Rival Sentence Examples
Let us consider some common phenomena in the light of these rival theories as to the nature of matter.
The ancient rival of Venice, Genoa, was likewise far gone in decline.
Raymond, then employed upon a rival journal.
He indignantly rebuked his rival's language and demeanour.
But after Yoritomos death the land became once more an armed camp, in which the rival barons discouraged travel beyond the limits of their own domains.Advertisement
Starting from the 13th century the Bassarabs soon split into two rival factions, known in history as the descendants of the two brothers Dan and Dragul.
In 1888 Maruyama established, another Asahi in Tokyo, and thither he was quickly followed by his Osaka rival, which in TOkyO took the name of Mainichi Dempo (Daily Telegraph).
The Imari ware, even though its thick biscuit and generally ungraceful shapes be omitted from the account, shows no enamels that can rival the exquisitely soft, broken tints of the famille rose; and the Kakiemon porcelain, for all its rich though chaste contrasts, lacks the delicate transmitted tints of the shell-like kwan-yao.
The feud between the rival dynasties lasted from the beginning of the 15th century to the beginning of the 17th.
The Metropolitan Magazine was started in opposition to Fraser, and was first edited by Campbell, who had left its rival.Advertisement
In the same spirit, he established a new shrine of Vesta Augusta within the palace, a private cult at first, but destined to be a serious rival of the ancient worship in the forum.
Moreover, the creed is quoted by his rival Avitus, bishop of Vienne 490-523, who quotes clause 22, as from the Rule of Catholic Faith, but was not likely to value a composition of Caesarius so highly.
Thus the city successfully befriended the Athenians against Cleomenes I., and supported them against Aegina, their common commercial rival in eastern waters.
John and Edmund are also important as the founders of the rival houses of Lancaster and York.
In the shadowy age which preceded the Stone age and hardly ended later than 10,000 B.C., the cave-dwellers of the Dordogne could draw elks, bisons, elephants and other animals at rest or in movement, with a freshness and realism which to-day only a Landseer can rival.Advertisement
In Umbrian villages on Easter Sunday the images of Jesus and His Mother are carried in rival processions from their respective chapels, and are made to bow when they meet face to face.
Her dramatic genius gave a new reading to the parts, and during these years the admirers of the two leading actresses of Europe practically constituted two rival schools of appreciation.
The city has suffered much through inundations from the Rio Dulce, and from frequent local revolutions caused by misgovernment and the struggles of rival factions.
Mademoiselle de la Valliere held the position from 1662 to 1670; she was then ousted by Madame de Montespan, who had fiercely intrigued for it, and whose proud and ambitious temper offered a great contrast to her rival.
It was from these two dukes that the rival houses of Lancaster and York derived their respective claims to the crown.Advertisement
He succeeded so far as to make a treaty with his rival, King John, son of Henry of Trastamara, for the succession, by virtue of which his daughter Catherine became the wife of Henry III.
The posts of honour had been divided between the rival factions.
The schism extended down to the bishoprics, and even to the monasteries and parishes, where partisans of the rival popes struggled to obtain possession of sees and benefices.
It was at just this period, when the rival popes were engaged in a life-and-death struggle, that heretical movements appeared in England, France, Italy, Germany, and especially in Bohemia, which threatened the whole ecclesiastical order.
The bishop's seat had to be fortified against the incursions of the heathen Frisians and Northmen, and the security thus afforded attracted population till, after the destruction of its rival Dorestad by the Normans in the 9th century, Utrecht became the chief commercial centre of the northern Netherlands.Advertisement
The French remedy for an unsuccessful colony has always been to annex more territory, and forestall a possible rival.
Ramiro soon rid himself of his rival, and welded Sobrarbe, Ribagorza and Aragon into a single kingdom, which thenceforward grew rapidly in size and power and shared with Castile the chief part in the struggle against the Moors.
Bacon was again his rival, and again unsuccessfully; the wealthy young widow became - not, it is said, to his future comfort - Coke's second wife.
On his death-bed he spoke generously of Castlereagh, and with warm eulogy of his former rival, Flood.
After a time Ali submitted, but the difference of opinion as to his claims gave rise to the controversy which still divides the followers of the prophet into the rival factions of Sunnites and Shiites.
In Oxford he was allowed to hold a disputation with some learned doctors on the rival merits of the Copernican and so-called Aristotelian systems of the universe, and, according to his own report, had an easy victory.
He was supported by the chancellor Matthew d'Ajello and the official class, while the rival claims of Roger II.'s daughter Constance and her husband, Henry VI., king of the Romans and emperor, were supported by most of the nobles.
Simultaneously with these proceedings in Bohemia, negotiations had been going on for the removal of the long-continued papal schism, and it had become apparent that a satisfactory solution could only be secured if, as seemed not impossible, the supporters of the rival popes, Benedict XIII.
However, he took an active part in the university's resistance to the Jesuits; for these had established a theological school of their own in Louvain, which was proving a formidable rival to the official faculty of divinity.
Pope went to see him three times during his first performances, and pronounced that " that young man never had his equal as an actor, and he will never have a rival."
After Luther's death (1546) and the battle of Miihlberg (1547) he had to yield to his rival, Julius von Pflug, and retire to the protection of the young duke of Weimar.
For some time Alexandria seemed destined to become an important commercial centre, but the rise of Washington created a rival that soon outstripped it, and since the Civil War the city's growth has been comparatively slight.
The chiefs of the rival creeds - British (Anglicans), French (Catholics), and Ba-Islamu, as they were called - divided thechiefships.
At the close of 1808, while Napoleon was in Spain, Talleyrand entered into certain relations with his former rival Fouche (q.v.), which aroused the solicitude of the emperor and hastened his return to Paris.
They are closely arrayed, capable of depression or elevation, and form a shield to the front of the breast impenetrable by the bill of a rival.
Beginning about 1827, Los Angeles, being the largest pueblo of the territory, became a rival of Monterey for the honour of being the capital of California, was the seat of conspiracies to overthrow the Mexican authority, and the stronghold of the South California party in the bickerings and struggles that lasted down to the American occupation.
Kerbela owes its existence to the fact that IJosain, a son of `Ali, the fourth caliph, was slain here by the soldiers of Yazid, the rival aspirant to the caliphate, on the 10th of October A.D.
In 1877 he fought a duel in which he killed his adversary, a rival journalist.
In the market for frozen lambs the colony remains at present without a rival.
The story of the struggle of the rival British and American companies to control the fur trade, with the final dominance of the Hudson's Bay Company has been told under Oregon and need not be repeated.
It was alert, cheerful and aggressive, was greatly helped by the attacks of rival papers, and promised success almost from the start.
The positions of the rival armies from the 18th of October, the close of the battle of the Sha-ho, to the 26th of January 1905, the opening of the battle of Sandepu (Heikoutai)- a period almost entirely devoid of incident - may be described by the old-fashioned term " winter quarters."
He was, however, certainly a man - one of those men who were not, of course, rival first-men, but were specially created and endowed.
Alcamenes, the rival or pupil of Pheidias, was the sculptor of a berm at Athens, a copy of which, dating from Roman times, was discovered at Pergamum in 1903.
