The Denver and Rio Grande Western made daily warm-weather trips up the mountain to the mining town of Silverton, 40 miles away.
Escaping to South America in 1836, he was given letters of marque by the state of Rio Grande do Sul, which had revolted against Brazil.
Denver is an important railway centre, being served by nine railways, of which the chief are the Atchison, ' Topeka & Santa Fe; the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy; the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific; the Denver & Rio Grande; the Union Pacific; and the Denver, North-Western & Pacific, Denver lies on the South Platte river, at an altitude exactly m.
The Seriema inhabits the campos or elevated open parts of Brazil, from the neighbourhood of Pernambuco to the Rio de la Plata, extending inland as far as Matto Grosso (long.
above sea-level, where it is crossed by a railway; north-east is another extensive saline basin enclosing the " Mar Chiquita " (of Cordoba) and the morasses into which the waters of the Rio Saladillo disappear; and on the north are the more elevated plains, partly saline, of western Cordoba, which separate this isolated group of mountains from the Andean spurs of Rioja and San Luis.
The largest of the rivers through which Argentina drains into the Plata system are the Pilcomayo, which rises in Bolivia and flows south-east along the Argentine frontier for about 400 m.; the Bermejo, which rises on the northern frontier and flows south-east into the Paraguay; and the Salado del Norte (called Rio del Juramento in its upper course), which rises on the high mountain slopes of western Salta and flows south-east into the Parana.
The " nandu " or American ostrich (Rhea americans), inhabiting the pampas and open plains of the Chaco, has in Patagonia a smaller counterpart (Rhea Darwinii), which is never seen north of the Rio Negro.
(27,000), Salta (18,000), Corrientes (18,000), Chivilcoy (15,000), Gualeguaychu (13,300), San Nicolas (13,000), Concordia (11,700), San Juan (11,500), Rio Cuarto (10,800), San Luis (10,500), Barracas al Sud (10,200).
The arrival of these first-fruits of the mineral wealth of the southern continent gained for the estuary of the Parana the name which it has since borne, that of Rio de la Plata, the silver river.
Here, by the emperor's orders, the assembled Spaniards proceeded to the election of a captain-general, and their choice fell almost unanimously on Domingos Martinez de Irala, who was proclaimed captain-general of the Rio de la Plata (August 1538).
Two members only, Vargas and del Rio, both Spaniards, had votes.
coast, with picturesque Spanish fortifications, constructed in 1602 by Philip III.; Rio dell' Elba and Rio Marina, both on the E.
At Le Grotte, between Portoferraio and Rio dell' Elba, and at Capo Castello, on the N.E.
of Rio de Janeiro, on the Cuyaba river near its discharge into the Sao Lourengo, the principal Brazilian tributary of the Paraguay.
It has a few miles of Atlantic coast-line on the N., and the Rio Parnahyba forms the boundary line with Maranhao throughout its entire length.
For this purpose Juan Diaz de Solis was despatched in October 1515, and in Pacific January 1516 he discovered the mouth of the Rio de la ocean.
Sebastian afterwards made a voyage to Rio de la Plata in the service of Spain, but he returned to England in 1548 and received a pension from Edward VI.
of the port of Buenaventura, on the Rio Cali, a small branch of the Cauca.
There is more than one meaning of Rio De Janeiro discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
GUANAJAY, a town of western Cuba, in Pinar del Rio province, about 36 m.
The most important are: Bezerros (17,484), Bom Jardim (40,160), Brejo da Madre de Deus (13,655), a town of the higher agreste region, Cabo (13,337), Caruaru (17,844), Escada (9331), Garanhuns (32,788, covering six towns and villages), Gloria de Goyta (24,554), Goyanna, Limoeiro (21,576), Olinda (8080), the old colonial capital and episcopal see, Rio Formosa (6080), Timbauba (9514) and Victoria (32,422).
Pernambuco was first settled in 1526 by Christovao Jacques who founded a settlement on the Rio Iguarassu that was afterwards abandoned.
In 1817 Pernambuco was the scene of a revolutionary outbreak, which resulted in the separation of the present states of Alagoas and Rio Grande do Norte, Ceara and Parahyba having been detached in 1799.
at Rio de Janeiro led to a separatist revolution for the formation of a new state, to be called the Federagao do Equador.
It has a seaboard on the Atlantic Ocean of 120 m., a shore-line to the south on the Rio de la Plata of 235 m., and one of 270 m.
The boundaries separating it from Rio Grande do Sul, a province of Brazil, are Lake Mirim, the rivers Chuy, Jaguarao and Quarahy, and a cuchilla or low range of hills called Santa Ana.
The latter is, no doubt, identical with the similar sandstone series which is found in the neighbouring Brazilian province of Rio Grande do Sul, and which has there yielded plants which prove it to belong to the Permian or the upper part of the Carboniferous.
The sarsaparilla even colours the water of the Rio Negro and gives it its name-the "black river."
Cattle-breeding is carried on in all parts of the republic, but chiefly in the departments of Salto, Paysandu and Rio Negro.
