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ritual

ritual

ritual Sentence Examples

  • It had an absurd ritual and a strange uniform.

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  • Bedtime began with their ritual of sitting on the window seat in each other's arms, watching their farm in the growing darkness.

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  • It was a ritual they had been performing morning and night for the past two weeks.

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  • The sacrificial ritual recognizes two kinds of srauta sacrifices, viz.

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  • Where the ritual, as in most cases, is a revival of pre-Reformation.

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  • It was a weekly summer ritual for one or the other, but seldom both; they enjoyed stocking up on local-grown produce.

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  • They dealt with such subjects as the origin of the gods, the creation of the world, the ritual of purification and initiation, and oracular responses.

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  • The ritual of worship was peculiar, not admitting bloody sacrifices.

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  • He is, however, much more than a ritual reformer.

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  • The ritual books of our Pentateuch were not then in existence, and the sacrificial cult might be treated with contempt as not authoritative.

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  • It was a sure sign he was forgiven for his irreverent try at changing the age-old ritual of greeting card purchasing.

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  • A distinct feature of this ritual was wµocbayta (eating the flesh of the victim raw), whereby the communicants imagined that they consumed and assimilated the god represented by the victim, and thus became filled with the divine ecstasy.

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  • He began his ritual of locking up and putting out a bowl of canned cat food for Mrs. Lincoln, who came on the run at the sound of the refrigerator door.

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  • In advanced religion, indeed, prayer is the chosen vehicle of the free spirit of worship. Its mechanism is not unduly rigid, and it is largely autonomous, being rid of subservience to other ritual factors.

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  • Of the Albanians in Sicily the great majority (4479 1) remain faithful to the Greek Church; in Italy 116,482 follow the Latin ritual, and 38,192 the Greek.

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  • In England at the Reformation the alb went out of use with the other "Mass vestments," and remained out of use in the Church of England until the ritual revival of the 19th century.

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  • In more primitive ritual, however, set forms of prayer are the rule, and their function is mainly to accompany and support a ceremony the nerve of which consists in action rather than speech.

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  • 16), and recent excavation has shown how far the cultus of these cities was removed from Mosaic religion and ritual and how long the grosser elements persisted.'

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  • From his earliest youth he had learned to identify the ritual of the Roman religion with the very essence of the imperial idea.

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  • And the Directory of Public Worship has shaped and coloured, perhaps too thoroughly, the ritual and atmosphere of every group of Protestant Anglo-Saxon worshippers throughout the world, except Episcopalians.

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  • Paul encouraged missions, confirmed many new congregations and brotherhoods, authorized a new version of the Ritual, and canonized Carlo Borromeo.

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  • The ritual recognizes four principal priests (ritvij), each of whom is assisted by three subordinates: viz.

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  • He puts ritual offences, however, in the same category with offences against the moral law, and he does not distinguish between immorality and practices that are survivals of old recognized customs: in ch.

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  • His ritual and mysteries (Sacra Savadia) gained a firm footing in Rome during the 2nd century A.D., although as early as 139 B.C. the first Jews who settled in the capital were expelled by virtue of a law which proscribed the propagation of the cult of Jupiter Sabazius.

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  • Certain peculiarities introduced by St Ambrose distinguish the ritual of Milan from that of the general church.

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  • In like manner the special ritual at the temple prescribed for the Sabbath by the Pentateuchal law was not regarded as any part of the hallowing of the sacred day; on the contrary, the rule was that, in this regard, "Sabbath was not kept in the sanctuary."

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  • In the East as the West the vestment is specially associated with the ritual of the Eucharist.

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  • He or his school introduced innumerable ritual customs, some of them beautiful enough.

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  • He was a priest of the Jerusalem temple, probably a member of the dominant house of Zadok, and doubtless had the literary training of the cultivated priesthood of the time, including acquaintance with the national historical, legal and ritual traditions and with the contemporary history and customs of neighbouring peoples.

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  • _ (f) Questions concerning fabrics, ornaments,' ritual and ceremonial of churches.

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  • In one point, however, - the attitude toward the ritual - the two men differ radically.

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  • 1326), was a translator and the author of an Arabic work on ritual and a commentary on Pirqe Abhoth.

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  • Ritual flagellation existed among the Jews, and, according to Buxtorf (Synagoga judaica, Basel, 1603), was one of the ceremonies of the day of the Great Pardon.

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  • and so on, creates "magnified nonnatural men,".who presently made their appearance in ritual (for to think a thing the savage must dance it);; whereupon personal intercourse becomes possible between such a being and the tribesmen, the more so because the supporters of law and order, the elders, will wish to associate themselves as closely as possible with the supreme law-giver.

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  • Finally, a scheme of ritual for the second temple raises this exclusion to the rank of a principle.

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  • He connects the Christian ministry, not with the worship of the Temple, in which were priests and sacrificial ritual, but with that of the synagogue, which was a local institution providing spiritual edification by the reading and exposition of Scripture.'

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  • His ritual code (xliii.-xlvi.), which in elaborateness stands midway between that of Deuteronomy and that of the middle books of the Pentateuch (resembling most nearly the code of Lev.

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  • On the other hand the better party among the priests, believing the ritual to be necessary, might undertake to moralize it; of such a movement, begun by Deuteronomy, Ezekiel is the most eminent representative.

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  • As regards the Brahman, he would doubtless be chosen from one of those other three classes, but would be expected to have made himself thoroughly conversant with the texts and ritual details appertaining to all the officiating priests.

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  • The confessions of sin which he introduced descend to minute ritual details and rise to the most exalted aspects of social and spiritual life.

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  • However, notwithstanding the insistence on ritual, natural in a priest, his moral standard is high; following the prescription of Ex.

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  • We are not concerned here with indica tions of the ritual used in the Temple.

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  • The gradual elaboration of the sacrificial ceremonial, as the all-sufficient expression of religious devotion, and a constantly growing tendency towards theosophic and mystic speculation on the significance of every detail of the ritual, could not fail to create a demand for explanatory treatises of this kind, which, to enhance their practical utility, would naturally deal with the special texts and rites assigned in the ceremonial to the several classes of officiating priests.

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  • An even more complete and minutely detailed view of the sacrificial system is no doubt obtained from the ceremonial manuals, the Kalpa-sutras; but it is just by the speculative discussions of the Brahmanasthe mystic significance and symbolical colouring with which they invest single rites - that we gain a real insight into the nature and gradual development of this truly stupendous system of ritual worship.

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  • It is, however, to the Brahmanas and Sutras of the Yajurveda, dealing with the ritual of the real offering-priest, the Adhvaryu, that we have to turn for a connected view of the sacrificial procedure in all its material details.

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  • Place Ritual.

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  • The purpose of the ritual is to facilitate difficult childbirth.

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  • ritual denunciation of all those ho do not tow the official line, by means of extreme and inflammatory rhetoric: eg.

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  • A tarot reader may wish to perform a cleansing ritual between readings and before the first use of a new deck.

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  • Ritual scarification in today's world can be for all the above reasons and is prevalent among the "modern primitive" sub-culture along with piercings and tattoos.

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  • The Incas had an elaborate system of state-worship, with a ritual, and frequently recurring festivals.

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  • in the ritual of baptism and confirmation), yet he was resolute to withstand any unauthorized usurpation of rights and privileges.

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  • he mentions "eating with the blood" 2 along with murder, and failure to observe ritual regulations along with oppression of the fatherless and the widow; the old customary law permitted marriage with a half-sister (father's daughter), with a daughter-in-law, and with a father's wife (Gen.

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  • From this time forward the new moons, which till then had been at least as important as the Sabbath and were celebrated by sacrificial feasts as occasions of religious gladness, fall into insignificance, except in the conservative temple ritual.

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  • The Sabbath did not share the same fate, but with the abolition of local sacrifices it became for most Israelites an institution of humanity divorced from ritual.

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  • brahma), in the sense of "sacred utterance or rite," in which case it might mean a comment on a sacred text, or explanation of a devotional rite, calculated to bring out its spiritual or mystic significance and its bearing on the Brahma, the world-spirit embodied in the sacred writ and ritual.

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  • Harrison, however, regards him as a religious reformer from Crete, who introduced the doctrine of ecstasis without intoxication amongst the Thracians and was slain by the votaries of the frenzied ritual.

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  • in 1089 at Cordova) wrote on ritual.

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  • During the Russian Dark Ages certain clerical errors had crept into the liturgical books Reforms a nd certain peculiarities had been adopted in the ritual.

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  • He determined also to introduce into the Church many desirable reforms. His project was approved by an ecclesiastical council and was supported by the tsar, but it met with violent opposition from a large section of the clergy, and it alarmed the ignorant masses, who regarded any alterations in the ritual, however insignificant they might be, as heretical and very dangerous to salvation.

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  • sacrificium; sacer, holy, and facere, to make), the ritual destruction of an object, or, more commonly, the slaughter of a victim by effusion of blood, suffocation, fire or other means.

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  • In Australia, among the Hottentots, in the Malay Peninsula and elsewhere, blood ceremonies are in use which are unconnected with the slaughter of a victim; in this blood ritual we may see another possible source of sacrifice.

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  • functionary familiar with the ritual, who would avoid disastrous.

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  • The object of the sacrifice being to bridge the gulf between the sacred and profane worlds, the sacrificer had to remain in contact with the victim, either personally, or, to avoid ritual perils, by the intermediary of the priest.

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  • No general survey of sacrificial ritual is possible here, but a.

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  • In both these rites we seem to have a duplication of ritual, and the parallelism of sacrifice and liberation is clear.

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  • Of Egyptian ritual little is known; our knowledge rests mainly on the evidence of pictures.

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  • The Pawnees, however, had an elaborate ritual, in which a human victim was sacrificed to the Morning Star; the blood of the victims was sprinkled on the fields, and the details of the rite are not unlike those of the Khond custom.

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  • Warren, The Liturgy and Ritual of the Antenicene Church (London, 1897); T.

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  • This necessarily involved in that primitive age an extreme jealousy of foreign importations or innovations in ritual.

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  • Jeremiah, when he foretold the destruction of the external state and temple ritual, found no resource save in a reconstruction that was internal and spiritual.

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  • It was the task of Ezekiel to take up once more the broken threads of Israel's religious traditions, and weave them anew into statelier forms of ritual and national polity.

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  • The idea underlying the word, which to us is invested with deep ethical meaning, had only this non-ethical, ritual significance in Ezekiel.

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  • Every religion has its customary cult and ritual, its recognized times, places and persons for the observance.

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  • This centralization involved the removal of the local priests and a modification of ritual and legal observance.

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  • Though one may often be repelled by their lifelessness, their lack of spontaneity and the externalization of the ritual, it must be recognized that they placed a strict monotheism upon a legal basis.

