Rio sentence example
The Denver and Rio Grande Western made daily warm-weather trips up the mountain to the mining town of Silverton, 40 miles away.
The arrival of these first-fruits of the mineral wealth of the southern continent gained for the estuary of the Parana the name which it has since borne, that of Rio de la Plata, the silver river.
Denver is an important railway centre, being served by nine railways, of which the chief are the Atchison, ' Topeka & Santa Fe; the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy; the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific; the Denver & Rio Grande; the Union Pacific; and the Denver, North-Western & Pacific, Denver lies on the South Platte river, at an altitude exactly m.
The American rebellion, the French Revolution and the British invasions of Montevideo and Buenos Aires (1806-7), under GeneralsAuchmuty(i 756-1 822)andJohnWhitelocke (1757-1833), all contributed to the extinction of the Spanish power on the Rio de la Plata.
The shipping of fresh milk to Rio de Janeiro and butter-making are comparatively new industries.Advertisement
In 1842 a long series of quarrels in Rio de Janeiro culminated in a revolution in Minas Geraes and Sao Paulo, which was suppressed at Santa Luzia, Minas Geraes, on the 10th of August of that year.
The Rio Grande de Lerma, or Santiago, is the principal river, whose sources are to be found on the high plateau in the state of Mexico.
The remains of a Byzantine façade now almost entirely built into a wall in the Rio di Ca' Foscari offer us excellent illustration of this decorative work.
Of his work some traces still remain in the richly sculptured bands built in at intervals along the 14th-century façade on the Rio, and part of the handsome larch-wood beams which formed the loggia of the piazzetta façade, still visible on the inner wall of the present loggia.
Gradenigo built the façade along the Rio.Advertisement
The block of buildings in the interior, connecting the Porta della Carta to the Rio wing, was added about 1462 by the doge Cristoforo Moro.
In 1479 a fire consumed the earlier buildings along the Rio, and these were replaced (1480-1550) by the present Renaissance structure.
The Palazzo Dario with its dedication, Urbis genio, the superb Manzoni-Montecuculi-Polignac, with its friezes of spread-eagles in low relief, and the Vendramini-Calergi or Non nobis palace, whose facade is characterized by its roundheaded windows of grouped twin lights between columns, are among the more important; though beautiful specimens, such as the Palazzo Trevisan on the Rio della Paglia, and the Palazzo Corner Reali at the Fava, are to be found all over the city.
The ship to which he was appointed was ordered to China, and he found opportunities during the voyage for indulging his passion for exploration, making a journey from Rio de Janeiro to the base of the Andes, and another from Bombay through India to Ceylon.
In 1805 Boston began the export of ice to Jamaica, a trade which was gradually extended to Cuba, to ports of the southern states, and finally to Rio de Janeiro and Calcutta (1833), declining only after the Civil War; it enabled Boston to control the American trade of Calcutta against New York throughout the entire period.Advertisement
It is served by the International & Great Northern, the National of Mexico, the Texas Mexican and the Rio Grande & Eagle Pass railways, and is connected by bridges with Nuevo Laredo.
It is situated in a good farming and cattle-raising region, irrigated by water from the Rio Grande.
It is the source of the Rio Limay and receives the overflow from two smaller neighbouring lakes.
The ordinary musk-rat is one of several species of a genus peculiar to America, where it is distributed in suitable localities in the northern part of the continent, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the Rio Grande to the barren grounds bordering the Arctic seas.
The water parting is about twice as far from the north coast as it is from the south coast, the rainfall is greater on the north slope, and the principal rivers - Rio Loiza, Rio de la Plata, Rio Manati and Rio Arecibo are on the north side.Advertisement
The university at Rio Piedras was established by act of the insular legislature in 1903, but in 1910 only two departments had been organized - the insular normal school and the department of agriculture.
It is well watered by numerous small streams and one larger river, the Aguascalientes or Rio Grande, and has a mild healthy climate with a moderate rainfall.
Several rivulets follow the ravines and drain into the Ribeirao do Carmo, a sub-tributary of the Rio Doce.
In the autumn of 1863 Banks organized a number of expeditions to Texas, chiefly for the purpose of preventing the French in Mexico from aiding the Confederates, and secured possession of the region near the mouths of the Nueces and the Rio Grande.
A third species, from the American coast of the North Pacific, has been described under the name of Phocaena vomerina, and another from the mouth of the Rio de la Plata as P. spinipennis.Advertisement
The Mexican Central gives it railway connexion with the national capital and other prominent cities of the Republic. Leon stands in a fertile plain on the banks of the Turbio, a tributary of the Rio Grande de Lerma, at an elevation of 5862 ft.
In 1907 active preliminary work was begun on the Louisiana section of a great interstate inland waterway projected by the national government between the Mississippi and Rio Grande rivers, almost parallel to the Gulf Coast and running through the rice and truck-farm districts from the Teche to the Mermenton river (92 m.).
Finally, Pinar del Rio is dominated by a prominent mountain range and by outlying piedmont hills and mesas.
The first, the Organ mountains, in Pinar del Rio, rises in a sandy, marshy region near Cape San Antonio.
Thus the Rio San Antonio suddenly disappears near San Antonio de los Banos; the cascades of the Jatibonico del Norte disappear and reappear in a surprising manner; the Moa cascade (near Guantanamo) drops 300 ft.Advertisement
Besides the deposits in Oriente province, iron is known to exist in considerable amount in Camaguey and Santa Clara, and copper in Camaguey and Pinar del Rio provinces.
For building and miscellaneous purposes, in addition to the rare woods above named, there are cedars (used in great quantities for cigar boxes); the pine, found only in the W., where it gives its name to the Isle of Pines and the province of Pinar del Rio; various palms; oaks of varying hardness and colour, &c. The number of alimentary plants is extremely great.
In very recent years gardening has become an interest of importance, particularly in the province of Pinar del Rio.
In succeeding years a fairly ample system was built up between the cities of Pinar del Rio and Santa Clara, with a number of short spurs from the chief ports farther eastward into the interior.
Foreigners constituted 25.6% of the population in the city of Havana; only 7% in Pinar del Rio province.Advertisement
Native blood is most predominant in the provinces of Oriente and Pinar del Rio.
The city occupies a green, fertile valley of the Rio Chile, 7753 ft.
Among the most famous were the expedition undertaken by Diego de Ordaz, whose lieutenant Martinez claimed to have been rescued from shipwreck, conveyed inland, and entertained at Omoa by "El Dorado" himself (1531); and the journeys of Orellana (1540-1541), who passed down the Rio Napo to the valley of the Amazon; that of Philip von Hutten (1541-1545), who led an exploring party from Coro on the coast of Caracas; and of Gonzalo Ximenes de Quesada (1569), who started from Santa Fe de Bogota.
Moncey (7000) had marched towards the city of Valencia, but been repulsed in attempting to storm it (June 28); Bessieres had defeated the Spanish general Joachim Blake at Medina de Rio Seco (June 14, 1808) and Dupont (13,000) had been detached (May 24) from Madrid to reduce Seville and Cadiz in Andalusia.
