmon, which forms a common article of food.
Bulk barges were soon introduced on the larger rivers, but the use of these was partially rendered unnecessary by the introduction of railways, when the oil was at first transported in barrels on freight cars, but later in tank-cars.
Between these systems run the main rivers; and these naturally rise near the medial ridge, in the lacustrine district of el-Buka`a, or Coelesyria, and flow in opposite directions.
Outside the basins of these rivers and their bordering mountain systems there only remain to be considered the following: (I) The Mediterranean littoral strip (the ancient Phoenicia), with a few torrent-like streams. (2) The shut-off district in the extreme north, ancient Commagene, which consists of two basins divided by a low ridge running from south to north.
Those which occur on the course of the principal rivers are described under Orontes and Jordan.
For the rest, Syria needs irrigation; and since neither of its larger rivers, Orontes or Jordan, flowing as these do in deep beds, is of much use for this purpose, all Mid-Syria, except the lacustrine oases, is a region mainly occupied by pastures, and yielding only thin cereal crops.
Shut off from the adjacent Indian Ocean by its mountain barrier, the drainage of the country is westward to the distant Atlantic. As its name implies, the chief rivers rise in Mont aux Sources.
Ordinarily shallow, the rivers after heavy rain fill with great rapidity, sweeping away everything in their path.
In every direction can be seen luxuriant valleys through which rivers thread their silvery way, wild chasms, magnificent waterfalls - that of Maletsunyane has an unbroken leap of over 600 f t.
Along the upper courses of the rivers are willows and wild olive trees; round the chief settlements the eucalyptus and the pine have been planted.
Communication over the greater part of the Territory is by road; none of the rivers is navigable.
Along much of the western coast and along nearly the whole of the eastern coast extends a line of sand reefs and narrow islands, enclosing shallow and narrow bodies of water, such as Indian river and Lake Worth - called rivers, lakes, lagoons, bays and harbours.
The springs often merge into lakes, and lake systems are usually the sources of the rivers, Lake George being the principal source of the St Johns, and Lake Kissimmee of the Kissimmee, while a number of smaller lakes are the source of the Oklawaha, one of the most beautiful of the Floridian rivers.
Same Scale as main map Longitude Nest 84 Greenwich 0 Of the rivers the most important are the St Johns, which flows N.
part of Polk county, and forming near its entrance into the Gulf of Mexico the boundary between Levy and Citrus counties, and four rivers, the Escambia, the Choctawatchee, the Apalachicola, and the Suwanee, having their sources in other states and traversing the north-western part of Florida.
About half of the varieties of forest trees in the United States are found, and 1 Almost everywhere limestone is the underlying rock, but siliceous sands, brought out by the Atlantic rivers to the N.E., are carried the whole length of the Florida coast by marine action.
was organized to develop a waterway from Jacksonville to Biscayne Bay by connecting with canals the St Johns, Matanzas, and Halifax rivers, Mosquito Lagoon, Indian river, Lake Worth, Hillsboro river, New river, and Snake Creek; in 1908 this vast undertaking was completed.
line was made 32° 28'), the Chattahoochee, and the Apalachicola rivers, the Gulf of Mexico, Mississippi Sound, Lakes Borgne, Pontchartrain and Maurepas, and the Mississippi river.
Two years later the American Congress annexed the portion of West Florida between the Pearl and the Mississippi rivers to Louisiana (hence the so-called Florida parishes of Louisiana), and that between the Pearl and the Perdido to the Mississippi Territory.
Nevertheless, of the death of a man, and of a maihem done in great ships, being and hovering in the main stream of great rivers, only beneath the [[[bridges]]] of the same rivers [nigh] to the sea, and in none other places of the same rivers, the admiral shall have cognizance, and also to arrest ships in the great flotes for the great voyages of the king and of the realm; saving always to the king all manner of forfeitures and profits thereof coming; and he shall have also jurisdiction upon the said flotes, during the said voyages only; saving always to the lords, cities, and boroughs, their liberties and franchises."
as of whatsoever fishes increasing in the rivers"; also "to reform nets too straight and other unlawful engines and instruments whatsoever for the catching of fishes"; also to take cognizance "of the wreck of the sea.
and goes on his journey through the sky, it is merely to come back to the place where he rose; rivers flow for ever into the sea without filling it.