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  • 3 If one is apt to acquire too narrow a view of Jewish legalism, the whole experience of subsequent history, through the heroic age of the Maccabees and onwards, only proves that the minuteness of ritual procedure could not cramp the heart.

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  • Little more than half a century after the overthrow of the Jewish nationality, the Mishnah was practically completed, and by this code of rabbinic law - and law is here a term which includes the social, moral and religious as well as the ritual and legal phases of human activity - the Jewish people were organized into a community, living more or less autonomously under the Sanhedrin or Synedrium and its officials.

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  • Their progress has not been arrested even by anti-Semitism, which first developed in 1883 at the time of the Tisza-Eslar accusation of ritual murder.

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  • The legend of ritual murder (q.v.) has been revived, and every obstacle is placed in the way of the free intercourse of Jews with their Christian fellow-citizens.

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  • Such incidents were the Damascus charge of ritual murder (1840), the forcible baptism of the Italian child Mortara (1858), and the Russian pogroms at various dates.

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  • This ancient instrument was extensively used by the priests in the temple of Isis to attract the attention of worshippers to different parts of the ritual.

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  • The walls of the throne room show frescoes with sacred griffins confronting each other in a Nile landscape, and a small bath chamber - perhaps of ritual use - is attached.

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  • of these shows a ritual procession, apparently of reapers singing and dancing to the sound of a sistrum.

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  • Nor can it be maintained that the elaborate ritual ascribed to David by the chronicler has any historical value.

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  • (b) Sacred, such as models or actual examples of ritual objects; of these we have also numerous pictorial representations.

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  • The goddess sometimes appears with doves, as uranic, at others with snakes, as chthonic. In the ritual fetishes, often of miniature form, played a great part: all sorts of plants and animals were sacred: sacrifice (not burnt, and human very doubtful), dedication of all sorts of offerings and simulacra, invocation, &c., were practised.

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  • The art of all the area gives evidence of one spirit and common models; in religious representations it shows the same anthropomorphic personification and the same ritual furniture.

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  • The Mandaean marriage service occurs both in Paris and in Oxford as an independent MS. The Diwan, hitherto unpublished, contains the ritual for atonement.

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  • The burlesque ritual which characterized the Feast of Fools throughout the middle ages was now at its height.

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  • The ass had been introduced into the ritual of the church in the 9th century, representing either Balaam's ass, that which stood with the ox beside the manger at Bethlehem, that which carried the Holy Family into Egypt, or that on which Christ rode in triumph into Jerusalem.

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  • The procession was followed, inside the church, by a curious combination of ritual office and mystery play, the text of which, according to the Ordo processionis asinorum secundum Rothomagensem usum, is given in Du Cange.

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  • 16-18, be not over-righteous (over-attentive to details of ritual and convention) or over-wicked (flagrantly neglectful of established beliefs and customs); here "righteous" and "wicked" appear to be technical terms designating two parties in the Jewish world of the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C., the observers and the non-observers of the Jewish ritual law; these parties represent in a general way the Pharisees and the Sadducees; viii.

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  • Among the filthiest are the Aghoris, who preserve the ancient cannibal ritual of the followers of Siva, eat filth, and use a human skull as a drinking-vessel.

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  • GHOST DANCE, an American-Indian ritual dance, so called from its being held at night, the dancers wearing a white cloak.

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  • Under Marie Louise the etiquette of the court of France became more stately and the ritual of religious ceremonies more elaborate.

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  • Part of the Jewish ritual was the preservation of the Israelites from the idolatry which at that time prevailed among every other people.

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  • The ritual of the dead is most frequently the subject.

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  • Besides the ritual and religious rolls, there are the hieratic, civil and literary documents, and the demotic and enchorial papyri, relating generally to sales of property.

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  • While the priests developed the sacrificial ritual, it was the prophets that represented the theocratic element of the national life - they devoted themselves to their task with noteworthy persistence and ability, and their efforts were crowned with success; but their virtue of singlemindedness carried with it the defect of narrowness - they despised all peoples and all countries but their own, and were intolerant of opinions, held by their fellow-citizens, that were not wholly in accordance with their own principles.

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  • The ritual law was substantially completed.

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  • Like the prophetical writings before Ezekiel, the Wisdom books, while they recognize the sacrificial ritual as an existing custom, attach little importance to it as an element of religious life (the fullest mention of it is in Ecclus.

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  • 4 ff., I); the difference between prophets and sages is that the former do not regard the ritual as of divine appointment (Jer.

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  • xxviii., but the family ceremonial was still kept up and gradually developed a special ritual, which has been retained among orthodox Jews up to the present day.

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  • The substantial features of the ancient Dionysiac rites, including a ritual play by "goat-men" carrying a wooden phallus, may still be seen at Bizye, the old residence of the Thracian kings.

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  • - The liturgical vestments of the Catholic Church, East and West, are not, as was at one time commonly supposed, borrowed from the sacerdotal ornaments of the Jewish ritual, although the obvious analogies of this ritual doubtless to a certain extent determined their sacral character; they were developed independently out of the various articles of everyday dress worn by citizens of the Graeco-Roman world under the Empire.

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  • Hitherto the example of the Roman Church had exercised no exclusive determining influence on ritual development even in the West.

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  • Father Braun, to whose kindness the writer is indebted for the above account of the causes of the ritual changes in the Carolingian epoch, adds that the papacy was never narrowminded in its attitude towards local rites, and that it was not until the close of the middle ages, when diversity had become confusion and worse, that it began to insist upon uniformity.

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  • Thirty years after the Ridsdale judgment, the ritual confusion in the Church of England was worse than ever, and the old ideal expressed in the Acts of Uniformity had given place to a desire to sanctify with some sort of authority the parochial "uses" which had grown up. In this respect the dominant opinion in the Church, intent on compromise, seems to have been expressed in the Report presented in 1908 to the convocation of the province of Canterbury by the sub-committee of five bishops appointed to investigate the matter, namely, that under the Ornaments Rubric the vestments prescribed in the first Prayer Book of Edward VI.

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  • Talbot, Modern Decisions on Ritual (London, 1894).

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  • Female proselytes are admitted after the total immersion in a ritual bath, though in some Reformed congregations this rite is omitted.

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  • Athena has been variously described as the pure aether, the storm-cloud, the dawn, the twilight; but there is little evidence that she was regarded as representing any of the physical powers of nature, and it is better to endeavour to form an idea of her character and attributes from a consideration of her cultepithets and ritual.

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  • Thus the vessels used at the Passover are "kosher," as are also new metal vessels bought from a Gentile after they have been washed in a ritual bath.

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  • The second part consists of vii.-xv., and treats of church ritual and.

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  • Sources, Remains, Ritual.

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  • It is the ritual of a magician, imbedded in which, and alternating with magic formulae and other occult matter, are a number of invocations and prayers which Dieterich reconstructs as a liturgy in use by the clergy of Mithras between A.D.

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  • The name is not therefore equally applicable to all psalms, and in the later Jewish ritual the synonym Hallel specially designates two series of psalms, cxiii.

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  • Wealth accumulated to such a degree that Simon the son of Oniah was enabled practically to rebuild the Temple, and to maintain its services with a grandeur of ritual which they had probably never known before.

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  • It must be admitted that the gorgeousness of ritual described by the Chronicler is far more in harmony with the days of Simon than with any previous post-exilic period.

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  • and V., that we find any number of psalms appropriate to such a ritual as that of the Temple, and it is difficult to resist the conviction that the earlier collections were made for use, not in the Temple at Jerusalem but in some synagogue or synagogues.

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  • But unfortunately it has not been found possible to get from these accounts any clear picture of the ritual of any certainty as to the technical terms used.

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  • His description of the Temple ritual is not strictly accurate, but he speaks of the worshippers as passing the night in gazing at the stars and calling on God in prayer; his words, if they do not exactly fit anything in the later ritual, are well fitted to illustrate the original liturgical use of Ps.

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  • of laying on of hands and reception of the Spirit, the reader who is being elected assumes the ritual name of Peter.

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  • 17-23) actually used the clothing peculiar to some deity, nor is it quite clear what is meant when a Babylonian ritual text refers to the magical use of the linen garment of Eridu (seat of the cult of Ea).

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  • The trabea, which in historical times was worn by the consuls when opening the temple of Janus, by the equites at their yearly inspection and on some other occasions, and by the Salii at their ritual dances, and had (according to tradition) formed the original costume of the augurs and flamens (who afterwards adopted the toga praetexta), was apparently a toga smaller in size than the ordinary civil dress, decorated with scarlet stripes (trabes).

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  • It survives in the ritual chasuble of the Western Church.

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  • Annam is ruled in theory by its emperor, assisted by the " comat " or secret council, composed of the heads of the six ministerial departments of the interior, finance, war, ritual, justice and public works, who are nominated by himself.

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  • 70 sqq., who from philological and other data infers the late date of the introduction of incense into the Jewish ritual.

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  • The Parsees still preserve in western India the pure tradition of the ritual of incense as followed by their race from probably the most ancient times.

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  • No perfectly satisfactory traces can be found of the use of incense in the ritual of the Christian Church during the first four centuries.'

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  • 13) gives distinct expression to his sense of the needlessness of any such ritual ("the Creator and Father of the universe does not require blood, nor smoke, nor even the sweet smell of flowers and incense"); and Arnobius (Adv.

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  • That in this portion of their ritual, however, the Christians of that period were not universally conscious of its direct descent from Mosaic institutions may be inferred perhaps from the "benediction of the incense" used in the days of Charlemagne, which runs as follows: "May the Lord bless this incense to the extinction of every noxious smell, and kindle it to the odour of its sweetness."

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  • It is natural that little should be said of so obvious a practice until the fuller development of ritual in a later age.

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  • The ritual of the mass remained unchanged until the death of Henry VIII.

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  • The books of ritual are agreed that Ex.

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  • 369) is grateful to the deity, being indeed the most essential part of the sacrifice, or at least the vehicle by which alone it can successfully be conveyed to its destination, is also a very early one, if not absolutely primitive; and survivals of it are possibly to be met with even among the most highly cultured peoples where the purely symbolical nature of all religious ritual is most clearly understood and maintained.

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  • He, too, travelling as a Moslem pilgrim, noted the whole ritual of the pilgrimage with the same keen observation as Burckhardt, and while amplifying somewhat the latter's description of Medina, confirms the accuracy of his work there and at Mecca in almost every detail.

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  • 16 sqq.) regarded this as a punishment for a ritual fault of which the king was guilty; whilst Josephus (Ant.

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  • As his share in the controversy, Martineau published five discourses, in which he discussed " the Bible as the great autobiography of human nature from its infancy to its perfection," " the Deity of Christ," " Vicarious Redemption," " Evil," and " Christianity without Priest and without Ritual."' He remained to the end a keen and vigilant apologist of the school in which he had been nursed.