The American rebellion, the French Revolution and the British invasions of Montevideo and Buenos Aires (1806-7), under GeneralsAuchmuty(i 756-1 822)andJohnWhitelocke (1757-1833), all contributed to the extinction of the Spanish power on the Rio de la Plata.
Their forces, however, were surprised by the government troops at Quebracho, on the Rio Negro, and defeated.
Free sulphur may also result from the decomposition of pyrites, as in pyritic shales and lignites, or from the alteration of galena: thus crystals of sulphur occur, with anglesite, in cavities in galena at Monteponi near Iglesias in Sardinia; whilst the pyrites of Rio Tinto in Spain sometimes yield sulphur on weathering.
The capital of the state is GoYAz, or Villa-Boa de Goyaz, a mining town on the Rio Vermelho, a tributary of the Araguaya rising on the northern slopes of the Serra de Santa Rita.
It derives its designation from the settlements on the Gabun river or Rio de Gabao.
inland, when it contracts into what is known as the Rio Olambo, which is not more than 2 or 3 m.
is built on a rocky peninsula jutting out to the east, near the mouth of the Rio Grande and at the foot of Mt Ancon (560 ft.).
Development of these lines has been primarily an extension from the large cities in the East to the agricultural districts in the West, but a change of great importance was brought about in 1910 by the completion of the last tunnel on the Argentine Transandine Railway, which serves to connect Santiago, Valparaiso and the other great cities of the west coast with Buenos Ayres, Montevideo, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and the other great cities of the east coast.
of Morelia in a fertile valley of the Rio de las Balsas basin.
by Bahia, Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, S.
by Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, and W.
Most of the wooded district south of the Mantiqueira belongs to the states of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, but east of the Espinhago it belongs to Minas Geraes and extends eastward to the Serra das Aymores, on the frontier of Espirito Santo.
The tributaries of the Rio Doce cover the slopes of the Serra do Espinhago for a distance north and south of about 200 m.
from the city of Rio de Janeiro and about 60 m.
from the coast is the source of the Rio Grande, the larger of the two rivers that form the Parana.
The shipping of fresh milk to Rio de Janeiro and butter-making are comparatively new industries.
In 1842 a long series of quarrels in Rio de Janeiro culminated in a revolution in Minas Geraes and Sao Paulo, which was suppressed at Santa Luzia, Minas Geraes, on the 10th of August of that year.
The abolition of slavery in 1888 caused much discontent among the planters and in the following year Minas Geraes promptly adhered to the declaration of the republic in Rio de Janeiro.
Rio Pardo >>
The Rio Grande de Lerma, or Santiago, is the principal river, whose sources are to be found on the high plateau in the state of Mexico.
His Nuevo Descubrimiento del Gran Rio de las Amazonas was published at Madrid in 1641; French and English translations (the latter from the French, appeared in 1682 and 1698.
The remains of a Byzantine façade now almost entirely built into a wall in the Rio di Ca' Foscari offer us excellent illustration of this decorative work.
Of his work some traces still remain in the richly sculptured bands built in at intervals along the 14th-century façade on the Rio, and part of the handsome larch-wood beams which formed the loggia of the piazzetta façade, still visible on the inner wall of the present loggia.
Gradenigo built the façade along the Rio.
The block of buildings in the interior, connecting the Porta della Carta to the Rio wing, was added about 1462 by the doge Cristoforo Moro.
In 1479 a fire consumed the earlier buildings along the Rio, and these were replaced (1480-1550) by the present Renaissance structure.
The Palazzo Dario with its dedication, Urbis genio, the superb Manzoni-Montecuculi-Polignac, with its friezes of spread-eagles in low relief, and the Vendramini-Calergi or Non nobis palace, whose facade is characterized by its roundheaded windows of grouped twin lights between columns, are among the more important; though beautiful specimens, such as the Palazzo Trevisan on the Rio della Paglia, and the Palazzo Corner Reali at the Fava, are to be found all over the city.
Rio Cuarto >>
The ship to which he was appointed was ordered to China, and he found opportunities during the voyage for indulging his passion for exploration, making a journey from Rio de Janeiro to the base of the Andes, and another from Bombay through India to Ceylon.
In 1805 Boston began the export of ice to Jamaica, a trade which was gradually extended to Cuba, to ports of the southern states, and finally to Rio de Janeiro and Calcutta (1833), declining only after the Civil War; it enabled Boston to control the American trade of Calcutta against New York throughout the entire period.
LAREDO, a city and the county-seat of Webb county, Texas, U.S.A., and a sub-port of entry, on the Rio Grande opposite Nuevo Laredo, Mexico, and 150 m.
It is served by the International & Great Northern, the National of Mexico, the Texas Mexican and the Rio Grande & Eagle Pass railways, and is connected by bridges with Nuevo Laredo.
of Laredo on the Rio Grande is Fort McIntosh (formerly Camp Crawford), a United States military post.
It is situated in a good farming and cattle-raising region, irrigated by water from the Rio Grande.
above Laredo on the Rio Grande, and natural gas was discovered about 28 m.
and the territory of Rio Negro on the E.
angle of the territory, partly in Rio Negro, and partly in the republic of Chile.