Inland the Malays live by M o e, o preference on the banks of rivers, building houses on piles some feet from the ground, and planting groves of coco-nut, betel-nut, sugar-palm and fruit-trees around their dwellings.
No notable rivers flow into Lake Michigan, the largest being the Big Manistee and Muskegon on the east shore, and on the west shore the Menominee and the Fox, both of which empty into Green Bay, the most important arm of the lake.
DURANCE (anc. Druentia), one of the principal rivers descending from the French slope of the Alps towards the Mediterranean.
NEUQUEN, an inland territory of Argentina on the Chilean frontier, between the Colorado and Limay rivers, with the province of Mendoza on the N.
The population is concentrated in a few small towns on the rivers and in some colonies, established by the national government to check Chilean invasions, in the fertile districts of the Andes.
With the exception of a stretch of the March, none of the rivers are navigable.
It lives on the shores of lakes and rivers, swimming and diving with facility, feeding on the roots, stems and leaves of water-plants, or on fruits and vegetables which grow near the margin of the streams it inhabits.
in extreme width; on the east coast there is a rich plain called Giran, and there are also some fertile valleys in the neighbourhood of Karenko and Pinan, extending up the longitudinal valleys of the rivers Karenko and Pinan, between which and the east coast the Taito range intervenes; but the rest of the island is mountainous and covered with virgin forest.
Owing to the precipitous character of the east coast few rivers of any size find their way to the sea in that direction.
The rivers and neighbouring seas seem to be well stocked with fish, and especial mention must be made of the turtles, flying-fish, and brilliant I coral-fish which swarm in the waters warmed by the Kurosiwo current, the gulf-stream of the Pacific. Shell-fish form an important article of diet to both the Chinese and the aborigines along the coast - a species of Cyrena, a species of Tapes, Cytheraea petechiana and Modiola teres being most abundant.
On the north there is little coastal plain except at the mouths of rivers, but on the south coast there is a plain of considerable extent broken only by the remains of eroded foothills.
The water parting is about twice as far from the north coast as it is from the south coast, the rainfall is greater on the north slope, and the principal rivers - Rio Loiza, Rio de la Plata, Rio Manati and Rio Arecibo are on the north side.
There are eight other rivers on the same side, seventeen on the south side, six at the east end and four at the west end, besides more than 1200 smaller streams, and the deep valleys cut by the streams add to the broken surface of the country.
None of the rivers is navigable for more than a mile or two from the coast.
There are a few species of fresh-water fish, but food-fishes are scarce both in the rivers and along the coast.
truncatulus harbours the Cercaria of Fasciola hepatica, the liver-fluke, which causes rot in sheep. Ancylus, which occurs in rivers, has a minute limpet-like shell.
JERSEY CITY, a city and the county-seat of Hudson county, New Jersey, U.S.A., on a peninsula between the Hudson and Hackensack rivers at the N.
The principal rivers are the Ganges, Karamnasa, Gumti and Barna.
It is situated on a peninsula between the Mystic and Chelsea rivers, and Charlestown and East Boston, and is connected with East Boston and Charlestown by bridges.
22 a plains, high plateaus, fertile bottoms and rocky wastes, and is rendered picturesque by rivers and groves.
The Nagpur country, drained by the Wardha and Wainganga rivers, contains towards the west the shallow black soil in which autumn crops like cotton and the large millet, juar, which do not require excessive moisture, can be successfully cultivated.
The meridian of Greenwich has been universally accepted as the initial meridian, but in the case of most topographical maps of foreign countries local meridians are still adhered to - the more important among which are: The outline includes coast-line, rivers, roads, towns, and in fact all objects capable of being shown on a map, with the exception of the hills and of woods, swamps, deserts and the like, which the draughtsman generally describes as " ornament."
Hecataeus was probably the author of the " bronze tablets upon which was engraved the whole circuit of the earth, the sea and rivers " (Herod.
The Confederate States were never able to form a sea-going squadron, and Tattnall had no chance to do more than make a struggle with insufficient resources on its rivers.
from the coast of the gulf of Tarentum, between the rivers Aciris (Agri) and Siris (Sinni) about 13 m.
Ostriches are found in the open plains; the rivers swarm with crocodiles, but hippopotami are rare.
The Hawiya domain comprises the Ogaden plateau and the region generally between the Nogal and Webi-Shebeli rivers.