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  • The germs of an indigenous literature had existed at an early period in Rome and in the country districts of Italy, and they have an importance as indicating natural wants in the Italian race, which were ultimately satisfied by regular literary forms. The art of writing was first employed in the service of the state and of religion for books of ritual, treaties with other states, the laws of the Twelve Tables and the like.

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  • This metre was employed in ritual hymns, which seem to have assumed definite shapes out of the exclamations of a primitive priesthood engaged in a rude ceremonial dance.

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  • Israel's response should be a proper regard for the ritual of His worship; yet any offering, however imperfect, is thought good enough for Yahweh's altar (i.

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  • In view of these conditions, the prophet's message is to reassert the true relation of Israel to Yahweh, and to call for a corresponding holiness, especially in regard to questions of ritual and of marriage.

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  • In the cult and ritual of Rome there are enshrined many survivals from a very early form of religious thought prior to the development of the characteristic Roman attitude of mind.

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  • In such a religion exactness of ritual must play a large part - so large, indeed, that many modern critics have been.

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  • It is necessary in the first place to make quite certain that the right deity is being addressed: hence it is well to invoke all the spirits who might be concerned, and even to add a general formula to cover omissions: here we have the ritual significance of the indigitamenta.

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  • Place, again, as we have seen, was an essential element even in the conception of the numen, and is therefore all-important in ritual.

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  • All-important, too, is the order of ceremonial and the formula of prayer: a mistake or omission or an unpropitious interruption may vitiate the whole ritual, and though such misfortunes may occasionally be expiated by the additional offering of a piaculum, in more serious cases the whole ceremony must be recommenced ab initio.

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  • Herein lies the importance of the priesthood: the priest is not, as in other religions, the mediator between god and man, but on the one hand for the purpose of state-worship the chosen representative of the whole people, on the other the repository of tradition and ritual lore.

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  • The head of the house (paterfamilias) is the natural priest and has control of the domestic worship: he is assisted by his sons as acolytes (camilli) and deputes certain portions of the ritual to his wife and daughters and even to his bailiff (vilicus) and his bailiff's wife.

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  • In 493 B.C., at a time of serious famine, they ordered the building of a temple to the Greek triad Demeter, Dionysus and Persephone, who were identified with the old Roman divinities Ceres, Liber and Libera: Apollo must have come with or before the books themselves, though his temple was not built till 433 B.C.: Mercury followed, the representative of `Epµns 'E,uuroXaaos, Asclepius was brought from Epidaurus to the Tiber island in 293 B.C., and Dis and Proserpina, with their strange chthonic associations and night ritual, probably from Tarentum in 249 B.C. With new deities came new modes of worship: the graecus ritus, in which, contrary to Roman usage, the worshipper's head was unveiled, and the lectisternium, an elaborate form of the "banquet of the gods."

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  • The ancient ritual of the Pax has become almost obsolete.

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  • Herbert tried to interpret his own devout meditations by applying images of all kinds to the ritual and beliefs of the Church.

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  • The revival of pre-Reformation ritual by many of the High Church clergy led to the designation "ritualist" being applied to them in a somewhat contemptuous sense; and "High Churchman" and "Ritualist" have often been wrongly treated as convertible terms. Actually many High Churchmen are not Ritualists, though they tend to become so.

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  • But in that case how can the creed and ritual of baptism, the Lord's Prayer and the Eucharistic formulae, have been kept secret?

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  • Could our modern freemasons continue to hide their watchwords and ritual, or even make a pretence of doing so, if they were constrained by public opinion to initiate every child three years of age?

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  • The personnel, revenue, jurisdiction, ritual, even the faith of the Church, were in this way placed under the complete control of the territorial governments.

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  • Melanchthon, who was for a moment carried away by the movement, partook, with several of his students, of the communion under both kinds, and on Christmas Eve a crowd invaded the church of All Saints, broke the lamps, threatened the priests and made sport of the venerable ritual.

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  • By the Act of Uniformity (1559) a uniform ritual, the Book of Common Prayer, was imposed upon clergy and laity alike, and no liberty of public worship was permitted.

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  • The chief religious purpose of the society was the worship of the generative powers of nature, and the ritual and ceremonies of initiation were grossly licentious.

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  • And it is perhaps not arbitrary to suppose that the splendour of the ritual in Amos's time implies a tremulous anxiety that Israel's seeming prosperity under Jeroboam II.

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  • as to the fixed legislation of the Pentateuch, so that the whole narrative might be made to teach that the glory of Israel lies in the observance of the divine law and ritual.

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  • Uzziah's leprosy is attributed to a ritual fault (2 Chron.

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  • Lang, Myth, Ritual and Religion, ii.

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  • This is a compilation of ritual, ethics and mysticism, and had a profound influence on Jewish life.

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  • At the same time, the horrid ritual was so closely associated with Yahweh worship (Ezek.

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  • He was the founder of what has been termed the "science of Judaism," the critical investigation of Jewish literature, hymnology and ritual.

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  • In matters of ritual they agreed with the Western Church on the continent, save in a few particulars such as the precise time of keeping Easter and manner of tonsure.

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  • of sacrifice to ritual, venial and involuntary sins,' and requires that the sacrifices should be offered at Jerusalem by the Aaronic priests; but these limitations did not belong to the older religion; and even in later times popular faith ascribed a larger efficacy to sacrifice.

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  • No doubt, however, both the principles and ritual are partly derived from earlier times.

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  • The ritual includes features found on other holy days, sacrifices, abstinence from work, &c.; and also certain unique acts.

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  • liii., and probably, though not expressly, with the ritual sacrifices.

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  • Some were named after exclusively Vedic deities; they formed the basis of the sacrificial calendar of the Brahmins; the old Indian names of the months were derived from them; their existence was pre-supposed in the entire structure of Hindu ritual and science.

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  • For purposes of ritual, however, the Pleiades, with Agni or " Fire " as their presiding deity, continued to be the first sign.

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  • Kohen, iEpEbs, sacerdos, are, in fact, fair translations of one another; they all denote a minister whose stated business was to perform, on behalf of the community, certain public ritual acts, particularly sacrifices, directed godwards.

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  • The investigations which have been carried on in recent years by King, Tallquist and Zimmern, as well as by Briinnow and Craig, on the magic and ritual of Babylonia and Assyria have been fruitful of results.

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  • Tallquist's edition of the Maklu series of incantations and his explanations of the ritual, and also the publications by Zimmern of the Surpu series of tablets in his Beitreige have rendered us familiar with the functions of the asipu.

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  • These powerfully-organized priesthoods, as well as the elaborate nature of their ritual and apparatus of worship, must have deeply and permanently impressed the exiled Jewish community.

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  • (4) In the ritual tablets for the asipu published in Zimmern's Beitriige, No.

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  • Homer knows special priests who preside over ritual acts in the temples to which they are attached; but his kings also do sacrifice on behalf of their people.

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  • In the post-Vedic period ` right ' or ` wrong ' simply means the exact performance or the neglect, whether intentional or unintentional - of all the details of a prescribed ritual, the centre of which was the sacrifice.

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  • The ritual had a mechanical character and was by no means attractive.

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  • This position, we see, can be reached by various paths: the priest may become indispensable through the growth of ritual observances and precautions too complicated for a layman to master, or he may lay claim to special nearness to the gods on the ground, it may be, of his race, or, it may be, of habitual practices of purity and asceticism which cannot be combined with the duties of ordinary life, as, for example, celibacy was required of priestesses of Vesta at Rome.

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  • The fundamental type of the Arabic sanctuary can be traced through all the Semitic lands, and so appears to be older than the Semitic dispersion; even the technical terms are mainly the same, so that we may justly assume that the more developed ritual and priesthoods of the settled Semites sprang from a state of things not very remote from what we find among the heathen Arabs.

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  • Now among the Arabs, as we have seen, ritual service is the affair of the individual, or of a mass of individuals gathered in a great feast, but still doing worship each for himself and his own private circle; the only public aspect of religion is found in connexion with divination and the oracle to which the affairs of the community are submitted.

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  • (especially as sacrifice in antiquity is a common preliminary to the consultation of an oracle), but the public ritual will still remain closely associated with oracle or divination, and the priest will still be, above all things, a revealer.

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  • We see from I Kings xviii., 2 Kings x., that great Baal temples had two classes of ministers, kohanim and nebhiim, " priests " and " prophets," and as the former bear a name which primarily denotes a soothsayer, so the latter are also a kind of priests who do sacrificial service with a wild ritual of their own.

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  • The priest has no place in this ritual; he is not the minister of an altar,' but the guardian of a temple, such as was already found here and there in the land for the custody of sacred images and palladia or other consecrated things (the ark at Shiloh, I Sam.

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  • It is plain that the various priestly colleges regarded themselves as one order, that they had common traditions of law and ritual which were traced back to Moses, and common interests which had not been vindicated without a struggle (Deut., ut supra).

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  • The ritual functions of the priesthood still appear in Deut.

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  • Private sacrifices, too, could hardly be offered without some priestly aid now that ritual was more complex; the provision of Deut.

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  • It is instructive to observe how differently the prophets of the 8th century speak of the judicial or " teaching " functions of the priests and of the ritual of the great sanctuaries.

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  • In point of fact the one rested on old Hebrew tradition, the other had taken shape mainly under Canaanite influence, and in most of its features was little more than the crassest nature-worship. In this respect there was no distinction between the Temple of Zion and other shrines, or rather it was just in the greatest sanctuary with the most stately ritual that foreign influences had most play, as we see alike in the original institutions of Solomon and in the innovations of Ahaz (2 Kings xvi.

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  • All this necessarily tended to make the ritual ministry of the priests more important than it had been in old times; but it was in the reign of Manasseh, when the sense of divine wrath lay heavy on the people, when the old ways of seeking Jehovah's favour had failed and new and more powerful means of atonement were eagerly sought for (Micah vi.

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  • 18), but by the time of Ezekiel it also has mainly to do with ritual, with the distinction between holy and profane, clean and unclean, with the statutory observances at festivals and the like (Ezek.

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  • - xxvi., which includes many moral precepts, but regards them equally with ritual precepts from the point of view of the maintenance of national holiness.

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  • It was meant also to give expression to the demands of the prophets for spiritual service and national holiness, but this it did not accomplish so successfully; the ideas of the prophets could not be realized under any ritual system, but only in a new dispensation (Jer.

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  • Nevertheless, the concentration of all ritual at a single point, and the practical exclusion of laymen from active participation in it - for the old sacrificial feast had now shrunk into entire insignificance in comparison with the stated priestly holocausts and atoning rites2 - lent powerful assistance to the growth of a new and higher type of personal religion, the religion which found its social expression not in material acts of oblation, but in the language of the Psalms. In the best times of the old kingdom the priests had shared the place of the prophets as the religious leaders of the nation; under the second Temple they represented the unprogressive traditional side of religion, and the leaders of thought were the psalmists and the scribes, who spoke much more directly to the piety of the nation.