Louis fought a battle beneath the walls of Zara (July ist, 1346), which has been immortalized by Tintoretto, but was defeated and compelled to abandon the city to the republic. The struggle was renewed eleven years later when Louis, having formed, with infinite trouble, a league of all the enemies of Venice, including the emperor, the Habsburgs, Genoa and other Italian towns, attacked his maritime rival with such vigour that she sued for peace, and by the treaty of Zara (February 18th, 1358) ceded most of the Dalmatian towns and renounced the title of duke of Dalmatia and Croatia, hitherto borne by the doge.
The rival settlements, officially known as Milwaukee East Side and Milwaukee West Side, bore the popular designations of "Juneautown" and "Kilbourntown."
A realization that the continuation of independent and rival corporations retarded growth eventually led to a compromise by which the two were united as two wards of the same village in 1839, the autonomy of each being still recognized by an odd arrangement whereby each maintained practically independent management of its finances and affairs.
A somewhat different conception of the sovereign's functions was that of Disraeli's great rival, Gladstone, who, though his respect for the person and office of the sovereign was unbounded, not only expected all people, the queen included, to agree with him when he changed his mind, but to become suddenly enthusiastic about his new ideas.
She had a rival in the empress Flaccilla, the pious consort of Theodosius I.
During the Kansas struggle Wyandotte was a pro-slavery town, while Quindaro (1856), a few miles up the Missouri, was a free-state settlement and Wyandotte's commercial rival until after the Civil War.
He was called to the bar on the 7th of June 1837, the same day on which John Rolt (1804-1871), a man of very different antecedents, but afterwards a worthy rival of Palmer, was also called.
He was succeeded by his brother Hermann I., during whose reign Thuringia suffered greatly from the ravages of the adherents of Philip, duke of Swabia, and also from those of his rival Otto of Brunswick.
The struggle of rival systems of nomenclature, from which our zodiacal series resulted, is plainly visible in their alternations; and the claims of the competing signs were long sought to be conciliated by representing the Balance as held between the claws of the €corpion.
Escaping from Avignon, he again won obedience in France, and his one thought was how to triumph over his Italian rival, if necessary, by force.
The worst enemy of the P Y Greeks was their own incurable spirit of faction; in the very crisis of their fate, during the siege of Missolonghi, rival presidents and rival assemblies struggled for supremacy, and a third civil war had only been prevented by the arrival of Cochrane and Church.
In 1817 the prince married Anna Sapiezanko, the wedding leading to a duel with his rival Pac. On the death of his father in 1823 he retired to his ancestral castle at Pulawy; but the Revolution of 1830 brought him back to public life.
When, on the 24th of December 1046, after three rival popes had been set aside, he nominated Suidgar, bishop of Bamberg, as bishop of Rome before all the people in St Peter's, the papacy was bestowed in the same way as a German bishopric; and;,'what had occurred in this case was to become the rule.
Such a schism as this, so intolerable to the ecclesiastical sense of the middle ages, necessitated the discovery of some authority superior to the rival popes, and therefore able to put an end to their quarrelling.
Their object had been to purify the Church of medieval accretions, and to restore the primitive model in the light of the new learning; the idea of rival " churches," differing in their fundamental doctrines and in their principles of organization, existing side by side, was as abhorrent to them as to the most rigid partisan of Roman centralization.
Every political rival had been quelled.
Foreseeing the extent to which the demand would grow in America for iron and steel, he started the Keystone Bridge works, built the Edgar Thomson steel-rail mill, bought out the rival Homestead steel works, and by 1888 had under his control an extensive plant served by tributary coal and iron fields, a railway 4 25 m.
The emperor, having named Carloman as his successor, died in August 875, but Charles the Bald reached Italy before his rival, and by persuading Carloman, when he did cross the Alps, to return, secured the imperial crown.
The dynasty of the Jagatai Khans collapsed in 1572 by the dismemberment of the country between rival representatives; and soon after two powerful Khoja factions, the White and Black Mountaineers (Ak and Kara Taghluk), arose, whose dissensions and warfares, with the intervention of the Kalmucks of Dzungaria, fill up the history till 1759, when a Chinese army from Ili (Kulja) invaded the country, and, after perpetrating wholesale massacres, finally consolidated their authority by settling therein Chinese emigrants, together with a Manchu garrison.
But since the death of Witowt (1430) the military efficiency of Lithuania had sensibly declined; single-handed she was no longer a match for her ancient rival.
In an instant the whole Republic was seething like a caldron, and a rival assembly was simultaneously summoned to Cracow by Jan Ferlej, the head of the Protestant party.
He had in fact already summoned a Russian army corps to assist him to reform his country, which sufficiently explains his own haughtiness and the unwonted compliancy of the rival magnates.
This Mahommedan soldier-adventurer, who, followed by his son Tippoo, became the most formidable Asiatic rival the British ever encountered in India, was the great-grandson of a fakir or wandering ascetic of Islam, who had found his way from the Punjab to Gulburga in the Deccan, and the second son of a naik or chief constable at Budikota, near Kolar in Mysore.
With the possible exception of Horn, Tristan is by far the most accomplished hero in the whole range of knightly romance; a finished musician, linguist and chess-player, no one can rival him in more knightly arts, in horsemanship or fencing.
Eugenius at length convened a rival council at Ferrara on the 8th of January 1438 and excommunicated the prelates assembled at Basel.
His rival, Felix V., meanwhile obtained small recognition, and the latter's ablest adviser, Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, made peace with Eugenius in 1442.
Y p important towns in 1594, and not allowed to return until 1609, when they found themselves confronted once more by their rival, the university of Paris.
Mary was dangerous enough as it was, and no one would willingly make his rival his heir.
He graduated at Harvard in 1745, and was a member of the lower house of the general court of Massachusetts in 1753-1756, and from 1757 to 1774 of the Massachusetts council, in which, according to Governor Thomas Hutchinson, he "was without a rival," and, on the approach of the War of Independence, was "the principal supporter of the opposition to the government."
On the occasion of the tsar's coronation (May 31, 1584), Boris was loaded with honours and riches, yet he held but the second place in the regency during the lifetime of his co-guardian Nikita Romanovich, on whose death, in August, he was left without any serious rival.
The systems of Plato and Aristotle sought to adjust the rival claims of physics and ethics (although the supremacy of the latter was already acknowledged); but the popular religions were thrown overboard.
Thus we observe persistent organs and persistent types of animals, analogous organs and analogous types of animals, and this analogy applies still further to the rival and more or less contradictory hypotheses of the sudden as distinguished from the gradual appearance of new parts or organs of animals, and the sudden appearance of new types of animals.
The conflicts, which may at first sight seem to be merely between rival generals, are seen upon closer examination to be mainly (r) between the privileged classes, i.e.
On both sides in Mexico there was an element consisting of honest doctrinaires; but rival military leaders exploited the struggles in their own interest, sometimes taking each side successively; and the instability was intensified by the extreme poverty of the peasantry, which made the soldiery reluctant to return to civil life, by the absence of a regular middle class, and by the concentration of wealth in a few hands, so that a revolutionary chief was generally sure both of money and of men.
He was presently displaced by a thorough reactionary, General Zuloaga, and expelled from Mexico early in 1858; and for three years Mexico was a prey to civil war between two rival governments - the Republicans at Vera Cruz under Juarez, who, as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, succeeded Comonfort; and the reactionaries at the capital.
He soon found that his government was held responsible to Europe for the excesses of its rival as well as its own.