It is the source of the Rio Limay and receives the overflow from two smaller neighbouring lakes.
The ordinary musk-rat is one of several species of a genus peculiar to America, where it is distributed in suitable localities in the northern part of the continent, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the Rio Grande to the barren grounds bordering the Arctic seas.
The water parting is about twice as far from the north coast as it is from the south coast, the rainfall is greater on the north slope, and the principal rivers - Rio Loiza, Rio de la Plata, Rio Manati and Rio Arecibo are on the north side.
The university at Rio Piedras was established by act of the insular legislature in 1903, but in 1910 only two departments had been organized - the insular normal school and the department of agriculture.
It is well watered by numerous small streams and one larger river, the Aguascalientes or Rio Grande, and has a mild healthy climate with a moderate rainfall.
del Rio; subsequent elaborate researches by Sir Henry Roscoe showed many inaccuracies in the conclusions of earlier workers (for instance, the substance considered to be the pure element was in reality an oxide) and provided science with an admirable account of this element and its compounds.
of Rio de Janeiro, and about 300 m.
of Victoria, Espirito Santo, on the eastern slope of the Serra de Espinhago and within the drainage basin of the Rio Doce.
Several rivulets follow the ravines and drain into the Ribeirao do Carmo, a sub-tributary of the Rio Doce.
Chandless (1862-1869) and of the Rio Madeira by Colonel G.
In the autumn of 1863 Banks organized a number of expeditions to Texas, chiefly for the purpose of preventing the French in Mexico from aiding the Confederates, and secured possession of the region near the mouths of the Nueces and the Rio Grande.
PINAR DEL RIO, capital of Pinar del Rio Province, Cuba, about 107 m.
A third species, from the American coast of the North Pacific, has been described under the name of Phocaena vomerina, and another from the mouth of the Rio de la Plata as P. spinipennis.
The Mexican Central gives it railway connexion with the national capital and other prominent cities of the Republic. Leon stands in a fertile plain on the banks of the Turbio, a tributary of the Rio Grande de Lerma, at an elevation of 5862 ft.
In 1907 active preliminary work was begun on the Louisiana section of a great interstate inland waterway projected by the national government between the Mississippi and Rio Grande rivers, almost parallel to the Gulf Coast and running through the rice and truck-farm districts from the Teche to the Mermenton river (92 m.).
of Point Fisga, in the province of Pinar del Rio.
Finally, Pinar del Rio is dominated by a prominent mountain range and by outlying piedmont hills and mesas.
The first, the Organ mountains, in Pinar del Rio, rises in a sandy, marshy region near Cape San Antonio.
Thus the Rio San Antonio suddenly disappears near San Antonio de los Banos; the cascades of the Jatibonico del Norte disappear and reappear in a surprising manner; the Moa cascade (near Guantanamo) drops 300 ft.
and has an important traffic), and the Damuji; in Matanzas the Canimar; and in Pinar del Rio the Cuyaguateje, are important streams. The water-parting in the four central provinces is very indefinite.
high), the Rosario Fall in Pinar del Rio, and the Almendares cascade near Havana, may also be mentioned.
Besides the deposits in Oriente province, iron is known to exist in considerable amount in Camaguey and Santa Clara, and copper in Camaguey and Pinar del Rio provinces.
coast of Pinar del Rio province.
For building and miscellaneous purposes, in addition to the rare woods above named, there are cedars (used in great quantities for cigar boxes); the pine, found only in the W., where it gives its name to the Isle of Pines and the province of Pinar del Rio; various palms; oaks of varying hardness and colour, &c. The number of alimentary plants is extremely great.
tobacco of Cuba comes from Pinar del Rio province; Tobacco the rest mainly from the provinces of Havana and Santa Clara, - the description de partido being applied to the leaf not produced in Havana and Pinar del Rio provinces, and sometimes to all produced outside the vuelta abajo.
In very recent years gardening has become an interest of importance, particularly in the province of Pinar del Rio.
In succeeding years a fairly ample system was built up between the cities of Pinar del Rio and Santa Clara, with a number of short spurs from the chief ports farther eastward into the interior.
varied from 18.2 in Pinar del Rio to 74.7 in Havana, and was 43.9 for the entire island.
Foreigners constituted 25.6% of the population in the city of Havana; only 7% in Pinar del Rio province.
Native blood is most predominant in the provinces of Oriente and Pinar del Rio.
There are six provinces - Pinar del Rio, Havana, Matanzas, Santa Clara, Camaguey or Puerto Principe, and Oriente.
The city occupies a green, fertile valley of the Rio Chile, 7753 ft.
Among the most famous were the expedition undertaken by Diego de Ordaz, whose lieutenant Martinez claimed to have been rescued from shipwreck, conveyed inland, and entertained at Omoa by "El Dorado" himself (1531); and the journeys of Orellana (1540-1541), who passed down the Rio Napo to the valley of the Amazon; that of Philip von Hutten (1541-1545), who led an exploring party from Coro on the coast of Caracas; and of Gonzalo Ximenes de Quesada (1569), who started from Santa Fe de Bogota.