There are four navigable rivers in the state - the Rio Grande del Norte, or Rio Bravo, which forms the boundary line with the United States, the Conchas or Presas, the Soto da Marina, and the Tamesi.Advertisement
On the plains bordering the Rio Grande frosts are frequent.
The city is near the Rio Santander, and was once called Nuevo Santander.
The tree grows most abundantly in a sporadic manner in the dense moist forests of the basin of the Rio San Juan, where the rain falls for nine months in the year.
Its altitude gives the city a cool invigorating climate, making it a favourite summer residence for the well-to-do classes of Rio.
Petropolis has since become the summer residence of the diplomatic corps and of the higher officials of the Federal government, and was the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro from 1893 to 1903.Advertisement
In Rio Grande do Sul, where two large lakes have been created by uplifted sand beaches, the coastal plain widens greatly, and is merged in an extensive open, rolling grassy plain, traversed by ridges of low hills (cuchillas), similar to the neighbouring republic of Uruguay.
The more arid districts offer no inducement for settlement and are inhabited only by a few roving bands of Indians, but there were settlements of whites in the grazing districts of the Rio Branco at an early date, and a few hundreds of adventurers have occupied the mining districts of the east.
The first consists of an almost continuous range crossing the northern end of Rio Grande do Sul and following the coast northward to the vicinity of Cape Frio, and thence northward in broken ranges to the vicinity of Cape St Roque, and a second parallel range running from eastern Sao Paulo northeast and north to the eastern margin of the Sao Francisco basin in northern Bahia, where that river turns eastward to the Atlantic. The first of these is generally known as the Serra do Mar, or Coast Range, though it is locally known under many names.
Its culminating point is in the Organ Mountains (Serra dos Orgaos), near Rio de Janeiro, which reaches an elevation of 7323 ft.
The inland range, which is separated from the Coast Range in the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro by the valley of the Parahyba do Sul river, is known as the Serra da Mantiqueira, and from the point where it turns northward to form the eastern rim of the Sao Francisco basin, as the Serra do Espinhaco.Advertisement
The most southern of these chapadoes, that of the Parana basin, in which may be included the northern part of the Uruguay and eastern part of the Paraguay basins, includes the greater part of the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catharina, Parana and Sao Paulo, the southwestern corner of Minas Geraes, a part of southern Goyaz, and the south-eastern corner of Matto Grosso.
It includes a small part of eastern Sao Paulo, the greater part of the state of Rio de Janeiro, a small corner of Espirito Santo, and a narrow strip along the southern border of Minas Geraes.
Outside the two great river systems of the Amazon and river Plate (Rio de la Plata), which are treated under their respective titles, the rivers of Brazil are limited to the numerous small streams and three or four large rivers which flow eastward from the plateau regions directly into the Atlantic. The Amazon system covers the entire north-western part of the republic, the state of Amazonas, nearly the whole of Para and the greater part of Matto Grosso being drained by this great river and its tributaries.
The Tocantins is sometimes treated as a tributary of the Amazon because its outlet, called the Rio Para, is connected with that great river by a number of inland channels.
It receives only one important tributary from Maranhao - the Rio das Balsas, 447 m.
North of the Sao Francisco the watershed projecting from the plateau eastward toward Cape St Roque, known as the Serra da Borborema in Parahyba and Rio Grande do Norte where its direction becomes north-east, leaves a triangular section of the easterly slope in which the river courses are short and much broken by rapids.
The more important of these rivers are the Itapicuru, Paraguassu, Contas or Jussiape, Pardo or Patype, and Jequitinhonha, of Bahia; the Mucury, and Doce, of Espirito Santo; and the Parahyba do Sul of the state of Rio de Janeiro.
It rises on an elevated tableland in the state of Sao Paulo and flows across the state of Rio de Janeiro from west to east, through a broad fertile valley producing coffee in its most elevated districts and sugar on its alluvial bottom-lands nearer the sea.
In Rio Grande do Sul the Atlantic coastal plain extends westward more than half-way across the state, and is well watered by numerous streams flowing eastward to the Lagoa dos Patos.
The Brazilian rivers of the Rio de la Plata system are numerous and important.
Those of the Paraguay drain the south-western part of Matto Grosso, and the tributaries of the Parana cover the western slopes of the Serra do Mar from Rio Grande do Sul north to the south-west part of Minas Geraes, and include the south-east part of Matto Grosso and the south part of Goyaz within their drainage basin.
There is a large number of these lakes along the coasts of Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, some of them of considerable size.
The two largest lakes of this class are on the coast of Rio Grande do Sul and are known as the Lagoa dos Patos and Lagoa Mirim.
The larger and more important of these are Todos os Santos, on which is located the city of Sao Salvador or Bahia, and Rio de Janeiro or Guanabara, beside which stands the capital of the republic. These two are freely accessible to the largest ships afloat.
Para, Parnahyba, Parahyba, Santos and Rio Grande do Sul are river ports situated near the sea on rivers having the same name; but, with the exception of Path and Santos, they are difficult of access and are of secondary importance.
In southern Brazil, on the other hand, in Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, &c., the beds of this period are of terrestrial origin, containing coal seams and remains of plants.
South of Bahia there is a gradual increase in the rainfall, that of Rio de Janeiro exceeding 43 in.
It covers the state of Piauhy and the western or inland parts of the states of Ceara, Rio Grande do Norte, Parahyba, Pernambuco and Bahia.
South and south-west of this arid plateau lie the inhabited tablelands of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Minas Geraes, where the climate is greatly modified by a luxuriant vegetation and southerly winds, as well as by the elevation.
In the Parahyba valley, which extends across the state of Rio de Janeiro, the mean temperature is somewhat higher than it is in Sao Paulo and Minas Geraes, and the nights are warmer, but the higher valleys of the Serra do Mar enjoy a delightfully temperate climate.
South of Sao Paulo the tablelands of Parana, Santa Catharina and Rio Grande do Sul enjoy a temperate climate, with an abundant rainfall.
Brazil has three groups of animals similar to the common rat - the Capromydae, Loncheridae and Psammoryctidae- the best known of which is the " tuco-tuco " (Ctenomys brasiliensis), a small burrowing animal of Rio Grande do Sul which excavates long subterranean galleries and lives on roots and bulbs.
These forests extend from Parana into Rio Grande do Sul and smaller tracts are also found in Minas Geraes.
The states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes are the largest producers, but it is also grown for export in Espirito Santo, Bahia and Ceara.
The census of the 31st of December 1900 was strikingly defective; it was wholly discarded for the city of Rio de Janeiro, and had to be completed by office computations in the returns from several states.
Not including the city of Rio de Janeiro, whose population was estimated at 691,565 in conformity with a special municipal census of 1906, the total population was 16,626,991, of which 15,572,671 were Roman Catholics, 177,727 Protestants, 876,593 of other faiths.
Other colonies were founded in Bahia, Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro during the same period, but they were unsuccessful, partly because of the competition of slave labour.
The introduction of European immigrants dates from 1818 when a Swiss colony was located at Nova Friburgo, near Rio de Janeiro, and it was continued under the direction and with the aid of the imperial government down to the creation of the republic. Since then the state governments have assumed charge of immigration, and some of them are spending large sums in the acquisition of labourers.