The great drainage scheme which completed the works of the 17th century by taking out the surplus waters of the southern lakes of the valley of Mexico was devised in 1856, begun under Maximilian, proceeded with intermittently till 1885, then taken up with improved plans, practically completed by 1896, and inaugurated in 1900; 2 the harbour of Vera Cruz was finished in 1902; the Tehuantepec railway, likely to prove a formidable rival to any interoceanic canal, was opened on the 24th of January 1906.
He ranked as one of the Radical supporters of the new dynasty, in opposition to the party of which his rival Guizot was the chief literary man, and Guizot's patron, the duc de Broglie, the main pillar.
And neither is intelligible, except in relation to the rival theory of Ultramontanism.
With the help of these allies Chalcis engaged the rival league of its neighbour Eretria in the so-called Lelantine War, by which it acquired the best agricultural district of Euboea and became the chief city of the island.
Sanguinary feuds continued throughout the 16th and 17th centuries among these rival clans and their dependent tribes, and the turbulent spirit was not subdued till a comparatively recent period.
Such a theory, like its modern rival of the sun-myth, may of course be pushed till it becomes absurd; yet in India critical observers, like Sir Alfred C. Lyall, attest innumerable examples of the gradual elevation into gods of human beings, the process even beginning in their lifetime.
Soldiers may have espoused it rather than the rival faith, because in the primitive age Christian discipline denied them the sacraments, on the ground that they were professional shedders of blood.
The legend of the Omophorus and Splenditeneus, rival giants who sustain earth and luminous heavens on their respective shoulders, even if it already figures in the cuneiform texts of Assyria, is yet to be traced in Mithraic bas-reliefs.
The rival school of Basra, on the other hand, has given currency to a story that the original collection made by al-Mufaddal included a much smaller number of poems. The Berlin MS. of al-Marzugi's commentary states that the number was thirty, but a better reading of the passage, found elsewhere,' mentions eighty; and that al-Asma`i and his school added to this nucleus poems which increased the number to a hundred and twenty.
There is no mention of it in al-Anbari's work, and it is in itself somewhat improbable, as in al-Asma`i's time the schools of Kufa and Basra were in sharp opposition one to the other, and Ibn al-A`rabi in particular was in the habit of censuring al-Asma`i's interpretations of the ancient poems. It is scarcely likely that he would have accepted his rival's additions to the work of his step-father, and have handed them on to Abu `Ikrima with his annotations.
The government endeavoured to bring about an amalgamation of these rival companies, believing that the united energies and financial ability of the whole country were required for so vast an undertaking.
They were rival cities, and at first appear to have been equally powerful; one of the earliest of the sea-fights mentioned in Greek history took place between them, and in this we are told that many of the other Greek states took part.
He also attacked Isocrates, according to Cicero, and perhaps even set up a rival school of rhetoric. At any rate he had pupils of his own, such as Eudemus of Cyprus, Theodectes and Hermias, books of his own, especially dialogues, and even to some extent his own philosophy, while he was still a pupil of Plato.
In the first place as regards style, though the Stagirite pupil Aristotle could never rival his Attic master in literary form, yet he did a signal service to philosophy in gradually passing from the vague generalities of the dialogue to the scientific precision of the didactic treatise.
Brandy distilleries are numerous, and there is some trade in wood; but no local industry can rival agriculture and stock-breeding, which furnish the bulk of the exports.
Bold, overbearing and unscrupulous, Sinan recoiled from no baseness to put a rival out of the way; while his insolence was not confined to foreign ambassadors, but was exercised towards his opponents in the sultan's presence.
But it was significant that they had to adopt the badge of "Communism" in order to mark their precise position in the field of rival doctrines.
His reign until his death on the 28th of February 1069 was mainly spent in extending his power at the expense of his smaller neighbours, and in conflicts with his chief rival the king of Granada.
Some larches in Scotland rival in size the most gigantic specimens standing in their native woods; a tree at Dalwick, Peeblesshire, attained 5 ft.
Special interest attaches to this trace of their earlier origin, because of the famous cult of Diana Nemorensis, whose temple in the forest close by Aricia, beside the laces Nemorensis, was served by "the priest who slew the slayer, and shall himself be slain"; that is to say, the priest, who was called rex Nemorensis, held office only so long as he could defend himself from any stronger rival.
In the 13th century the Pisans tried to attract a population to the spot, but it was not till the 14th that Leghorn became a rival of Porto Pisano at the mouth of the Arno, which it was destined ultimately to supplant.
On the night of the 18th he heard that a rival of the Peshwa intended to burn the city.
His son `Abbas Efendi (also called `Abdu'l-Baha, " the servant of Baha ") was generally recognized as his successor, but another of his four sons, Muhammad `Ali, put forward a rival claim.
A long and peaceful reign followed, disturbed only by the struggles of rival political factions.
This court, faithful to the practice observed by it in the preceding elections, nominated another candidate, Cadalus, bishop of Parma, who was proclaimed at the council of Basel under the name of Honorius II., marched to Rome, and for a long time jeopardized his rival's position.
Refusing to join the Prussian Zollverein, Hanover had become a member of the rival commercial union, the Steuerverein, three years before Ernest's accession; but as this union was not a great success the Zollverein was joined in 1851.
In 1825 the completion of the Erie Canal with its western terminus at Buffalo greatly increased the importance of the place, which now rapidly outstripped and soon absorbed Black Rock, a village adjoining it on the N., which had at one time threatened to be a dangerous rival.
At that time there were two rival political parties at Constantinople, the "Roman" party led by Aurelian (son of Taurus), praetorian prefect, and supported by the empress and a Germanizing and Arianizing party led by Aurelian's brother (possibly Caesarius, praetorian prefect in 400).
By fixing the areas of these spheres of influence rival states in western and central Africa avoided conflicts and preserved their rights until they were able to take a more effective part in their development.
His blunt, direct style of oratory and his somewhat rough manners were characteristic. After the outbreak of the Civil War he was one of the most vigorous critics of the Lincoln administration, whose Ohio member, Salmon P. Chase, had long been a political rival.
During its later years his reign was much distrubed, however, by the contentions for ascendancy which arose between the Pharisees and Sadducees, the two rival sects or parties which then for the first time (under those names at least) came into prominence.
After bloodshed between the rival fur companies, and their union in 1821, Fort Garry was erected, as a trading post and settlers' depot, and with somewhat elaborate structure, with stone walls, bastions and portholes.
In these early days Peter would very willingly have made peace with his formidable rival if he had been allowed to retain these comparatively modest conquests.
After Pultava (June 26, 1709), Peter, hitherto commendably cautious even to cowardice, but now puffed up with pride, rashly plunged into as foolhardy an enterprise as ever his rival engaged in.
Enemies and rival claimants arose on all sides, for Cyprus was a tempting bait.
He had not the genius to find a way out of the French entanglement or the skill to steer a constitutional monarchy between rival factions.
The religious quarrel either accentuated, or was accentuated by, political differences, and the rival chiefs, Athanaric and Frithigern, appeared as champions of Paganism and Christianity respectively.
It became one of the wealthiest of central American cities, although it had always a keen commercial rival in Leon, which now surpasses it in size and importance.
To get a better share in the European trade at the mouth of the river a body of colonists migrated further down and built ObutÃ¶ng or Old Town, and shortly afterwards a rival colony established itself at Aqua Akpa or Duke Town, which thus formed the nucleus of the existing town.
He staunchly supported the patriarch Ignatius against his rival, Photius, at Constantinople; he upheld the rights of Teutberga, who had been repudiated by her husband, Lothair II.