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  • the impression which the ritual produced on the Greeks, Bernays's Theophrastus, pp. 85, III seq.

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  • consuetudinarius, sc. liber) is the name given to a ritual book containing the forms and ceremonies used in the services of a particular monastery, cathedral or religious order.

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  • The divergences in ritual and organization, the principle underlying all the various ecclesiastical unions, viz.

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  • Of these water is the commonest, and its efficacy is enhanced if it be running, and still more if a magical or sacramental virtue has been imparted to it by ritual blessing or consecration.

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  • The patient's skin burns, that of a frog is cold to the touch; therefore tie to the foot of the bed a frog, bound with red and black thread, and wash down the sick man so that the water of ablution falls 1 In its technical ecclesiastical sense the ablution is the ritual washing of the chalice and of the priest's fingers after the celebration of Holy Communion in the Catholic Church.

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  • The water must in ritual washings run off in order to carry away the miasma or unseen demon of disease; and accordingly in baptism the early Christians used living or running water.

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  • The same care is shown in ritual ablutions in the Bukovina and elsewhere.

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  • Water and fire, spices and sulphur, are used in ritual cleansings, says Iamblichus in his book on mysteries (v.

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  • In the rite of death-bed penance given in the old Mozarabic Christian ritual of Spain, ashes were poured over the sick man.

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  • Hence the necessity for outward conformity, and the importance attached to ritual and ceremony, unity in which must be established at all costs, in contrast to dogma and doctrine, in which he showed himself lenient and large-minded, winning over Hales by friendly discussion, and encouraging the publication of Chillingworth's Religion of Protestants.

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  • Generally the Abyssinians agree with the Copts in ritual and practice.

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  • The former dealt with legal and ritual matters; it flourished in the schools and developed into the most subtle casuistry.

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  • Further, the Megillath Ta'anith (" roll of fasts "), an old source with a collection of miscellaneous legends, &c.; Megillath Antiokhos, on the martyrdom under Hadrian; Seder`Olam Rabbah, on biblical history from Adam to the rebellion of Bar Kokba (Barcocheba); the " Book of Jashar "; the Chronicle of Jerahmeel," &c. Liturgical Midrash is illustrated by the Haggada shel Pesah, part of the ritual recited at the domestic service of the first two Passover evenings.

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  • It is clear enough that, although, like her father, she was fond of ritual, she was absolutely devoid of the religious temperament, and that her ecclesiastical preferences were dictated by political considerations.

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  • Recent grail researches have made it most probable that that mysterious talisman was originally the vessel of the ritual feast held in honour of a deity of vegetation, - Adonis, or another; if the Round Table also, as Dr Mott suggests, derives from a similar source, we have a link between these two notable features of Arthurian tradition, and an additional piece of evidence in support of the view that behind the Arthur of romance there lie not only memories of an historic British chieftain, but distinct traces of a mythological and beneficent hero.

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  • Whether the will of the gods is determined through the inspection of the liver of the sacrificial animal, through observing the action of oil bubbles in a basin of water or through the observation of the movements of the heavenly bodies, it is Shamash and Adad who, in the ritual connected with divination, are invariably invoked.

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  • It contemplated a restoration of all the religions of antiquity, by allowing each to retain its traditional forms, and at the same time making each a vehicle for the religious attitude and the religious truth embraced in Neoplatonism; while every form of ritual was to become a stepping-stone to a high morality worthy of mankind.

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  • The works of the pseudoDionysius contain a gnosis in which, by means of the teaching of Iamblichus and Proclus, the church's theology is turned into a scholastic mysticism with directions on matters of practice and ritual.

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  • The cycle of 52 years was reckoned by combining these signs in rotation with numbers up to 13, thus: I rabbit, 2 reed, 3 flint, 4 house, 5 rabbit, 6 reed, &c. By accident this calendar may be exactly illustrated with a modern pack of cards laid out in rotation of the four suits, as, ace of hearts, 2 of spades, 3 of diamonds, 4 of clubs, 5 of hearts, 6 of spades, &c. In the Mexican ritual calendar of the days of the year, the same method is carried further, the series of twenty day-signs being combined in rotation with numbers up to 13; as this cycle of days only reaches 260, a series of nine other signs are affixed in addition, to make up the 365-day year.

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  • The Freemasons had been largely instrumental in overthrowing Iturbide; they now divided into the Escoceses (lodges of the Scottish ritual), who were Monarchist and Centralist, and the Yorkinos, who took their ritual from New York, and their cue, it was alleged, from the American minister, Joel Poinsett.

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  • His philosophical conception of tradition, associated as it was with conservatism in ritual practice, created what is often known as the Frankfort "Neo-Orthodoxy."

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  • Grenfell and Hunt conclude therefore - " So great indeed are the divergences between this account and the extant and no doubt well-informed authorities with regard to the topography and ritual of the Temple that it is hardly possible to avoid the conclusion that much of the local colour is due to the imagination of the author who was aiming chiefly at dramatic effect and was not really well acquainted with the Temple.

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  • By the 13th century, with the final development of the ritual of the Mass, the chasuble became definitely fixed as the vestment of the celebrating priest; though to this day in the Roman Church relics of the earlier general use of the chasuble survive in the planeta plicata worn by deacons and subdeacons in Lent and Advent, and other penitential seasons.

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  • It is doubtful if the attempts of reformers to spiritualize the Eucharist bring us, except so far as they pruned ritual extravagances, nearer to its original significance; perhaps the Roman, Greek and Oriental churches have better preserved it.

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  • Christ as to the inner character of a supper which he already found a ritual observance among believers.

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  • The high altar (A) stands immediately to the east of the transept, or ritual choir; the altar of St Paul (B) in the eastern, and that of St Peter (C) in the western apse.

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  • The stalls of the monks, forming the ritual choir, occupy the four eastern bays of the nave.

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  • Diaphorti), a mountain in Arcadia, sacred to Zeus Lycaeus, who was said to have been born and brought up on it, and the home of Pelasgus and his son Lycaon, who is said to have founded the ritual of Zeus practised on its summit.

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  • By the time of the VIth Dynasty it was usual to lay the corpse on its left side in the attitude of sleep, and a wooden coffin was often provided upon which were inscribed magic formulae that had already been employed for ages in ritual.

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  • At first the luxury of mummification was reserved for the king, who was identified with Osiris and was buried with an abundance of ritual and magic words.

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  • Apart from alterations in detail, both as to doctrine and ritual, which will be referred to later, the following main advantages were achieved from the very first and apply to all editions of the Prayer Book equally.

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  • We consecrate ourselves either in a ritual act, as of baptism or ordination, vows or monkish initiation; or, without any implication of particular ceremonies, a man is said to consecrate himself to good works or learning.

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  • 3 It is, however, best to restrict the term "consecration" to cases where the spirit falls on a person, not automatically or unexpectedly, but by invitation, in response to prayer, through layingon of hands and greasing, after a formal fast, continence, ritual 2 "Vedic Mythology," by A.

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  • It is, however, impossible to understand the development of church architecture without realizing its intimate connexion with that of the doctrine, organization and ritual of the Christian Church as a religious community, and a brief sketch of this connexion may be given here by way of introduction to the more technical treatment of the subject.

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  • In the East the cancelli, under the influence possibly of the ritual of the Jewish temple, developed into the iconostasis, the screen of holy pictures, behind the closed doors of which the supreme act of the eucharistic mystery is hidden from the lay people.

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  • There were, however, further changes, the result partly of doctrinal developments, partly of that passion for symbolism which by the 13th century had completed the evolution of the Catholic ritual.

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  • The cessation of persecution, and consequent gradual elaboration of church furniture and ritual, led to the employment of more costly materials for the altar as for the other fittings of ecclesiastical buildings.

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  • These crosses must have been anointed by the bishop with chrism in the ritual of consecration before the altar can be used.

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  • Ramsay, The Letters to the Seven Churches, 1 55 f.), whose zeal for the Temple and the Mosaic ritual customs led to Paul's arrest in Jerusalem (Acts xix.

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  • of the Starine of the South Slavonic Academy at Agram, shows great resemblance to the Cathar ritual published by Cunitz, 1853.

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  • With the reservation of those questions, especially of a dogmatic character, which belong to the Holy Office, and of purely ritual questions, which come under the Congregation of Rites, this Congregation brings under one authority all disciplinary questions concerning the sacraments, which were formerly distributed among several Congregations and offices.

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  • On extraordinary occasions indeed the more elaborate ritual continued to be observed.

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  • In later days the same function was performed by the Purim Rabbi, who often indulged in parodies of the ritual.

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  • Their natural devotion and their susceptibility to pomp and ritual was a factor skilfully used by the priests, but hardly anything was done to strengthen their moral power.

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  • In the Roman Catholic Church the most characteristic ritual feature of the festival is now the solemn extinction of the paschal candle after the Gospel at high mass.

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  • It is also clear that Sumerian was actually read aloud, probably as a ritual language, until a very late period, because we have a number of pure Sumerian words reproduced in Greek transliteration; for example, Delephat = Dilbat, " the Venus-star"; Illinos = the god Illil = Bel; aido = itu, " month," &c.

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  • Magee took a prominent part in the Ritual controversy, opposing what he conceived to be romanizing excess in ritual, as well as the endeavour of the opposite party to "put down Ritualism," as Disraeli expressed it, by the operation of the civil law.

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  • The act also gives to both patron and presentee an alternative mode of appeal against a bishop's refusal to institute or admit, except on a ground of doctrine or ritual, to a court composed of an archbishop of the province and a judge of the High Court nominated for that purpose by the lord chancellor, a course which, however, bars resort being had to the ordinary suits of duplex querela or action of quare impedit.

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  • At all of these Holdheim was a strong supporter of the policy of modifying ritual (especially with regard to Sabbath observance, marriage laws and liturgical customs).

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  • On the other hand, the provision of regular support for the priests and Levites, the ministers of the public ritual, was now all important, and received special attention from Ezra and Nehemiah (Neh.

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  • It is purely ethical, independent alike of theology and ritual, and is the code of morals as laid down in the Buddhist sacred books for laymen.

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  • It was, of course, not to be expected that an Oxonian Tory should praise the Presbyterian polity and ritual, or that an eye accustomed to the hedgerows and parks of England should not be struck by the bareness of Berwickshire and East Lothian.

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  • During Dr Temple's episcopate ritual irregularities of all kinds had grown up, which left a very difficult task to his successor, more especially in view of the growing public agitation on the subject, of which he had to bear the brunt.