The only ports having a rich and well-populated country behind them are Rio de Janeiro and Santos, and these are the terminals of long lines of railway which are being slowly extended farther into the interior.
Political considerations also led to the construction of similar lines in the states of Rio Grande do Norte, Parahyba, Alagoas, Sergipe, Espirito Santo, Parana., Santa Catharina and Rio Grande do Sul.
The use of tramways for the transportation of passengers in cities dates from 1868, when the first section of the Botanical Garden line of Rio de Janeiro was opened to traffic. The line was completed with its surplus earnings and continued under the control of the American company which built it until 1882, when it was sold to a Brazilian company.
The coastwise service centres at Rio de Janeiro, from which port the Lloyd Brazileiro sends steamers regularly south to Montevideo, and north to Para and Manaos, calling at the more important intermediate ports.
The government lines extend from Para to the Argentine and Uruguayan frontiers, where they connect with the telegraph systems of those republics, and from Rio de Janeiro westward across country, in great part unsettled, to the capitals of Goyaz and Matto Grosso.
Before the middle of the 19th century coffee became one of the leading exports, and its cultivation in the states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes has been so increased since that time that it represents over four-fifths in value of the total export of agricultural produce.
The principal sugar-producing states are Alagoas, Sergipe, Pernambuco, Bahia and Rio de Janeiro, and the production is between 200,000 and 300,000 tons, the greater part of which is consumed in the country.
It was once cultivated in Rio Grande do Sul with some success, and it has been grown in Minas Geraes and Sao Paulo, but in no case have the returns been sufficient to give it a permanent standing among the productions of the country.
Ceara., Bahia, and Rio de Janeiro are celebrated for their oranges, and Pernambuco for its delicious pineapples.
They are largely used and raised in Rio Grande do Sul, but in the warmer regions of the north only to a limited extent.
Cattle-raising is the principal industry in Rio Grande do Sul, and receives considerable attention in Minas Geraes, Matto Grosso, Santa Catharina, Parana, Piauhy and Rio Grande do Norte.
These importations at Rio de Janeiro in 1906 were 12,464,170 kilograms of jerked beef and 12, 575 head of cattle.
In the Rio Branco region of Amazonas and in Piauhy, where the national government has long been the owner of extensive cattle ranges, the industry is in a state of decadence.
In southern Bahia the industry has been nearly extinguished through increasing aridity and droughts, but in the state of Rio de Janeiro the planters are increasing their herds.
In Rio Grande do Sul, where it has attained its greatest development, about 400,000 beeves are slaughtered annually for the manufacture of jerked beef (xarque), beef extract, &c. Little attention has been given to sheep in Brazil except in the southern states, and even there the flocks are small.
Woollen manufactures have been established in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul.
Swine do well in all parts of the country, especially in Minas Geraes, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Parana and Rio Grande do Sul.
The dried leaves and smaller twigs of mate (Paraguayan tea-hlex paraguayensis) are exported to the southern Spanish American republics, where (as in Rio Grande do Sul) the beverage is exceedingly popular.
Bituminous coal of an inferior quality is mined to a limited extent in Rio Grande do Sul, and another mine has been opened in Santa Catharina.
These coal deposits extend from Rio Grande do Sul north into the state of Sao Paulo.
The largest and best equipped of them are located in the federal states of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, though the greater part of the raw cotton used comes from the northern states and pays high freight rates.
The manufacture of woollen blankets, cashmeres, flannels, &c., had also undergone noteworthy development and is carried on in fifteen factories, located principally in Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo.
Biscuit-making is represented by a large number of factories, for the most part in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, and there are a number of breweries of the most modern type in the same two states.
The overthrow of the monarchy by a military revolt in Rio de Janeiro on 15th November 1889, resulted in the creation of a federal republic under the name of United States of Brazil (Estados Unidos do Brazil).
The most important of these districts is that of Rio Grande do Sul, where a force of 11,226 men is stationed.
The principal war arsenal is in Rio de Janeiro.
Military instruction is given at the Eschola Militar of Rio de Janeiro.
The loss of the armoured turret ship "Aquidaban" by a magazine explosion in the bay of Jacarepagua, near Rio de Janeiro, in 1905, had left Brazil with but one fighting vessel (the " Reachuelo ") of any importance.
The principal naval arsenal is located at Rio de Janeiro.
The government possesses dry docks at Rio de Janeiro.
The naval school, which has always enjoyed a high reputation among Brazilians, is situated on the island of Enxadas in the bay of Rio de Janeiro.
There are smaller arsenals at Para, Pernambuco, Sao Salvador and Ladario (Matto Grosso) and a shipbuilding yard of considerable importance at the Rio de Janeiro arsenal.
Secondary and higher education are under both federal and state control, the former being represented by lyceums in the state capitals, and by such institutions as the Gymnasio Nacional (formerly Collegio Dom Pedro II.) in Rio de Janeiro.
Higher, or superior, instruction is confined almost exclusively to professional schools - the medical schools of Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, the law schools of Sao Paulo and Pernambuco, the polytechnic of Rio de Janeiro, and the school of mines of Ouro Preto.
There are many private schools in all the large cities, from the primary schools maintained by the church and various corporations and religious associations to schools of secondary and collegiate grades, such as the Protestant mission schools of Petropolis, Piracicaba, Juiz de Fora, Sao Paulo and Parana, the Lyceu de Artes e Officios (night school) of Rio de Janeiro, and the Mackenzie College of Sao Paulo.
In 1892 the diocese of Rio de Janeiro was made an archbishopric, and four new dioceses were created.
In 1905 the archbishop of Rio de Janeiro was made a cardinal.
Joao Barbosa Rodrigues has done some good work in botany, especially in the study of the palms of the Amazon, and Joao Baptista de Lacerda has made important biological investigations at the national museum of Rio de Janeiro.
The Museu Nacional at Rio de Janeiro, which has occupied the imperial palace of Sao Christovao since the overthrow of the monarchy, contains large collections of much scientific value, but defective organization and apathetic direction have rendered them of comparatively slight service.
The Observatorio Nacional at Rio de Janeiro is another prominent public institution.
That of Rio de Janeiro is widely celebrated for its avenues of royal palms, but it has also rendered an important service to the country in the dissemination of exotic plants.
These deficits were common enough under the monarchy, but they have become still more prominent under the republic. According to the " Retrospecto Commercial " for 1906 of the Jornal do Commercio (Rio de Janeiro, March 5, 1907), the aggregate deficits for the eleven years 1891 to 1904 were 692,000,000 milreis, or, say, £43,250,000.
The naval revolt of 1893-1894, however, had aroused the spirit of militarism in the ruling classes, and the effort to perfect the organization and equipment of the army, strengthen the fortifications of Rio de Janeiro, and increase the navy, have kept expenditures in excess of the revenues.
The aggregate of these debts in 1904 was £20,199,440, and the several loans made during the next two years, including those of the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Bahia and Manaos, add fully two and a half millions more to the total.
He began to survey the coast about Rio de Janeiro, to which he gave that name, because he discovered it on the 1st of January 1531.
Rio de Janeiro was not settled till a later period; and for a considerable time the nearest captaincy to Santo Amaro, sailing along the coast northwards, was that of Espirito Santo.