Hildebrand set up Gerard, bishop of Florence, as a rival candidate, won over a part of the Romans to his cause, and secured the support of the empress regent Agnes at the Diet of Augsburg in June.
Urban, in fact - who meanwhile had created a new College of Cardinals with members of different nationalities - enjoyed one great advantage; his rival failed to hold his own in Italy, with which country the actual decision virtually lay.
The synod grounded its procedure against the rival popes on a fact, ostensibly patent to all, but actually believed by none - that they were both supporters of the schism, and not merely this, but heretics in the truest and fullest sense of the word, since their attitude had impugned and subverted the article of faith concerning the one Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church.
The erection of the obelisks of the Vatican, the Lateran, the Piazza del Popolo and the square behind the tribune of Sta Maria Maggiore lent a lustre to Rome which no other city in the world could rival.
Other methods of disposing of him having failed, the Porte made his nephew a rival sheikh; but he basely assassinated him.
In the earlier period of its history it seems to have been an independent rival of Athens, and it was afterwards reckoned one of the twelve Old Attic cities.
When the power of the Sakya began to wane, that of the rival monasteries of Digung, Phagdub and Tshal increased largely, and their respective influence and authority overbalanced that of the successors of Phagspa.
Even then he remained for some time under the influence of Hubert de Burgh, whose chief rival, Peter des Roches, found it expedient to quit the kingdom for four years.
Allowance must here be made for jealousy of a rival order just rising in popularity.
A rival catholicus, with a small following, still has his cathedral and see at Sis.
Dismantled by order of Charlemagne, it became in the 9th century the capital of an independent principality, the rival of that of Benevento, and was surrounded by strong fortifications.
In these matters he was the great rival of Asma'i (q.v.).
It consisted simply in reducing cryolite with metallic sodium exactly as in Deville's chloride method, and it was claimed to possess various mythical advantages over its rival.
During the Protectorate, in 1649, an ordinance was passed for " the promoting and propagating of the gospel of Jesus Christ in New England " by the erection of a corporation, to be called by the name of the President and Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England, to receive and dispose of moneys for the purpose, and a general collection was ordered to be made in all the parishes of England and Wales; and Cromwell himself devised a scheme for setting up a council for the Protestant religion, which should rival the Roman Propaganda, and consist of seven councillors and four secretaries for different provinces.'
Nothing is known of the family with certainty; but the name is familiar from the interesting romance of Gines Perez de Hita, Guerras civiles de Granada, which celebrates the feuds of the Abencerrages and the rival family of the Zegris, and the cruel treatment to which the former were subjected.
Unable to detach the congregation from the teacher, Darby began a rival assembly.
Albert's rival was George's son-in-law, Rupert, formerly bishop of Freising, and son of Philip, count palatine of the Rhine; and the emperor Maximilian I., interested as archduke of Austria and count of Tirol, interfered in the dispute.
The commune also tried to restrict the power of the barons, who, in the 13th century especially, though we find them feudatories of the holy see from the 10th century onwards, threatened to become masters of the whole territory, which is still dotted over with the baronial castles and lofty solitary towers of the rival families of Rome - Orsini, Colonna, Savelli, Conti, Caetani - who ruthlessly destroyed the remains of earlier edifices to obtain materials for their own, and whose castles, often placed upon the high roads, thus following a strategic line to a stronghold in the country, did not contribute to the undisturbed security of traffic upon them, but rather led to their abandonment.
He had Nelson with him as second in command - then a junior admiral but without rival in capacity and in his hold on the confidence of the fleet.
As all attempts to conduct a satisfactory negotiation with this emperor failed before his impenetrable stupidity, Alaric, after instituting a second siege and blockade of Rome in 409, came to terms with the senate, and with their consent set up a rival emperor and invested the prefect of the city, a Greek named Attalus, with the diadem and the purple robe.
In two articles, tobacco and rice, Bremen is the greatest market in the world; in cotton and indigo it takes the first place on the continent, and it is a serious rival of Hamburg and Antwerp in the import of wool and petroleum.
That rival was the Swedish peasantry.
That this invasion is to be connected with the friendly relations which are said to have subsisted between the first of the Libyan dynasty and Rehoboam's rival is unlikely.
The battle was fought between Olaf Trygvesson, king of Norway, and a coalition of his enemies - Eric Hakonson, his cousin and rival; Olaf, the king of Sweden; and Sweyn Forkbeard, king of Denmark.
Her mother, supported at first by her husband's great rival and her own former suitor, Bacon, objected to the match, and placed her in concealment.
Pedro proved false to his English allies, and was finally overthrown and killed by his rival, Henry of Trastamara, in 1369.
Their sentence, however, did not take effect until late in 272, when the emperor Aurelian, having defeated Zenobia and anxious to impose upon Syria the dogmatic system fashionable in Rome, deposed Paul and allowed the rival 'candidate Domnus to take his place and emoluments.
Charles, after trying in vain to remain neutral in the wars between France and the emperor Charles V., had been forced to side with the latter, whereupon his duchy was overrun with foreign soldiery and became the battlefield of the rival armies.
It ought to be remembered, to the honour of Pope, that he joined heartily in the applause with which the appearance of a rival genius was welcomed.
A crowd of small writers had vainly attempted to rival Addison.
In particular, it is not a history of the people or of the country, but a history of the Armenian aristocracy, and, in opposition to the Mamikonian tendency which pervades the rest of the older Armenian historical literature, it is written in the interest of the rival Bagratunians.
The successor of Louis, Charles VIII., restored the city to its former name and position, and as part of the inheritance of Mary, daughter and heiress of Charles the Bold, it was contended for by the French king, and his rival, the German king, Maximilian I.
The picture galleries of Dresden, Munich and Cassel still rival that at Berlin, though the latter is rapidly becoming one of the richest in the world in works of the great masters, largely at the cost of the private collections of England.
For about two years his rival, Odo, count of Champagne, who was supported by the Rdmance-speaking inhabitants, kept up the struggle against him, but eventually all opposition was overcome and the possession of Burgundy was assured to the German king.
In 1046 he entered Italy at the head of an army which secured for him greater respect than had been given tc any German ruler since Charlemagne, and at Sutri and in Romc he deposed the three rival popes.
Prussia, irritated by the proceedings of her rival, did as little as possible in the war with France; and in 1795 she retired from the struggle, and by the treaty of Basel ceded to the French republic her possessions on the left bank of the Rhine.
At the menace of her armaments, concentrated on the Rhine, Napoleon had stopped dead in the full career of victory; Austria, in the eyes of German men, had been placed under an obligation to her rival; and Italy realized the emergence of a new military power, whose interests in antagonism to Austria were identical with her own.
This feeling was deliberately fostered by publicists and historians, and was intensified by commercial rivalry, since in the struggle for colonial expansion and trade Germans naturally came to look on Great Britain, who held the field, as their rival.
Against Russia he was less fortunate, and the first encounter between Turkey and her future northern rival gave presage of disaster to come.
After capturing his rival Glycerius, who had been nominated by the army in 473, at the mouth of the Tiber, he was recognized as emperor in Rome, Italy and Gaul.
From 1358 to 1526 the republic was a vassal state of Hungary, and no longer controlled by its greatest commercial rival.