Moncey (7000) had marched towards the city of Valencia, but been repulsed in attempting to storm it (June 28); Bessieres had defeated the Spanish general Joachim Blake at Medina de Rio Seco (June 14, 1808) and Dupont (13,000) had been detached (May 24) from Madrid to reduce Seville and Cadiz in Andalusia.
toward the Rio Grande, and the coastal zone is sandy, much broken by lagoons and uninhabited.
There are four navigable rivers in the state - the Rio Grande del Norte, or Rio Bravo, which forms the boundary line with the United States, the Conchas or Presas, the Soto da Marina, and the Tamesi.
long, which receives the waters of the Rio Conchas, and is separated in places from the Gulf by only a narrow ridge of sand dunes.
On the plains bordering the Rio Grande frosts are frequent.
The city is near the Rio Santander, and was once called Nuevo Santander.
Among other towns in the state may be mentioned: Matamoros, on the Rio Grande; Tampico (q.v.), on the Panuco, the principal port of the state; Tula (6935(6935 in 1900); Jaumave (about 10,000 in 1900, chiefly Indians), 38 m.
of Ciudad Victoria, in the heart of a prominent ixtle-producing region; Mier (7114 in 1895), on the Rio Grande, 95 m.
of the capital; Camargo (6815 in 1895), on the San Juan near the Rio Grande, once the old Spanish mission of San Augustin Laredo; and Reynosa (6137 in 18 95), 54 m.
The tree grows most abundantly in a sporadic manner in the dense moist forests of the basin of the Rio San Juan, where the rain falls for nine months in the year.
American plateau in Brazil from Pernambuco to Rio de Janeiro, at a height of 3000 to 5000 ft.
PETROPOLIS, a city of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in an elevated valley of the Serra de Estrella, 2634 ft.
of the city of Rio de Janeiro, with which it is connected by a combined railway and steamship line, and also by a longer railway line.
railway, now a part of the Leopoldina system, which connects with Rio de Janeiro and Nictheroy on the coast, and with the station of Entre Rios on the Central of Brazil railway.
Its altitude gives the city a cool invigorating climate, making it a favourite summer residence for the well-to-do classes of Rio.
Petropolis has since become the summer residence of the diplomatic corps and of the higher officials of the Federal government, and was the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro from 1893 to 1903.
Running north-east and south-east to enclose the sources of the Rio Paru, it unites with the French Guiana line at 2° 10' N., 55° W., and thence runs easterly along the water-parting of the Serra Tumuc-Humac to the source of the Oyapok, which river is the divisional line to the Atlantic coast.
A relief map of Brazil shows two very irregular divisions of surface: the great river basins, or plains, of the Amazon-Tocantins and La Plata, which are practically connected by low elevations in Bolivia, and a huge, shapeless mass of highlands filling the eastern projection of the continent and extending southward to the plains of Rio Grande do Sul and westward to the Bolivian frontier.
In Rio Grande do Sul, where two large lakes have been created by uplifted sand beaches, the coastal plain widens greatly, and is merged in an extensive open, rolling grassy plain, traversed by ridges of low hills (cuchillas), similar to the neighbouring republic of Uruguay.
The more arid districts offer no inducement for settlement and are inhabited only by a few roving bands of Indians, but there were settlements of whites in the grazing districts of the Rio Branco at an early date, and a few hundreds of adventurers have occupied the mining districts of the east.
The first consists of an almost continuous range crossing the northern end of Rio Grande do Sul and following the coast northward to the vicinity of Cape Frio, and thence northward in broken ranges to the vicinity of Cape St Roque, and a second parallel range running from eastern Sao Paulo northeast and north to the eastern margin of the Sao Francisco basin in northern Bahia, where that river turns eastward to the Atlantic. The first of these is generally known as the Serra do Mar, or Coast Range, though it is locally known under many names.
Its culminating point is in the Organ Mountains (Serra dos Orgaos), near Rio de Janeiro, which reaches an elevation of 7323 ft.
The inland range, which is separated from the Coast Range in the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro by the valley of the Parahyba do Sul river, is known as the Serra da Mantiqueira, and from the point where it turns northward to form the eastern rim of the Sao Francisco basin, as the Serra do Espinhaco.
The most southern of these chapadoes, that of the Parana basin, in which may be included the northern part of the Uruguay and eastern part of the Paraguay basins, includes the greater part of the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catharina, Parana and Sao Paulo, the southwestern corner of Minas Geraes, a part of southern Goyaz, and the south-eastern corner of Matto Grosso.
It includes a small part of eastern Sao Paulo, the greater part of the state of Rio de Janeiro, a small corner of Espirito Santo, and a narrow strip along the southern border of Minas Geraes.
Outside the two great river systems of the Amazon and river Plate (Rio de la Plata), which are treated under their respective titles, the rivers of Brazil are limited to the numerous small streams and three or four large rivers which flow eastward from the plateau regions directly into the Atlantic. The Amazon system covers the entire north-western part of the republic, the state of Amazonas, nearly the whole of Para and the greater part of Matto Grosso being drained by this great river and its tributaries.