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  • In accordance with a vote of the diocesan conference, the bishop arranged the "Round Table Conference" between representative members of various parties, held at Fulham in October 1900, on "the doctrine of the Holy Eucharist and its expression in ritual," and a report of its proceedings was published with a preface by him.

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  • The full ritual is gone through by the Roman Catholic archbishop of Westminster, and abroad it survives in all Catholic countries, a notable example being that of the Austrian emperor.

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  • It is on Maundy Thursday that in the Church of Rome the sacred oil is blessed, and the chrism prepared according to an elaborate ritual which is given in the Pontificale.

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  • This article relates to the Western Cathars, as they appear (1) in the Cathar Ritual written in Provencal and preserved in a 13th -century MS. in Lyons, published by Cledat, Paris, 1888; (2) in Bernard Gui's Practica inquisitionis haereticae pravitatis, edited by Canon C. Douais, Paris, 1886; and (3) in the proces verbal of the inquisitors' reports.

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  • Just as at the third scrutiny the early catechumen passed a last examination in the Gospels, Creed and Lord's Prayer, so after their year of abstinence the credens receives creed and prayer; the allocution with which the elder "handed on" this prayer is preserved, and of it the Abbe Guiraud remarks that, if it were not in a Cathar ritual, one might believe it to be of Catholic origin.

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  • Under the Roman empire the cult of Isis, now furnished with an official priesthood and elaborate ritual, became really popular in the Hellenistic world.

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  • No one complains of the civil laws in Exodus or the sacrificial ritual in Leviticus, because they want the fire of Isaiah or the tenderness of Deuteronomy.

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  • According to the dominant view, however, the ritual use of the Koran is not in the least concerned with the sacred words being understood, but solely with their being quite properly recited.

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  • The details of the iepos yapos may have varied locally, but the main idea of the ritual was the same.

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  • When the real nature of the ritual had become lost or obscured, it was natural to explain it by the help of an aetiological myth; in European folklore, images, corresponding to those burnt at the Daedala, were sometimes called Judas Iscariot or Luther (Golden Bough,2 iii.

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  • There is nothing in the Samian iepos yapos to suggest a marriage of heaven and earth, or of two vegetation-spirits; as Dr Farnell points out, the ritual appears to explain the custom of human nuptials.

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  • Here the agricultural character of her ritual is well marked; the first oxen used in ploughing were, according to an Argive myth, dedicated to her as E v cSia; and the sprouting ears of corn were called "the flowers of Hera."

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  • The cow was the animal specially sacred to Hera both in ritual and in mythology.

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  • It is possible that these incantations were recited as part of the funerary ritual, but there is no doubt that their mere presence in the tombs was supposed to be magically effective for the welfare of the dead.

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  • Several of these books were used in the ritual of feast days, but all have received a secondary funerary employment, and are therefore found buried with the dead in their tombs.

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  • (e) TJ1e Ritual texts have survived only in copies not earlier than the New Kingdom.

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  • The temple ritual employed in the daily cult is ifiustrated by the scenes depicted on the inner walls of the great temples: the formulae recited during the performance of the ceremonies are recorded at length in the temple of Seti I.

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  • The funerary ritual is known from texts in the Theban tombs (XVIIIthXXth Dyn.) and papyri and sarcophagi of later date; older versions are contained in the Pyramid texts and The Book of the Dead.

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  • The ritual observed during the process of embalmment is preserved in late papyri in Paris and Cairo published by Maspero.

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  • This holds good not only for the daily ritual, but also for many festivals that were celebrated on the same day throughout the whole length, of the land.

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  • All around lay the storehouses that contained the treasures of the god and the appurtenances of the aivine ritual.

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  • The conception of the tomb as the residence of the dead is the fundamental notion that underlies all the ritual observahces in connection with the dead, just as the idea of the temple as the dwelling-place of the god is the basis of the divine cult.

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  • In it we have(a) the recently discovered inscriptions of the 1st Dynasty, too brief and concise to throw much light on the language of that time; and the great collections of spells and ritual texts found inscribed in the Pyramids of the Vth and VIth Dynasties, which must even then have been of high antiquity, though they contain later additions made in the same style.

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  • The language, style and contents of this section point unmistakably to the hand of P; and it is now generally admitted that these chapters form part of an ideal representation of the post-exilic ritual system, which has been transferred to the Mosaic age.

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  • 34 f., where the relative positions of the contents of the Tabernacle are defined: further, the ritual of the Day of Atonement (Lev.

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  • 12-26 contains just ten precepts forming a second decalogue.2 These consist not of precepts of social morality, but of several laws of religious observance closely corresponding to the religious and ritual precepts of Ex.

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  • According to the special ritual prepared by Alexander VI.

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  • Their reign was long enough to establish this tradition in respect of ritual, and even when this golden age - as it seemed to later Scribes - was over they exercised a paramount influence upon the common people.

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  • He also drew Spain nearer to the papacy, and it was his decision which established the Roman ritual in place of the old missal of Saint Isidore - the so - called Mozarabic. On the other hand he was very open to Arabic influence.

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  • Works are extant in papyri and on temple walls, treating of geography, astronomy, ritual, myths, medicine, &c. It is probable that the native priests would have been ready to ascribe the authorship or inspiration, as well as the care and protection of all their books of sacred lore to Thoth, although there were a goddess of writing (Seshit), and the ancient deified scribes Imuthes and Amenophis, and later inspired doctors Petosiris, Nechepso, &c., to be reckoned with; there are indeed some definite traces of such an attribution extant in individual cases.

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  • 6Xor, and annus, year), properly that which occurs annually, hence at stated intervals, regular, established; the term being particularly used of religious rites or ceremonies which recur at stated intervals, hence festive, sacred, marked by religious ceremony or ritual, and so grave, impressive, serious, the most general current usage.

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  • While Theseus was in Crete, Minos, 1 The story of Theseus is a strange mixture of (mostly fictitious) political tradition, of aetiological myths invented to explain misunderstood acts of ritual and of a cycle of tales of adventure analogous to the story of the labours of Heracles.

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  • Necessity absolves from ritual restrictions.

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  • The Baptist has pointed Him out to them in striking language, which recalls at once the symbolic ritual of the law and the spiritual lessons of the prophets: " Behold, the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world."

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  • With him the "mysteries," the entire ritual, are an integral part of the Orthodox system, and all dogma culminates in image-worship. The date of his death is uncertain; it is probably about 752.

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  • He disclaimed the right of suggesting a common order of worship or a uniform ecclesiastical polity; and Lutheran ritual and polity, while presenting common features, did not follow one common use.

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  • The books were compiled and preserved for definite aims, and their teaching is directed now to the needs of the people as a whole - as in the ever popular stories of Genesis - now to the inculcation of the lessons of the past, and now to matters of ritual.

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  • There is indeed a development, but it is none the less noteworthy that the post-exilic priestly ritual preserves in the worship of the universal and only God Yahweh, Develop- rites, practices and ideas which can be understood only in the light of other nature-religions, especially that of Babylonia, with which there are striking parallels.'

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  • 1 The presence of parallels also in South Arabian and Phoenician cults suggests that the old Palestinian ritual was in general agreement with the Oriental religions.

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  • Gressmann, The uniqueness of the Old Testament religion is stamped upon the Mosaic legislation, which combines in archaic manner ritual, ethical and civil enactments.

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  • The laws are (a) partly contemporary collections (chiefly of a ritual and ceremonial character) and (b) partly collections of older and different origin, though now in post-exilic frames.

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  • The Royal Commissions on Ritual (1867) and on the Ecclesiastical Courts (1881) were due to him, and he took a large part in the deliberations of both.

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  • His object in dealing with questions of faith, as in dealing with the ritual question, was primarily a practical one: he wished to secure peace, and obedience to the law as he saw it.

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  • (b) As regards the second point, Tait was concerned with it during the whole of his episcopate, and above all on the side of ritual, on which it naturally came into most direct conflict with the recognized ecclesiastical practice of the day.

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  • A widespread feeling of indignation spread not only among High Churchmen, but among many who cared little or nothing for the ritual practices involved; and it seemed impossible to foretell what the outcome would be.

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  • This proved to be the turning-point; and although the ritual difficulty by no means ceased, it was afterwards dealt with from a different point of view, and the Public Worship Regulation Act became practically obsolete.

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  • The cult and ritual in the north likewise followed the models set up in the south.

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  • The ritual alone which accompanied divination practices and incantation formulae and was a chief factor in the celebration of festival days and of days set aside for one reason or the other to the worship of some god or goddess or group of deities, is free from traces of the astral theology.

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  • Though, in accounting for the anger of the gods, no sharp distinction is made between moral offences and a ritualistic oversight or neglect, yet the stress laid in the hymns and prayers, as well as in the elaborate atonement ritual prescribed in order to appease the anger of the gods, on the need of being clean and pure in the sight of the higher powers, the inculcation of a proper aspect of humility, and above all the need of confessing one's guilt and sins without any reserve - all this bears testimony to the strength which the ethical factor acquired in the domain of the religion.

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  • It is natural that under the Sumerian revival, which characterized the united kingdom of Sumer and Akkad, the ancient ritual should have been revived and the Sumerian servicebooks adapted for the use of the reigning monarch.

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  • Platonic tradition, or in its ritual and theological side.

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  • It has followed Buddhism in deprecating any reliance upon ritual.

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  • The reliance upon ritual - seeking salvation through outward acts.

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  • The latter story illustrates the growth of the older exodus-tradition along with the development of priestly ritual: the old account of Korah's revolt against the authority of Moses has been expanded, and now describes (a) the divine prerogatives of the Levites in general, and (b) the confirmation of the superior privileges of the Aaronites against the rest of the Levites, a development which can scarcely be earlier than the time of Ezekiel (xliv.

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  • 2 There we find, not indeed living serpents, but deities with serpent-symbolism, indicating a composition of various strata of religious belief, analogous to the evidence for serpent-symbolism from Babylonia, Crete, Greece or Peru; for the higher religions have almost invariably retained in their ritual and belief, sometimes with only slight modification, cruder conceptions which can still be studied in less elevated form among the lower races of India, Africa or America.

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  • 25), and a great dragon or serpent is often the cause of eclipses, so that in India, on the occasion of an eclipse, its attention can be attracted by bathing in a sacred stream, or by a ritual which includes the worship of the image of the snake-god (i.

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  • In the gloomy rites of of the Diasia, the Olympian Zeus, as Zeus Meilichios god of wealth, has been imposed upon a chthonic snake-deity who is propitiated by holocausts of pigs and by a ritual of purgation (Harrison, Prol.

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  • According to it God demands not ritual nor sacrifice nor offerings.

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  • the national and priestly elements controlled; doubtless many individuals still were faithful to the purer prophetic message, though also zealous for the system of ritual and sacrifice, but for the ruling majority ritualistic service was the chief thing, justice, purity and mercy being subordinate.