The coast from the Rio Sao Francisco to Bahia was granted to Francisco Pereira Coutinho; the bay itself, with all its creeks, was afterwards added to the grant.
It extended along the coast from the Rio Sao Francisco, northward to the Rio de Juraza.
Rio de Janeiro was first occupied by French settlers.
Under the patronage of that admiral, he arrived at Rio de Janeiro in 1558 with a train of numerous and respectable colonists.
For some years the French kept up a kind of bush warfare; but in 1567 the Portuguese succeeded in establishing a settlement at Rio.
Rio and Santos, although both evinced a desire of independence, followed the example of the Paulistas.
In 1710 a squadron, commanded by Duclerc, disembarked 1000 men, and attacked Rio de Janeiro.
They arrived at Rio on the 12th of September 1711.
The regent was requested to establish there the seat of his government, but a more secure asylum presented itself in Rio de Janeiro, where the royal fugitives arrived on the 7th of March.
Once established in Rio de Janeiro, the government of the regent was directed to the creation of an administrative machinery for the dominions that remained to him as it existed in Portugal.
Thus the government of the prince regent began its career in the new world with dangerous errors in the financial system; yet the increased activity which a multitude of new customers and the increase of circulating medium gave to the trade of Rio, added a new stimulus to the industry of the whole nation.
The inroads made on the frontiers of Rio Grande and Sao Paulo decided the court of Rio to take possession of Montevideo; Brazil de- a force of 5000 troops was sent thither from Portugal, together with a Brazilian corps; and the irregulars integral of Artigas, unable to withstand disciplined troops, were forced, after a total defeat, to take refuge beyond the river Uruguay.
A similar plot and rebellion took place in the province of Pernambuco, where the inhabitants of the important commercial city of Recife (Pernambuco) were jealous of Rio and the sacrifices they were compelled to make for the support of the luxurious court there.
In Rio, the Portuguese troops with which the king had surrounded himself as the defence against the liberal spirit of the Brazilians, took up arms on the 26th of February 1821, to force him to accept the system proclaimed in Portugal.
In independ- Rio the agitation for independence continued.
On his return to Rio de Janeiro on the 12th of October he was proclaimed constitutional emperor with great enthusiasm.
The two Andradas, who imagined they could govern the young emperor as a sovereign of their own creation, encountered great opposition in the constitutional assembly, which had been opened in Rio in May 1823, to discuss the project of a new constitution.
With the exception of Para, and Rio Grande the provinces were at peace, but these were in open rebellion; the former was reduced to obedience, but in the latter, though the imperial troops occupied the town, the country was ravaged by its warlike inhabitants.
In 1864 the ambitious dictator of Paraguay, Francisco Solano Lopez, without previous declaration of war, captured a Brazilian vessel in the Paraguay, and rapidly followed up this outrage by an armed invasion of the provinces of Matto Grosso and Rio Grande in Brazil, and that of Corrientes in the Argentine Republic. A triple alliance of the invaded states with Uruguay ensued, and the tide of war was soon turned from being an offensive one on the part of Paraguay to a defensive struggle within that republic against the superior number of the allies.
Occasional political outbreaks occurred, but none of very serious nature except in Rio Grande do Sul, where a long guerrilla warfare was carried on against the imperial authority.
Disturbances then broke out in Rio Grande do Sul, in consequence of disputes between the official party and the people living in the country districts.
Meanwhile, the revolution in Rio Grande do Sul had revived; and in July 1893 the federal government was forced to send most of the available regular troops to that state to hold the insurgents in check.
On the 6th of September prevailing discontent took definite .shape in the form of a naval revolt in the Bay of Rio de Janeiro.
A provisional government was proclaimed by the insurgents, with headquarters at Desterro, and communication was opened with Gumercindo Saraiva, the leader of the insurrection in Rio Grande do Sul.
It was proposed that the army of some io,000 men under his command should advance northwards towards Rio de Janeiro, while the insurgent squadron threatened the city of Rio.
In November Admiral Mello left Rio de Janeiro in the armoured cruiser " Aquidaban " and went to Desterro, the naval forces in Rio Bay being left in charge of Admiral Saldanha da Gama, an ardent monarchist, who had thrown in his lot with the insurgent cause.
Mean while, President Peixoto had fortified the approaches to the city of Rio de Janeiro, bought vessels of war in Europe and the United States and organized the National Guard.
Admiral da Gama, unable to leave the Bay of Rio de Janeiro on account of lack of transport for the sick and wounded and the civilians claiming his protection, could do no more than wait for Admiral Mello to return from Desterro.
In the meantime the ships bought by President Peixoto arrived off Rio de Janeiro and prevented da Gama from escaping.
When the news of the surrender of Saldanha da Gama reached Gumercindo Saraiva, then at Curitiba in Parana, he proceeded to retire to Rio Grande do Sul.
Admiral Mello made an unsuccessful attack on the town of Rio Grande, and then sailed to Buenos Aires, there surrendering the rebel squadron to the Argentine authorities, by whom it was immediately delivered to the Brazilian government.
After six months of civil war peace was once more established, but there still remained some small rebel groups in Rio Grande do Sul.
These were joined by Admiral da Gama and a number of the naval officers, who had escaped from Rio de Janeiro; but in June 1895 the admiral was killed in a fight with the government troops.
Early in 1895 murmurings and disorderly conduct against the authorities began to take place in the military school at Rio de Janeiro, which had always been a hotbed of intrigue.
In July 1899 President Roca had visited Rio de Janeiro accompanied by an Argentine squadron, this being the first official visit that any South American president had ever paid to one of the adjoining states.
In 1850 autonomy was voted by the general assembly at Rio de Janeiro, and on the 1st of January 1852 the province of Amazonas was formally installed.
The rivers flow eastward to the Rio Grande.
His parents, Joao Mendes da Silva and Louren9a Coutinho, were descended from Portuguese Jews who had emigrated to Brazil to escape the Inquisition, but in 1702 that tribunal began to persecute the Marranos in Rio, and in October 1712 Lourenca Coutinho fell a victim.
Hence it may be considered to terminate where the Rio Cojedes, which drains the elevated valley in which Barquisimeto stands, after rising on its western slopes flows eastwards into the basin of the Orinoco.
Diamantina is built partly on a steep hillside overlooking a small tributary of the Rio Jequitinhonha (where diamond-washing was once carried on), and partly on the level plain above.
The leaf known as " Vuelta Abajo," produced in the province of Pinar del Rio, is perhaps the best cigar leaf of the world.
Nictheroy is practically a residential suburb of Rio de Janeiro.
The first settlement on the east side of the Bay of Rio de Janeiro dates from 1671, when a chapel was erected at Praia Grande, in the vicinity of an Indian village.
In 1834 the city and municipal district of Rio de Janeiro was separated from the province, and Praia Grande became the capital of the latter in the following year.