Running eastward these two rivers unite about 112° W., and flow on under the name of the South Saskatchewan river.
Pursuing their courses eastward the North and South Saskatchewan rivers unite in the Saskatchewan (Cree, rapid-flowing river), which finds its way to Lake Winnipeg, and thence by way of Nelson river to Hudson Bay.
It is one of the mightiest rivers of the .continent.
Alberta thus gives rise to the two great rivers Saskatchewan and Mackenzie.
In the rivers and lakes pike, pickerel, white fish and sturgeon supply food for the natives, and the brook trout is found in the small mountain streams. The turtle and frog also appear.
Lieutenant O'Neill, British consul at Mozambique, writing in 1880, fixed at about 3000 the number then annually exported from the coast between the rivers Rovuma and Zambesi.
The part of the district along the Irrawaddy and Chindwin rivers is alluvial.
To the westward there is a rapid drop to the wellwatered valley of the Yaw River, and then a rise over broken, dry country before the valleys of the Myit-tha and Mon rivers are reached.
The northern part can best be regarded as a low plateau (once marine sediments) sloping southward, traversed by the large diluvial valleys of the Mississippi, Red and Ouachita rivers, and recut by smaller tributaries into smaller plateaus and rather uniform flat-topped hills.
The principal rivers are the Mississippi, which flows nearly 600 m.
They may be characterized as secondary outlets of the rivers or flood distributaries.
Some might well be called lakes, and others rivers.
Levee systems on some of the interior or tributary rivers, aggregating some 602 m., are exclusively built and maintained by the state.
These are simply parts of the sea which have escaped the filling-in process carried on by the great river and the lesser streams. A second class, called " ox-bow" lakes, large in numbers but small in area, includes ordinary cut-off meanders along the Mississippi and Red rivers.
A third class, those upon the Red river and its branches, are caused mainly by the partial stoppage of the water above Shreveport by the " raft," a mass of drift such as frequently gathers in western rivers, which for a distance of 45 m.
Reclaimed marsh-land and fresh alluvium (the so-called " front-lands " on rivers and bayous) are choice soil for Indian corn, sugar-cane, perique tobacco, semi-tropical fruits and cotton.
In 1907 active preliminary work was begun on the Louisiana section of a great interstate inland waterway projected by the national government between the Mississippi and Rio Grande rivers, almost parallel to the Gulf Coast and running through the rice and truck-farm districts from the Teche to the Mermenton river (92 m.).
A few days later the portion of West Florida between the Mississippi and Pearl rivers (the present " Florida Parishes ") was included in its boundaries, making them as they are to-day.
Vivian; Rivers of the Mississippi Valley).
The southern slope is smooth, and abounds in creeks and rivers.
The number of rivers is very great, but almost without exception their courses are normal to the coast, and they are so short as to be of but slight importance.
The manatee, or sea-cow, frequents the mouths of rivers, the sargasso drifts, and the regions of submarine fresh-water springs off the coast.
of Lake Rudolf which is the water-parting between the Nile basin and the rivers flowing to the Indian Ocean.
Leaving the higher mountains in about 5° 15' N., 40° E., the Ganale enters a large slightly undulating grass plain which extends south of the valley of the Daua and occupies all the country eastward to the junction of the two rivers.
Bosnia belongs wholly to the watershed of the Save, and its rivers to the Danubian system, no large stream finding a way to the Adriatic. The Save flows eastward along the northern frontier for 237 m.
To Thoreau this Concord country contained all of beauty and even grandeur that was necessary to the worshipper of nature: he once journeyed to Canada; he went west on one occasion; he sailed and explored a few rivers; for the rest, he haunted Concord and its neighbourhood as faithfully as the stork does its ancestral nest.
Its object was the acquisition of gold, which was caught by the inhabitants of Colchis in fleeces as it was washed down the rivers.
They were built in France and the Low Countries, in the coast towns and the rivers - even in Paris - and were collected gradually, shore batteries both fixed and mobile being largely employed to cover the passage.
At this point also the two rivers are connected by a canal, the northernmost of a series of canals which formerly united the two great waterways, and at the same time irrigated the intervening plain.
of schists and sandstones a number of secondary ridges radiate in all directions, forming divides between the rivers Dra'a, Sits, Um-er-Rabid, Sebia, Mulwiya and Ghir, which flow respectively to the south-west, the west, north-west, north, north-east and south-east.