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  • The intricacies of ritual and theology are ignored, and ancient laws which contradict the fundamental beliefs are unhesitatingly abrogated or denied.

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  • They also claim oneness with a long line of Christians, for in every age there have been men who have ignored the dogma and the ritual of the Church, and in contemplation and retirement have sought to know God immediately in their own experience.

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  • Such a conception of Christianity can recognize many embodiments in ritual, organization and dogma, but its test in all ages and in all lands is conformity to the purpose of the life of Christ.

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  • As the result of these inquiries, he adopted the creed of pure deism and a ritual based upon the system of Zoroaster.

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  • ritual known as The Book of the Dead, dating back fifteen centuries B.C., and accompanied with numerous scenes painted in brilliant colours, proves how ancient was this very natural method of elucidating a written text by means of pictures.

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  • those Eastern communities which, though in communion with Rome, have been allowed to retain their peculiar ritual discipline).

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  • With the exception of the Armenian, these are all of the Greek rite, but are divided according to nationality and ritual language intothefollowinggroups: - (a) Ruthenian Church.

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  • It has had its own ritual language since the 17th century.

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  • The outward sign of this was the substitution of the Roman ritual for the English pre-Reformation use hitherto followed in the services, while English Roman Catholicism became increasingly ultramontane in temper, a tendency much strengthened under Cardinal Manning.

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  • In spite of some extraordinary blunders in topography and history, his observant and detailed record, marked by evident good faith, is among the most valuable of medieval documents relating to Palestine: it is also important in the history of the Russian language, and in the study of ritual and liturgy (from its description of the Easter services in Jerusalem, the Descent of the Holy Fire, &c.).

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  • It is the note of every great religious reformer, Moses, Buddha, Paul, Mani, Mahomet, St Francis, Luther, to enlighten and direct it to higher aims, substituting a true personal holiness for a ritual purity or taboo, which at the best was viewed as a kind of physical condition and contagion, inherent as well in things and animals as in man.

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  • In the Old Testament many laws in the Mosaic legislation are certainly post-Mosaic and the value of not a few narratives lies, not in their historical or biographical information, but in their treatment of law, ritual, custom, belief, &c. Later developments are exemplified in the pseudepigraphical literature, notably in the Book of Jubilees, and when we reach the Mishnah and Talmud, we have only the first of a new series of stages which, it may be said, culminate in the 16th-century Shulhan `Aruk, the great compendium of the then existing written and oral law.

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  • Robertson Smith has made clear in his Lectures on the Religion of the Semites, 18 sqq., ritual is in fact primary for primitive religion, whilst dogma and myth are secondary); secondly, that the outlook of such belief and practice is not exclusively towards the spiritual, unless this term be widened until it mean next to nothing, but is likewise towards the quasimaterial, as will be shown presently.

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  • An important motif in magico-religious ritual, which may not have been without effect on the development of sacrifice, is, as Dr Frazer's main thesis in The Golden Bough asserts, the imparting of reproductive energy to animals, plants and man himself, its cessation being suggested by such phenomena as old age and the fall of the year.

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  • Indeed, as the history of the higher religions shows, religion tends in the end to break away from secular government with its aristocratic traditions, and to revert to the more democratic spirit of the primitive age, having by now obtained a clearer consciousness of its purpose, yet nevertheless clinging to the inveterate forms of human ritual as still adequate to symbolize the consecration of life - the quickening of the will to face life earnestly.

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  • Lang, Myth, Ritual and Religion (2nd ed., Lond.

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  • M.) THE Higher Religions Various phenomena associated with the religions of the lower culture will be found discussed in the articles on Animism; Fetishism; Magic; Mythology; Prayer; Ritual; Sacrifice; and Totemism.

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  • In this article religions are treated from the point of view of morphology, and no attempt can be made in the allotted limits to connect them with the phases of ritual, sociological or ethical development.

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  • See the separate articles on each religious system, and the separate headings for different forms of ritual.

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  • The sacred energy is also discerned in the ritual implements, in the stones for squeezing the soma-juice, and the sacrificial post to which animals were bound; nay, it was even recognized in fabricated products like the plough (the " tearer " or " divider "), the 1 F.

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  • The ancient ritual (Chow Li) carefully graded the right of sacrifice from the viceroys of provinces down to the humblest district-superintendent who offered to the spirits of his district, the hills, lakes and grains.

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  • The ancient Indian ritual for the sacrifice to the Fathers required the officiating priest to turn away with bated breath that he might not see the spirits engaged upon the rice-balls laid out for them.

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  • Andrew Lang, Myth, Ritual and Religion; and Miss Harrison, Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion.

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  • Divine persons, objects or powers, connected with ritual, are not here considered, such as the Brahman priests who claimed to be manushyadevah (human-gods), or the sacred soma-juice which grew by strange analogies into a mysterious element, linking together heaven and earth.

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  • In its ritual form Asha becomes the principle of sacrifice, and hence of holiness, first ritual and then moral.

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  • Assuming the proper fulfilment of the ritual of death, ethics gradually extends its control over the future.

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  • 4 On the other hand, the Egyptian version of " the whole duty of man " in the famous 125th chapter of the Book of the Dead embraces a singular complex of ritual, social and personal sins, in which the inward states of lying, anger and ill-will are condemned along with murder, theft and adultery, beside violation of the times of offerings to the gods, or interference with the food of the blessed dead.

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  • " A man is born into the world that he has made," said another: 6 and what was laid down first as a ritual principle survived as an ethical.

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  • Lang, Myth, Ritual and Religion (1899); C. Pascal, Studii di antichita e mitologia (1896), who sees in Lycaon a god of death honoured by human sacrifice; Ed.

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  • In the Christian religion, especially where animal sacrifices, together with the cult of totem or holy animals, have been given up, it is usual to hallow the oil used in ritual anointings with I lyrical fantasia in one Sarah Bernhardt, whi and original of mode unity, persistent purp in a measure the tra he wrote his Sogno Gioconda; in the sue contemporary politic probably through th allusions in some of i {1901), a perfect r and emotion, magnifi most authoritative It first real although not to the Italian theatre.

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  • Such ritual use of oil as a o payls or seal may have been suggested in old religions by the practice of keeping wine fresh in jars and amphorae by pouring on a top layer of oil; for the spoiling of wine was attributed to the action of demons of corruption, against whom many ancient formulae of aversion or exorcism still exist.

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  • Even at the synod of Orebro, summoned in February 152 9, "for the better regulation of church ceremonies and discipline according to God's Word," there was no formal protest against Rome; and the old ritual was retained for two years longer, though it was to be explained as symbolical.

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  • Arguing from the Old Testament, they represented Paul's gospel as an imperfect creed which required to be supplemented by legal exactitude, 2 including ritual observance (iv.

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  • Here he advocated an improved ritual in the Scottish church, his action resulting in the appointment by the general assembly of a committee, with Boyd as convener, to prepare a new hymnal.

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  • Here, again, the theology was further developed, and an attempt made to annul the old dualism by envisaging both Ormuzd and Ahriman as emanations of an original principle of infinite time (Zervan), a doctrine which long enjoyed official validity under the Sassanids till, in the reign of Chosroes I., the sect of Zervanites was pronounced heretical.i But, above all, the ritual and the doctrine of purity were elaborated and expanded, and there was evolved a complete and detailed system of casuistry, dealing with all things allowed and forbidden, the forms of pollution and the expiation for each, &c., which, in its arid and spiritles1 monotony vividly recalls the similar prescriptions in the Pentateuch.

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  • As compared with the Anglican Book of Common Prayer it is both more and less comprehensive; more, in that it includes lessons and hymns for every day in the year; less, because it excludes the Eucharistic office (contained in the Missal), and the special offices connected with baptism, marriage, burial, ordination, &c., which are found in the Ritual or the Pontifical.

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  • In 1902, under Leo XIII., a commission under the presidency of Monsignor Louis Duchesne was appointed to consider the Breviary, the Missal, the Pontifical and the Ritual.

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  • In the ritual of the Jewish temple fire and light played a conspicuous part.

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  • All this might very early, without the incentive of Jewish and pagan example, have affected the symbolic ritual of the primitive Church.

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  • Taken in connexion with a statement which almost immediately precedes this - " Cereos autem non clara luce accendimus, sicut frustra calumniaris: sed ut noctis tenebras hoc solatio temperemus " (§ 7) - this seems to point to the fact that the ritual use of lights in the church services, so far as already established, arose from the same conservative habit as determined the development of liturgical vestments, i.e.

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  • lights hts had become firmly and universallyestablished g Y In the completed ritual system of the medieval Church, as still preserved in the Roman Catholic communion, the use of ceremonial lights falls under three heads.

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  • 2 It was not, however, till the ritual revival of the 19th century that their use was at all widely extended in parish churches, The growing custom met with fierce opposition; the law was appealed to, and in 1872 the Privy Council declared altar lights to be illegal (Martin v.

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  • are propitiated by a new ritual, in which they are worshipped as Eumenides (the Kindly), and Orestes dedicates an altar to Athena Areia.

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  • In order to improve his knowledge of the Roman ritual he spent four years with Malchus, bishop of Lismore (in Munster), a strong advocate of Romanism.

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  • Apart from these incidents, which, in accordance with the practice of P, are utilized for the purpose of introducing fresh legislation, the book consists of three main groups or collections of ritual laws: (I) chaps.

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  • 17), was in direct contradiction to the ritual of vi.

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  • Such a breach of ritual on the part of Aaron and his sons seemed to a later redactor to demand an explanation, and this is furnished in the present section.

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  • 2-8a, the ritual of the latter being obviously of a very archaic type.

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  • 9-20 prescribes a second and more elaborate ritual of purification after the healing of leprosy, though the leper, according to v.

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  • Possibly the omission of this introduction is due to the redactor who combined (1) and (2) by transferring the regulations of (1) to the ritual of the annual Day of Atonement.

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  • At a later period the ritual was further developed by the inclusion of the additional ceremonial contained in (3).

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  • Gelasius is stated by ritual writers to have been the first who limited them to these particular times, the special solemnity of the season being in all probability the cause of the selection.

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  • There was a school of distinctively latitudinarian thought in the Church of England; others not unnaturally thought it better to extend the realm of the adiaphora beyond the sphere of Protestant ritual or the details of systematic divinity.

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  • In 1885 he again resigned, owing to the bishop of Winchester's refusal to sanction the extreme ritual used in the service at St Agatha's.

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  • The ritual generally is as magnificent as in the West, but of a more archaic type.

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  • He contended for freedom of thought; he had no desire to fight for freedom of ritual practice.

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  • In the recorded periods of Hellenic history, Zeus was accepted as the chief god of the pantheon of the Greeks; and the religious progress of the people from lower to higher ideas can be well illustrated by the study of his ritual and personality.