Leaving Hampton Roads on the 18th of August 1838, it Mopped at Madeira and Rio de Janeiro; visited Tierra del Fuego, Chile, Peru, the Paumotu group of the Low Archipelago, the Samoan islands and New South Wales; from Sydney sailed into the Antarctic Ocean in December 1839 and reported the discovery of an Antarctic continent west of the Balleny islands; visited the Fiji and the Hawaiian islands in 1840, explored the west coast of the United States, including the Columbia river, San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento river, in 1841, and returned by way of the Philippine islands, the Sulu archipelago, Borneo, Singapore, Polynesia and the Cape of Good Hope, reaching New York on the 10th of June 1842.
It is found in Brazil, Guiana and Paraguay, and extends its range to the Rio del Norte, but is rare north of the isthmus of Panama.
Of later date have been the Revista iberica (1861-1863), conducted by Sanz del Rio; La America (1857-1870), specially devoted to American subjects and edited by the brothers Asquerino; Revista de Cataluna, published at Barcelona; Revista de Espana; Revista contempordnea; Espana moderna (1889), and Revista critica (1895).
The rival party then called in the Spaniards, by whom Arouj was expelled and slain while fleeing at the Rio Salado.
The capital is Temuco, on the Rio Cautin; pop. (1895) 7078.
The provincial capital, Santiago Del Estero, is on the left bank of the Rio Dulce, 745 m.
The city has suffered much through inundations from the Rio Dulce, and from frequent local revolutions caused by misgovernment and the struggles of rival factions.
Padre, the longest of these islands, extends northward from the mouth of the Rio Grande more than Too m.
The Rio Grande and its principal tributary, the Pecos, drain narrow basins in the S.W.; these two rivers and the Canadian river rise in the Rocky Mountains in Colorado and New Mexico, but all the other rivers by which the state is drained rise within its borders.
On the Llano Estacado there are both freshwater and salt lakes, and there are a few salt lakes in the Trans-Pecos Province and near the mouth of the Rio Grande on the Coastal Plain.
The green rattlesnake (Crotalus molossus) inhabits the valley of the Rio Grande; the plains rattlesnake (Crotalus confluentus), the north-western counties; the diamond rattlesnake (C. adamanteus), the wooded river bottoms; the Texas rattlesnake, western Texas and the southern coast counties; the banded rattlesnake, a few widely separated woodland districts.
The peculiar plants of the Rocky Mountain plateaus penetrate into the Trans-Pecos region, which the north Mexican flora, including the Agave lecheguilla, a valuable commercial fibre, is found along the Rio Grande.
The entire valley of the Rio Grande, from El Paso to Brownsville, grows many species of cactus, and other prickly coriaceous shrubs.
Other important waterways which have been authorized by the United States government and on which work was proceeding in 1910 are canals from the Rio Grande river to the Mississippi river at Donaldsonville, Louisiana; and "a navigable channel depth of 5 ft.
The western boundary claimed by the republic was the Rio Grande to its source and the meridian of longitude from that point to the forty-second parallel, although as a political division of Mexico its limits never extended farther west than the Nueces and the Medina.
An army of 2000 men under Zachary Taylor arrived on the north bank of the Rio Grande, opposite Matamoras, on the 28th of March 1846.
Three other sources were added during the 19th century, and in1899-1900steps were taken to secure a further supply from the Rio Hondo.
Between 1555 and 1567 the Portuguese had to contend with the French Huguenot invaders who seized Rio, and whom they expelled.
Between 1572 and 1576 there were in Brazil the two governments of Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, but its history is of little importance till the occupation of Portugal by Philip II.
But the Huguenots, under the inspiration of Coligny, made three attempts to found colonies to the south - at Rio de Janeiro in 1555-1567, near the present Beaufort, South Carolina, in 1562, and in Florida in 1565.
The eastern Eskimo are dolichocephalic, the western are less so, and the Aleuts brachycephalic. On the North Pacific coast, and in spots down to the Rio Grande, are short heads, but scattered among these are long heads, frequent in southern California, but seen northward to Oregon, as well as in Sonora and some Rio Grande pueblos.
The principal rivers of the state are the Mucury, which rises in Minas Geraes and forms the boundary line with Bahia, the Itaunas, Sao Domingos, Sao Matheus, Doce, Timbuhy, Santa Maria, Judi, Benevente, Itapemirim, and Itabapoana, the last forming the boundary line with Rio de Janeiro.
The lower courses of these rivers are generally navigable, that of the Rio Doce for a distance of 90 m.
There are three railway lines in operation in the state - one running from Victoria to Cachoeira do Itapemirim (50 m.), and thence, by another line, to Santo Eduardo in Rio de Janeiro (58 m.), where connexion is made with the Leopoldina system running into the national capital, and a third running northwesterly from Victoria to Diamantina, Minas Geraes, about 450m.
It once included the municipality of Campos, now belonging to the state of Rio de Janeiro.
It is also noted for its healthiness and possesses a large sanatorium much frequented by convalescents from Rio de Janeiro during the hot season.
The Anglo-Saxon name of the Parret, a river in Somerset, is Pedreda or Pedrida, which at first sight looks as if it had to do with the proper name, Petrus; but Skeat believes there is no connexion between them - the latter portion of the word being rio, a stream.
At Para, Brazil, is a good collection attached to the Museum Goeldi, and there are unimportant collections at Rio de Janeiro and Bahia.
None is large, although three bear the prefix Rio Grande, " great river."
The Rio Grande de Tarcoles also enters the gulf, and the Rio Grande de Pirris and Rio Grande de Terrabis or Diquis flow into Coronada Bay.
The Rio Grande de Tarcoles rises close to the Ochomogo Pass and the sources of the Reventazon, at the base of Irazu; and the headwaters of these two streams indicate precisely the depression in the central plateau which severs the northern from the southern mountains.
Here, too, he made plans for a large theatre in Rio Janeiro.
The Sierra Madre Oriental consists of a broken chain of ranges extending along the eastern margin of the plateau from the great bend in the Rio Grande south-eastward to about the 19th parallel.
The Rio Grande del Norte, or Rio Bravo, on the northern frontier, is practically an American river, as it rises in American territory and receives very little water from the Mexican side.
The Rio Grande is navigable for small vessels up to Matamoros (31 m.), and for smaller craft 65 m.
Inside the present sandy coast is a peculiar tide-water channel called the Rio Lagartos, which follows almost the whole northern shore, with occasional openings or bocas, connecting with the open sea.
These two lines, popularly called the Mexican Central and Mexican National, have their northern termini at Ciudad Juarez and Laredo on the Rio Grande and connect with American trunk lines at El Paso and Laredo.
The next important line is the F.C. Internacional Mexicano, running from Ciudad Porfirio Diaz, on the Rio Grande, south-westward across the plateau to Durango, and is to be extended to Mazatlan, on the Pacific coast.
For the earliest descriptions of the ancient cities of Mexico the writings of Cogolludo, Landa, Antonio del Rio, Sahagun, Torquemada and others are of the greatest value.
The United States forces were ordered by President Polk to advance to the Rio Grande in January 1846.
They established a War with depot at Point Ysabel (behind the opening of Brazos United Santiago), and erected a fort in Texan territory, corn States, manding Matamoros, on the Mexican side of the Rio 1846-48.
It was not till the 5th of September 1846 that General Zachary Taylor could leave his depot at Camargo on the Rio Grande, and march on Monterey.