The Tocantins is sometimes treated as a tributary of the Amazon because its outlet, called the Rio Para, is connected with that great river by a number of inland channels.
The more important rivers of the first division, which are described in more detail under the titles of the Brazilian states through which they flow, are the following: the Gurupy, Tury-assu, Mearim, Itapicuru and Balsas, in the state of Maranhao; the Parnahyba and its tributaries in Piauhy; Jaguaribe in Ceara; and the Apody and Piranhas in Rio Grande do Norte.
It receives only one important tributary from Maranhao - the Rio das Balsas, 447 m.
North of the Sao Francisco the watershed projecting from the plateau eastward toward Cape St Roque, known as the Serra da Borborema in Parahyba and Rio Grande do Norte where its direction becomes north-east, leaves a triangular section of the easterly slope in which the river courses are short and much broken by rapids.
The more important of these rivers are the Itapicuru, Paraguassu, Contas or Jussiape, Pardo or Patype, and Jequitinhonha, of Bahia; the Mucury, and Doce, of Espirito Santo; and the Parahyba do Sul of the state of Rio de Janeiro.
It rises on an elevated tableland in the state of Sao Paulo and flows across the state of Rio de Janeiro from west to east, through a broad fertile valley producing coffee in its most elevated districts and sugar on its alluvial bottom-lands nearer the sea.
In Rio Grande do Sul the Atlantic coastal plain extends westward more than half-way across the state, and is well watered by numerous streams flowing eastward to the Lagoa dos Patos.
long, called the Rio Sao Goncalo.
The Brazilian rivers of the Rio de la Plata system are numerous and important.
Those of the Paraguay drain the south-western part of Matto Grosso, and the tributaries of the Parana cover the western slopes of the Serra do Mar from Rio Grande do Sul north to the south-west part of Minas Geraes, and include the south-east part of Matto Grosso and the south part of Goyaz within their drainage basin.
There is a large number of these lakes along the coasts of Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, some of them of considerable size.
The two largest lakes of this class are on the coast of Rio Grande do Sul and are known as the Lagoa dos Patos and Lagoa Mirim.
The larger and more important of these are Todos os Santos, on which is located the city of Sao Salvador or Bahia, and Rio de Janeiro or Guanabara, beside which stands the capital of the republic. These two are freely accessible to the largest ships afloat.
Para, Parnahyba, Parahyba, Santos and Rio Grande do Sul are river ports situated near the sea on rivers having the same name; but, with the exception of Path and Santos, they are difficult of access and are of secondary importance.
In southern Brazil, on the other hand, in Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, &c., the beds of this period are of terrestrial origin, containing coal seams and remains of plants.
Going southward there is also a gradual decrease in the mean annual temperature, the difference between Rio de Janeiro and the Amazon being about 5°.
South of Bahia there is a gradual increase in the rainfall, that of Rio de Janeiro exceeding 43 in.
In Rio Grande do Sul the range in temperature is from 26° to 80°, the climate being similar to that of Uruguay.
It covers the state of Piauhy and the western or inland parts of the states of Ceara, Rio Grande do Norte, Parahyba, Pernambuco and Bahia.
South and south-west of this arid plateau lie the inhabited tablelands of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Minas Geraes, where the climate is greatly modified by a luxuriant vegetation and southerly winds, as well as by the elevation.
In the Parahyba valley, which extends across the state of Rio de Janeiro, the mean temperature is somewhat higher than it is in Sao Paulo and Minas Geraes, and the nights are warmer, but the higher valleys of the Serra do Mar enjoy a delightfully temperate climate.
South of Sao Paulo the tablelands of Parana, Santa Catharina and Rio Grande do Sul enjoy a temperate climate, with an abundant rainfall.
Brazil has three groups of animals similar to the common rat - the Capromydae, Loncheridae and Psammoryctidae- the best known of which is the " tuco-tuco " (Ctenomys brasiliensis), a small burrowing animal of Rio Grande do Sul which excavates long subterranean galleries and lives on roots and bulbs.
These forests extend from Parana into Rio Grande do Sul and smaller tracts are also found in Minas Geraes.
The states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes are the largest producers, but it is also grown for export in Espirito Santo, Bahia and Ceara.
The census of the 31st of December 1900 was strikingly defective; it was wholly discarded for the city of Rio de Janeiro, and had to be completed by office computations in the returns from several states.
Not including the city of Rio de Janeiro, whose population was estimated at 691,565 in conformity with a special municipal census of 1906, the total population was 16,626,991, of which 15,572,671 were Roman Catholics, 177,727 Protestants, 876,593 of other faiths.
Other colonies were founded in Bahia, Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro during the same period, but they were unsuccessful, partly because of the competition of slave labour.
The introduction of European immigrants dates from 1818 when a Swiss colony was located at Nova Friburgo, near Rio de Janeiro, and it was continued under the direction and with the aid of the imperial government down to the creation of the republic. Since then the state governments have assumed charge of immigration, and some of them are spending large sums in the acquisition of labourers.