Nearer the coast, where the melting on the surface is more considerable, the wet snow freezes hard during the winter and is more or less transformed into ice, on the surface of which rivers and lakes are formed, the water of which, however, soon finds its way through crevasses and holes in the ice down to its under surface, and reaches the sea as a sub-glacial river.
Entering the department in the south, and, like the other chief rivers, flowing almost due north, the Allier drains the central district, receiving on its left the Sioule.
rivers and innumerable torrents, and at flood-time serves as a reservoir for the Mekong, with which it is connected by a channel some 70 m.
Two small rivers (Mill and Fort) flow through the township. Amherst is a quiet, pleasing, academic village of attractive homes.
Rivers's Early York b.m.Aug.
Early Rivers m.
by Lake Superior and by Wisconsin, from which it is separated for the greater part of the distance by the Mississippi and St Croix rivers.
The rather level surface of the " worn down mountains " of the north of the state and the coastal plain beds of the southern and western parts are now dissected by rivers, which make most of the state a rolling or hilly country, without strong relief.
Only in the valleys of the Red, Minnesota and Mississippi rivers does the elevation fall below 800 ft.
A few rivers in the south drain into the Mississippi through Iowa, while a smaller area in the extreme north is drained through the Lake of the Woods and Rainy Lake into Hudson Bay.
of navigable waters in the state), and, by falls and rapids caused by glacial displacement of rivers, furnishing a magnificent volume of water-power.
Both furnish valuable water-power, which is true also of the Cannon and Zumbro rivers flowing into the Mississippi below Hastings.
Glacial action determined the direction and character of the rivers, made numerous swamps, and, by scouring out rock basins, damming rivers and leaving morainal hollows, determined the character and formation of the lakes, of which Minnesota has upwards of io,000, a number probably exceeding that of any other state in the Union.
This lake drained southward into the Gulf of Mexico via the Minnesota and Mississippi rivers, until the ice sheet which had prevented its natural drainage to the north had melted sufficiently to allow it to be drained off into Hudson Bay by way of the Nelson River.
Seven navigable rivers within or on the borders of the state - the Red River of the north, the Red Lake River, Rainy River, the Minnesota, the Mississippi, the St Croix and the St Louis 1 - give facilities for transport by water that exert an important competing influence on freight charges; and at the " Head of the Lakes " (Duluth-Superior) many lines of steamships on the Great Lakes, providing direct or indirect connexion with the Eastern and Southern states, make that port in respect to tonnage the first in the United States.
A few years later (1694) Le Sueur, who had as early as 1684 engaged in trade along the upper Mississippi, established a trading post on Isle Pelee (Prairie Island) in the Mississippi between Hastings and Red Wing, and in 1700 he built Fort L'Huillier at the confluence of the Blue Earth and the Le Sueur rivers.
square at the mouth of the St Croix River and another containing about 100,000 acres at the confluence of the Minnesota and Mississippi rivers.
The admission of Wisconsin as a state in 1848 left that part of the former territory west of the St Croix and north of the Mississippi rivers, which was not included in the new state, practically without a government.
in the early days, those especially worthy of mention are Beltrami's; La Decouverte des sources des Mississippi et de la Riviere Sanglante (New Orleans, 1824) and the same author's A Pilgrimage in Europe and America, leading to the Discovery of the Sources of the Mississippi and Bloody Rivers (2 vols., London, 1828); William H.
For the purposes of this article it will be taken in its most restricted sense, as signifying the Roman province which was so called after the district that intervened between the river Ister (Danube) and the Haemus Mountains (Balkan) had been formed into the separate provinces of Moesia, and the region between the rivers Strymon and Nestus, which included Philippi, had been added to Macedonia.
Nitrogen is always being synthesized from the atmosphere (by plants, and by electrical discharges which combine nitrogen and oxygen), and this combined nitrogen is either utilized by land organisms or is washed down into the sea in the water of the rivers.
"very small"), a group of tribes in the province of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, and between the head waters of the rivers Mamore and Itenez.
Based on rivers (the navigation of which greatly improved) and the sea, he formed depots or magazines of provisions at many points, which enabled him always to take and keep the field.