On the 12th of December 1859 the M`Lean-Juarez treaty was concluded, which gave the United States a sort of disguised protectorate over Mexico, with certain rights of way for railroads over the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and between the Rio Grande and Pacific. The American Senate, however, did not ratify the treaty, and a motion for its reconsideration late in 1860 came to nothing, owing to the approach of the War of Secession.
In the summer there were threatening movements of United Maximilian States troops towards the Rio Grande; early in 1866 deserted by Napoleon III.
The first Pan-American congress met in Mexico City in 1901, and the country was represented at the second, held in Rio Janeiro in 1906.
In searching for the Red river he came to the South Platte, marched through South Park, left it by Trout Creek pass, struck over to the Arkansas, which he thought was the Red River for which he was searching, and, going south and south-west, came to the Rio Grande del Norte (about where Alamosa, Conejos county, Colorado, is now) on the 30th of January 1807.
The Motagua, whose principal head stream is called the Rio Grande, has a course of about 250 m., and is navigable to within 90 m.
A vast number of streams, among which are the Chixoy, the Guadalupe, and the Rio de la Pasion, unite to form the Usumacinta, whose noble current passes along the Mexican frontier, and flowing on through Chiapas and Tabasco, falls into the Bay of Campeche.
Livingston, a seaport at the mouth of the Polochic (here called the Rio Dulce), was founded in 1806, and subsequently named after the author of a code of Guatemalan laws; few vestiges remain of the Spanish settlement of Sevilla la Nueva, founded in 1844, and of the English colony of Abbotsville, founded in 1825, - both near Livingston.
Then comes the East Texas timber belt, broad in the north-east, narrowing to a point before reaching the Rio Grande, a low and thoroughly dissected cuesta of sandy Eocene strata; and this is followed by the Coast Prairie, a very young plain, with a seaward slope of less than 2 ft.
From the Colorado to the Rio Grande, the Black Prairie, the timber belt and the Coast Prairie merge in a vast plain, little differentiated, overgrown with chaparral (shrub-like trees, often thorny), widening eastward in the Rio Grande delta, and extending southward into Meico.
The Mississippi has already been mentioned as rapidly building forward its digitate delta; the Rio Granide, next in size, has built its delta about 50 m.
The city is in the Antemarac valley near the Rio Grande de Santiago, 5092 ft.
Its public services include tramways and electric lighting, the Juanacatlan falls of the Rio Grande near the city furnishing the electric power.
One of the most popular public resorts of the city is the Paseo, a beautiful drive and promenade extending along both banks of the Rio San Juan de Dios for 14 m.
He was military governor of Havana and Pinar del Rio in 1899, subsequently commanded the department of the Missouri, and retired as a brigadier-general U.S. Army in 1901.
Caripe should not be confounded with Rio Caribe, a town and port on the Caribbean coast a short distance east of Carupano,which has a population of about6000.
The greater part of the state is drained by the Rio Grande de Lerma (called the Santiago on its lower course) and its tributaries, chief of which is the Rio Verde.
But the unhealthiness of Rio de Janeiro in past years may be charged to insanitary conditions and not to the climate.
Although a metropolitan see, Rio has no cathedral, the old imperial chapel facing the Praca 15 de Novembro being used for that purpose.
Bull-fights have never been popular in Rio de Janeiro, but horse-racing is a favourite sport, and the Jockey Club maintains a racecourse in the Sao Francisco Xavier suburb.
Although much money is given to hospitals and asylums, Rio de Janeiro has no great educational institutions either public or private.
The public schools of Rio de Janeiro are defective both in organization and administration; the non-attendance of children from the higher classes, and the antagonism of the Church to schools under purely secular administration, must be held responsible for the backwardness of these schools.
Hospitals, &c. - Rio de Janeiro is well provided with hospitals, asylums and benevolent institutions.
The port and harbour of Rio de Janeiro are the largest and most important in the republic. The entrance is open.
Rio de Janeiro is the seaport for a large area of the richest, most productive and most thickly settled parts of Brazil, including the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes and a small part of eastern Salo Paulo.
Rio is also a distributing centre in the coasting trade, and many imported products, such as jerked beef (came secca), hay, flour, wines, &c., appear among the coastwise exports, as well as domestic manufactures.
Formerly Rio led all other ports in the export of coffee, but the enormous increase in production in the state of Sao Paulo has given Santos the lead.
The exports of coffee from Rio in 1908 amounted to $ 3,062,268 bags of 60 kilogrammes each, officially valued at about 27,846,000.
The industrial activities of Rio Janeiro have been largely increased since the organization of the republic through increased import duties on foreign products.
Rio de Janeiro has manufactures of flour from imported wheat, cotton, woollen and silk textiles, boots and shoes, readymade clothing, furniture, vehicles, cigars and cigarettes, chocolate, fruit conserves, refined sugar, biscuits, macaroni, ice, beer, artificial liquors, mineral waters, soap, stearine candles, perfumery, feather flowers, printing type, &c. There are numerous machine o nd repair shops, the most important of which are the shops of the Central railway.
One of the most important industrial enterprises in the city is the electric plant belonging to the Rio de Janeiro Light and Power Company, which supplies electric currents for public and private lighting, and power for the tramways and many industries.
Rio de Janeiro is governed b ' a prefect, who represents the national government, and a municipal council which represents the people.
The discovery of the Bay of Rio de Janeiro is attributed by many Portuguese writers to Andre Gonsalves, who entered its waters on the 1st of January 1502, and believed that it was the mouth of a great river, hence the name Rio de Janeiro (River of January).
The victory was won on the 10th of January, the feast-day of St Sebastian the Martyr, who became the patron saint of the new settlement and gave it his name - Sao Sebastiao do Rio de Janeiro.
In 1808 the fugitive Portuguese court, under the regent Dom Joao VI., took refuge in Rio de Janeiro, and gave a new impulse to its growth.
There was no resistance to this declaration in Rio de Janeiro.
The first coffee tree planted in Brazil was in a convent garden of Rio de Janeiro.
Lamoureux, Hand-Book of Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro, 1887); Frank Vincent, Around and About South America (New York, 1890), chapters xxv.
An extension of the railway is projected from Margem da Taquary to Neustadt on the Novo Hamburgo line, and will give the city direct railway connexion with the principal cities of western and southern Rio Grande do Sul.
The Rio Guahyba, which is not a river, was once called "Viamao" because its outline is roughly that of the human hand, the rivers entering the estuary at its head corresponding to the fingers.
It was made a villa in 1803, and in 1807, when Rio Grande do Sul was made a captaincy-general, the transfer of the capital from Rio Grande to Porto Alegre was officially recognized.
Not very long ago Pan-Germans were paying much attention to the German settlers in the Brazilian province of Rio Grande do Sul, where large villages spoke nothing but German, and German, as the only language known on the spot, had become the tongue in which municipal business was transacted.
A settlement, known as San Gabriel, was planted at the junction of the Rio Chama and the Rio Grande by Juan de Onate in 1598, and about 1605, 1 some 30 m.
For nearly three years Huc remained at Canton, but Gabet, returning to Europe, proceeded thence to Rio de Janeiro, and died there shortly afterwards.