The commercial and naval successes of the Genoese during the middle ages were the more remarkable because, unlike their rivals, the Venetians, they were the unceasing prey to intestine discord - the Genoese commons and nobles fighting against each other, rival factions amongst the nobles themselves striving to grasp the supreme power in the state, nobles and commons alike invoking the arbitration and rule of some foreign captain as the sole means of obtaining a temporary truce.
From these contests of rival nobles, in which the names of Spinola and Doria stand forth with greatest prominence, Genoa was soon drawn into the great vortex of the Guelph and Ghibelline factions; but its recognition of foreign authority - successively German, Neapolitan and Milanese - gave way to a state of greater independence in 1339, when the government assumed a more permanent form with the appointment of the first doge, an office held at Genoa for life, in the person of Simone Boccanera.
In John Zapolya, who was supported by Suleiman, Ferdinand found an active rival.
The most obvious direction in which this could be sought was in Bavaria, ruled by the decadent house of Wittelsbach, the secular rival of the house of Habsburg in southern Germany.
Acragas, strengthened by Syracusan exiles, now stands out again as the rival of Syracuse.
His brother and rival Abuhafas brought help from Africa; and finally all joined against the Christians.
In 1285 both the rival kings died.
Westport, a little inland town - platted 1833, a city 1857, merged in Kansas City in 1899 - now a fashionable residence district of Kansas City - was a rival of Independence in the Santa Fe trade which she gained almost in toto in 1844 when the great Missouri flood (the greatest the river has known) destroyed the river landing utilized by Independence.
Libraries became a feature of the age, the kings leading the way as collectors, of books, especially the rival dynasties of Egypt and Pergamum.
Agesilaus defeated the rival pretender and left Nekhtnebf established on the throne.
He found a rival in Egypt in the person of Ibn al-Modabbir, the finance minister, who occupied an independent position, and who started the practice of surrounding himself with an army of his own slaves or freedmen; of these Ibn Tulun succeeded in depriving the finance minister, and they formed the nucleus of an army by which he eventually secured his own independence.
The P4JrJy dispute began with a struggle over the succession in relations the principality of Karaman, where the two sultans favored rival candidates, and the Ottoman sultan ur ey.
Two main barriers still obstructed the realization of his ambition,which now embraced Greece arid Thessaly, as well as Albania, and the establishment in the Mediterranean of a sea-power which should rival that of the dey of Algiers.
On the other hand, if Denmark had emerged from the war with her honour and dignity unimpaired, she had at the same time tacitly surrendered the dominion of the North to her Scandinavian rival.
Jens Baggesen is the greatest comic poet that Denmark has produced; and as a satirist and witty lyrist he has no rival among the Danes.
Drachmann retained his place, without rival, as the leading imaginative writer in Denmark.
The so-called Kings' Hows at Upsala in Sweden rival those of Jelling in size and height.
Prussia was now universally recognized as one of the great powers of the Continent, and she definitely took her place in Germany as the rival of Austria.
The forces of the rival kings met at Gollheim on the 2nd of July 1298, where Adolph was killed, it is said by the hand of Albert.
The whole country, however, was on the alert, and at midnight on the 8th, within a month of their landing, James heard that the revolt, desperate from the first, was over and that his rival had been captured close to Ringwood.
A more heroic subject, and the only one in which he made a certain attempt to rival Firdousi, was selected by our poet for his third epopee, the Iskandarnama, or "Book of Alexander," also called Sharaf iama or Igbalnama-i-Iskandari (" The Fortunes of Alexander"), which is split into two divisions.
In the middle of the 18th century, during the war between the rival claimants to the throne of the Carnatic, Mahommed Ali and Chanda Sahib, the English supported the claims of the former and the French those of the latter.
But there is a third scheme (the Talmudic) still current among the Jews, and not unknown to early Christian writers, which is still a rival of the Philonic view, though less satisfactory.
His arrival had an important effect on the deliberations of this council, and the compromise which was subsequently made between the rival parties was largely his work.
In point of size the largest cannot rival the larger Brown Algae, while the majority require the aid of the microscope for their investigation.
Without being so forward as the rival city of Augsburg to embrace the architectural fashions of the Italian renaissance - continuing, indeed, to be profoundly imbued with the old and homely German burgher spirit, and to wear, in a degree which time has not very much impaired even yet, the quaintness of the old German civic aspect - she had imported before the close of the 15th century a fair share of the new learning of Italy, and numbered among her citizens distinguished humanists like Hartmann Schedel, Sebald Schreier, Willibald Pirkheimer and Conrad Celtes.
Founded as a Greek city in 300 B.C. by Seleucus Nicator, as soon as he had assured his grip upon western Asia by the victory of Ipsus (301), it was destined to rival Alexandria in Egypt as the chief city of the nearer East, and to be the cradle of gentile Christianity.
But the first western sovereign practically to recognize the importance of the district was Antigonus, who began to build a city, Antigonia, on the Kara Su a few miles north of the situation of Antioch; but, on his defeat, he left it to serve as a quarry for his rival Seleucus.
In Leland's time the market was held at Marhasdeythyow (Forum Jovis), and both Norden (1582) and Carew (1602) tell us that Marcajewe signifies the Thursday's market, which, whether etymologically sound or not, shows that the prior's market had prevailed over its rival.
Suffolk was left without an obvious rival, but his difficulties were great.
A search by rival theorists for evidence which will prove that Cephallenia is Ithaca, has produced nothing more convincing, and efforts to find the city of the Phaeacians at Cape Kephali in Corfu were also unsuccessful.
Irving's severity as a teacher had offended some of the parents, who set up Carlyle to be his rival.
Foreign intervention was avoided through the renewal of war between Francis and Charles; and the insurgents were hampered by having no rival candidate for the throne and no means of securing the execution of their programme.
The queen-mother married Sir James Stewart of Lorne, and their sons, Buchan and Atholl, mixed in the confused intrigues of the reign of James III., but the queen was treated with scant courtesy by the rival parties.
Arran's brother, later archbishop of St Andrews, arrived from France and worked on the wavering regent, while his rival, Lennox, came also from France, and failing to oust Arran, became Henry's pensioner in England.
War was at hand, but Montrose formed a party by " the band of Cumbernauld," to suppress the practical dictatorship of his rival and enemy, Argyll, who, he understood, was to be one of a triumvirate, and absolute north of Forth.
While the rival bands of preachers squabbled, Cromwell, like Edward I., arranged that Scottish members should sit in Westminster, and, commercially, as in the administration of fair justice, and the peace of the country, Scotland prospered under English rule.
William complained, later, that he had no notice of the terms of that patent till after it was passed (he was fighting under Namur at the time), and the act not unnaturally aroused the jealousy of the rival English companies.
It is said that Hera, having assumed the form of Semele's nurse, persuaded her rival to ask Zeus to show himself to her in all his glory.
Its geographical position gives it strategic value as a naval base; and as a commercial centre it is without a rival in this part of Asia.
So far as Hungary was concerned, Budapest in 1867 at once became the favoured rival of Vienna, with the important additional advantage that it had no such competitors within its own sphere as Vienna had in the Austrian provincial capitals.
This seems an unlikely limitation, throwing an impossible amount of work upon the crew, and leaving each ship terribly weak supposing a naval battle had to be undertaken - as with some rival viking fleet, even before any Christian nation possessed a fleet.
In the contests between the rival powers and courts of the period, the prophecy of Antichrist played a political part.