The northern slopes of the Elburz and the lowlands which lie between them and the Caspian, and together form the provinces of Gilan, Mazandaran and Astarabad, are covered with dense forest and traversed by hundreds (Persian writers say 1362) of perennial rivers and streams. The breadth of the lowlands between the foot of the hills and the sea is from 2 to 25 m., the greatest breadth being in the meridian of Resht in Gilan, and in the districts of Amol, Sari and Barfurush in Mazandaran.
The great river itself is known in Tibet by many names, being generally called the Nari Chu, Maghang Tsanpo or Yaro Tsanpo, above Lhasa; the word " tsanpo " (tsang-po) meaning (according to Waddell) the " pure one," and applying to all great rivers.
From the north-eastern extremity of Assam where, near Sadya, the Lohit, the Dibong and the Dihong unite to form the wide placid Brahmaputra of the plains - one of the grandest rivers of the world - its south-westerly course to the Bay of Bengal is sufficiently well known.
There are four navigable rivers in the state - the Rio Grande del Norte, or Rio Bravo, which forms the boundary line with the United States, the Conchas or Presas, the Soto da Marina, and the Tamesi.
Belgrade occupies a triangular ridge or foreland, washed on the north-west by the Save, and on the north-east by the Danube; these rivers flowing respectively from the south-west and north-west.
high, overlooks the confluence of the two rivers, the large, flat island of Veliki Voyn and several smaller islets.
A few old Turkish houses, built of plaster, with red-tiled roofs, are left among the ill-paved and insanitary districts bordering upon the rivers, but as the royal residence, the seat of government, and the centre of the import trade, Belgrade was, after 1869, III.
In Brazil the trees are found in different districts, but flourish best on rich alluvial clay slopes by the side of rivers, where there is a certain amount of drainage, and the temperature reaches from 89° F.
Upper Austria belongs to the watershed of the Danube, which flows through it from west to east, and receives here on the right the Inn with the Salzach, the Traun, the Enns with the Steyr and on its left the Great and Little MÃ¼hl rivers.
corner of Transbaikalia, and then along the rivers Argun, Amur and Usuri to the frontier of Korea.
With regard to a great many rivers we know only the position of their mouths and their approximate lengths estimated by natives in terms of a day's march.
Formerly filled with alpine lakes, these valleys are now sheeted with flat alluvial soil and occupied by human settlements, and are drained by rivers which flow along them before they make their way to the north through narrow gorges pierced in the mountain-walls.
- namely, in East Sayan about Lake Kosso-gol and in the valley of the Tunka (river Irkut), in the vicinity of Selenginsk, and widely distributed on the Vitim plateau (rivers Vitim and Tsipa).
The three principal rivers - the Ob, the Yenisei, and the Lena - take their rise on the high plateau or in the alpine regions fringing it, and, after descending from the plateau and piercing the alpine regions, flow for many hundreds of miles across the high plains and lowlands before they reach the Arctic, Ocean.
'The three rivers of 'north-eastern Siberia - the Yana, Indigirka and Kolyma - have the same general character, their courses.
The Shilka and the Argun, which form it, flow first towards the north-east along the windings of the lower terrace of the great plateau; from this the Amur descends, cutting through the Great Khingan and flowing down the terraces of the eastern versant towards the Pacific. A noteworthy feature of the principal Siberian rivers is that each is formed by the confluence of a pair of rivers.
Owing to this twinning and the general direction of their courses, the rivers of Siberia offer immense advantages for inland navigation, not only 'from north to south but also from west to east.
It is this Wale ' circumstance that facilitated the rapid invasion of Siberia Wal er l by the Russian Cossacks and hunters; they followed the omm courses of the twin rivers in their advance towards the east, and discovered short portages which permitted them to transfer their boats from the system of the Ob to that of the Yenisei, and from the latter to that of the Lena, a tributary of which - the Aldan - brought them close to the Sea of Okhotsk.
Owing to the fact that the great plateau separates the Lena from the Amur, no easy water communication can be established between the latter and the other Siberian rivers.
Unfortunately all the rivers are frozen for many months every year.
The rivers and lakes of Siberia abound in fish; but little is known of their relations with the species of neighbouring regions.'
The Russians, issuing from the middle Urals, have travelled as a broad stream through south Siberia, sending branches to the Altai, to the Ili river in Turkestan and to Minusinsk, as well as down the chief rivers which flow to the Arctic Ocean, the banks of which are studded with villages 15 to 20 m.