The only ports having a rich and well-populated country behind them are Rio de Janeiro and Santos, and these are the terminals of long lines of railway which are being slowly extended farther into the interior.
This great railway runs from the city of Rio de Janeiro westward to the city of Sao Paulo and northward into the interior of Minas Geraes, with a total length at the beginning of 1905 of 1002 m., and an extension of about 104 m.
Political considerations also led to the construction of similar lines in the states of Rio Grande do Norte, Parahyba, Alagoas, Sergipe, Espirito Santo, Parana., Santa Catharina and Rio Grande do Sul.
The use of tramways for the transportation of passengers in cities dates from 1868, when the first section of the Botanical Garden line of Rio de Janeiro was opened to traffic. The line was completed with its surplus earnings and continued under the control of the American company which built it until 1882, when it was sold to a Brazilian company.
The coastwise service centres at Rio de Janeiro, from which port the Lloyd Brazileiro sends steamers regularly south to Montevideo, and north to Para and Manaos, calling at the more important intermediate ports.
The government lines extend from Para to the Argentine and Uruguayan frontiers, where they connect with the telegraph systems of those republics, and from Rio de Janeiro westward across country, in great part unsettled, to the capitals of Goyaz and Matto Grosso.
In many cases, as at Rio de Janeiro, Santos and Manaos, the cost and maintenance of the new port-works are met by an additional tax on merchandise, though the immediate expenditures are met by advances from the national treasury, and at Rio de Janeiro by a foreign loan.
According to a summary for the six years 1901 to 1906, derived from official sources and published in the annual Retrospecto of the Jornal do Commercio, of Rio de Janeiro, the values of the imports and exports for those years (exclusive of coin), reduced to pounds sterling at the average rate of exchange (or value of one milreis) for each year, were as follows: - Nearly 761% of the exports of 1906 were of coffee and rubber, the official valuations of these being: coffee 2 45,474,5 2 5 milreis gold (27,615,884), and rubber (including manigoba and mangabeira), 12 4,941,433 milreis gold (£14,055,911).
Before the middle of the 19th century coffee became one of the leading exports, and its cultivation in the states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes has been so increased since that time that it represents over four-fifths in value of the total export of agricultural produce.
The principal sugar-producing states are Alagoas, Sergipe, Pernambuco, Bahia and Rio de Janeiro, and the production is between 200,000 and 300,000 tons, the greater part of which is consumed in the country.
It was once cultivated in Rio Grande do Sul with some success, and it has been grown in Minas Geraes and Sao Paulo, but in no case have the returns been sufficient to give it a permanent standing among the productions of the country.
to Rio de Janeiro is adapted to the cultivation of a great variety of fruits of a superior quality.
Ceara., Bahia, and Rio de Janeiro are celebrated for their oranges, and Pernambuco for its delicious pineapples.
They are largely used and raised in Rio Grande do Sul, but in the warmer regions of the north only to a limited extent.
Cattle-raising is the principal industry in Rio Grande do Sul, and receives considerable attention in Minas Geraes, Matto Grosso, Santa Catharina, Parana, Piauhy and Rio Grande do Norte.
These importations at Rio de Janeiro in 1906 were 12,464,170 kilograms of jerked beef and 12, 575 head of cattle.
In the Rio Branco region of Amazonas and in Piauhy, where the national government has long been the owner of extensive cattle ranges, the industry is in a state of decadence.
In southern Bahia the industry has been nearly extinguished through increasing aridity and droughts, but in the state of Rio de Janeiro the planters are increasing their herds.
In Rio Grande do Sul, where it has attained its greatest development, about 400,000 beeves are slaughtered annually for the manufacture of jerked beef (xarque), beef extract, &c. Little attention has been given to sheep in Brazil except in the southern states, and even there the flocks are small.
Woollen manufactures have been established in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul.
Swine do well in all parts of the country, especially in Minas Geraes, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Parana and Rio Grande do Sul.
The dried leaves and smaller twigs of mate (Paraguayan tea-hlex paraguayensis) are exported to the southern Spanish American republics, where (as in Rio Grande do Sul) the beverage is exceedingly popular.
Bituminous coal of an inferior quality is mined to a limited extent in Rio Grande do Sul, and another mine has been opened in Santa Catharina.
These coal deposits extend from Rio Grande do Sul north into the state of Sao Paulo.
The largest and best equipped of them are located in the federal states of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, though the greater part of the raw cotton used comes from the northern states and pays high freight rates.
The manufacture of woollen blankets, cashmeres, flannels, &c., had also undergone noteworthy development and is carried on in fifteen factories, located principally in Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo.
Biscuit-making is represented by a large number of factories, for the most part in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, and there are a number of breweries of the most modern type in the same two states.
The overthrow of the monarchy by a military revolt in Rio de Janeiro on 15th November 1889, resulted in the creation of a federal republic under the name of United States of Brazil (Estados Unidos do Brazil).
The most important of these districts is that of Rio Grande do Sul, where a force of 11,226 men is stationed.
The principal war arsenal is in Rio de Janeiro.