It is a curious process by which the monster that symbolized heathenism conquered by Christianity has been evolved out of the first great rival of the God of Israel.
At Nineveh, which remained the capital till the fall of the Assyrian empire in 606 B.C., Assur had as his rival Ishtar, who was the real patron deity of the place, but a reconciliation was brought about by making Ishtar the consort of the chief god.
Pilate, discerning that it was the envy of the rulers which sought to destroy an inconvenient rival, offered " the King of the Jews " as the prisoner to be released.
He had no rival worthy of the name.
The logic of Hegel is the only rival to the logic of Aristotle.
As yet neither of these movements has shown sufficient coherence or stability to establish itself as a rival to the main current of philosophy in England.
For, as an interpreter of human character in the drama, Goethe is without a rival among modern poets, and there is not one of his plays that does not contain a few scenes or characters which bear indisputable testimony to his mastery.
This position was-in the main due to a dexterity in conducting causes, and especially in examining witnesses, in which he had no rival at the Irish bar.
How the small rival districts with their petty kings were united Hebrew into a kingdom under a single head is a disputed question; the stages from the half-Hittite, half-Egyptian land to the independent Hebrew state with its national god are an unsolved problem.
A conspicuous feature is the difficulty of maintaining this single monarchy, which, however it originated, speedily became two rival states (Judah and Israel).
Judah itself was next involved in an anti-Assyrian league (with Edom, Moab and Philistia), but apparently submitted in time; nevertheless a decade later (70r), after the change of dynasty in Assyria, it participated in a great but unsuccessful effort from Phoenicia to Philistia to shake off the yoke, and suffered disastrously.3 With the crushing blows upon Syria and Samaria the centre of interest moves southwards and the history is influenced by Assyria's rival Babylonia (under Marduk-baladan and his successors), by north Arabia and by Egypt.
It left room for rival schools and sects, both within and without the priestly circles, and for continued development of the older and non-priestly thought.
The biblical history is a " canonical " history which looks back to the patriarchs, the exodus from Egypt, the law-giving and the covenant with Yahweh at Sinai, the conquest of Palestine by the Israelite tribes, the monarchy, the rival kingdoms, the fall and exile of the northern tribes, and, later, of the southern (Judah), and the reconstructions of Judah in the times of Cyrus, Darius and Artaxerxes.
An enormous gap severs the pre-monarchical period from this age, and while the tribal schemes and tribal traditions can hardly be traced during the monarchies, the inclusion of Judah among the " sons " of Israel would not have originated when Judah and Israel were rival kingdoms. Yet the tribes survive in post-exilic literature and their traditions develop henceforth in Jubilees, Testament of the XII Patriarchs, &c.
A common ground previous to the Samaritan schism is ignored; it is found only in the period before the rival kingdoms. The political history of these ' In the art.
It combines amid diverse material a hero of Bethlehem and rival of Saul with the idea of a conqueror of this district; it introduces peculiar traditions of the ark and sanctuary, and it associates David with Hebron, Calebites and the wilderness of Paran 3 The books of Samuel and Kings have become, in process of compilation, the natural sequel to the preceding books, but the conflicting features and the perplexing differences of standpoint recur elsewhere, and the relationship between them suggests that similar causes have been operative upon the compilation.
The history of Judah is, broadly speaking, that of the Davidic dynasty and the Temple, and it begins at the time of the first king of the rival north.
Abandoned by his captain and future rival, Seleucus, Ptolemy retired and left Palestine to Antigonus for ten years.
He had already reached the height of his fame when Plato opened a rival school at the Academy, and pointedly attacked him in the Gorgias, the Plaaedrus and the Republic. Thenceforward, there was a perpetual controversy between the rhetorician and the philosopher, and the struggle of educational systems continued until, in the next generation, the philosophers were left in possession of the field.
On the contrary, the sophists were in quiet possession of the field when Plato, returning to Athens, opened the rival school of the Academy; and, while their teaching in all respects accommodated itself to current opinion, his, in many matters, ran directly counter to it.
But in his eagerness to seize the whole inheritance of his rival, Louis drove his daughter and heiress, Mary of Burgundy, into marriage with Maximilian of Austria (afterwards the emperor Maximilian I.),who successfully defended Flanders after a savage raid by Antoine de Chabannes.
The germs of rival systems can be traced in the old military and other service tenures of Assam, and in the poll tax of Burma, &c. The exclusive development of the land system is due to two conditions, - a comparatively high state of agriculture and an organized plan of administration, - both of which are supplied by the primitive village community.
Hasting's great rival, Francis, was among those who urged the superior advantages of a permanent assessment.
Among the Indian adventurers who thronged Alexander's camp in the Punjab, each with his plot for winning a kingdom or crushing a rival, Chandragupta Maurya, an exile from the Gangetic valley, seems to have played a somewhat ignominious part.
Mahommed Ghori achieved his object by playing off the rival kings against each other.
In the far East the Dutch ruled without a rival, and gradually expelled the Portuguese from almost all their territorial possessions.
In boldness of conception, and in knowledge of Oriental diplomacy, Dupleix has had probably no rival.
In the words of Orme, " That day terminated the long hostilities between the two rival European powers in Coromandel, and left not a single ensign of the French nation avowed by the authority of its Government in any part of India."
But Clive, again acting upon the policy he had learned from Dupleix, had provided himself with a rival candidate to the throne.
He next attacked the Dutch, the sole European nation that might yet be a formidable rival to the English.
The latter was crowned by the antipope Clement, while Urban regarded both him and his rival as usurpers.
Upon the return of his rival, Crispi, to power in December 1893, he resumed political activity, allying himself with the Radical leader, Cavallotti.
His morals were as loose as those of his great rival Mirabeau, but he was famed in Paris for his wit and gaiety.
The international concert defined in the treaty of Berlin had been rudely shaken, if not destroyed; the denunciation by Austria, without consulting her co-signatories, of the clauses of the treaty affecting herself seemed to invalidate all the rest; and in the absence of the restraining force of a united concert of the great powers, free play seemed likely once more to be given to the rival ambitions of the Balkan nationalities, the situation being complicated by the necessity for the dominant party in the renovated Turkish state to maintain its prestige.
While in opposition he devoted special attention to naval affairs, and in speeches that attracted much notice declared that the function of the French navy was to secure and develop colonial enterprise, deprecated all attempts to rival the British fleet, and advocated the construction of commerce destroyers as France's best reply to England.
Hisham tried to keep himself free from and above the rival parties, but as his vicegerents were inexorable in the exaction of tribute, the Qaisites against the Yemenites, the Yemenites against the Qaisites, both parties alternately had reason to complain, whilst the non-Arabic Moslems suffered under the pressure and were dissatisfied.
For a moment it seemed as though the rival Arab factions, realizing their common peril, would turn their combined forces against the Shiites.
At the end of some months, however, he was calumniously accused of conspiracy, and the caliph, seizing the opportunity of ridding himself of a possible rival, threw him into prison, where he died, according to the majority of the historians, of starvation.
Owing to his extreme youth many of the leading men at Bagdad rebelled and swore allegiance to Abdallah, son of the former caliph Motazz, a man of excellent character and of great poetical gifts; but the party of the house of Motadid prevailed, and the rival caliph was put to death.
The Carmathians drove the Fatimites out of Syria, and threatened Egypt, but, notwithstanding their intrepidity, they were not able to cope with their powerful rival, who, however, in his turn could not bring them to submission.