Fishing is a valuable source of income on the lower courses of the great rivers, especially the Ob.
Navigation on the Siberian rivers has developed both as regards the number of steamers plying and the number of branch rivers traversed.
When the rivers are frozen communication is maintained by sledges on the Amur; but in spring and autumn the only continuous route down the Shilka and the Amur, to its mouth, is on horseback along a mountain path (very difficult across the Bureya range).
In 1884 this line was continued as far as Tyumen, the head of navigation on the Siberian rivers.
On the defeat of the adventurer Stenka Razin (1667-1671) many who were unwilling to submit to the iron rule of Moscow made their way to the settlements of Stroganov in Perm, and tradition has it that, in order to get rid of his guests, Stroganov suggested to their chief, Yermak, that he should cross the Urals into Siberia, promising to help him with supplies of food and arms. Yermak entered Siberia in 1580 with a band of 1636 men, following the Tagil and Tura rivers.
Kennan, Tent Life in Siberia (1870); Paplov, Siberian Rivers (1878); A.
Among other rivers having a westerly direction may be mentioned the Tambre, the Ulla and the Lerez or Ler, which falls into the Atlantic by estuaries or rigs called respectively Ria de Muros y Noya, Ria de Arosa and Ria de Pontevedra.
The rivers of the northern versant, such as the Nera, are, like those of Asturias, for the most part short, rapid and subject to violent floods.
VASLUI, the capital of the department of Vaslui, Rumania; on a hill at the confluence of the Berlad and Vaslui rivers, and on the railway from Jassy to Galatz.
The basin thus presents interesting problems. The existence of wide valleys where the small upper waters of the Cherwell, Evenlode and Coln now flow, the occurrence of waterborne deposits in their beds from the northwest of England and from Wales, and the fact that the Thames, like its lower southern tributaries which pierce the North Downs, has been able to maintain a deep valley through the chalk elevation at Goring, are considered to point to the former existence of a much larger river, in the system of which were included the upper waters of the present Severn, Dee and other rivers of the west.
This canal is the link between the two great rivers from which it takes its name, or, in other words, between the east and west of England.
Although the Thames, as one of the "great rivers of England," was always a navigable river, that is to say, one over which the public had the right of navigation, it was not until the last quarter of the 18th century that any systematic regulation of its flow in the upper reaches was attempted.
Lower Austria belongs to the watershed of the Danube, which with the exception of the Lainsitz, which is a tributary of the Moldau, receives all the other rivers of the province.
Besides the Danube, only the Enns and the March are navigable rivers.
As the division between the basins of the Loire and the Garonne to the west and those of the Saone and Rhone to the east, the Cevennes send many affluents to those rivers.
In the south the Orb, the Herault and the Vidourle are independent rivers flowing to the Golfe du Lion; farther north, the Gard - formed by the union of several streams named Gardon - the Ceze and the Ardeche flow to the Rhone.
The Vivarais mountains and the northern Cevennes approach the right banks of the Rhone and Saone closely, and on that side send their waters by way of short torrents to those rivers; on the west side the streams a y e tributaries of the Loire, which rises at the foot of Mont Mezenc. A short distance to the south on the same side are the sources of the Allier and Lot.
Through or near this gap flow northwards in parallel courses the rivers Heri-rud (Tejend) and Murghab, until they lose themselves in the desert of Kara-kum.
BRADFORD-ON-AVON, a market town in the Westbury parliamentary division of Wiltshire, England, on the rivers Avon and Kennet, and the Kennet & Avon Canal, 98 m.
Charles sought to improve the condition of Navarre by making canals and rendering the rivers navigable, and in other ways.
Of these southern rivers the chief are the Kraai, which joins the Orange near Aliwal North, the Stormberg and the Zeekoe (Sea Cow), the last named having a length of 120 m.
These usually dry sandy beds, which on many maps appear rivers of imposing length, for a few hours or days following rare but violent thunderstorms, are deep and turbulent streams. The northern system consists of the Nosob and its tributaries, the Molopo and the Kuruman.
western Cape Colony, is represented by the Brak and Ongers rivers, and, farther west, by the Zak and Olifants rivers, which, united as the Hartebeest, reach the Orange about 25 m.
These rivers, in the wet season and in places, have plenty of water, generally dissipated in vleis, pans and vloers (marshy and lake land).