Calabar estuary is mainly formed by the Cross river (q.v.), but receives also the waters of the Calabar and other streams. The Rio del Rey creek at the eastern end of the estuary marks the boundary between (British) Nigeria and (German) Cameroon.
There is more than one meaning of Rio Grande Do Sul discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
The sherry produced near Jerez de la Frontera, the copper of the Rio Tinto mines and the lead of Almeria are famous.
The Rio Quinto has its sources in these ranges; the Desaguadero, or Salado, forms its western boundary; and the Conlara flows northward among its broken ranges to the great salinas of western Cordoba.
Next in importance is the town of Mercedes or Villa Mercedes (pop. 1904, about 6000) on the Rio Quinto, an important railway junction where the railways from Buenos Aires, Rosario, Mendoza and San Jose unite.
It is served by the Chicago, Rock Island & Gulf, the Fort Worth & Denver City, the Fort Worth & Rio Grande, and the St Louis, San Francisco & Texas of the "Frisco" system, the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe, the Houston & Texas Central, the International & Great Northern, the Missouri, Kansas & Texas, the St Louis SouthWestern, the Texas & Pacific, and the Trinity & Brazos Valley (Colorado & Southern) railways.
The Rio Grande-Bage railway communicates with the city of Rio Grande, and with the railways extending to Bage, Cacequy, Santa Maria, Passo Fundo and Porto Alegre.
Pelotas is the centre of the xarque or carne secca (jerked beef) industry of Rio Grande do Sul.
Others of the same order evangelized Paraguay in 1582, while the Huguenots sent forth under a French knight of Malta a body of devoted men to attempt the formation of a Christian colony at Rio Janeiro.
Among the best-known deposits of this character are those in the Huelva district, in the south-west of Spain, including the mines of Rio Tinto, Tharsis, Calanas, &c.; with those of San Domingos in Portugal.
Within the Carboniferous rocks, but due to the action of various agencies long after their deposition, are important ore formations; such are the Rio Tinto ores of Spain, the lead and zinc ores and some haematite of the Pennine and Mendip hills and other British localities, and many ore regions in the United States.
The Buenos Aires treaty of the 3rd of February 1876 fixed the frontier between Argentina and Paraguay, and assigned to Paraguay the portion of the Gran Chaco between Rio Verde and Bahia Negra; the appropriation of the portion between Rio Verde and the Pilcomayo was submitted to the arbitration of the president of the United States, who in 1878 assigned it to Paraguay.
The hills and plateaus appear to be composed chiefly of the same sandstone series which in the Brazilian province of Rio Grande do Sul contains seams of coal, with plant remains similar to those of the Karharbari series of India (Permian or Upper Carboniferous).
It was not till 1620 that Paraguay proper and Rio de la Plata or Buenos Aires were separated as distinct governments, and they were both dependent on the vice-royalty of Peru till 1776, when Buenos Aires was erected into a viceroyalty, and Paraguay placed under its jurisdiction.
The Rio Abaete district was worked on a considerable scale between 1785 and 1807, but is now abandoned.
Parnahyba is situated at the point where the most easterly of the delta outlets, or channels, called the Rio Iguarassu, branches off from the main stream.
The sea frontier extends from the Rio del Rey, just where the great bend of the coast-line east to south begins, forming the Bight of Biafra, to the Campo river, a distance of 200 m.
This estuary they called the Rio dos Camaroes (the river of Prawns), from the 2 abundance of the crustacea found therein.
Germany had in the meantime established itself in Cameroon, and the new British protectorate extended along the Gulf of Guinea from the British colony of Lagos on the west to the new German colony on the east, where the Rio del Rey marked the frontier.
This most inconclusive report, and the baseless idea that the adoption of the Nile route would involve rio chance of bloodshed, which the government was anxious to avoid, seem to Wolseley have decided the question.
The capital of the province is Talca (pop. 18 95, 33, 2 3 2; 1902 estimated 42,766), on the Rio Claro, a tributary of the Maule, 156 m.
Down to the close of the 18th century, when Rio de Janeiro became important, Recife was the second city of Brazil, and for a time its most important port.
Farther north the rainfall becomes heavier, the plateau is covered with vegetation, and a considerable number of small rivers flow westward through the Cordillera to the Pacific. The Eastern Cordillera, or Andes, forms the water-parting between the two systems. The largest of the eastward-flowing rivers is the Napo, which rises in the eastern defiles of Cotopaxi and Sincholagua - the principal source being the Rio del Valle, which traverses the Valle Vicioso.
One of its plateau tributaries, Rio Pedregal, rises on the slopes of Cotopaxi and is celebrated for its three beautiful cascades, the highest of which is about 220 ft.
It drains through the Peguchi into the Rio Blanco, a tributary of the Mira.
It is served by the Manila & Dagupan railway, and the bridge across the Rio Grande is one of the longest in the Philippines.
It is the starting-point of a railway system which reaches the six provincial capitals between Pinar del Rio and Santiago, Cardenas, Cienfuegos and other ports.
Adrar Suttuf is a hilly region forming the southern part of the Spanish protectorate of the Rio de Oro.
He erected a stone pillar at the mouth of the river, which accordingly took the title of Rio de Padrao, and established friendly relations with the natives, who reported that the country was subject to a great monarch, Mwani Congo or lord of Congo, resident at Bonza Congo.
There is a considerable trade in market produce with Rio de Janeiro, but the exports are inconsiderable.
Farther west and south-west is the valley of the Rio Grande Mindanao, the largest river on the island, and between the lower course of this river and the south coast is a mountain range with a north-west and south-east trend.
On the east border of the south portion of the basin of the Rio Grande Mindanao is Mt Apo (10,312 ft.), an extinct volcano and the highest elevation in the archipelago.
The Rio Grande de Mindanao (known in its upper course as the Rio Pulangua) drains to the south and west a larger area in central and southern Mindanao and is second in size.
The Rio Bicol, which rises in Lake Bato and flows N.N.W.
Many miles of inland water communication with small boats or bamboo rafts are afforded by the Pampanga, Agno, Abra, Pasig and Bicol rivers in Luzon, and by the Agusan and Rio Grande de Mindanao in Mindanao.
Although Alpine troops gained a footing north of the summit they were subsequently blown off by a mine, and Monte Cimone, which rises sheer-sided, like a vast battleship, between the Astico and the Rio Freddo, completely dominating the Arsiero basin, remained in Austrian hands.
With the mountain-traversed region he had been exploring acquired by the United States, Fremont was eager for a railway from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and in October 1848 he set out at his own and Senator Benton's expense to find passes for such a railway along a line westward from the headwaters of the Rio Grande.
But he had not gone far when he was led astray by a guide, and after the loss of his entire outfit and several of his men, and intense suffering of the survivors from cold and hunger, he turned southward through the valley of the Rio Grande and then westward through the valley of the Gila into southern California.
Alcala de Chisbert (6293) is situated on the coast of Castellon de la Plana; Alcala del Rio (3006), on the Guadalquivir, 6 m.
Among them are the Great and Little Scarcies, whose lower courses are in Sierra Leone, and the Rio Grande which enters the sea in Portuguese Guinea.