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  • The latter offers a cannibal-meal to the disguised God, who turns him into a wolf for his sins; and the later Arcadian ritual in honour of this God betrays a hint of lycanthropy; some one who partook of the sacrifice or who swam across a certain lake was supposed to be transformed into a wolf for a certain time.4 Robertson Smith 5 was the first to propose that we have here the traces of an ancient totemistic sacrifice of a wolf-clan, who offered the " theanthropic " animal " the man-wolf " to the wolf-God.

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  • The totemistic theory in its application to Greek religion cannot be here discussed; but we may note that there is no hint in the story that the wolf was offered to Zeus and that the name AvKaios could not originally have designated the " wolf "-God: for from the stem Xveo- we should get the adjective XvKEGOS, not XvKacos; the latter is better derived from a word such as XvKn = " light," and may allude to the God of the clear sky; in fact the wolf, which was a necessary animal in the ritual and legend of Apollo AuKeIOS, may have strayed casually into association with Zeus AvKaios, attracted by a false etymology.

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  • The peculiar characteristic of his earliest ritual was the human sacrifice; besides the legend of King Lycaon, we find it in the story of the house of Athamas and in the worship of Zeus Aacuonos of Thessaly, 8 and other examples are recorded.

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  • Myth, Ritual and Religion, ii.

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  • These cult-titles had originally the force of magic invocation, and much of his ritual was weather-magic: the priest of Zeus Avxaios, in time of drought, was wont to ascend Mount Lycaeum and dip an oak-bough in a sacred fountain, and by this sympathetic means produce mist.

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  • 6 The " Holy Marriage " was celebrated in many parts of Greece, and certain details of the ritual suggest that it was of great antiquity: here and there it may have had the significance of vegetation-magic, like the marriage of the Lord and Lady of May; but generally it seems to have been only regarded as a divine counterpart to the human ceremony.

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  • The Pharisees even improved upon the Temple ritual, and their popularity enabled them to force the Pharisees into adopting the improvements.

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  • cheste Bogno 0 ' ?4 L le of R misconduct, he is only checked-so far as ecclesiastical order is concerned-by his oath of canonical obedience to the " godly " monitions of his bishop; and, since these monitions are difficult and costly to enforce, while their " godliness " may be a matter of opinion, an incumbent is practically himself the interpreter of the law as applied to the doctrine and ritual of his particular church.

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  • The result has been the development within the Established Church of a most startling diversity of doctrine and ritual practice, varying from what closely resembles that of the Church of Rome to the broadest Liberalism and the extremest evangelical Protestantism.

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  • In her six hands are torches, sometimes a snake, a key (as wardress of the lower world), a whip or a dagger; her favourite animal was the dog, which was sacrificed to her - an indication of her nonHellenic origin, since this animal very rarely fills this part in genuine Greek ritual.

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  • A most meagre proportion only of the real religious and ritual writings, the sacerdotal law and the liturgy, has been preserved to our time.

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  • The Kirghiz are Sunni Mahommedans by faith, but amongst them there are curious survivals of an ancient ritual of which the origin is to be traced to those Nestorian Christian Evidences communities of Central Asia which existed in the of the middle ages.

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  • Her character as a goddess of vegetation is clearly shown in the cult and ritual of Adonis (q.v.; also Farnell, ii.

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  • 9), although the author is doubtful whether there are two goddesses, or whether Urania and Pandemos are two names for the same goddess, just as Zeus, although one and the same, has many titles; but in any case, he says, the ritual of Urania is purer, more serious, than that of Pandemos.

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  • It is administered by the bishop with an appropriate ritual.

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  • On the appointed day the nun goes through all the ritual of the marriage ceremony, after a solemn mass at which all the inmates of the convent assist.

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  • Her name does not appear in Tertullian's list of the indigetes di, and Juvenal contrasts her worship unfavourably with the old Roman Numa' ritual.

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  • In religious and ritual matters it is under the jurisdiction of the chief rabbi, who is, to a certain extent, recognized throughout the empire.

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  • Mythologie, pp. 370-3 72.) As to the antiquity of processions as part of the ritual of the Christian Church, there is no absolute proof of their existence before the 4th century, but as we know that in the catacombs stations were held at the tombs of the martyrs on the anniversary of their death, for the celebration of the eucharist, it is quite probable that the faithful proceeded to the appointed spot in some kind of procession, though there is no satisfactory evidence that this was the case.

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  • i.) was influenced by that of the Jewish synagogue, but the theory that the Church adopted the Old Testament ritual is of quite late growth.

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  • It is generally acknowledged that they are the equivalent of the Christian Church of the Roman lustrations of the crops in spring, the Ambarvalia, &c. The litania major, or great procession on St Mark's day (April 25) is shown to coincide both in date and ritual with the Roman Robigalia, which took place a.d.

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  • The most important and characteristic of these still have a in the place in the ritual of the Roman Catholic Church.

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  • For the early ritual see Duchesne, Origines du culte chretien (3rd ed., Paris, 1903).

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  • It has been observed that whenever swinesacrifices occur in the ritual of Aphrodite there is reference to Adonis.

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  • Apollo is further supposed to be the father of Asclepius (Aesculapius), whose ritual is closely modelled upon his.

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  • The metrical form of the oracular responses at Delphi, the important part played by the paean and the Pythian nomos in his ritual, contributed to make Apollo a god of song and music, friend and leader of the Muses (µovvayErr i s).

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  • Purged of elements obviously heathen, the Ka`ba became the holiest site, and the pilgrimage the most sacred ritual observance of Mahommedanism, drawing worshippers from so wide a circle that the confluence of the petty traders of the desert was no longer the main feature of the holy season.

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  • This fiction has involved the superinduction of a new mythology over the old heathen ritual, which remains practically unchanged.

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  • The pilgrim enters the Haram in the antique and scanty pilgrimage dress (ihram), consisting of two cloths wound round his person in a way prescribed by ritual.

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  • Though ignorant of the legal ritual and prayers, they performed the tawaf with enthusiasm, throwing themselves against the Ka`ba and clinging to its curtains as a child clings to its mother.

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  • But we find mention of practices condemned by the orthodox, or forming no part of the Moslem ritual, which may be regarded as traces of an older ceremonial.

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  • He was a supporter of the principles of Abraham Geiger, and while still in`Germany advocated the introduction of prayers in the vernacular, the exclusion of nationalistic hopes from the synagogue service, and other ritual modifications.

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  • The third part, which is entitled De Consecratione, gives, in five distinctiones, the law bearing on church ritual and the sacraments.

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  • Synods of bishops at Edinburgh in 1724 and 1731 dealt with some disputed questions of ritual and ceremonial.

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  • words 13arTCaµos and f367rTC6µa (both of which occur in the New Testament) signify " ceremonial washing," from the verb (3air-T4"w, the shorter form meaning " dip " without ritual significance (e.g.

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  • That a ritual washing away of sin characterized other religions than the Christian, the Fathers of the church were aware, and Tertullian notices, in his tract On Baptism (ch.

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  • In 1796 he went to Berlin, where he founded a humanitarian society, and was commissioned by the freemasons of that city to assist Fichte in reforming the statutes and ritual of their lodge.

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  • His homiletic books, Epistle on Sanctity (Iggereth ha-qodesh) and Law of Man (Torath ha-Adam), which deal respectively with the sanctity of marriage and the solemnity of death, are full of intense spirituality, while at the same time treating of ritual customs - a combination which shows essential Rabbinism at its best.

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  • In this work Jacob ben Asher codified Rabbinic law on ethics and ritual, and it remained a standard work of reference until it was edited with a commentary by Joseph Qaro, who afterwards simplified the code into the more popular Shulhan Aruch.

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  • They are of varying form; an altar shown in a relief at Khorsabad is ornamented with stepped battlements, which are the equivalent of the familiar "altarhorns" in Hebrew ritual.

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  • The ritual uses of these altars are sufficiently explained by their names.

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  • Portable altars and tables of offerings were used in pre-Christian as well as in Christian ritual.

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  • The earliest form of the Grail story, the Gawain- Bleheris version, exhibits a marked affinity with the characteristic features of the Adonis or Tammuz worship; we have a castle on the sea-shore, a dead body on a bier, the identity of which is never revealed, mourned over with solemn rites; a wasted country, whose desolation is mysteriously connected with the dead man, and which is restored to fruitfulness when the quester asks the meaning of the marvels he beholds (the two features of the weeping women and the wasted land being retained in versions where they have no significance); finally the mysterious food-providing, self-acting talisman of a common feast - one and all of these features may be explained as survivals of the Adonis ritual.

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  • Professor Martin long since suggested that a key to the problems of the Arthurian cycle was to be found in a nature myth: Professor Rhys regards Arthur as an agricultural hero; Dr Lewis Mott has pointed out the correspondence between the so-called Round Table sites and the ritual of nature worship; but it is only with the discovery of the existence of Bleheris as reputed authority for Arthurian tradition, and the consequent recognition that the Grail story connected with his name is the earliest form of the legend, that we have secured a solid basis for such theories.

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  • It is thus demonstrable that the material for our Grail legend, in its present form, existed long anterior to any extant text, and there is no improbability in holding that a confused tradition of pagan mysteries which had assumed the form of a popular folk-tale, became finally Christianized by combination with an equally popular ecclesiastical legend, the point of contact being the vessel of the common ritual feast.

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  • Gardiner, Banner, Heath, Day and Tunstall were one by one deprived of their sees; a new ordinal simplified the ritual of ordination, and a second Act of Uniformity and Book of Common Prayer (1552) repudiated the Catholic interpretation which had been placed on the first and imposed a stricter conformity to the Protestant faith.

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  • He shared to the full his fathers dislikc and distrust of the Puritans, and he supported with the whole weight of the crown the attempt of William Laud (q.v.), since 1633 archbishop of Canterbury, to enforce conformity to the ritual prescribed by the Prayer Book.

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  • On the ritual changes which he introduced see W.

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  • The science of augury was contained in various written works, which were consulted as occasion arose: such were the libri augurum, a manual of augural ritual, and the commentarii augurum, a collection of decrees or answers given by the college to the senate in certain definite cases.

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  • In this sense all Greece was once "Pelasgic"; the clearest instances of Pelasgian survival in ritual and customs and antiquities are in Arcadia, the "Ionian" districts of north-west Peloponnese, and Attica, which have suffered least from hellenization.

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  • In the 10th century, partly under the influence of the wealthy and splendour-loving community of Cluny, the use of the cope became very widespread; in the 11 th century it was universally worn, though the rules for its ritual use had not yet been fixed.

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  • This use survived in the ritual of the pre-Reformation Church in England, and has been introduced in certain Anglican churches, e.g.