These openings are usually the sandy beds of dried-up or intermittent affluents, such as the Bak, Ham, Houm, Aub (or Great Fish) rivers of Great Namaqualand.
The Pegu Yoma range separates it from Toungoo district, and forms the water-parting between the rivers Irrawaddy and Sittang; there are also many small elevations.
There are many mountain streams, but no navigable rivers.
C. Jerdon states that the Indian ratel is found throughout the whole of India, from the extreme south to the foot of the Himalaya, chiefly in hilly districts, where it has greater facilities for constructing the holes and dens in which it lives; but also in the north of India in alluvial plains, where the banks of large rivers afford equally suitable localities wherein to make its lair.
This line was defined by the treaty of 1857, and by the decision of President Cleveland in 1895 with regard to the small section between the Uruguay and Iguassu rivers.
above the sea-level, traversed by two great mountain systems, and deeply eroded and indented by numerous rivers.
These chapadas and elevations, which are usually described as mountain ranges, are capped by horizontal strata of sandstone and show the original surface, which has been worn away by the rivers, leaving here and there broad flat-topped ridges between river basins and narrower ranges of hills between river courses.
Add to these the eroded river basins of the Xingu, Tapajos and Guapore on the north and west, the Paraguay on the south-west, and the scores of smaller rivers along the Atlantic coast, and we may have some conception of the agencies that have been at work in breaking down and shaping this great table-land, perhaps the oldest part of the continent.
A considerable part of it has been excavated by these rivers to a level which gives their valleys the elevation and character of lowlands, though isolated hills and ranges with the characteristic overlying horizontal sandstone strata of the ancient plateau show that it was once a highland region.
The general slope is toward the Amazon, and its rivers debouch upon the Amazonian plain through a succession of falls and rapids.
Outside the two great river systems of the Amazon and river Plate (Rio de la Plata), which are treated under their respective titles, the rivers of Brazil are limited to the numerous small streams and three or four large rivers which flow eastward from the plateau regions directly into the Atlantic. The Amazon system covers the entire north-western part of the republic, the state of Amazonas, nearly the whole of Para and the greater part of Matto Grosso being drained by this great river and its tributaries.
Its rivers flow easterly into the Atlantic and drain a triangular-shaped area of the plateau lying between the northern frontier and the southern and western watersheds of the Araguary, whose extreme limits are about o° 30' N.
The more important of these rivers are the Araguary, Amapa, Calcoene, Cassipore and Oyapok.
All these small rivers are described as auriferous and have attracted attention for this reason.
The rivers of the great Brazilian plateau which flow directly to the Atlantic coast may be divided into two classes: those of its northward slope which flow in - a northerly and north-easterly direction to the north-east coast of the republic, and those which drain its eastern slope and flow to the sea in an easterly direction.
In both classes navigation is greatly impeded by sandbars at the mouths of these rivers, while in the districts of periodical rainfall it is greatly restricted in the dry season.
The more important rivers of the first division, which are described in more detail under the titles of the Brazilian states through which they flow, are the following: the Gurupy, Tury-assu, Mearim, Itapicuru and Balsas, in the state of Maranhao; the Parnahyba and its tributaries in Piauhy; Jaguaribe in Ceara; and the Apody and Piranhas in Rio Grande do Norte.
All the rivers in this division are influenced by the periodical character of the rainfall, their navigable channels being greatly shortened in the dry season (August-January).
In Ceara the smaller rivers become dry channels in the dry season, and in protracted droughts the larger ones disappear also.
The rivers of the second division are included in a very great extension of coast and are influenced by wide differences in climate.
Their character is also determined by the distance of the Serra do Mar from the coast, the more southern rivers having short precipitous courses.
The more northern rivers are subject to periodical variations in volume caused by wet and dry seasons, but the greater distance of the coast range and the more gradual breaking down of the plateau toward the sea, give them longer courses and a greater extent of navigable water.
The largest of this group of small rivers is the Parahyba do Norte, belonging to the state of Parahyba, whose length is said to be less than 200 m., only 5 or 6 m.
From the Sao Francisco to Cape Frio there are many short rivers rising on the slopes of the plateau and crossing the narrow coastal plain to the sea.
The navigable channels of these rivers are restricted to the coastal plain, except where a river has excavated for itself a valley back into the plateau.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.