It is equally no accident that the name of Protagoras is to be connected, in Plato's view at least, with the rival school of Heracliteans.
Aristotle, however, treats it as a dialectical rival to syllogism, and it influenced Galilei and Bacon in their views of inference after the Renaissance.
Neoplatonism had accepted the Aristotelian logic with its sharper definition than anything handed down from Plato, and, except the logic of the Sceptics, there was no longer any rival discipline of the like prestige.
Antonius married Octavia, his rival's sister, and took for himself the eastern half of the empire, leaving the west to Caesar.
In Germany, Otto of Brunswick, afterwards the emperor Otto IV., allied himself with Richard, while Philip was supported by Otto's rival, Philip of Swabia.
This union combined the rival claims of the descendants of Peter and of Henry of Trastamara.
He gives it four-fifths of his land; while his white rival allows it only a quarter of his, less by half than the area he gives to live-stock, dairying, hay and grains.
The Federal and Confederate forces controlled at this time different parts of the state; there was some ebb and flow of military fortune in 1864, and for a short time two rival governments.
During the administration of Noel Ballay (1848-1902), governor of the colony 1890-1900, Konakry was transformed from a place of small importance to one of the chief ports on the west coast of Africa and a serious rival to Freetown, Sierra Leone.
He was also a student of language and a critic. It was as a critic that he was the great rival of Abu `Ubaida.
Rivarol has had no rival in France except Piron in sharp conversational sayings.
This league was joined by a powerful group of princes and nobles and found recognition by the prince-electors of the Empire; but for want of leadership it did not stand the test, when Richard of Cornwall and Alphonso of Castile were elected rival kings in 1257.2 In the following centuries the imperial cities in south Germany, where most of them were situated, repeatedly formed leagues to protect their interests against the power of the princes and the nobles, and destructive wars were waged; but no great political issue found solution, the relative position of the parties after each war remaining much what it had been before.
Pisa, one time the mightiest, had been crushed between its inland neighbour and its maritime rival Genoa (battle of Meloria, 1282).
It is impossible to trace a safe path through the complicated aetiological myths, the fragments of reshaped legend and tradition, or the adjustment of rival theologies.
In 1811 the massacre of the Mamelukes left Mehemet Ali without a rival in Egypt, while the foundations of his empire beyond were laid by the war against the Wahhabis and the conquest of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina.
The exploitation of the mines suffers in many cases from the difficulties and expense of transport, the high duties payable in Dutch Borneo to the native princes, the competition among the rival companies, and often the limited quantities of the minerals found in the mines.
Then came the hopeless revolts of the Indians against intolerable oppression, the abortive rebellions of Hernandez de Contreras and John Bermejo (Bermudez) against the mother country (1550), the foundation of Leon, future rival of Granada, in 1610, its sack by the buccaneers under William Dampier in 1685, and, lastly, the declaration of independence (1821), not definitively acknowledged by Spain till 1850.
Another of the king's secretaries at this time, though in a less confidential relation, was a friend and contemporary of Perez, named Juan de Escovedo, who, however, after the fall of Tunis in 1574, was sent off to supersede Juan de Soto as secretary and adviser of Don John of Austria, thus leaving Perez without a rival.
The earliest alphabetic document which can be dated with comparative certainty is the famous Moabite stone, which was discovered in 1868, and after a controversy between rival claimants which led to its being broken in pieces by the Arabs, ultimately reached the Louvre, where in a restored form it remains.
It was always a local alphabet, and never attained the importance of its rival.
Altona carries on an extensive maritime trade with Great Britain, France and America, but it has by no means succeeded in depriving Hamburg of its commercial superiority - indeed, so dependent is it upon its rival that most of its business is transacted on the Hamburg exchange, while the magnificent warehouses on the Altona river bank are to a large extent occupied by the goods of Hamburg merchants.
His fortunes, however, were not thereby seriously affected, for by this time his business capacity and organizing skill had enabled him to consolidate his position, in spite of the difficulties he had encountered not only from rival manufacturers but also from the working classes, who in 1779 displayed their antipathy to labour-saving appliances by destroying a large Trill he had erected near Chorley.
Leclerc, who had married Pauline Bonaparte, also received a command in Santo Domingo in 1801, and died in the same year as his former rival.
But despite the artificial character of the Trimurti, it has retained to this day at least its theoretical validity in orthodox Hinduism, whilst it has also undoubtedly exercised considerable influence in shaping sectarian belief, in promoting feelings of toleration towards the claims of rival deities; and in a tendency towards identifying divine figures newly sprung into popular favour with one or other of the principal deities, and thus helping to bring into vogue that notion of avatars, or periodical descents or incarnations of the deity, which has become so prominent a feature of the later sectarian belief.
The co-ordination of the two gods in the Trimurti does not by any means exclude a certain rivalry between them; but, on the contrary, a supreme position as the true embodiment of the Divine Spirit is claimed for each of them by their respective votaries, without, however, an honourable, if subordinate, place being refused to the rival deity, wherever the latter, as is not infrequently the case, is not actually represented as merely another form of the favoured god.
Siva has at all times been the favourite god of the Brahmans,' and his worship is accordingly more widely extended than that of his rival, especially in southern India.
Vishnu, whilst less popular with Brahmans than his rival, has from early times proved to the lay mind a more attractive object of adoration on account of the genial and, so to speak, romantic character of his mythical personality.
If the worship of Siva, despite the purport of his chief symbol, seems on the whole less liable to produce these undesirable effects than that of the rival deity, it is doubt- less due partly to the real nature of that emblem being little realized by the common people, and partly to the somewhat repellent character of the "great god," more favourable to evoking feelings of awe and terror than a spirit of fervid devotion.
Energetically pressing his candidature, he was chosen German king at Frankfort on the 4th or 5th of March 1152, and crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle on the 9th of the same month, owing his election partly to his personal qualities, and partly to the fact that he united in himself the blood of the rival families of Welf and Waiblingen.
Though Frederick failed to subdue the republics, the failure can scarcely be said to reflect either on his prudence as a statesman or his skill as a general, for his ascendancy was finally overthrown rather by the ravages of pestilence than by the might of human arms. In Germany his resolute will and sagacious administration subdued or disarmed all discontent, and he not only succeeded in welding the various rival interests into a unity of devotion to himself against which papal intrigues were comparatively powerless, but won for the empire a prestige such as it had not possessed since the time of Otto the Great.
Her whole theology centres in the lines " The love of God flows just as much As that of ebbing self subsides; Our hearts, their scantiness is such, Bear not the conflict of these rival tides."
It is enough to say that two rival doctrines of grace and free-will were struggling for mastery in the Roman Church.
Almost at the same date that visionary revival of the Western Empire, which had imposed for six centuries upon the imagination of medieval Europe, hampering Italy and impeding the consolidation of Germany, ceased to reckon among political actualities; while its more robust rival, the Roman Church, seemed likely to sink into the rank of a petty Italian principality.
Nothing remained to check those centrifugal forces in state and church which substituted a confederation of rival European powers for the earlier ideal of universal monarchy, and separate religious constitutions for the previous Catholic unity.
Real force was not in it, but rather in that counterpart to its unlimited pretensions, the church, which had evolved it from barbarian night, and which used her own more vital energies for undermining the rival of her creation.