Military instruction is given at the Eschola Militar of Rio de Janeiro.
The loss of the armoured turret ship "Aquidaban" by a magazine explosion in the bay of Jacarepagua, near Rio de Janeiro, in 1905, had left Brazil with but one fighting vessel (the " Reachuelo ") of any importance.
The principal naval arsenal is located at Rio de Janeiro.
The government possesses dry docks at Rio de Janeiro.
The naval school, which has always enjoyed a high reputation among Brazilians, is situated on the island of Enxadas in the bay of Rio de Janeiro.
There are smaller arsenals at Para, Pernambuco, Sao Salvador and Ladario (Matto Grosso) and a shipbuilding yard of considerable importance at the Rio de Janeiro arsenal.
Secondary and higher education are under both federal and state control, the former being represented by lyceums in the state capitals, and by such institutions as the Gymnasio Nacional (formerly Collegio Dom Pedro II.) in Rio de Janeiro.
Higher, or superior, instruction is confined almost exclusively to professional schools - the medical schools of Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, the law schools of Sao Paulo and Pernambuco, the polytechnic of Rio de Janeiro, and the school of mines of Ouro Preto.
There are many private schools in all the large cities, from the primary schools maintained by the church and various corporations and religious associations to schools of secondary and collegiate grades, such as the Protestant mission schools of Petropolis, Piracicaba, Juiz de Fora, Sao Paulo and Parana, the Lyceu de Artes e Officios (night school) of Rio de Janeiro, and the Mackenzie College of Sao Paulo.
In 1892 the diocese of Rio de Janeiro was made an archbishopric, and four new dioceses were created.
In 1905 the archbishop of Rio de Janeiro was made a cardinal.
Joao Barbosa Rodrigues has done some good work in botany, especially in the study of the palms of the Amazon, and Joao Baptista de Lacerda has made important biological investigations at the national museum of Rio de Janeiro.
extending from Rio Grande do Sul north to Sao Paulo.
The Museu Nacional at Rio de Janeiro, which has occupied the imperial palace of Sao Christovao since the overthrow of the monarchy, contains large collections of much scientific value, but defective organization and apathetic direction have rendered them of comparatively slight service.
The Observatorio Nacional at Rio de Janeiro is another prominent public institution.
That of Rio de Janeiro is widely celebrated for its avenues of royal palms, but it has also rendered an important service to the country in the dissemination of exotic plants.
in 1808 broke down some of these restrictions, and the first year of his residence in Rio de Janeiro saw the establishment of the first printing press in Brazil and the publication of an official gazette.
These deficits were common enough under the monarchy, but they have become still more prominent under the republic. According to the " Retrospecto Commercial " for 1906 of the Jornal do Commercio (Rio de Janeiro, March 5, 1907), the aggregate deficits for the eleven years 1891 to 1904 were 692,000,000 milreis, or, say, £43,250,000.
The naval revolt of 1893-1894, however, had aroused the spirit of militarism in the ruling classes, and the effort to perfect the organization and equipment of the army, strengthen the fortifications of Rio de Janeiro, and increase the navy, have kept expenditures in excess of the revenues.
The aggregate of these debts in 1904 was £20,199,440, and the several loans made during the next two years, including those of the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Bahia and Manaos, add fully two and a half millions more to the total.
He began to survey the coast about Rio de Janeiro, to which he gave that name, because he discovered it on the 1st of January 1531.
Rio de Janeiro was not settled till a later period; and for a considerable time the nearest captaincy to Santo Amaro, sailing along the coast northwards, was that of Espirito Santo.
The coast from the Rio Sao Francisco to Bahia was granted to Francisco Pereira Coutinho; the bay itself, with all its creeks, was afterwards added to the grant.
It extended along the coast from the Rio Sao Francisco, northward to the Rio de Juraza.
Rio de Janeiro was first occupied by French settlers.
Under the patronage of that admiral, he arrived at Rio de Janeiro in 1558 with a train of numerous and respectable colonists.
For some years the French kept up a kind of bush warfare; but in 1567 the Portuguese succeeded in establishing a settlement at Rio.
Rio and Santos, although both evinced a desire of independence, followed the example of the Paulistas.
In 1710 a squadron, commanded by Duclerc, disembarked 1000 men, and attacked Rio de Janeiro.
They arrived at Rio on the 12th of September 1711.
The regent was requested to establish there the seat of his government, but a more secure asylum presented itself in Rio de Janeiro, where the royal fugitives arrived on the 7th of March.
Once established in Rio de Janeiro, the government of the regent was directed to the creation of an administrative machinery for the dominions that remained to him as it existed in Portugal.
Thus the government of the prince regent began its career in the new world with dangerous errors in the financial system; yet the increased activity which a multitude of new customers and the increase of circulating medium gave to the trade of Rio, added a new stimulus to the industry of the whole nation.
The inroads made on the frontiers of Rio Grande and Sao Paulo decided the court of Rio to take possession of Montevideo; Brazil de- a force of 5000 troops was sent thither from Portugal, together with a Brazilian corps; and the irregulars integral of Artigas, unable to withstand disciplined troops, were forced, after a total defeat, to take refuge beyond the river Uruguay.