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  • Except at royal coronations, however, the use of the cope, even in cathedrals, had practically ceased in England before the ritual revival of the 19th century restored its popularity.

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  • Fasting in the stricter sense was not unknown; but it is certain that it did not at first occupy nearly so prominent a place in Christian ritual as that to which it afterwards attained.

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  • Caton, Temples and Ritual of A.

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  • All Isaac D'Israeli's children were born into the Jewish communion, in which, however, they were not to grow up. It is a reasonable inference from Isaac's character that he was never at ease in the ritual of Judaism.

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  • It is probably during this period that he wrote the Gemma ecclesiastica (discussing disputed points of doctrine, ritual, &c.) and the Vita S.

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  • In place of the goat or fawn a bear might have been expected, but the choice may have been influenced by the animal totem of the tribe into whose hands the ritual fell.

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  • Callisto was originally a bear-goddess worshipped in Arcadia, identified with Artemis, when nothing remained of the original animal-worship but name and ritual.

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  • Lang, Myth, Ritual and Religion, ii.; Farnell, Cults, ii.

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  • Scholars differ as to whether Artemis Taurica is identical with Artemis Tauropolos, worshipped chiefly at Samos with a milder ritual, but it is more probable that Tavp07r6Xos simply means "protectress of bulls."

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  • Her chief festival, Ephesia or Artemisia, was held in the spring, at which games and various contests took place after the Greek fashion, although the ritual continued to be of a modified oriental, orgiastic type.

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  • Then, when Christianity threw off the Mosaic ritual, this religious sense of purity was left with no other sphere besides morality; while, from its highly idealized character, it was peculiarly well adapted for that repression of vicious desires which Christianity claimed as its special function.

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  • More recent is the explanation of anthropologists that Medusa, whose virtue is really in her head, is derived from the ritual mask common to primitive cults.

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  • This book, together with his insistence on points of ritual in his cathedral church and his friendship with Laud, exposed him to the suspicions and hostility of the Puritans; and the book was rudely handled by William Prynne and Henry Burton.

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  • The importance of their heliacal risings, or first visible appearances at dawn, for the purposes both of practical life and of ritual observance, caused them to be systematically noted; the length of the year was accurately fixed in connexion with the annually recurring Nile-flood; while the curiously precise orientation of the Pyramids affords a lasting demonstration of the high degree of technical skill in watching the heavens attained in the third millennium B.C. The constellational system in vogue among the Egyptians appears to have been essentially of native origin; but they contributed little or nothing to the genuine progress of astronomy.

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  • These Calvin regarded as matters of indifference, provided the magistrates did not make them of importance, by seeking to enforce them; and he was the more willing to concede them, because he hoped thereby to meet the wishes of the Bernese brethren whose ritual was less simple than that established by Farel at Geneva.

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  • Anne Boleyn's daughter succeeded quietly, and Sir Henry Sidney was sworn lord-justice with the full Catholic ritual.

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  • Bancroft brings evidence to prove that the Mexicans supposed pregnant women would turn into beasts, and sleeping children into mice, if things went wrong in the ritual of a certain solemn sacrifice.

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  • From the natives of northern and central Australia to the actors in the ritual of Adonis, or the folk among whom arose the customs of crowning the May king or the king of the May, all peoples have done magic to encourage the breeding of animals as part of the food supply, and to stimulate the growth of plants, wild or cultivated.

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  • Mannhardt, and on the facts of ritual, which preserve these ideas and represent them in a kind of mystery plays.

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  • His home is in or above the sky, but there was a time when he walked the earth, a potent magic-worker; endowed mankind with such arts and institutions as they possess; and left to them certain rules of life, ethics and ritual.

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  • Their religion had its fine lucid intervals, but their mythology and ritual were little better than savage ideas, elaborately worked up by the imagination of a cruel and superstitious priesthood.

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  • Though lofty moral qualities and deep concern about the conduct of men are attributed to the gods in the Vedic hymns, yet the hymns contain traces (and these are amplified in the ritual books) of a divine chronique scandaleuse.

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  • The Brahmanas, on the other hand, later compilations, canonized books for the direction of ritual and sacrifice, are rich in senseless and irrational myths.

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  • Sometimes these myths are probably later than the Veda, mere explanations of ritual incidents devised by the priests.

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  • So much for the Indian cosmogonic myths, which are a collection of ideas familiar to savages, blended with sacerdotal theories and ritual mummeries.

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  • The anciennes cohues de France, gay, familiar and military, gave place to a stilted court life, a perpetual adoration, a very ceremonious and very complicated ritual, in which the demigod pontificated even in his dressing-gown.

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  • councils, and even from the humblest municipal offices; they were deprived of the charge of their hospitals, their academies, their colleges and their schools, and were left to ignorance and poverty; while the intolerance of the clergy united with chicanery of procedure to invade their places of worship, insult their adherents, and put a stop to the practice of their ritual.

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  • This religion was to have its special priesthood, ritual and organization.

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  • In England, however, a number of prominent Positivists have carried out Comte's original ideal of a Church of Humanity with ritual and organization.

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  • On the Ambrosian ritual see LITURGY; on the Ambrosian library see LIBRARIES; on the church founded by him at Milan in 387 see MILAN.

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  • The adoption of the Roman instead of the Gothic ritual of Saint Isidore has been lamented, but it marked the assumption by Castile of a place in the community of the western European kingdoms. The Frenchmen, both monks and knights, who accompanied Constance brought to bear on Spain the ecclesiastical, architectural, literary and military influence of France, then the intellectual centre of Europe, as fully as it ever was exercised in later times.

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  • To some extent, the individual came in for his share in the incantations and in the purification ritual through which one might hope to rid oneself of the power of the demons and of other evil spirits, but outside of this the important aim of the priests was to secure for the general benefit the favour of the gods, or, as a means of preparing oneself for what the future had in store, to ascertain in time whether that favour would be granted in any particular instance or would be continued in the future.

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  • Its organization was both curious and mysterious, and had a fantastic ritual full of symbols taken from the Christian religion, as well as from the trade of charcoal-burning, which was extensively practised in the mountains of the Abruzzi and Calabria.

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  • They concern, chiefly, such matters as ritual, prayers, soberness in food and raiment, the cost of marriage and the behaviour of women.

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  • 26 seq.) we enter upon a far more detailed and specific series of ritual instructions.

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  • This elaborate ceremonial connected with the wave-offering (developed in the post-exile period) took place on the morrow of the seventh Sabbath called 1 On the critical questions involved in these ritual details of Lev.

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  • It was written during the reign of Heraclius (610-641), and is generally attributed to an unknown Byzantine cleric and friend of the patriarch Sergius, who is specially alluded to as responsible for the introduction of certain ritual innovations.

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  • In 1835 Pusey joined the movement, which, so far as concerned ritual observances, was later called "Puseyite"; and in 1836 its supporters secured further coherence by their united opposition to the appointment of Hampden as regius professor of divinity.

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  • But it is certain that he explained to his own satisfaction and accepted every item of the Roman Catholic creed, even going beyond it, as in holding the pope to be infallible in canonization; and while expressing his preference for English as compared with Italian devotional forms, he was himself one of the first to introduce such into England, together with the ritual peculiarities of the local Roman Church.

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  • Among his other works were a ritual compendium Tesoro dos dinim, and a treatise in Hebrew on immortality (Nishmath hayim).

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  • It was an elaborate ritual.

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  • The first order of business on lunar New Year's Day is offering ritual homage to one's ancestors.

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  • It depicts the Hindu Raja of Jammu performing ritual ablutions prior to worship.

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  • Ritual murder accusations: the story of Simon of Trent, Italy, 1475 39.

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  • alms giving is an integral part of the Buddhist ritual across south east Asia.

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  • attendant ritual, barely keeps its head above Dennis Wheatley.

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  • The sacrifice of wild animals is predominantly used to evoke an aura of non-normal ritual behavior.

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  • banished for a thousand years by an ancient ritual that sent their leader to the depths of Hell.

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  • banquet halls provides the right atmosphere for wines to be sampled in a ritual manner.

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  • brit milah - is the first life-cycle ritual that is mentioned in the Torah.

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  • It was a religious act specifically undertaken to achieve the ritual purity required for participation in religious ceremonials.

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  • The NHS does not fund ritual circumcision in England.

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  • congregate ritual for the England fan abroad is the spontaneous congregating in the town square on matchday.

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  • This time honored ritual emphasizes the continuity and majesty of the British monarchy.

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  • Goldsinny Other wrasse have a ritual courtship in which the male prepares a nest.

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  • Couvade syndrome is found mostly in industrialized societies (Clinton 1987) where couvade syndrome is found mostly in industrialized societies (Clinton 1987) where couvade ritual is not practiced (Helman 2001 ).

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  • The prophets were n't decrying the ritual of the temple.

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  • degenerate form of Buddhism Ceremony and ritual are emphasized.

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  • This hugely symbolic event was arguably a ritual act of public desecration which transgressed the most sacred site of communist public space.

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  • Like religion, the truly devout regard sport as a way of life rather than just a weekly ritual.

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  • This was emphatically taught in connection with the gorgeous ritual of the Old testament dispensation.

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  • Many people suggest a winding-down aspect to each ritual, to slowly dissipate the energies which may have been built up during the exercise.

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  • elders of the tribe performing a ritual around a caldron with a yellow liquid which they ceremonially drink as they chant.

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  • This ritual enactment of deification must then, of course, be followed through by deeds in daily life.

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  • The familiar ritual began on BBC with Kenneth Clarke trying to put a brave face on things.

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  • fertility ritual that was to have been performed in these sanctuaries.

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  • She has carried out intensive fieldwork among the social and political elites of Rajasthan and has published on ritual and kingship.

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  • forbid the killing of non-human animals, as is clear from the laws on the ritual slaughter of bulls and goats.

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  • The three laboratories had previously discovered that fruitless is the master gene controlling the male fruit fly 's elaborate six-step courtship ritual.

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  • Sri Lankans of various religions believe that certain ritual devil dances can cure the sick, appease angry gods, and ensure good harvests.

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  • Seeman's paper considers the hermeneutics of ritual within social and cultural life.

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  • Persons and objects have to be washed to remove ritual impurity in the Law.

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  • In fact, I find much of the ritual incantations of bullishness here rather amusing.

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  • initiation ritual I would have to endure.

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  • Readers will recognize that some of the lectures are far too long to form part of a ritual initiation.

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  • encyclopedia Judaica provides an interesting account of the prayer ritual by the priests of the Temple.

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  • juryring the previous six years English juries often acquitted Quakers for violating Parliament's command that all religious services conform to Anglican ritual.

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  • mace heads suggest ritual offerings.

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  • mana crystals are required to cast a ritual at a more powerful ritual site.

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  • mandala garden, with the ritual spot at the center.

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