The Spanish drama, meanwhile, untrammelled by those false canons of pseudo-classic taste which fettered the theatre in Italy and afterwards in France, rose to an eminence in the hands of Lope de Vega and Calderon which only the English, and the English only in the masterpieces of three or four playwrights, can rival.
It was executed by Peter Vischer, the celebrated artist in bronze, who was occupied on the work for thirteen years (1506-1519), and has here shown himself no unworthy rival of Lorenzo Ghiberti.
Suffolk, now Henry's chief minister, found a convenient banishment for a dangerous rival by appointing York to be lieutenant of Ireland for ten years (9th of December 1447).
On a promise that his rival should be held in custody he disbanded his men, and thus outwitted found himself virtually a prisoner.
At the Dutch university, where he matriculated on the 27th of October 1745, he associated with a small knot of English youths, afterwards well known in various circles of life, among whom were Dowdeswell, his subsequent rival in politics, Wilkes, the witty and unprincipled reformer, and Alexander Carlyle, the genial Scotchman, who devotes some of the pages of his Autobiography to chronicling their sayings and their doings.
A similar development awaited his successful rival the chancellor.
One of the most remarkable features of modern financial development has been the growth of the complementary system of local finance, which in extent and complication bids to rival that of the central authority.
Meanwhile, his great rival Coke, whose constant tendency to limit the prerogative by law and precedent had made him an object of particular dislike to James, had on two points come into open collision with the king's rights.
The criticism of the demonstrations is introduced later in close connexion with Bacon's new method; they are the rival modes of procedure, to which his own is definitely opposed.
Before his last fatal encounter he was twice engaged in duels with editors of rival papers.
After the allusions in his own writings the chief contemporary authority for the life of Photius is his bitter enemy, Nicetas the Paphlagonian, the biographer of his rival Ignatius.
However, fresh disturbance was caused by Tibni ben Ginath (perhaps of Naphtali), and Israel was divided into rival factions.
For its use, Colbert reconstructed the works and arsenal of Toulon, founded the port and arsenal of Rochefort, and the naval schools of Rochefort, Dieppe and Saint-Malo, and fortified, with some assistance from Vauban (who, however, belonged to the party of his rival Louvois), among other ports those of Calais, Dunkirk, Brest and Havre.
To carry out his reforms, Colbert needed peace; but the war department was in the hands of his great rival Louvois, whose influence gradually supplanted that of Colbert with the king.
Indeed, the Strict Baptists are themselves divided into the "Standard" and "Vessel" parties - names derived from the "Gospel Standard" and "Earthen Vessel," the organs of the rival groups.
In Mansfeld brick cupola furnaces are without a rival in size, equipment and performance.
Demetrius offered many bribes to the Maccabees to obtain Jewish support against his rival, including the revenues of Ptolemais for the benefit of the Temple, but in vain.
It seems to have been originally included, along with the greater part of north-eastern Bengal, in the old Hindu territory of Kamrup. Its early legends point to great religious revolutions between the rival rites of Krishna and Siva as a source of dynastic changes.
In 1521 the nobles and cities of Esthonia voluntarily placed themselves under the protection of the crown of Sweden; but after the wars of Charles XII., Esthonia was formally ceded to his victorious rival, Peter the Great, by the peace of Nystad (1721).
His doing so, while it brought upon him the anathema of the patriarch of Constantinople, failed to secure the favour of Anastasius, who in 511 found in the riots which were occurring between the rival parties in the streets of Antioch a pretext for deposing Flavian, and banishing him to Petra, where he died in 518.
The most obvious method of rendering the Russian alliance unserviceable to the queen of Hungary was by implicating Russia in hostilities with her ancient rival, Sweden, and this was brought about, by French influence and French money, when in August 1741 the Swedish government, on the most frivolous pretexts, declared war against Russia.
Charles's subsequent endeavour, in stress of circumstances, to gain a friend by dividing his Polish conquests with the aspiring elector of Brandenburg was a reversal of his original policy and only resulted in the establishment on the southern confines of Sweden of a new rival almost as dangerous as Denmark, her ancient rival in the west.
But it was as a future prey, not as a possible ally, that Russia regarded her ancient rival in the north.
Hedvig Charlotta Nordenflycht (1718-1763) was the centre of a society which took the Fr"Nordenname of Tankebyggare Orden and ventured to rival flycht.
The first Spanish invasion of Chile took place in 1535, when Diego de Almagro, the companion and rival of Pizarro in the conquest of Peru, marched into Chile in search of gold.
So the rival faction brought out another .Arsacid, resident among the Scythian nomads, Artabanus II., who easily expelled Vononesonly to create a host of enemies by his brutal cruelty, and to call forth fresh disorders.
Some years later his uncle and successor, Narses, after subduing his rival Bahram III., occupied Armenia and defeated the emperor Galerius at Callinicum (296).
Next year the conquering Kajar returned to Shirz to make an end of the only rival who now stood in his way.
Finding his position there to be untenable, he retreated still farther to the country of his own tribe, while his rival advanced to Ispahan, where he received the submission of nearly all the chief cities of Persia.
Aga Mahommed then advanced in person against his rival.
Furious at the escape of his rival, the savage conqueror ordered a general massacre; 20,000 women and children were sold into slavery, and 70,000 eyes of the inhabitants of Kermn were brought to Aga Mahommed on a platter.
Such counter-proposals as Ellis had suggested for consideration had been politely put aside, and the case was now more than ever complicated by the action of the Barakzai chiefs of Kandahar, who had sent a mission to Teheran to offer assistance against their Saduzai rival at Herat.
Russo-British Convention of 1907.The political situation created by the Russo-Japanese War and by an internal crisis in Persia itself rendered possible such an agreement between the two rival powers, and a Russo-British convention was signed on the 31st of August 1907.
He soon transferred his services to Tachos's cousin and rival Nectanabis, who, in return for his help, gave him a sum of over zoo talents.
After the siege of Tournai a truce was arranged on the 25th of September 1340; but the next year the armies of England and France were again at war in Brittany on account of the rival pretensions of Charles of Blois and John of Montfort to the succession of that duchy.
Among other engineers, Telford and Stephenson favoured the project of converting Wallasey Pool into a great basin for shipping; but, largely owing to the fears of Liverpool lest a formidable rival should thus be created, it was not until 1843 that parliamentary powers were obtained, and the work entrusted to James Rendel, who finished it in less than five years.
One of his first acts was to exile the patriarch Photius and restore his rival Ignatius, whose claims were supported by the pope., Yet he had no intention of yielding to Rome's pretensions beyond a certain point.
A ducal commission, appointed to find a means for ending the interminable strife between the rival academic parties, entrusted Eck with the preparation of fresh commentaries on Aristotle and Petrus Hispanus.
Belisarius, however, was too late to save the life of Hilderic, who had been slain by his rival's orders as soon as the news came of the landing of the imperial army.
Collecting an army, Charles marched against the usurper, and on the 15th of June 923, in a stubborn and sanguinary battle near Soissons, Robert was killed, according to one tradition in single combat with his rival.
According to Pliny and Pomponius Mela, who both wrote in the 1st century A.D., it was the rival of Cordova and Seville.
As already stated, the Bantus, like the Europeans, were invaders of South Africa, and the meeting of these rival invaders was the cause of many bloody conflicts.
The extension of British rule north of the Orange was opposed by Andries Pretorius, who, being defeated at Boomplaats, withdrew north of the Vaal, where, though not interfered with by the British, the Boers split