Those whose courses are entirely in French Guinea include the Cogon (or Componi), the Rio Nunez, the Fatalla (which reaches the sea through an estuary named Rio Pongo), the Konkure, whose estuary is named Rio Bramaya, the Forekaria and the Melakori.
In consequence, largely, of the dangers attending its navigation, it was not visited by the European traders of the 16th-18th centuries so frequently as other regions north and east, but in the Rio Pongo, at Matakong (a diminutive island near the mouth of the Forekaria), and elsewhere, slave traders established themselves, and ruins of the strongholds they built, and defended with cannon, still exist.
The opening hostilities of the Mexican War had occurred on the Rio Grande.
There are three twin-laws, the twin-planes being (iii), (Ioi) and (rio) respectively.
Towards the San Juan outlet its depth decreases to 6 or 8 ft., owing to the vast accumulation of the silt washed down into the lake by its principal Costa Rican affluent, the Rio Frio.
The Rio Grande or Amaltara, which receives one large tributary, the Tuma, is navigable for about loo m.
The Bluefields, Blewfields, Escondida, or Rio del Desastre, which derives its bestknown name from that of Blieveldt, a Dutch corsair, is navigable for 65 m.
The plain forming the plateau is well watered with numerous small lakes and streams. These several small streams, one of which, the San Francisco, passes through the city, unite near the south-western extremity of the plateau and form the Rio Funza, or Bogota, which finally plunges over the edge at Tequendama in a beautiful, perpendicular fall of about 475 ft.
The Southern Park, which runs into New Mexico, is traversed by the Rio Grande del Norte and more than a dozen of its mountain tributaries.
Of the rivers, the North Platte has its sources in North Park, the Colorado (the Gunnison and Grand branches) in Middle Park, the Arkansas and South Platte in South Park - where their waters drain in opposite directions from Palmer's Lake - the Rio Grande in San Luis Park.
Argentine Pass (13,000 ft.), near Gray's Peak, is one of the highest wagon roads of the world; just east of Silverton is Rio Grande Pass, about 12,400 ft.
Many passes are traversed by the railways, especially the splendid scenic route of the Denver and Rio Grande.
Rarest of all is the magnificent mountain sheep. Game is protected zealously, i not successfully, by the state, and it was officially estimated in 1898 that there were then probably 7000 elk, as many mountain sheep, 25,000 antelope and roo,000 deer within its borders (by far the greatest part in Routt and Rio Blanco counties).
The exhaustion, or alleged exhaustion, by irrigation in Colorado of the waters of the Rio Grande has raised international questions of much interest between Mexico and the United States, which were settled in 1907 by a convention pledging the United States to deliver 60,000 acre-feet of water annually in the bed of the Rio Grande at the Acequia Madre, just above Juarez, in case of drought this supply being diminished proportionately to the diminution in the United States.
Then followed the building of the Denver & Rio Grande (1871), to which the earlier development of the state is largely due.
According as one regards the Louisiana purchase as including or not including Texas to the Rio Grande (in the territorial meaning of the state of Texas of 1845), one may say that all of Colorado east of the meridian of the head of the Rio Grande, or only that north of the Arkansas and east of the meridian of its head, passed to the United States in 1803.
At all events the corner between the Rio Grande and the Arkansas was Spanish from 1819 to 1845, when it became American territory as a part of the state of Texas; and in 1850, by a boundary arrangement between that state and the federal government, was incorporated in the public domain.
About midway between the western boundary and the Rio Grande passes the Continental Divide, which separates the waters entering the Gulf of Mexico from those that flow into the Gulf of California..
It forms the water-parting between the upper waters of the Canadian river and the Rio Grande, and contains many of the loftiest peaks in New Mexico, among them being Truchas (13,275 ft.), Costilla (12,634 ft.) and Baldy (12,623 ft.).
The most important stream is the Rio Grande, which, rising in southern Colorado, enters New Mexico through deep canyons near the centre of the northern boundary and continues southward across the entire state.
The stream next in importance is the Pecos river, which rises in Mora county and flows southward into Texas, where it joins the Rio Grande.
The westward-flowing streams - the San Juan, Rio Puerco of the West, Zuni, Rio San Francisco and Gila - are of only slight importance, though their flow is perennial.
From time to time upon the Rio Grande may be seen ducks, wild geese, swans, cranes, herons and gulls.
The lower slopes are usually covered with the scrub oak, juniper and pinon; but some mountains, especially those along the eastern border of the Rio Grande Valley, are absolutely treeless.
It is the melting of the snows on the Rocky Mountains, and not the rainy season, that produces the floods of the Rio Grande.
A little cotton has been grown near Carlsbad in the Pecos Valley, and in 1909 sugar beets were introduced south of Albuquerque and cantaloupes in the southern Rio Grande Valley.
The hills and mesas covered with the nutritious grama grass form excellent grazing grounds, which are most extensive in Bernalillo, Guadalupe, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Union and Valencia counties.
The Carlsbad reservoir and diverting dam in Eddy county and the Rio Hondo canals and reservoir in Chaves county were completed in 1907 and are capable of supplying water to tracts of 20,000 and 10,000 acres respectively.
The Rio Grande project was planned in 1907 for the storage of the flood waters of the Rio Grande near Engle, New Mexico, in order to reclaim about 155,000 acres of land in New Mexico and Texas, and to deliver to Mexico above the city of Juarez 60,000 acre-feet of water per year, as provided by a treaty (proclaimed on the 16th of January 1907) between that republic and the United States.
Irrigation by private companies is of some importance, especially in the San Juan Valley, the Rio Grande Valley and the Pecos Valley.
The chief centres of production are the Raton field, in Colfax county; the Durango-Gallup field, in McKinley and Rio Arriba counties; the Whiteoaks field, in Lincoln county; and the Los Cerillos and Tejon areas, in Santa Fe county.
Iron ores are widely distributed, but have not been developed; graphite is mined in Colfax county; mica in Taos county, and to a small extent in Rio Arriba county; marble is quarried in Otero county and sandstone in Bernalillo, Colfax and San Miguel counties.
An exploring party sent eastward reached Acoma, and then proceeded to Tiguex on the Rio Grande, and finally to the Pecos river.
The main body of Coronado's expedition remained in New Mexico on the Rio Grande while he pushed on to the fabled land of Quivira,' only to meet with another disappointment.
After several attempts at reconquest had failed, Don Diego de Vargas marched up the Rio Grande in 1692, and largely by moral suasion secured the surrender of Santa Fe, then held by the Indians.
In 1841 the republic of Texas, claiming that its western boundary was the Rio Grande, sent a force of 300 men to New Mexico to enforce these claims. The Texans reached the frontier in a starved and exhausted condition, were made prisoners by the New Mexican militia, and were sent to Mexico, where after a short term of confinement they were released.
Blast furnaces of large size, built of brick, have been constructed for treating the richest and more silicious ores of Rio Tinto, and the Rio Tinto Company has introduced converters at the mine.
One of the earliest and most exhaustive series of experiments was made on Rio Tinto ores at the John Brown works by John Hollway, with the aim of both smelting the ore and concentrating the matte in the same furnace, by the heat evolved through the oxidation of their sulphur and iron.
Experiments along the same lines were made by Francis Bawden at Rio Tinto and Claude Vautin in Australia.