A similar plot and rebellion took place in the province of Pernambuco, where the inhabitants of the important commercial city of Recife (Pernambuco) were jealous of Rio and the sacrifices they were compelled to make for the support of the luxurious court there.
In Rio, the Portuguese troops with which the king had surrounded himself as the defence against the liberal spirit of the Brazilians, took up arms on the 26th of February 1821, to force him to accept the system proclaimed in Portugal.
In independ- Rio the agitation for independence continued.
On his return to Rio de Janeiro on the 12th of October he was proclaimed constitutional emperor with great enthusiasm.
The two Andradas, who imagined they could govern the young emperor as a sovereign of their own creation, encountered great opposition in the constitutional assembly, which had been opened in Rio in May 1823, to discuss the project of a new constitution.
With the exception of Para, and Rio Grande the provinces were at peace, but these were in open rebellion; the former was reduced to obedience, but in the latter, though the imperial troops occupied the town, the country was ravaged by its warlike inhabitants.
In 1864 the ambitious dictator of Paraguay, Francisco Solano Lopez, without previous declaration of war, captured a Brazilian vessel in the Paraguay, and rapidly followed up this outrage by an armed invasion of the provinces of Matto Grosso and Rio Grande in Brazil, and that of Corrientes in the Argentine Republic. A triple alliance of the invaded states with Uruguay ensued, and the tide of war was soon turned from being an offensive one on the part of Paraguay to a defensive struggle within that republic against the superior number of the allies.
Occasional political outbreaks occurred, but none of very serious nature except in Rio Grande do Sul, where a long guerrilla warfare was carried on against the imperial authority.
Disturbances then broke out in Rio Grande do Sul, in consequence of disputes between the official party and the people living in the country districts.
Meanwhile, the revolution in Rio Grande do Sul had revived; and in July 1893 the federal government was forced to send most of the available regular troops to that state to hold the insurgents in check.
On the 6th of September prevailing discontent took definite .shape in the form of a naval revolt in the Bay of Rio de Janeiro.
A provisional government was proclaimed by the insurgents, with headquarters at Desterro, and communication was opened with Gumercindo Saraiva, the leader of the insurrection in Rio Grande do Sul.
It was proposed that the army of some io,000 men under his command should advance northwards towards Rio de Janeiro, while the insurgent squadron threatened the city of Rio.
In November Admiral Mello left Rio de Janeiro in the armoured cruiser " Aquidaban " and went to Desterro, the naval forces in Rio Bay being left in charge of Admiral Saldanha da Gama, an ardent monarchist, who had thrown in his lot with the insurgent cause.
Mean while, President Peixoto had fortified the approaches to the city of Rio de Janeiro, bought vessels of war in Europe and the United States and organized the National Guard.
Admiral da Gama, unable to leave the Bay of Rio de Janeiro on account of lack of transport for the sick and wounded and the civilians claiming his protection, could do no more than wait for Admiral Mello to return from Desterro.
In the meantime the ships bought by President Peixoto arrived off Rio de Janeiro and prevented da Gama from escaping.
When the news of the surrender of Saldanha da Gama reached Gumercindo Saraiva, then at Curitiba in Parana, he proceeded to retire to Rio Grande do Sul.
Admiral Mello made an unsuccessful attack on the town of Rio Grande, and then sailed to Buenos Aires, there surrendering the rebel squadron to the Argentine authorities, by whom it was immediately delivered to the Brazilian government.
After six months of civil war peace was once more established, but there still remained some small rebel groups in Rio Grande do Sul.
These were joined by Admiral da Gama and a number of the naval officers, who had escaped from Rio de Janeiro; but in June 1895 the admiral was killed in a fight with the government troops.
Early in 1895 murmurings and disorderly conduct against the authorities began to take place in the military school at Rio de Janeiro, which had always been a hotbed of intrigue.
In July 1899 President Roca had visited Rio de Janeiro accompanied by an Argentine squadron, this being the first official visit that any South American president had ever paid to one of the adjoining states.
(Rio de Janeiro, 1883); John Armitage, History of Brazil from 1808 to 1831 (2 vols., London, 1836); Moreira de Azevedo, Historia do Brazil de 18 3 1 a 1840 (Rio de Janeiro, 1841); V.
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Pereira da Silva, Varoes illustres do Brazil (2 vols., Paris,1888); Historia da fundacao do imperio brazileiro (Rio de Janeiro, 1877); Segundo Periodo do reinado de D.
(Paris, 1875); Historia do Brazil de 18 3 1 a 1840 (Rio de Janeiro, 1888); J.
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Wappaus, Geographica physica do Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, 1884); A.
Moreira Pinto, Chorographia do Brazil (5th ed., Rio de Janeiro, 1895); Therese Prinzessin von Bayern, Meine Reise inden brasilianischen Tropen (Berlin, 1897); M.
In 1850 autonomy was voted by the general assembly at Rio de Janeiro, and on the 1st of January 1852 the province of Amazonas was formally installed.
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